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Sample records for harbor seal pups

  1. Re-alimentation in harbor seal pups: effects on the somatotropic axis and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Julie P; Norris, Tenaya; Zinn, Steven A

    2010-01-15

    The metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, together with IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), have been well studied in domestic species and are the primary components of the somatotropic axis. This hormone axis is responsive to nutrient intake, associated with growth rate, and accretion of protein and adipose. However, this relationship has not been evaluated in species that rely heavily on adipose stores for survival, such as pinnipeds. The primary objectives of this research were to investigate the response of the somatotropic axis to reduced nutrient intake and re-alimentation in rehabilitated harbor seal pups, and to assess if these hormones are related to nutritional status and growth rate in harbor seals. Stranded harbor seal pups (n=24) arrived at the rehabilitation facility very thin after fasting for several days (nutritional nadir). Throughout rehabilitation nutrient intake increased and pups gained mass and body condition. Concentrations of GH and IGFBP-2 decreased with re-alimentation, while IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations increased. Overall, GH and IGFBP-2 were negatively associated and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were positively associated with growth rate and increased body condition of harbor sea pups. Further, the magnitude of the growth response was related to the magnitude in response of the somatotropic axis to varied levels of intake. These data suggest that multiple components of the somatotropic axis may be used to assess the energy status of individuals and may also provide information on the level of feed intake that is predictive of growth rate.

  2. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  3. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  4. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  5. Individuality in harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, pup vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Opzeeland, IC; Van Parijs, SM

    In gregarious breeders, parents often use individually stereotyped vocalizations as a cue to relocate offspring. Harp seals aggregate in large colonies on pack ice during the whelping season. During the 11-day lactation period, females alternate between periods at sea and attending their pup. If

  6. Pupping habitat ofd grey seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Groot, de A.V.; Aarts, G.M.; Dijkman, E.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus) started recolonising Dutch coastal haul-outs in the 1950s, after practically 500 years of rarity in the Dutch coastal zone which was caused mainly by human hunting. The first pup-birth was recorded in 1985 at the Wadden Sea sandbank of Engelschhoek.

  7. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Brasseur, Sophie M; Sanchez Conteras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    In the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals were reported dead in Sweden, Denmark and Germany, only a limited number of seals were found dead in the Netherlands. To determine the extent of exposure of seals in the Netherlands to influenza A/H10N7 virus, we measured specific antibody titers in serum samples from live-captured seals and seals admitted for rehabilitation in the Netherlands by use of a hemagglutination inhibition assay and an ELISA. In harbor seals in 2015, antibodies against seal influenza A(H10N7) virus were detected in 41% (32 out of 78) pups, 10% (5 out of 52) weaners, and 58% (7 out of 12) subadults or adults. In gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in 2015, specific antibodies were not found in the pups (n = 26), but in 26% (5 out of 19) of the older animals. These findings indicate that, despite apparent low mortality, infection with seal influenza A(H10N7) virus was geographically widespread and also occurred in grey seals.

  8. Uncinariasis in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C

    1997-10-01

    Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on San Miguel Island (California, USA), were examined for adult Uncinaria spp. Prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. Mean intensity of Uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the free-living third stage larva occurred within the egg. This study provided some specific information on hookworm infections in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island. High prevalence rate of Uncinaria spp. in both species of pinnipeds was documented and much higher numbers (2X) of hookworms were present in sea lion than fur seal pups.

  9. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Charrier, Isabelle; Aubin, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.

  10. Seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in harbor seals in Alaska, USA, with age, regional, and reproductive comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover-Miller, A; Dunn, J L; Field, C L; Blundell, G; Atkinson, S

    2017-09-20

    Populations of harbor seal Phoca vitulina in the Gulf of Alaska have dramatically declined during the past 4 decades. Numbers of seals in Glacier Bay, in southeast Alaska, USA, have also declined despite extensive protection. Causes of the declines and slow recovery are poorly understood. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that adversely affects reproduction in many domestic species. We measured the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in 554 harbor seals in 3 Alaska locations: Prince William Sound (PWS), Glacier Bay (GB), and Tracy Arm Fords Terror (TAFT) Wilderness Area. Objectives included testing for regional, sex, age, and female reproductive state differences in Brucella antibody seroprevalence, persistence in titers in recaptured seals, and differences in titers between mother seals and their pups. Overall, 52% of adults (AD), 53% of subadults (SA), 77% of yearlings (YRL), and 26% of Brucella. Results show higher seroprevalence (64%) for AD and SA seals in the depressed and declining populations in PWS and GB than in TAFT (29%). Lactating females were less likely to be seropositive than other AD females, including pregnant females. Further research is needed to seek evidence of Brucella infection in Alaskan harbor seals, identify effects on neonatal viability, and assess zoonotic implications for Alaska Natives who rely on harbor seals for food.

  11. Movements and foraging areas of naove, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B.; Fedak, M.; Burton, H.R.; Engelhard, G.H.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. ) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of survivingtheir first year. But in order to understand what

  12. Movements and foraging areas of naive, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B; Fedak, M; Burton, HR; Engelhard, GH; Reijnders, PJH

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of surviving their first year. But in order to understand what

  13. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    Full Text Available In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd.

  14. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (ppenguins (ppenguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  15. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Gail M; Pendleton, Grey W

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less optimally, 09:00-16:00.

  16. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Mathias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scan...

  17. Prevalence of Presenting Conditions in Grey Seal Pups (Halichoerus grypus Admitted for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. C. Silpa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey was performed on the presenting conditions of 205 live grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus admitted to the Cornish Seal Sanctuary in Gweek, United Kingdom between May 2005 and March 2011. The purpose of the survey was to examine the prevalence of various presenting signs at the sanctuary. The presenting signs were classified into nine non-mutually exclusive categories: ocular disorders, nasal disorders, oral disorders, respiratory disorders, orthopaedic disorders, puncture wounds, abrasions, netting injuries, and onychia. The sex ratio of seal pups in this study was 1.35 males per female. Of the 205 examined for rehabilitation, 22 (10.73% did not survive to release. 68.78% of grey seal pups presented with puncture wounds, 47.80% with respiratory disorders, 46.34% with ocular disorders, 42.63% malnourished, 36.59% with abrasions, 25.37% with oral disorders, 23.90% with nasal disorders, 11.71% with orthopaedic disorders, 9.27% with onychia, and 3.41% presented with netting injuries. 52% were normothermic, 42% were hyperthermic, and 5% were hypothermic. Associations between gender, outcome of rehabilitation, hospitalisation time and presenting disorders were examined. In addition, admissions rates were found to display seasonality. The results of this study will aid in future preparation of grey seal rehabilitation facilities.

  18. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Baarspul, ANJ; Broekman, M; Creuwels, JCS; Reijnders, PJH

    We studied lactation behaviour in relation to pup growth in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island, and compared harems in areas of high and low human presence to determine if there is an effect attributable to human activities, including scientific research. Pup weaning

  19. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Baarspul, A.N.J.; Broekman, M.; Creuwels, J.C.S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied lactation behaviour in relation to pup growth in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island, and compared harems in areas of high and low human presence to determine if there is an effect attributable to human activitiesincluding scientific research. Pup weaning mass,

  20. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mathevon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.Em mamíferos coloniais como as focas, o reconhecimento vocal mútuo entre as mães e seu filhote é de importância primordial para o sucesso reprodutivo. As fêmeas alternam viagens de alimentação no mar com períodos de amamentação em terra e, quando voltam à colônia, elas devem achar vocalmente seu filhote no meio de muitos outros visualmente semelhantes. As jovens focas emitem um ''grito de atração da mãe'' que apresenta características individuais. Examinamos aqui o processo perceptual do reconhecimento do grito do filhote pela mãe numa população sub-antártica da foca Arctocephalus tropicalis. Para identificar seu filhote as fêmeas se baseiam no padrão da freqüência de modulação e outras características espectrais deste grito. Como os parâmetros acústicos do grito de um filhote mudam ao longo do período de amamentação por causa do seu crescimento, as mães precisam de uma memorização refinada da voz de seu filhote. Experiências de campo mostram que as fêmeas desta espécie s

  1. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-08-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications.

  2. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN HARBOR SEALS (PHOCA VITULINA) AT A MARINE MAMMAL REHABILITATION CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsea E; Haulena, Martin; Zabek, Erin; Habing, Gregory; Raverty, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Between 1998 and 2008, 15 cases of segmental to diffuse hemorrhagic to necrohemorrhagic enterocolitis were diagnosed in neonatal and weaned juvenile harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) presented from the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Mammal Rescue Centre for rehabilitation. Based on a combination of gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial isolation, and toxin testing, Clostridium difficile enterocolitis was diagnosed. Most pups were anorexic or inappetant and died acutely with few other premonitory signs. Due to ongoing clinical concerns and possible emergence of this pathogen at the facility, efforts to better characterize the disease and understand the epidemiology of C. difficile was initiated in 95 harbor seal pups presented for rehabilitation in a single stranding season. Fecal samples were collected on admission, following completion of antibiotic treatment, and also prerelease or postmortem. All samples were collected fresh and submitted either directly or stored frozen. Fecal samples were inoculated into selective media for culture and screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for C. difficile toxins A, B, or both. Results of the 95 seals in the study were as follows: on hospital admit 72 seals were sampled, 10 were culture positive, 12 were ELISA positive; following antibiotic therapy 46 seals were sampled noting three culture positive and nine ELISA positive; prior to release 58 seals were sampled noting zero culture positive and one ELISA positive; and on postmortem exam seven seals were sampled noting zero culture positive and two ELISA positive. Clostridium difficile was not deemed to be the cause of death in any of the animals. Although the exact mechanism of disease is unknown, this study suggests that C. difficile infection is not a significant cause of mortality and may be part of the normal flora in harbor seals undergoing rehabilitation. Morbidity and mortality from this bacterium can likely be minimized by judicious use of antibiotics

  3. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... seek input as to whether management measures are needed, and if so, what types of measures should be... proposed rulemaking (ANPR) on potential management measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal... need for regulations; (2) the geographic scope and time horizon of regulations; (3) management options...

  4. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2003-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  5. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1998-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  6. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  7. Dynamics of Vibrio with virulence genes detected in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California: implications for marine mammal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie N; Greig, Denise J; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Gulland, Frances M D; Harvey, James T

    2013-05-01

    Given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. Seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including Vibrio that may affect their health. To understand Vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent Vibrio in free-ranging and stranded Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California. Vibrio prevalence did not vary with season and was greater in free-ranging seals (29 %, n = 319) compared with stranded seals (17 %, n = 189). Of the factors tested, location, turbidity, and/or salinity best predicted Vibrio prevalence in free-ranging seals. The relationship of environmental factors with Vibrio prevalence differed by location and may be related to oceanographic or terrestrial contributions to water quality. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae were observed in seals, with V. cholerae found almost exclusively in stranded pups and yearlings. Additionally, virulence genes (trh and tdh) were detected in V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Vibrio cholerae isolates lacked targeted virulence genes, but were hemolytic. Three out of four stranded pups with V. parahaemolyticus (trh+ and/or tdh+) died in rehabilitation, but the role of Vibrio in causing mortality is unclear, and Vibrio expression of virulence genes should be investigated. Considering that humans share the environment and food resources with seals, potentially virulent Vibrio observed in seals also may be of concern to human health.

  8. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail M Blundell

    Full Text Available Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less

  9. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  10. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, Hon S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  11. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Hall, AJ; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  12. West Nile Flavivirus Polioencephalomyelitis in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piero, F; Stremme, D W; Habecker, P L; Cantile, C

    2006-01-01

    A 12-year-old male harbor seal presented with progressive signs of neurologic dysfunction including head tremors, muzzle twitching, clonic spasms, and weakness. Lesions included polioencephalomyelitis with glial nodules, spheroids, neuronophagia, ring hemorrhages, and a few neutrophils. Neurons, fibers, and glial nodules were multifocally colonized with intracytoplasmic West Nile flavivirus antigens that were demonstrated using indirect immunohistochemical analysis. Flavivirus on cultured cells also was isolated and was identified by use of monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Clinical signs of disease and lesion morphology and distribution were similar to those of equine West Nile virus infection. Similar to horses, alpacas, humans, dogs, and reptiles, seals can be dead-end hosts of West Nile virus.

  13. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  14. Aerial Survey Effort for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2004-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most feasible approach to determining harbor seal distribution and abundance in Alaska coastal habitats is to use aircraft to count seals when they haul out of...

  15. The isolation and partial characterization of a highly pathogenic herpesvirus from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H. Yang (Hong); H.E.M. Spijkers (Ine); J. Groen (Jan); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThis report describes the first isolation and partial characterization of a herpesvirus from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The virus was isolated during a disease outbreak in a group of young seals nursed in a seal orphanage in The Netherlands. Almost half of the seals died with

  16. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  17. Temporal and spatial variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....

  18. Aerial Survey Trend Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1984-2006) - ADF&G

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during 1983–2006 in the Ketchikan, Sitka, Kodiak, and Bristol Bay areas of Alaska to estimate trends in abundance of harbor seals.

  19. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Lake Iliamna, Alaska, 1984-2013 (NODC Accession 0123188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Lake Iliamna, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  20. A Dataset of Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska: 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  1. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.

  2. Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals Phoca vitulina from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Denise J.; Ip, Hon S.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Field, Cara L.; Fleetwood, Michelle; Harvey, James T.; Jang, Spencer; Packham, Andrea; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2014-01-01

    The infection status of harbor seals Phoca vitulina in central California, USA, was evaluated through broad surveillance for pathogens in stranded and wild-caught animals from 2001 to 2008, with most samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Stranded animals from Mendocino County to San Luis Obispo County were sampled at a rehabilitation facility: The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, n = 175); wild-caught animals were sampled at 2 locations: San Francisco Bay (SF, n = 78) and Tomales Bay (TB, n = 97), that differed in degree of urbanization. Low prevalences of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of stranded and wild-caught seals. Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were more prevalent in the feces of stranded (58% [78 out of 135] and 76% [102 out of 135]) than wild-caught (42% [45 out of 106] and 66% [68 out of 106]) seals, whereas Vibrio spp. were 16 times more likely to be cultured from the feces of seals from SF than TB or TMMC (p neurona, and type A influenza was only detected in the wild-caught harbor seals (post-weaning age classes), whereas antibody titers to Leptospira spp. were detected in stranded and wild-caught seals. No stranded (n = 109) or wild-caught (n = 217) harbor seals had antibodies to phocine distemper virus, although a single low titer to canine distemper virus was detected. These results highlight the role of harbor seals as sentinel species for zoonotic and terrestrial pathogens in the marine environment.

  3. Influenza A (H10N7) Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Wohlsein, Peter; Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A M; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic

  4. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); S. Getu (Sarah); M. Beukers (Martijn); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J. Poen (Marjolein); N. Osinga (Nynke); G.J. Sánchez Contreras (Guillermo); T. Kuiken (Thijs); S.L. Smits (Saskia); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUsing random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the

  5. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  6. A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... cells, whereas the harp seal have 6.1 × 10(9) neocortical neurons and 17.5 × 10(9) neocortical glial cells. The harbor porpoise have significantly more neurons and glial cells in the auditory cortex than in the visual cortex, whereas the pattern was opposite for the harp seal. These results...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....

  7. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  8. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  9. Physiological response to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups: metabolic rates, energy reserve utilization, and water fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Delphine; Groscolas, René; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2009-11-01

    Surviving prolonged fasting requires various metabolic adaptations, such as energy and protein sparing, notably when animals are simultaneously engaged in energy-demanding processes such as growth. Due to the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, subantarctic fur seal pups have to repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout the 10-mo rearing period while preparing for nutritional independence. Their metabolic responses to natural prolonged fasting (33.4 +/- 3.3 days) were investigated at 7 mo of age. Within 4-6 fasting days, pups shifted into a stage of metabolic economy characterized by a minimal rate of body mass loss (0.7%/day) and decreased resting metabolic rate (5.9 +/- 0.1 ml O(2)xkg(-1)xday(-1)) that was only 10% above the level predicted for adult terrestrial mammals. Field metabolic rate (289 +/- 10 kJxkg(-1)xday(-1)) and water influx (7.9 +/- 0.9 mlxkg(-1)xday(-1)) were also among the lowest reported for any young otariid, suggesting minimized energy allocation to behavioral activity and thermoregulation. Furthermore, lean tissue degradation was dramatically reduced. High initial adiposity (>48%) and predominant reliance on lipid catabolism likely contributed to the exceptional degree of protein sparing attained. Blood chemistry supported these findings and suggested utilization of alternative fuels, such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and de novo synthesized glucose from fat-released glycerol. Regardless of sex and body condition, pups tended to adopt a convergent strategy of extreme energy and lean body mass conservation that appears highly adaptive for it allows some tissue growth during the repeated episodes of prolonged fasting they experience throughout their development.

  10. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  11. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Getu, Sarah; Beukers, Martijn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Run, Peter R W A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Poen, Marjolein J; Osinga, Nynke; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2013-01-01

    Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  12. Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Reproductive Advertisement Behavior and the Effects of Vessel Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Leanna P.

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are a widely distributed pinniped species that mate underwater. Similar to other aquatically mating pinnipeds, male harbor seals produce vocalizations during the breeding season that function in male-male interactions and possibly as an attractant for females. I investigated multiple aspects of these reproductive advertisement displays in a population of harbor seals in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. First, I looked at vocal production as a function of environmental variables, including season, daylight, and tidal state. Vocalizations were highly seasonal and detection of these vocalizations peaked in June and July, which correspond with the estimated time of breeding. Vocalizations also varied with light, with the lowest probability of detection during the day and the highest probability of detection at night. The high probability of detection corresponded to when females are known to forage. These results are similar to the vocal behavior of previously studied populations. However, unlike previously studied populations, the detection of harbor seal breeding vocalizations did not vary with tidal state. This is likely due to the location of the hydrophone, as it was not near the haul out and depth was therefore not significantly influenced by changes in tidal height. I also investigated the source levels and call parameters of vocalizations, as well as call rate and territoriality. The average source level of harbor seal breeding vocalizations was 144 dB re 1 ?Pa at 1 m and measurements ranged from 129 to 149 dB re 1 ?Pa. Analysis of call parameters indicated that vocalizations of harbor seals in Glacier Bay were similar in duration to other populations, but were much lower in frequency. During the breeding season, there were two discrete calling areas that likely represent two individual males; the average call rate in these display areas was approximately 1 call per minute. The harbor seal breeding season also

  13. Prolonged fasting does not increase oxidative damage or inflammation in postweaned northern elephant seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Crocker, Daniel E; Forman, Henry Jay; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2010-07-15

    Elephant seals are naturally adapted to survive up to three months of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). Prolonged food deprivation in terrestrial mammals increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage and inflammation that can be induced by an increase in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To test the hypothesis that prolonged fasting in elephant seals is not associated with increased oxidative stress or inflammation, blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected from early (2-3 weeks post-weaning) and late (7-8 weeks post-weaning) fasted seals. Plasma levels of oxidative damage, inflammatory markers and plasma renin activity (PRA), along with muscle levels of lipid and protein oxidation, were compared between early and late fasting periods. Protein expression of angiotensin receptor 1 (AT(1)), pro-oxidant (Nox4) and antioxidant enzymes (CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) was analyzed in muscle. Fasting induced a 2.5-fold increase in PRA, a 50% increase in AT(1), a twofold increase in Nox4 and a 70% increase in NADPH oxidase activity. By contrast, neither tissue nor systemic indices of oxidative damage or inflammation increased with fasting. Furthermore, muscle antioxidant enzymes increased 40-60% with fasting in parallel with an increase in muscle and red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activities. These data suggest that, despite the observed increases in RAS and Nox4, an increase in antioxidant enzymes appears to be sufficient to suppress systemic and tissue indices of oxidative damage and inflammation in seals that have fasted for a prolonged period. The present study highlights the importance of antioxidant capacity in mammals during chronic periods of stress to help avoid deleterious systemic consequences.

  14. Selenium and mercury concentrations in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from central California: Health implications in an urbanized estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Harvey, James T.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    We measured total selenium and total mercury concentrations ([TSe] and [THg]) in hair (n = 138) and blood (n = 73) of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from California to assess variation by geography and sex, and inferred feeding relationships based on carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes. Harbor seals from Hg-contaminated sites had significantly greater [THg], and lesser [TSe] and TSe:THg molar ratios than seals from a relatively uncontaminated site. Males had significantly greater [THg] than females at all locations. Sulfur stable isotope values explained approximately 25% of the variability in [THg], indicating increased Hg exposure for seals with a greater use of estuarine prey species. Decreased [TSe] in harbor seals from Hg-contaminated regions may indicate a relative Se deficiency to mitigate the toxic effects of Hg. Further investigation into the Se status and the potential negative impact of Hg on harbor seals from Hg-contaminated sites is warranted.

  15. Organochlorines in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Lee, Sung-Eun; Li, Qing X.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, heptachlor and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues collected from the Gulf of Alaska during 2000-2001. ΣPCBs (16-728 ng/g lw) and ΣDDTs (14-368 ng/g lw) were the predominant pollutants followed by ΣHCHs (0.56-93 ng/g lw) and heptachlor (≤0.068-6.0 ng/g lw). Concentrations of the above organochlorines (OCs) in the liver, kidney and blubber tissues correlated with ages, sex, body weight and blubber thickness of the harbor seals. The OC concentrations were similar between the samples collected from two different regions - Prince William Sound, and Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula. Mean levels of OCs in nursing female adults were much lower than those in male adults, which indicate that lactation transfer OCs from mother seals to newborns. - Σ28 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH and heptachlor in harbor seal tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska are reported

  16. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  17. Seasonal Variation of Harbor Seal's Diet from the Wadden Sea in Relation to Prey Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille de la Vega

    Full Text Available The Wadden Sea has an important role for marine mammals in terms of resting, nursing and foraging. Harbor seal is the most abundant marine mammal species in this area. The use of the food resources of the Wadden Sea by seals is not clear, and previous studies showed that this species can travel kilometers away from their haul-outs to forage in the North Sea. In this study, we analyzed the stable isotopes of vibrissae from 23 dead harbor seals found on the island of Sylt to investigate their diet. The predator´s carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were compared to the compositions of different potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight and from the North Sea in order to study seasonal pattern in the diet and in the foraging location. In parallel, seasonal variation of abundance and biomass of the potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight were studied and compare to their contribution to the seal´s diet. The results revealed a change in the seal´s diet from pelagic sources in spring to a benthic based diet in summer, and an increasing use of the North Sea resources in fall and winter in accordance with the seasonal variation of the availability of prey in the Sylt-Rømø Bight.

  18. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  19. Assay dependence of Brucella antibody prevalence in a declining Alaskan harbor seal (Phoca vitulina population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueffer Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella is a group of bacteria that causes brucellosis, which can affect population health and reproductive success in many marine mammals. We investigated the serological prevalence of antibodies against Brucella bacteria in a declining harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. Results Prevalence ranged from 16 to 74 percent for those tests detecting antibodies, indicating that harbor seals in Glacier Bay have been exposed to Brucella bacteria. However, the actual level of serological prevalence could not be determined because results were strongly assay-dependent. Conclusions This study reinforces the need to carefully consider assay choice when comparing different studies on the prevalence of anti–Brucella antibodies in pinnipeds and further highlights the need for species- or taxon-specific assay validation for both pathogen and host species.

  20. Female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) behavioral response to playbacks of underwater male acoustic advertisement displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Leanna P; Blades, Brittany; Parks, Susan E

    2018-01-01

    During the breeding season, male harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) make underwater acoustic displays using vocalizations known as roars. These roars have been shown to function in territory establishment in some breeding areas and have been hypothesized to be important for female choice, but the function of these sounds remains unresolved. This study consisted of a series of playback experiments in which captive female harbor seals were exposed to recordings of male roars to determine if females respond to recordings of male vocalizations and whether or not they respond differently to roars from categories with different acoustic characteristics. The categories included roars with characteristics of dominant males (longest duration, lowest frequency), subordinate males (shortest duration, highest frequency), combinations of call parameters from dominant and subordinate males (long duration, high frequency and short duration, low frequency), and control playbacks of water noise and water noise with tonal signals in the same frequency range as male signals. Results indicate that overall females have a significantly higher level of response to playbacks that imitate male vocalizations when compared to control playbacks of water noise. Specifically, there was a higher level of response to playbacks representing dominant male vocalization when compared to the control playbacks. For most individuals, there was a greater response to playbacks representing dominant male vocalizations compared to playbacks representing subordinate male vocalizations; however, there was no statistical difference between those two playback types. Additionally, there was no difference between the playbacks of call parameter combinations and the controls. Investigating female preference for male harbor seal vocalizations is a critical step in understanding the harbor seal mating system and further studies expanding on this captive study will help shed light on this important issue.

  1. Cloning and Sequencing of Protein Kinase cDNA from Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.

  2. The effect of a large Danish offshore wind farm on harbor and grey seal haul-out behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edrén, Susi Manuela Clermont; Andersen, Signe May; Teilmann, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the construction and operation of a large Danish offshore wind farm on harbor and gray seal haul-out behavior within a nearby (4 km) seal sanctuary. Time-lapse photography, visual monitoring, and aerial surveys were used to monitor the number of seals on land...... in daylight hours. Seals were monitored during two preconstruction periods (19 June–31 August 2001 and April–August 2002), a construction period of the wind farm (August 2002–December 2003), and a period of operation of the wind farm (December 2003–December 2004). Monthly aerial surveys were conducted...... to estimate the proportion of seals in the sanctuary relative to neighboring haul-out sites. From preconstruction to construction and through the first year of operation the number of harbor seals in the sanctuary increased at the same rate as the number of seals at the neighboring haul-out sites. No long...

  3. Bioaccumulation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls and pentachlorophenol in the serum of northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.louis@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Stas, Marie [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Malarvannan, Govindan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were sampled at 1-, 4-, 7- and 10-week post-weaning. Concentrations of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and their parent PCBs were measured in the serum of each individual. The ΣHO-PCB concentrations in the serum increased significantly between early and late fast (from 282±20 to 529±31 pg/mL). This increase might result from a mobilisation of HO-PCBs transferred from the mother during gestation and/or lactation and stored in the pup's liver. Food deprivation has been shown to exacerbate biotransformation capacities in mammals, birds and fish. The HO-penta-CBs was the predominant homologue group, followed by HO-hexa-CBs and HO-hepta-CBs. No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs (HO-direct insertion or NIH-shift of a chlorine atom) could be evidenced. The concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the serum of weaned NES increased from 103±7 pg/mL at early fast to 246±41 pg/mL at late fast, which is within the range of PCP concentrations usually encountered in marine mammals. - Highlights: • Σ HO-PCB concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast. • The HO-penta-CBs were the predominant homologue group measured in serum. • No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs could be evidenced. • PCP concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast.

  4. Bioaccumulation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls and pentachlorophenol in the serum of northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, Caroline; Covaci, Adrian; Stas, Marie; Crocker, Daniel E.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Dirtu, Alin C.; Debier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were sampled at 1-, 4-, 7- and 10-week post-weaning. Concentrations of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and their parent PCBs were measured in the serum of each individual. The ΣHO-PCB concentrations in the serum increased significantly between early and late fast (from 282±20 to 529±31 pg/mL). This increase might result from a mobilisation of HO-PCBs transferred from the mother during gestation and/or lactation and stored in the pup's liver. Food deprivation has been shown to exacerbate biotransformation capacities in mammals, birds and fish. The HO-penta-CBs was the predominant homologue group, followed by HO-hexa-CBs and HO-hepta-CBs. No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs (HO-direct insertion or NIH-shift of a chlorine atom) could be evidenced. The concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the serum of weaned NES increased from 103±7 pg/mL at early fast to 246±41 pg/mL at late fast, which is within the range of PCP concentrations usually encountered in marine mammals. - Highlights: • Σ HO-PCB concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast. • The HO-penta-CBs were the predominant homologue group measured in serum. • No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs could be evidenced. • PCP concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast

  5. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in Hood Canal, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M London

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation.

  6. Glucose delays the insulin-induced increase in thyroid hormone-mediated signaling in adipose of prolong-fasted elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José G.; Viscarra, Jose A.; Jaques, John T.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged food deprivation in mammals typically reduces glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations, as well as tissue deiodinase (DI) content and activity, which, collectively, suppress metabolism. However, in elephant seal pups, prolonged fasting does not suppress TH levels; it is associated with upregulation of adipose TH-mediated cellular mechanisms and adipose-specific insulin resistance. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox and the effects of glucose and insulin on TH-mediated signaling in an insulin-resistant tissue are not well defined. To address our hypothesis that insulin increases adipose TH signaling in pups during extended fasting, we assessed the changes in TH-associated genes in response to an insulin infusion in early- and late-fasted pups. In late fasting, insulin increased DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 mRNA expression by 566%, 44%, and 267% at 60 min postinfusion, respectively, with levels decreasing by 120 min. Additionally, we performed a glucose challenge in late-fasted pups to differentiate between insulin- and glucose-mediated effects on TH signaling. In contrast to the insulin-induced effects, glucose infusion did not increase the expressions of DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 until 120 min, suggesting that glucose delays the onset of the insulin-induced effects. The data also suggest that fasting duration increases the sensitivity of adipose TH-mediated mechanisms to insulin, some of which may be mediated by increased glucose. These responses appear to be unique among mammals and to have evolved in elephant seals to facilitate their adaptation to tolerate an extreme physiological condition. PMID:26739649

  7. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  8. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  9. Prolonged fasting increases the response of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but not vasopressin levels, in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The 8- to 12-week postweaning fast exhibited by northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) occurs without any apparent deleterious effects on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, during the fast the role of vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to be inconclusive and the involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has yet to be examined. To examine the effects of prolonged fasting on these osmoregulatory hormones, 15 postweaned pups were serially blood-sampled during the first 49 days of their fast. Fasting did not induce significant changes in ionic or osmotic concentrations, suggesting electrolyte homeostasis. Total proteins were reduced by day 21 of fasting and remained depressed, suggesting a lack of dehydration. Aldosterone and plasma renin activity exhibited a correlated, linear increase over the first 49 days of the fast, suggesting an active RAAS. Aldosterone exhibited a parabolic trend over the fast with a peak at day 35, suggesting a shift in the sensitivity of the kidney to aldosterone later in the fast. AVP was elevated at day 49 only, but concentrations were relatively low. RAAS was modified during the postweaning fast in pups and appears to play a significant role in the regulation of electrolyte and, most likely, water homeostasis during this period. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Feeding kinematics, suction, and hydraulic jetting performance of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Marshall

    Full Text Available The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01 than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s. Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land. Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001 and gape angle (12.9±2.02°, pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001 and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their

  11. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Kady B.; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill; O'Shea, Stephen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: ► Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. ► Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. ► Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. ► Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  12. Brain Meta-Transcriptomics from Harbor Seals to Infer the Role of the Microbiome and Virome in a Stranding Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Stephanie M; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-01-01

    Marine diseases are becoming more frequent, and tools for identifying pathogens and disease reservoirs are needed to help prevent and mitigate epizootics. Meta-transcriptomics provides insights into disease etiology by cataloguing and comparing sequences from suspected pathogens. This method is a powerful approach to simultaneously evaluate both the viral and bacterial communities, but few studies have applied this technique in marine systems. In 2009 seven harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, stranded along the California coast from a similar brain disease of unknown cause of death (UCD). We evaluated the differences between the virome and microbiome of UCDs and harbor seals with known causes of death. Here we determined that UCD stranded animals had no viruses in their brain tissue. However, in the bacterial community, we identified Burkholderia and Coxiella burnetii as important pathogens associated with this stranding event. Burkholderia were 100% prevalent and ~2.8 log2 fold more abundant in the UCD animals. Further, while C. burnetii was found in only 35.7% of all samples, it was highly abundant (~94% of the total microbial community) in a single individual. In this harbor seal, C. burnetii showed high transcription rates of invading and translation genes, implicating it in the pathogenesis of this animal. Based on these data we propose that Burkholderia taxa and C. burnetii are potentially important opportunistic neurotropic pathogens in UCD stranded harbor seals.

  13. Brain Meta-Transcriptomics from Harbor Seals to Infer the Role of the Microbiome and Virome in a Stranding Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Rosales

    Full Text Available Marine diseases are becoming more frequent, and tools for identifying pathogens and disease reservoirs are needed to help prevent and mitigate epizootics. Meta-transcriptomics provides insights into disease etiology by cataloguing and comparing sequences from suspected pathogens. This method is a powerful approach to simultaneously evaluate both the viral and bacterial communities, but few studies have applied this technique in marine systems. In 2009 seven harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, stranded along the California coast from a similar brain disease of unknown cause of death (UCD. We evaluated the differences between the virome and microbiome of UCDs and harbor seals with known causes of death. Here we determined that UCD stranded animals had no viruses in their brain tissue. However, in the bacterial community, we identified Burkholderia and Coxiella burnetii as important pathogens associated with this stranding event. Burkholderia were 100% prevalent and ~2.8 log2 fold more abundant in the UCD animals. Further, while C. burnetii was found in only 35.7% of all samples, it was highly abundant (~94% of the total microbial community in a single individual. In this harbor seal, C. burnetii showed high transcription rates of invading and translation genes, implicating it in the pathogenesis of this animal. Based on these data we propose that Burkholderia taxa and C. burnetii are potentially important opportunistic neurotropic pathogens in UCD stranded harbor seals.

  14. Prolonged fasting activates hypoxia inducible factors-1α, -2α and -3α in a tissue-specific manner in northern elephant seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José G; Vázquez-Medina, José P; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-09-10

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are important regulators of energy homeostasis and cellular adaptation to low oxygen conditions. Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of food deprivation (fasting) which result in metabolic changes that may activate HIF-1. However, the effects of prolonged fasting on HIFs are not well defined. We obtained the full-length cDNAs of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and partial cDNA of HIF-3α in northern elephant seal pups. We also measured mRNA and nuclear protein content of HIF-1α, -2α, -3α in muscle and adipose during prolonged fasting (1, 3, 5 & 7 weeks), along with mRNA expression of HIF-mediated genes, LDH and VEGF. HIF-1α, -2α and -3α are 2595, 2852 and 1842 bp and encode proteins of 823, 864 and 586 amino acid residues with conserved domains needed for their function (bHLH and PAS) and regulation (ODD and TAD). HIF-1α and -2α mRNA expression increased 3- to 5-fold after 7 weeks of fasting in adipose and muscle, whereas HIF-3α increased 5-fold after 7 weeks of fasting in adipose. HIF-2α protein expression was detected in nuclear fractions from adipose and muscle, increasing approximately 2-fold, respectively with fasting. Expression of VEGF increased 3-fold after 7 weeks in adipose and muscle, whereas LDH mRNA expression increased 12-fold after 7 weeks in adipose. While the 3 HIFα genes are expressed in muscle and adipose, only HIF-2α protein was detectable in the nucleus suggesting that HIF-2α may contribute more significantly in the up-regulation of genes involved in the metabolic adaptation during fasting in the elephant seal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Three Cranial Nerves in Two Phocids: The Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) and the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, Dennis; Kröger, Jürgen; Witt, Martin; Schmitt, Oliver; Wree, Andreas; Czech-Damal, Nicole; Siebert, Ursula; Folkow, Lars; Hanke, Frederike D

    2016-03-01

    While our knowledge about the senses of pinnipeds has increased over the last decades almost nothing is known about the organization of the neuroanatomical pathways. In a first approach to this field of research, we assessed the total number of myelinated axons of three cranial nerves (CNs) in the harbor (Phoca vitulina, Pv) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, Cc). Axons were counted in semithin sections of the nerves embedded in Epon and stained with toluidine blue. In both species, the highest axon number was found within the optic nerve (Pv 187,000 ± 8,000 axons, Cc 481,600 ± 1,300 axons). Generally, considering absolute axon numbers, far more axons were counted within the optic and trigmenial nerve (Pv 136,700 ± 2,500 axons, Cc 179,300 ± 6,900 axons) in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. The axon counts of the vestibulocochlear nerve are nearly identical for both species (Pv 87,100 ± 8,100 axons, Cc 86,600 ± 2,700 axons). However, when comparing cell density, the cell density is almost equal for all nerves for both species except for the optic nerve in which cell density was particularly higher than in the other nerves and higher in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. We here present the first comparative analysis of three CNs in two phocid seals. While the CNs of these closely related species share some general characteristics, pronounced differences in axon numbers/densities are apparent. These differences seem to reflect differences in e.g. size, habitat, and/or functional significance of the innervated sensory systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Brain transcriptomes of harbor seals demonstrate gene expression patterns of animals undergoing a metabolic disease and a viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Rosales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of marine mammals can be difficult to diagnose because of their life history and protected status. Stranded marine mammals have been a particularly useful resource to discover and comprehend the diseases that plague these top predators. Additionally, advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS has contributed to the discovery of novel pathogens in marine mammals. In this study, we use a combination of HTS and stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina to better understand a known and unknown brain disease. To do this, we used transcriptomics to evaluate brain tissues from seven neonatal harbor seals that expired from an unknown cause of death (UCD and compared them to four neonatal harbor seals that had confirmed phocine herpesvirus (PhV-1 infections in the brain. Comparing the two disease states we found that UCD animals showed a significant abundance of fatty acid metabolic transcripts in their brain tissue, thus we speculate that a fatty acid metabolic dysregulation contributed to the death of these animals. Furthermore, we were able to describe the response of four young harbor seals with PhV-1 infections in the brain. PhV-1 infected animals showed a significant ability to mount an innate and adaptive immune response, especially to combat viral infections. Our data also suggests that PhV-1 can hijack host pathways for DNA packaging and exocytosis. This is the first study to use transcriptomics in marine mammals to understand host and viral interactions and assess the death of stranded marine mammals with an unknown disease. Furthermore, we show the value of applying transcriptomics on stranded marine mammals for disease characterization.

  17. PAH- and PCB-induced Alterations of Protein Tyrosine Kinase and Cytokine Gene Transcription in Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina PBMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying in vitro immunomodulatory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated in harbor seal peripheral leukocytes, via real-time PCR. We examined the relative genetic expression of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs Fyn and Itk, which play a critical role in T cell activation, and IL-2, a cytokine of central importance in initiating adaptive immune responses. IL-1, the macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity, was also included as a measure of macrophage function. Harbor seal PBMC were exposed to the prototypic immunotoxic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-169, a model immunotoxic PCB, or DMSO (vehicle control. Exposure of Con A-stimulated harbor seal PBMC to both BaP and CB-169 produced significantly altered expression in all four targets relative to vehicle controls. The PTKs Fyn and Itk were both up-regulated following exposure to BaP and CB-169. In contrast, transcripts for IL-2 and IL-1 were decreased relative to controls by both treatments. Our findings are consistent with those of previous researchers working with human and rodent systems and support a hypothesis of contaminant-altered lymphocyte function mediated (at least in part by disruption of T cell receptor (TCR signaling and cytokine production.

  18. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  19. Visitor effects on a zoo population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Amber J

    2018-04-19

    The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA. Data was collected via focal follow video recordings over the summer season of 2016, and analyzed using MANCOVAs, discriminant analyses, and modified Spread of Participation Indices. The sea lions showed no significant changes in behavior when visitors were present, but did show greater preference for the water bordering visitor viewing areas during these times. Two sea lions gave birth during the study period, and showed greater preference for land areas both adjacent to and out of sight of visitors when nursing compared to while pregnant. In contrast, the harbor seals showed significant behavioral changes in the presence of visitors, including increased vigilance and feeding. This was associated with increased preferential use of water areas adjacent to the visitor viewing area. Visitors were able to purchase fish to throw to the animals, which likely contributed to the differences observed. Overall, this study found little evidence for negative visitor impacts on two pinniped species in a zoo setting. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mobilisation of lipophilic pollutants from blubber in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Caroline [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Stas, Marie [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Guiot, Yves [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, UCLouvain, Brussels (Belgium); Malarvannan, Govindan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Das, Krishna [Laboratoire d’Océanologie, MARE Center B6c, Université de Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Costa, Daniel P. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of California Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Covaci, Adrian [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were longitudinally sampled during the post-weaning fast in order to study the mobilisation and redistribution of various classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) between blubber and blood. Inner and outer blubber layers were analysed separately. Organohalogenated compounds were detected in all blubber samples in the decreasing order of their concentrations: p,p′-DDE>PCBs⪢HCB>PBDEs. The concentrations of all studied compounds were homogeneously distributed in the blubber layer at early fast, since the concentrations of POPs were statistically not different in the inner and outer layers. With the progression of the fast, the concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs and p,p′-DDE increased more sharply in inner blubber than in outer blubber. As a result, their levels became significantly higher in inner blubber as compared to outer blubber at late fast. The rise of pollutant concentrations in blubber might result from a less efficient mobilisation than triglycerides and/or a reuptake by adipocytes of some of the pollutants released into the circulation. The mobilisation of pollutants from blubber was higher at late fast. An increase of pollutant concentrations was observed in serum between early and late fast. Lower halogenated congeners (i.e. tetra-CBs) were present in higher proportions in serum, whereas the higher halogenated congeners (i.e. hepta-CBs) were mainly found in the inner and outer blubber layers. The transfer ratios of both PBDEs and PCBs from inner blubber to serum decreased with the number of chlorine and bromine atoms. In addition, the distribution of both types of compounds between serum and blubber was strongly influenced by their lipophilic character (log K{sub ow} values), with more

  1. Effect of the orientation of the harbor seal vibrissa based biomimetic cylinder on hydrodynamic forces and vortex induced frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyoJu; Yoon, Hyun Sik

    2017-10-01

    The present study considered the geometric disturbance inspired by a harbor seal vibrissa of which undulated surface structures (HSV) are known as a detecting device to capture the water movement induced by prey fish. As an original research can extend to the flow control based on the biomimetic, this study aims at finding the effect of the angle of attack (AOA) on flow characteristics around the harbor seal vibrissa shaped cylinder, to cover the change of flow direction during the harbor seal's movements and surrounding conditions. Therefore, we considered a wide range of AOA varying from 0 to 90 degree. We carried out large eddy simulation (LES) to investigate the flow around inclined vibrissa shaped cylinder for the Reynolds number (Re) of 500. The elliptic cylinder is considered for the purpose of the comparison. The difference of force coefficients between the HSV and the elliptic cylinder can be classified into three regimes of one large variation region, two invariant regimes according to AOA. In contrast to the elliptic cylinder showing the monotonically decrease of the vortex shedding frequency in AOA, the HSV reveals the increasing and then decreasing behavior of the vortex shedding frequency along the AOA. The same decreasing profile of the vortex shedding frequency means that the HSV lost the unique function on the vortex shedding frequency. The shear layers for the HSV is much longer than that of shear layers for the elliptic cylinder at low angles of the attack. With increasing AOA, the difference of the vortical structures in the wake between the HSV and the elliptic cylinder becomes minor. Thus, it can be concluded that as AOA increases, the bluff body flow overcomes the flow induced by the HSV shape, resulting in the appearance of almost the same flow with the elliptic cylinder.

  2. Mechanical characteristics of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) vibrissae under different circumstances and their implications on its sensing methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, H; Miao, J M; Triantafyllou, M S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of harbor seal vibrissae immersed in various solutions are investigated. As there are no nerves along the length of the vibrissae, all the perturbations have to be transmitted to their bases for sensing. Hence, quantification and understanding of the mechanical properties of the vibrissae are essential in determining the perturbations transmitted to the base of the vibrissae. Two experimental setups are devised for measurements of the different properties of the vibrissae. The first experimental setup is performed with a dynamic mechanical analysis machine. The measured properties in these experiments are the modulus of elasticity and the damping of the vibrissae. Dry, saline water-immersed, water-immersed and Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS)-immersed vibrissae are tested to determine the effects of these solutions on the properties of the vibrissae. Tests on the duration of immersion are also performed with saline water-immersed vibrissae. The second experimental setup is performed with a mini-shaker connected to a clamp, which rigidly holds the vibrissae at their bases. The measured properties in these experiments are the natural frequencies of the vibrissae. The results indicate that the moduli of elasticity of the vibrissae are found to decrease along their lengths. However, their damping does not vary along the lengths. HBSS-immersed and saline water-immersed vibrissae show similar characteristics on their properties. An analytical model for predicting the natural frequencies of the vibrissae is also derived. Strong agreement with previous studies on the underwater sensing principle of the harbor seal is also established. (paper)

  3. Dose-response relationships in gene expression profiles in a harbor seal B lymphoma cell line exposed to 17α-ethinyl estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kleinert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of changes in gene expression profiles with xenobiotic dose will allow identifying biomarkers and modes of toxicant action. The harbor seal (Phoca vitulina 11B7501 B lymphoma cell line was exposed to 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, or 25,000 μg/L 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, the active compound of the contraceptive pill for 24 h. Following exposure, RNA was extracted and transformed into cDNA. Transcript expression in exposed vs. control lymphocytes was analyzed via RT-qPCR to identify genes with altered expression. Our analysis indicates that gene expression for all but the reference gene varied with dose, suggesting that different doses induce distinct physiological responses. These findings demonstrate that RT-qPCR could be used to identify immunotoxicity and relative dose in harbor seal leukocytes.

  4. Seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsher, R.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    An aperture through a biological shield is sealed by a flexible sheath having a beading at one end located on an annular member slidable in the aperture such that the beading bears in sealing engagement against the sides of the aperture. The annular member is retained by a retractable latch and can be rejected by pushing it out of the aperture using a replacement annular member with a replacement sheath thereon to butt against the annular member to be rejected. The replacement annular member may be mounted on a tubular device having an outer co-axial member for operating the latch when the replacement annular member butts against the annular member to be rejected. Applications include effecting a seal between a remote handling equipment and a wall through which the equipment extends. (author)

  5. Harbor Seals [ds106

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In May of 2001, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) conducted an aerial photographic survey of the California coast and the offshore Channel Islands to...

  6. Host characteristics and infection level of an intestinal parasite Corynosoma strumosum (Acanthocephala) in the Kuril harbor seal of Erimo Cape, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoto, Tadashi; Hirazawa, Takuya; Masubuchi, Takahito; Morohoshi, Aya; Katahira, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Mari

    2018-04-01

    The Kuril harbor seal around Hokkaido is presently recovering from a resource crisis while conflicts with local fisheries have become a concern. However, its feeding habits, which are fundamental information for taking proper preventive measures, are still poorly understood. We thus examined the infection status of a trophically-transmitted parasite, Corynosoma strumosum in the seals of Erimo Cape, to assess the host's feeding habits with a practical view of the parasite as a biological indicator. A total of 2802 worms were found from 20 male and 20 female by-caught animals in salmon set nets within local fisheries during August to November 2014. The parasite abundance was explained mainly by the host's developmental stage and intestinal length while weakly affected by gender and body size, through an estimation of generalized linear models combined with hierarchical partitioning. Considering the past records that demersal fishes are the probable main sources of infection, the infection level may owe to individual host differences regarding these sources and/or feeding grounds with relating the host characteristics. This supports that the resource management of Kuril harbor seals requires careful consideration of the individual differences in feeding behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brucella Antibodies in Alaskan True Seals and Eared Seals—Two Different Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingebjørg H. Nymo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella pinnipedialis was first isolated from true seals in 1994 and from eared seals in 2008. Although few pathological findings have been associated with infection in true seals, reproductive pathology including abortions, and the isolation of the zoonotic strain type 27 have been documented in eared seals. In this study, a Brucella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the Rose Bengal test (RBT were initially compared for 206 serum samples and a discrepancy between the tests was found. Following removal of lipids from the serum samples, ELISA results were unaltered while the agreement between the tests was improved, indicating that serum lipids affected the initial RBT outcome. For the remaining screening, we used ELISA to investigate the presence of Brucella antibodies in sera of 231 eared and 1,412 true seals from Alaskan waters sampled between 1975 and 2011. In eared seals, Brucella antibodies were found in two Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus (2% and none of the 107 Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus. The low seroprevalence in eared seals indicate a low level of exposure or lack of susceptibility to infection. Alternatively, mortality due to the Brucella infection may remove seropositive animals from the population. Brucella antibodies were detected in all true seal species investigated; harbor seals (Phoca vitulina (25%, spotted seals (Phoca largha (19%, ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata (16%, and ringed seals (Pusa hispida hispida (14%. There was a low seroprevalence among pups, a higher seroprevalence among juveniles, and a subsequent decreasing probability of seropositivity with age in harbor seals. Similar patterns were present for the other true seal species; however, solid conclusions could not be made due to sample size. This pattern is in accordance with previous reports on B. pinnipedialis infections in true seals and may suggest environmental exposure to B. pinnipedialis at the juvenile stage, with a

  8. Sampling location for harbor seal genetics in Washington and British Columbia from 1993-08-25 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0148458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using skin samples from 777 unweaned pups collected in 9 different regions in WA state and British Columbia (WA Coastal Estuaries, WA North Coast, British Columbia,...

  9. Both the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    cause the pupping season continues into the second week of January (Kerley 1983b). On the open vegetated areas behind landing beaches, all fur seals were counted and classified. Pup numbers were derived from three sources: first, an estimate of the degree of polygyny. (2.4 pups per adult male) calculated for a Marion.

  10. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Shark Sightings and Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on direct sightings of large sharks around monk seal pupping sites and shark incidents on preweaned and newly weaned pups at French Frigate Shoals are entered...

  11. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  12. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Seals and Sealing Handbook, 6th Edition provides comprehensive coverage of sealing technology, bringing together information on all aspects of this area to enable you to make the right sealing choice. This includes detailed coverage on the seals applicable to static, rotary and reciprocating applications, the best materials to use in your sealing systems, and the legislature and regulations that may impact your sealing choices. Updated in line with current trends this updated reference provides the theory necessary for you to select the most appropriate seals for the job and with its 'Failur

  13. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  14. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Wherever machinery operates there will be seals of some kind ensuring that the machine remains lubricated, the fluid being pumped does not leak, or the gas does not enter the atmosphere. Seals are ubiquitous, in industry, the home, transport and many other places. This 5th edition of a long-established title covers all types of seal by application: static, rotary, reciprocating etc. The book bears little resemblance to its predecessors, and Robert Flitney has re-planned and re-written every aspect of the subject. No engineer, designer or manufacturer of seals can afford to be without this uniq

  15. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation.Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37.Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  16. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  17. POPULATION NUMBERS OF FUR SEALS AT PRINCE EDWARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At a mean intrinsic rate of natural increase of 16.2% per year, Antarctic fur seals appear to be in the rapid recolonization phase of population growth. Breeding colonies of Subantarctic fur seals, largely found on the entire east coast, produced an estimated 15 000 pups, and the population had maintained a mean intrinsic ...

  18. Relative population sizes and trends, and hybridization of fur seals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of seals, therefore counts of adult males and immatures. (older than one year) were adjusted by 83070 and 29% respectively to compensate for known decreases to the date of the census. (e) Yearling seals were not present at the Islands during the censuses and were estimated from the previous year's pup production ...

  19. [Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…

  20. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  1. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  2. Ringed Seal Search for Global Optimization via a Sensitive Search Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Saadi

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization is based on its ability to search and find the global optimum. However, a good search often requires to be balanced between exploration and exploitation of the search space. In this paper, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Ringed Seal Search (RSS is introduced. It is inspired by the natural behavior of the seal pup. This algorithm mimics the seal pup movement behavior and its ability to search and choose the best lair to escape predators. The scenario starts once the seal mother gives birth to a new pup in a birthing lair that is constructed for this purpose. The seal pup strategy consists of searching and selecting the best lair by performing a random walk to find a new lair. Affected by the sensitive nature of seals against external noise emitted by predators, the random walk of the seal pup takes two different search states, normal state and urgent state. In the normal state, the pup performs an intensive search between closely adjacent lairs; this movement is modeled via a Brownian walk. In an urgent state, the pup leaves the proximity area and performs an extensive search to find a new lair from sparse targets; this movement is modeled via a Levy walk. The switch between these two states is realized by the random noise emitted by predators. The algorithm keeps switching between normal and urgent states until the global optimum is reached. Tests and validations were performed using fifteen benchmark test functions to compare the performance of RSS with other baseline algorithms. The results show that RSS is more efficient than Genetic Algorithm, Particles Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search in terms of convergence rate to the global optimum. The RSS shows an improvement in terms of balance between exploration (extensive and exploitation (intensive of the search space. The RSS can efficiently mimic seal pups behavior to find best lair and provide a new algorithm to be

  3. The influence of climate variability on polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and ringed seal (Pusa hispida) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing-Asvid, A.

    2006-01-01

    Unusually high polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) predation on ringed seal (Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775)) pups and increased survival of polar bear cubs during mild springs is documented in published articles. Strong predation on newborn ringed seal pups in early spring, however, is likely...... to lower the overall energy intake of polar bears if ringed seal pups are their main food, because the energetic value of ringed seal pups increases 7-8 times during the 6 week lactation period. So although hunting success in early spring increases cub survival during the period after den emergence......,when they are most vulnerable, it is likely to increase the number of starving bears later in the season. This negative-feedback effect of strong spring predation will not occur in areas where other seal species are abundant during summer, and polar bears in such areas are likely to exhibit population growth during...

  4. Mechanical seals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, E

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical Seals, Third Edition is a source of practical information on the design and use of mechanical seals. Topics range from design fundamentals and test rigs to leakage, wear, friction and power, reliability, and special designs. This text is comprised of nine chapters; the first of which gives a general overview of seals, including various types of seals and their applications. Attention then turns to the fundamentals of seal design, with emphasis on six requirements that must be considered: sealing effectiveness, length of life, reliability, power consumption, space requirements, and c

  5. Security seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  6. Seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A hydraulically balanced face type shaft seal is provided in which the opening and closing seal face areas retain concentricity with each other in the event of lateral shaft displacement. The seal arrangement is for a vertical high pressure pump, indented for use in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. (Auth.)

  7. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...

  8. On the Nature of CP Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; deMartino, D.; diMille, F.; Williams, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present new X-ray and optical spectra of the old nova CP Pup (nova Pup 1942) obtained with Chandra and the CTIO 4m telescope. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma reaching a maximum temperature of 36+19 keV 16 absorbed by local complex neutral material. The time resolved optical spectroscopy confirms the presence of the 1.47 hr period, with cycle-to-cycle amplitude changes, as well as of an additional long term modulation which is suggestive either of a longer pe- riod or of non-Keplerian velocities in the emission line regions. These new observational facts add further support to CP Pup as a magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV). We compare the mCV and the non-mCV scenarios and while we cannot conclude whether CP Pup is a long period system, all observational evidences point at an intermediate polar (IP) type CV.

  9. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  10. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel

  11. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing rings operatively disposed between the outlet nozzles and the hoop. The sealing rings connected by flexible members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop, establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel. 4 claims, 2 figures

  12. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  13. Ceramic Seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  14. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  15. Ferrules seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  16. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  17. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  18. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  19. Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nunny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since the licensing system was put in place. While some license holders, notably fish farms, were using some non-lethal forms of deterrent to reduce seal-related damage, these were often used alongside seal shooting. Of the seals reported as shot to the Scottish Government, only a small percentage were also reported to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, despite this being a licensing requirement. Only 2.3% of the shot gray seals and 4.5% of the shot common seals were necropsied. There is evidence from these necropsies that some seals had not died instantly or had not been shot in the manner recommended by the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice. These preliminary results show that more carcasses need to be recovered and necropsied if the welfare implications of current seal shooting practice are to be properly assessed. The current legislation does not specify closed seasons to protect breeding seals and thirty-five per cent of necropsied seals were pregnant gray seals. Seals have also been shot during their lactation periods when pups are dependent on their mothers. This raises significant welfare concerns. The re-introduction of closed seasons specific to each species of seal is recommended along with greater effort to deploy non-lethal methods. Independent assessment of the number of seals being killed

  20. Pup retrieval and maternal attraction to canine amniotic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, I; Ranson, E; Buehler, M

    1981-10-01

    Three purebred female beagles were observed with both their first and second litters. Dams were given three separate simultaneous-choice retrieval tests: In addition, the maternal response to amniotic fluids was observed when one pup in the litter was treated with amniotic fluids and all other pups were treated with water. There was no evidence to suggest that pups were retrieved preferentially on the basis of their sex. One female retrieved her own but not alien pups, whereas another female made no such discrimination and readily retrieved alien pups in addition to her own. Retrieval behavior developed at the time of each whelping and normally lasted until the pups were about 5 days old, although a bitch would retrieve younger (alien) pups up to 14 days post partum. Maternal bitches were strongly attracted towards amniotic fluids: they investigated pups daubed with amniotic fluids to a significantly greater extent than control pups treated with water. The attraction of maternal females towards amniotic fluids developed at the time of each whelping and persisted for up to 30 days, well beyond the time that a whelping bitch would normally be exposed to her own fetal fluids. A possible role for amniotic fluids in the development of maternal behaviour and the establishment of the maternal/puppy bond is discussed. Copyright © 1981. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. 78 FR 41371 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Determination on Whether To List the Ribbon Seal as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... number and volume of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the highest blood hemoglobin (oxygen-transport protein in red blood cells) of all seals, as well as larger internal organs than those of other seals...; Burns, 1981), during which time mothers continue to feed, sometimes leaving their pups unattended on the...

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in grey seals during their first year of life-are they thyroid hormone endocrine disrupters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Ailsa J.; Kalantzi, Olga I.; Thomas, Gareth O.

    2003-01-01

    Results are consistent with a link between thyroid hormones and exposure to PBDEs in grey seal pups. - Blubber biopsy and blood samples were collected from weaned grey seal pups and juveniles in 1998 and 1999. The relationship between the concentration of total PDBEs in the blubber and the circulating concentrations of serum proteins, minerals and thyroid hormones was investigated. Fifty-four post-weaned pups were sampled and 55 first year juveniles, of which 13 were recaptured post-weaned pups. The median concentration of total PBDEs in the pups' blubber was 170 and 460 ng g -1 in the first-year animals. Total blubber PBDEs contributed significantly to the prediction of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, after controlling for age and condition. Cholesterol and albumin concentrations were also positively related to blubber PBDEs. The results of this study suggest a link between thyroid hormones and exposure to PBDEs in grey seals during their first year of life. Such an association is not alone sufficient evidence for a cause and effect relationship, however it is in accordance with the hypothesis that these compounds are endocrine disrupters in grey seal pups

  3. Maternal dietary tryptophan deficiency alters cardiorespiratory control in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, Eliana M; Barina, Alexis E; Raju, Sharat; Li, Aihua; Kinney, Hannah C; Commons, Kathryn G; Nattie, Eugene E

    2011-02-01

    Malnutrition during pregnancy adversely affects postnatal forebrain development; its effect upon brain stem development is less certain. To evaluate the role of tryptophan [critical for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis] on brain stem 5-HT and the development of cardiorespiratory function, we fed dams a diet ∼45% deficient in tryptophan during gestation and early postnatal life and studied cardiorespiratory variables in the developing pups. Deficient pups were of normal weight at postnatal day (P)5 but weighed less than control pups at P15 and P25 (P interactions between nutrition, brain stem physiology, and age that are potentially relevant to understanding 5-HT deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome.

  4. 76 FR 33721 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. NMFS reviewed the ULA application and... vitulina), and Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) hauled out on Small Haul-out Site 1 to... lions; and 43 Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. Description of the Specified...

  5. 76 FR 21862 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...; and 43 Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, NMFS has issued eight, 1-year... elephant seals spend much of the year, generally about nine months, in the ocean. They are usually... Mariner harbor operations for one year. After addressing comments from NMFS, ULA modified its application...

  6. 77 FR 38587 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, one-year, Incidental... as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico. Northern elephant seals spend much of the year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We...

  7. Cooperative Atlantic States Shark Pupping and Nursery (COASTSPAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Survey of inshore areas used by sharks for pupping and nurseries. Various locations have been surveyed, from the U.S. Virgin Islands to Massachusetts, most in...

  8. An overview of exposure to, and effects of, petroleum oil and organochlorine pollution in Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, BjoernMunro

    1996-01-01

    Most incidences involving oil pollution of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) seem to have occurred at the breeding sites. Because of the high concentration of animals at this time, even small oil spills will pollute many animals. As a result of chronic low-level pollution from coastal ship traffic and discharges from offshore petroleum activity in the North Sea, 50% of the grey seal pups at the largest breeding colony in Norway are polluted each year by oil. This oil pollution, as well as other cases of spills at breeding colonies, shows that oil produced little visible disturbance to the seals' behaviour and there is little mortality. The effects and mortality may, however, be more serious following a spill of crude oil, where animals may be affected by inhalation of toxic volatile compounds. High body burdens of PCBs and DDTs seem to have caused skull-bone lesions and occlusions of the uteri in grey seals in the Baltic Sea. Exposure to these persistent compounds has also been suspected to be the cause of reduction in the population of Baltic grey seals. There are indications that thyroid hormone and vitamin A status of grey seal pups are affected by the low exposure concentrations experienced at the Norwegian coast (1/20 of the concentration detected in grey seal pups from the Baltic Sea). This gives serious cause for concern about the effects that chronic low-level exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants may have on individuals and on populations of grey seals

  9. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  10. Status of grey seals along mainland Europe from the Southwestern Baltic to France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal was a common species along mainland Europe during the Stone Age (8,000-5,500 BC. Along the North Sea coast populations started to decline substantially during the 11th century as a result of excessive hunting. The last breeding populations disappeared in the 16th century in the Wadden Sea, and before 1900 in the Kattegat-Skagerrak and the Southwestern Baltic as a result of an extermination campaign. No regular pupping occurred along mainland Europe until the end of the 1970s, when a breeding colony was established near Amrum in the German Wadden Sea. Somewhat later, additional breeding sites were discovered near Terschelling in the Dutch Wadden Sea (1980, at Helgoland, and off Brittany in France. Tracking of movements indicate these seal groups to be linked to the larger populations in the UK. Numbers of grey seals in the recolonised areas have increased over the years, but in the Kattegat-Skagerrak stable numbersof about 25 individuals have been observed since the 1970s, whereas more than 100 grey seals are found in the Southwestern Baltic. In the southeastern North Sea, 120 grey seals occur during moult at Helgoland, 120 in the German and over 1,130 in the Dutch parts of the Wadden Sea in 2004. Along the southern Dutch and Belgian coasts small groups are regularly observed, but no colonies have yet been established. In the colonies off Brittany in France about 105 grey seals have been counted. Successful pupping has only been recorded 3 times in the Kattegat-Skagerrak over the past 30 years, and 2-4 pups are born annually in France and the Southwestern Baltic. The relative strongholds for breeding along the European continent are the Dutch Wadden Sea, where in 2003/2004 at least 150 pups were recorded, Amrum in the German Wadden Sea (23 pups and Helgoland (8 pups. Consequently, total numbers of counted grey seals from the Southwestern Baltic to France amounted to at least 1,600 in 2004, while about 190 pups were born in the area.

  11. 78 FR 15669 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    .... 2007; Womble et al. 2010). Vessel-based tourism in Alaska has been increasing rapidly over the last few... collaboration with the Yakutat Tlingit Tribe and Northwest Cruise Ship Association examined the effects of...

  12. Effect of Intermittent Hypercapnia on Respiratory Control in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggerda, Justin A.; Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; Wilson, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Preterm infants are subject to fluctuations in blood gas status associated with immature respiratory control. Intermittent hypoxia during early postnatal life has been shown to increase chemoreceptor sensitivity and destabilize the breathing pattern; however, intermittent hypercapnia remains poorly studied. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypercapnia results in altered respiratory control, we examined the effects of daily exposure to intermittent hypercapnia on the ventilatory response to subsequent hypercapnic and hypoxic exposure in neonatal rat pups. Exposure cycles consisted of 5 min of intermittent hypercapnia (5% CO2, 21% O2, balance N2) followed by 10 min of normoxia. Rat pups were exposed to 18 exposure cycles each day for 1 week, from postnatal day 7 to 14. We analyzed diaphragm electromyograms (EMGs) from pups exposed to subsequent acute hypercapnic (5% CO2) and hypoxic (12% O2) challenges. In response to a subsequent hypercapnia challenge, there was no significant difference in the ventilatory response between control and intermittent hypercapnia-exposed groups. In contrast, intermittent hypercapnia-exposed rat pups showed an enhanced ventilatory response to hypoxic challenge with an increase in minute EMG to 118 ± 14% of baseline versus 107 ± 13% for control pups (p < 0.05). We speculate that prior hypercapnic exposure may increase peripheral chemoreceptor response to subsequent hypoxic exposures and result in perturbed neonatal respiratory control. PMID:19752577

  13. Passive Wake Detection Using Seal Whisker-Inspired Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    companion. The redemption, love, and joy that have come from our time together are written between 6 each line here. Mom, Dad , Jenn, and Robert: thank...specific study is described. 1.1.1 Pinniped Sensory Systems As with many animals, the sensory systems available to the harbor seal are rich and diverse...shifts the mag- netic field (Figure 1-4b). In these test conditions, the seal exhibited poor ability to detect the change. Olfaction There is evidence

  14. Status and biology of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    1998-06-01

    water prior to weaning. They are capable of diving for up to 12min and dive to the bottom of the study areas (max. 89 m. Nursing females spend more than 80% of their time in the water. Maximum recorded dive duration for mothers was 21.2 min. In order to produce a weaned pup, the net energy expenditure for a ringed seal mother is 1,073 MJ. This energy value corresponds to the consumption of 185 kg of polar cod or 282 kg of P. libellula. The annual gross energy consumption for adult males and females is calculated to be 5,600 MJ and 7,300 MJ, respectively. The main predators of ringed seals in Svalbard are polar bears (Ursus maritimus and Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus. In addition, both glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus are documented as predators of ringed seals in this area. Heavy predation pressure is probably the main factor explaining why pups of this species start diving at such a young age, why they have access to so many breathing holes (8.7 on average and why they keep their white coat long after its thermoregulatory properties have vanished. Pollution levels in ringed seals from Svalbard are, generally speaking, similar to levels in other areas of the Arctic.

  15. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  16. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  17. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT>TBT>MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system during

  18. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Rotary plug seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Abiko, Yoshihiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fuel exchange even upon failure of regular seals and also to enable safety seal exchange by the detection of the reduction in the contact pressure of a rotary plug seal. Constitution: If one of a pair of regular tube seals for the rotary plug is failed during ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, the reduction in the contact pressure of the seal to the plug gibbousness is detected by a pressure gauge and a solenoid valve is thereby closed. Thus, a back-up-tube seal provided above or below the tube seal is press-contacted by way of argon gas to the gibbousness to enter into operation state and lubricants are supplied from an oil tank. In such a structure, the back-up-tube seal is operated before the failure of the tube seal to enable to continue the fuel exchange work, as well as safety exchange for the tube seal. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  1. Mechanical seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  2. Mechanical Seal Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1999-06-18

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  3. Mechanical seal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental plans and timing for completion of the mechanical seal program for both the slurry and transfer pumps are given. The slurry pump seal program will be completed by April 1984 with turnover of two seals in pumps to SRP Tank 15H. Transfer pump seal design will be released for plant use by May 1984. Also included are various other pump and seal related tests

  4. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system is disclosed. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel

  5. Seal carrion is a predictable resource for coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaggiotto, Maria-Martina; Barton, Philip S.; Morris, Christopher D.; Moss, Simon E. W.; Pomeroy, Patrick P.; McCafferty, Dominic J.; Bailey, David M.

    2018-04-01

    The timing, magnitude, and spatial distribution of resource inputs can have large effects on dependent organisms. Few studies have examined the predictability of such resources and no standard ecological measure of predictability exists. We examined the potential predictability of carrion resources provided by one of the UK's largest grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) colonies, on the Isle of May, Scotland. We used aerial (11 years) and ground surveys (3 years) to quantify the variability in time, space, quantity (kg), and quality (MJ) of seal carrion during the seal pupping season. We then compared the potential predictability of seal carrion to other periodic changes in food availability in nature. An average of 6893 kg of carrion •yr-1 corresponding to 110.5 × 103 MJ yr-1 was released for potential scavengers as placentae and dead animals. A fifth of the total biomass from dead seals was consumed by the end of the pupping season, mostly by avian scavengers. The spatial distribution of carcasses was similar across years, and 28% of the area containing >10 carcasses ha-1 was shared among all years. Relative standard errors (RSE) in space, time, quantity, and quality of carrion were all below 34%. This is similar to other allochthonous-dependent ecosystems, such as those affected by migratory salmon, and indicates high predictability of seal carrion as a resource. Our study illustrates how to quantify predictability in carrion, which is of general relevance to ecosystems that are dependent on this resource. We also highlight the importance of carrion to marine coastal ecosystems, where it sustains avian scavengers thus affecting ecosystem structure and function.

  6. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are in good agreement with those obtained using the method of Lehmann-. Filhés. Key words. ... use their method to obtain the orbital elements of the four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems PV Pup, HD ... Observation shows that the photometric phase, φ, which is measured from the pho- tometric reference point ...

  7. Inboard seal mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); R. Hapsari (Rebriarina); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); G.J. Sá Nchez Contreras (Guillermo J.); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M. de Graaf (Miranda); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the

  9. An Expanding Role For Purine Uptake Permease (PUP -like Transporters In Plant Secondary Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Jelesko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, our understanding of the plant purine uptake permease (PUP transporter family of was primarily oriented on purine nucleobase substrates and their tissue-specific expression patterns in Arabidopsis. However, a tobacco PUP-like homolog demonstrating nicotine uptake permease (NUP activity was recently shown to affect both nicotine metabolism and root cell growth. These new findings expand the physiological role for PUP-like transporters to include plant secondary metabolism. Molecular evolution analyses of PUP-like transporters indicate they are distinct group within an ancient super family of drug and metabolite transporters (DMTs. The PUP-like family originated during terrestrial plant evolution sometime between the bryophytes and the lycophytes. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the PUP-like transporters were likely were derived from a pre-existing nucleotide sugar transporter family within the DMT super family. Within the lycophyte Selaginella, there are three paralogous groups of PUP-like transporters. One of the three PUP-like paralogous groups showed an extensive pattern of gene duplication and diversification within the angiosperm lineage, whereas the other two more ancestral PUP-like paralogous groups did not. Biochemical characterization of four closely-related PUP-like paralogs together with model-based phylogenetic analyses indicate both subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization during the molecular evolution of angiosperm PUP-like transporters. These findings suggest that members of the PUP-like family of DMT transporters are likely involved in diverse primary and secondary plant metabolic pathways.

  10. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  11. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  12. Fog seal guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Fog seals are a method of adding asphalt to an existing pavement surface to improve sealing or waterproofing, prevent further stone loss by holding aggregate in place, or simply improve the surface appearance. However, inappropriate use can result in...

  13. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habran, Sarah; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Daniel E.; Houser, Dorian S.; Das, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. → The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. → The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  14. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  15. Hermetically Sealed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hermetically sealed pump compresses fluid to pressure up to 4,000 atm (400 MPa). Pump employs linear electric motor instead of rotary motor to avoid need for leakage-prone rotary seals. In addition, linear-motor-powered pump would not require packings to seal its piston. Concept thus eliminates major cause of friction and wear. Pump is double-ended diaphragm-type compressor. All moving parts sealed within compressor housing.

  16. Investigation of positive shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, J. O.

    1970-01-01

    Welded metal bellows secondary seals prevent secondary seal leakage with a minimum number of potential leak paths. High performance seal is obtained by controlling the potentially unstable seal-face movements induced by mechanical vibrations and fluid pressure pulsations.

  17. Circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  18. Seals in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from

  19. Electronic self-monitoring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electronic Self-Monitoring Seal is a new type of security seal which allows continuous verification of the seal's identity and status. The identity information is a function of the individual seal, time, and seal integrity. A description of this seal and its characteristics are presented. Also described are the use cycle for the seal and the support equipment for programming and verifying the seal

  20. Brucella Pinnipedialis in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Michiel V; Beckers, Lisa; Bisselink, Yvette J W M; Brasseur, Sophie; van Tulden, Peter W; Koene, Miriam G J; Roest, Hendrik I J; Ruuls, Robin C; Backer, Jantien A; IJzer, Jooske; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Willemsen, Peter T J

    2018-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with terrestrial or marine wildlife animals as potential reservoirs for the disease in livestock and human populations. The primary aim of this study was to assess the presence of Brucella pinnipedialis in marine mammals living along the Dutch coast and to observe a

  1. VAK III. Seals and sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Agraives, B.C.; Dal Cero, G.; Debeir, R.; Mascetti, E.; Toornvliet, J.; Volcan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the VAK III seals and sealing system, which have been used over a period of two years at the Kahl nuclear facility (Federal Republic of Germany), where field tests and feasibility studies were conducted in order to offer a possible solution for the sealing of LWR fuel assemblies. It has been prepared with the aim of an assessment study to be done at the IAEA. It gives all characteristics and technical descriptions for: the sealing principle, the seal construction, the operating tools, the data processing, the drawings, the publications related to that seal. The main points of progress are: the Strong Random Internal Defects (STRID) incorporated in the seals, allowing the obtention of a good signature stability; the Integrity Check on the Seal Status (broken or not) obtained through a decisive mechanical improvement: the Double Breakage Integrity Check (DOBRIC) and with a better ultrasonic evidence of that status; the provision of new function tools, allowing the performance of Identity Measurements in dry conditions (which means also at the manufacturer plant) or in deeper water (wet storage); the study and development of a new JRC VAK 45 Compact Instrument Box, in which all the measuring functions can be grouped and incorporating an autonomous Minicomputer offering to the Inspection the possibility of performing, on the spot, Correlation and Decision processes. The general benefit of such a feasibility study should be to convince the potential users that such a Safeguards Sealing System can be studied for slightly - or largely - different other applications, provided that the Basic and Operating Functions required to the system be clearly defined, possibly after a common agreement would be stated

  2. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  3. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  4. Phenomenon of hormesis on γ-irradiated developing rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruda, V.P.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Development of rat pups was shown to accelerate body mass up 121% of control) afetr γ-irradiation on day 21 of the postnatal development (2.88 cGy, dose-rate of 0.12 cGy/h). Higher cumulative doses (14.4 and 144 cGy) did not influence the body mass growth, and inhibition was only caused by doses exceeding 150 cGy

  5. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate). The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database. To perform this development, IPSN relies on industrial partners: SAPHYMO for the general architecture of the seal and the electronics, THALES for the authentication of data and the security of transmission. The main features of the IRES seal are the following: Interrogation by different inspectorate, allowing independent conclusions; Recording of events, including tampering, in a non-volatile memory; Authentication of data and enhanced security of the communication between the seal and the seal reader; Remote interrogation by an inspector or/and automatic for unattended systems or remote monitoring; Reusable after erasing the seal memory and replacement of the batteries

  6. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  7. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlez, P.; Funk, P.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate) Furthermore, a bilateral co-ordination between Euratom and French domestic safeguards takes place in some French facilities regarding a common approach concerning the seals especially in case of crisis situation. The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database

  8. High pressure shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  9. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    Pearl Harbor also receives Irrigation tailgate waters from the Oahu Sug- ar Company, Industrial waste waters from the Prlmo Brewery , and heated waters...34Observations of the Cell Structure of Salt Fingers", J. Fluid Mech. 41:4, pp 707-719. ~) 3.3-79 ,’:•.-. ^ IV s’V- EFFECTS OF SHIP ACTIVITY Paul L...anticyclonic) death assemblage - in this report, an assemblage (q.v.) of remains (such as shells or bones ) from a naturally occurring association of living

  10. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  11. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  12. Development of locomotor activity of rat pups in figure-eight mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1985-05-01

    In a series of four experiments, social and experiential factors that influence the development of motor activity in rat pups were examined. Motor activity was monitored from postnatal Days 13 to 21 as photocell interruptions in figure-eight mazes and comparisons were made between pups maintained in a nest box containing a dam and siblings and allowed access to the maze for 23 hr/day, pups tested daily for 1 hr/day vs pups tested only on postnatal Days 15, 18, or 21, pups tested daily for either 5 min, 30 min, or 1 hr/day, and pups tested daily for 30 min/day either singly in a maze, paired with a littermate, or paired with an anesthetized pup of the same age. A monotonic increase in activity was seen for nest-box testing, minimal developmental change was seen for pups tested on only a single day or for pups tested with an anesthetized pup, whereas all other groups showed an inverted U-shaped profile of activity which was influenced by the duration of testing and/or the presence of a littermate. These data emphasize the relevance of environmental factors as determinants of preweaning behavior.

  13. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The seals described are for use in a nuclear reactor where there are fuel assemblies in a vessel, an inlet and an outlet for circulating a coolant in heat transfer relationship with the fuel assemblies and a closure head on the vessel in a tight fluid relationship. The closure head comprises rotatable plugs which have mechanical seals disposed in the annulus around each plug while allowing free rotation of the plug when the seal is not actuated. The seal is usually an elastomer or copper. A means of actuating the seal is attached for drawing it vertically into the annulus for sealing. When the reactor coolant is liquid sodium, contact with oxygen must be avoided and argon cover gas fills the space between the bottom of the closure head and the coolant liquid level and the annuli in the closure head. (U.K.)

  14. Grays Harbor Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.

  15. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  16. Compliant seal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  17. Seal containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, R.W.; Gerkey, K.S.; Kasner, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    An automated system for transporting nuclear fuel elements between fuel element assembly stations without contaminating the area outside the sealed assembly stations is described. The system comprises a plurality of assembly stations connected together by an elongated horizontal sealing mechanism and an automatic transport mechanism for transporting a nuclear fuel element in a horizontal attitude between the assembly stations while the open end of the fuel element extends through the sealing mechanism into the assembly station enclosure. The sealing mechanism allows the fuel element to be advanced by the transport mechanism while limiting the escape of radioactive particles from within the assembly station enclosure. 4 claims, 6 figures

  18. 78 FR 57319 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Safe Harbor Proposed Self-Regulatory Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...-AB20 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Safe Harbor Proposed Self-Regulatory Guidelines; kidSAFE... proposed self-regulatory guidelines submitted by the kidSAFE Seal Program (``kidSAFE''), owned and operated... enabling industry groups or others to submit to the Commission for approval self-regulatory guidelines that...

  19. Epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Duignan, Pádraig J; Taylor, Trevor; Nielsen, Ole; Kirkwood, Roger; Gibbens, John; Arnould, John P Y

    2011-04-01

    Novel members of the bacterial genus Brucella have recently emerged as pathogens of various marine mammal species and as potential zoonotic agents. We investigated the epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) by establishing demographic and temporal variations in antibody prevalence, attempting isolation of the causative agent, and determining whether this potential pathogen is involved in frequent abortions observed in this pinniped species. Two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs), an indirect ELISA, and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were used to test sera for Brucella antibodies. The FPA and cELISA proved suitable for use in this species. Significant differences in antibody prevalence were found between age classes of seals sampled between 2007 and 2009 at one colony. Pups sampled at this site (n=134) were negative for Brucella antibodies by all serologic tests but 17 of 45 (38%) of juveniles were antibody-positive. Antibody prevalence in adult females was significantly higher than in juveniles (P=0.044). Antibody prevalence for adult females between 2003 and 2009 varied significantly over time (P=0.011), and for individuals sampled between 2003 and 2005, the likelihood of pregnancy was greater in individuals positive for Brucella antibodies (P=0.034). Inflammatory lesions suggestive of infectious agents were found in 14 of 39 aborted Australian fur seal pups, but pathologic changes were not uniformly consistent for Brucella infection. Culture and PCR investigations on fetal tissues were negative for Brucella. Culture and PCR on selected fresh or frozen tissues from 36 juvenile and adult animals were also negative. We suspect that the prevalence of active infection with Brucella in Australian fur seals is low relative to antibody prevalence.

  20. Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Staniland, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90?125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12?16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the ?escapement? due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species

  1. Improved cryogenic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, W. A., Jr.; Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Seals are designed for use with liquid propellant ball valves at temperatures ranging from -400 F to 130 F and 8,000 psig. Seals are capable of sustaining 90 degree rotation, with substantial amount of lateral and axial play, caused by large pressure loads and differential thermal contraction.

  2. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  3. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by 3 H 2 O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r 2 = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r 2 = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r 2 = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization

  4. Rotary shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing

  5. Sealing a conduit end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentz, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing or blocking conduits, such as the primary nozzles of a nuclear steam generator is described. It includes an annular bracket sealingly attached to the open end of the nozzle, the bracket having a plurality of threaded holes therein. Mounted atop the bracket is a generally circular nozzle dam for covering the opening. Interposed between the nozzle dam and the bracket is an extrusion-resistant seal member having a plurality of apertures therethrough for receiving each bolt. The seal member is configured to resist extrusion by having laminated layers of differing hardnesses, so that the seal member will not laterally extrude away from each bolt in a manner that enlarges the aperture surrounding each bolt as the nozzle dam is bolted to the bracket. (author)

  6. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  7. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  8. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  9. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Sophie M J M; Reijnders, Peter J H; Cremer, Jenny; Meesters, Erik; Kirkwood, Roger; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Jeβ, Armin; Galatius, Anders; Teilmann, Jonas; Aarts, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%), suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%). The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately 70% of all pups

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Seal Parvovirus, 1988–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00×10−4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15×10−4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses. PMID:25390639

  11. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-01-01

    A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4) for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4) for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8% of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5% of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.

  13. Reactor cavity seal ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrostatic seal is described for sealing an annular gap between two flat substantially horizontal coplanar surfaces comprising, in combination: a generally flat annular plate of a width sufficient to span a gap between two surfaces: compressible annular sealing means disposed on the bottom surface of the flat annular plate for sealingly engaging the two flat surfaces in response to a downward force exerted on the plate; and fastening means, distributed along the center line of the plate, for releasably fastening the plate in a position to span the gap to be sealed and exert a downward force on the plate, each fastening means including a pair of elongated members of a size to fit into the gap to be sealed, means for mounting the members on the bottom surface of the plate so that at least a portion of each member is radially moveable in a direction toward a respective one of the vertical side surfaces defining the gap to be sealed to engage same and so that the plate is moveable relative to the members in a downward direction in response to hydrostatic pressure applied to the upper surface of the plate when the members are engaging the vertical side surfaces of an annular gap, and an actuating means, mounted on the plate for movement therewith in response to hydrostatic pressure, for radially moving the members, the actuating means extending through a bore in the plate to the upper surface of the plate

  14. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  15. Water conservation in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Christopher W; Costa, Daniel P

    2006-11-01

    Prolonged terrestrial fasting is a key element in the life history of elephant seals. While on land seals typically fast without access to fresh water, and thus must maintain positive water balance by reductions in water loss such that they can subsist primarily on metabolic water production (MWP). The terrestrial apnea demonstrated by seals may reduce respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) to levels that allow seals to make a net gain of water from MWP. We empirically measured REWL in 13 fasting northern elephant seal pups and determined the effects on water conservation of a breathing mode that incorporates a regular pattern of apneas, of > or =1 min in duration, followed by eupneic recovery, compared with a breathing mode with no apneas longer than 20 s and resembling typical breathing patterns in other mammals (normative breathing). Overall REWL fell 41% from 0.075+/-0.013 g min(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) during normative breathing to 0.044+/-0.006 g min(-1) during apneic breathing. The decline in REWL is attributed to a decrease in overall ventilation rate, made possible by a decline in metabolic rate along with an increase in oxygen extraction that would occur during apneic breathing. Data on the range of ambient humidity conditions at the local breeding site were collected and used to bound the range of environmental conditions used in laboratory measurements. Our data showed that the observed variations in ambient humidity had no significant effect on REWL. A combination of apneic breathing and the complex nasal turbinates allows fasting elephant seals to reduce REWL well below the rate of MWP so that they can maintain water balance during the fast.

  16. File list: Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Pupae SRX...013069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Pupae SRX...013069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  18. Maternal and pup genotype contribution to growth in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Pen, Ido; Durieux, Geesje C.R.; Daan, Serge

    The single gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster-apart from its effect on the circadian organization of locomotor activity-has a pronounced influence on body weight. In this study we investigate the impact of maternal and pup genotypes at the tau-locus on the growth rate of pups. Homozygous tau

  19. File list: InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016167,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016165,SR...X016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  2. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amie L; Wise, Sandra S; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Aboueissa, Abouel-Makarim; Wise, John Pierce

    2008-08-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  3. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S.; Goertz, Caroline E.C.; Dunn, J. Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M.D.; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim

    2008-01-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

  4. Cover-gas seals: 11-LMFBR seal-test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, O.P. III; Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the Cover Gas Seal Material Development Program is to perform the engineering development required to provide reliable seals for LMFBR application. Specific objectives are to verify the performance of commercial solid cross-section and inflatable seals under reactor environments including radiation, to develop advanced materials and configurations capable of achieving significant improvement in radioactive gas containment and seal temperature capabilities, and to optimize seal geometry for maximum reliability and minimal gas permeation

  5. Rotatable seal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, J.L.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an oring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers

  6. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing the annulus defined within a substantially cylindrical rotatable riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor closure head is described. The apparatus comprises an inflatable sealing mechanism disposed in one portion of the riser assembly near the annulus such that upon inflation the sealing mechanism is radially actuated against the other portion of the riser assembly thereby sealing the annulus. The apparatus further comprises a connecting mechanism which places one end of the sealing mechanism in fluid communication with the reactor cover gas so that overpressurization of the reactor cover gas will increase the radial actuation of the sealing mechanism thus enhancing sealing of the annulus

  7. Self-acting shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  8. Sealing arrangement for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

  9. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  10. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  11. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  12. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320. PMID:16210491

  13. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  14. Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-10-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of < or = 80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  15. Geoscience rediscovers Phoenicia's buried harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Carbonel, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    After centuries of archaeological debate, the harbors of Phoenicia's two most important city states, Tyre and Sidon, have been rediscovered, and including new geoarcheological results reveal how, where, and when they evolved after their Bronze Age foundations. The early ports lie beneath their present urban centers, and we have indentified four harbor phases. (1) During the Bronze Age, Tyre and Sidon were characterized by semi-open marine coves that served as protoharbors. (2) Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic data indicate the presence of early artificial basins after the first millennium B.C. (3) The harbors reached their apogees during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods. (4) Silting up and coastal progradation led to burial of the medieval basins, lost until now.

  16. Assessment of attachment behaviour to human caregivers in wolf pups (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Lord, Kathryn; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Wynne, Clive D L; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggested that 16-week old dog pups, but not wolf pups, show attachment behaviour to a human caregiver. Attachment to a caregiver in dog pups has been demonstrated by differential responding to a caregiver compared to a stranger in the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. We show here that 3-7 week old wolf pups also show attachment-like behaviour to a human caregiver as measured by preferential proximity seeking, preferential contact, and preferential greeting to a human caregiver over a human stranger in a modified and counterbalanced version of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. In addition, our results show that preferential responding to a caregiver over a stranger is only apparent following brief isolation. In initial episodes, wolf pups show no differentiation between the caregiver and the stranger; however, following a 2-min separation, the pups show proximity seeking, more contact, and more greeting to the caregiver than the stranger. These results suggest intensive human socialization of a wolf can lead to attachment--like responding to a human caregiver during the first two months of a wolf pup's life. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria Lucasi (Ancylostomatidae, In Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus Ursinus On St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons E.T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria lucasi (Ancylostomatidae, in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Lyons, E. T., Kuzmina, T. A., Carie, J. L., Tolliver, S. C., Spraker, T. R. — Review of main studies on biology and ecology of the hookworm Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 performed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, is presented. Current data on prevalence of adult hookworms parasitizing northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758, were obtained based on the examination of the intestines of dead NFS pups and subadult 3-4 year-old males in July and August of 2011-2013. In addition, blubber samples collected from subadult NFS males were examined for parasitic third stage hookworm larvae (L3. All current data were compared with previously published studies performed in 1950s-1960s. Current prevalence of U. lucasi in dead pups collected from Reef Rookery was 4.9 % in 2011, 0 % in 2012 and 10.5 % in 2013. This rookery has a rocky substrate. On sandy rookeries prevalence was up to 75 % on Morjovi Rookery and 50 % on Vostochni Rookery. Parasitic L3 were recovered in 2.5 % of subadult males examined in 2013. Decreasing prevalence of hookworm infection of dead pups and subadult males during the last several years follows the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals in the herd on St. Paul Island during last several decades.

  18. Shaft seal assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  19. Asic3(-/- female mice with hearing deficit affects social development of pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infant crying is an important cue for mothers to respond adequately. Inappropriate response to infant crying can hinder social development in infants. In rodents, the pup-mother interaction largely depends on pup's calls. Mouse pups emit high frequency to ultrasonic vocalization (2-90 kHz to communicate with their dam for maternal care. However, little is known about how the maternal response to infant crying or pup calls affects social development over the long term. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/- to create a hearing deficit to probe the effect of caregiver hearing on maternal care and adolescent social development. Female Asic3(-/- mice showed elevated hearing thresholds for low to ultrasonic frequency (4-32 kHz on auditory brain stem response, which thus hindered their response to their pups' wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalization, as well as their retrieval of pups. In adolescence, pups reared by Asic3(-/- mice showed a social deficit in juvenile social behaviors as compared with those reared by wild-type or heterozygous dams. The social-deficit phenotype in juvenile mice reared by Asic3(-/- mice was associated with the reduced serotonin transmission of the brain. However, Asic3(-/- pups cross-fostered to wild-type dams showed rescued social deficit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inadequate response to pups' calls as a result of ASIC3-dependent hearing loss confers maternal deficits in caregivers and social development deficits in their young.

  20. Autonomic substrates of the response to pups in male prairie voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Kenkel

    Full Text Available Caregiving by nonparents (alloparenting and fathers is a defining aspect of human social behavior, yet this phenomenon is rare among mammals. Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster spontaneously exhibit high levels of alloparental care, even in the absence of reproductive experience. In previous studies, exposure to a pup was selectively associated with increased activity in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons along with decreased plasma corticosterone. In the present study, physiological, pharmacological and neuroanatomical methods were used to explore the autonomic and behavioral consequences of exposing male prairie voles to a pup. Reproductively naïve, adult male prairie voles were implanted with radiotransmitters used for recording ECG, temperature and activity. Males responded with a sustained increase in heart-rate during pup exposure. This prolonged increase in heart rate was not explained by novelty, locomotion or thermoregulation. Although heart rate was elevated during pup exposure, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA did not differ between these males and males exposed to control stimuli indicating that vagal inhibition of the heart was maintained. Blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors with atenolol abolished the pup-induced heart rate increase, implicating sympathetic activity in the pup-induced increase in heart rate. Blockade of vagal input to the heart delayed the males' approach to the pup. Increased activity in brainstem autonomic regulatory nuclei was also observed in males exposed to pups. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to a pup activates both vagal and sympathetic systems. This unique physiological state (i.e. increased sympathetic excitation of the heart, while maintaining some vagal cardiac tone associated with male caregiving behavior may allow males to both nurture and protect infants.

  1. Dog days of summer: Influences on decision of wolves to move pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Nordhagen, Matthew; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    For animals that forage widely, protecting young from predation can span relatively long time periods due to the inability of young to travel with and be protected by their parents. Moving relatively immobile young to improve access to important resources, limit detection of concentrated scent by predators, and decrease infestations by ectoparasites can be advantageous. Moving young, however, can also expose them to increased mortality risks (e.g., accidents, getting lost, predation). For group-living animals that live in variable environments and care for young over extended time periods, the influence of biotic factors (e.g., group size, predation risk) and abiotic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) on the decision to move young is unknown. We used data from 25 satellite-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Idaho, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park to evaluate how these factors could influence the decision to move pups during the pup-rearing season. We hypothesized that litter size, the number of adults in a group, and perceived predation risk would positively affect the number of times gray wolves moved pups. We further hypothesized that wolves would move their pups more often when it was hot and dry to ensure sufficient access to water. Contrary to our hypothesis, monthly temperature above the 30-year average was negatively related to the number of times wolves moved their pups. Monthly precipitation above the 30-year average, however, was positively related to the amount of time wolves spent at pup-rearing sites after leaving the natal den. We found little relationship between risk of predation (by grizzly bears, humans, or conspecifics) or group and litter sizes and number of times wolves moved their pups. Our findings suggest that abiotic factors most strongly influence the decision of wolves to move pups, although responses to unpredictable biotic events (e.g., a predator encountering pups) cannot be ruled out.

  2. Discovery of a magnetic field in the δ Scuti F2m star ρ Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Sikora, J.

    2017-06-01

    ρ Pup is a δ Scuti F2 pulsator, known to host a main radial mode as well as non-radial pulsations, with chemical peculiarities typical of evolved Am stars. We present a high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of this star, obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey. A magnetic field is clearly detected in ρ Pup, with a longitudinal field strength below 1 G. This makes ρ Pup the second known magnetic δ Scuti discovered, after HD 188774, and a possible cool evolved counterpart of the recently discovered ultraweakly magnetic Am family.

  3. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  5. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  6. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  7. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  8. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  9. Continuous improvement of pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Eyvindson, A.; Rhodes, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Pump seal reliability continues to be an area needing improvement and ongoing vigilance. Methods have been developed for identifying and assessing factors relating to seal performance, selecting the most relevant ones for a specific station, and then focusing on the most significant aspects and how to improve. Discussion invariably addresses maintenance practices, seal design, monitoring capabilities, operating conditions, transients, and pump and motor design. Success in reliability improvement requires ongoing dialogue among the station operators, pump manufacturers and seal designers. AECL CAN-seals lead the nuclear industry in reliability and seal life. They effectively save operators millions of dollars in outage time and person-rem. This paper describes some of the significant developments in AECL's ongoing program in seal R and D, as well as recent new installations following the most demanding seal qualification programs to date. (author)

  10. Organochlorine pollutants in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups and their impact on plasma thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sørmo, Eugen Gravningen

    2005-01-01

    Studies on laboratory animals suggest that developing and newborn mammals are more vulnerable than the adults with respect to the harmful effects of organochlorine (OC) pollutants such polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and OC pesticides (Brouwer et al. 1995; 1998a; Colborn 2004). These effects include neurobiological and neurochemical effects, reproductive effects, reduced brain and circulatory thyroid hormone levels, impaired immune functions and vitamin A homeostasis (Brouwer et al. 1995; Co...

  11. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  12. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  13. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M; Salmina, Alla B; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

  14. Intratracheal Seal Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen J; Moeslund, Niels; Lauridsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . The device consisted of an intratracheal silicone seal disc fixated by a cord through the stoma to an external part. At day 14, computed tomography (CT) was performed before the device was extracted. With the pulling of a cord, the disc unraveled into a thin thread and was extracted through the stoma. At day...

  15. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  16. Diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination in South American sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo

    2015-08-30

    The use of accurate, species-specific diet-tissue discrimination factors is a critical requirement when applying stable isotope mixing models to predict consumer diet composition. Thus, diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination factors in several tissues for both captive and wild South American sea lions were estimated to provide appropriate values for quantifying feeding preferences at different timescales in the wild populations of this species. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the blood components of two female-pup pairs and females' prey muscle from captive individuals were determined by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) to calculate the respective isotopic discrimination factors. The same analysis was carried out in both blood components, and skin and hair tissues for eight female-pup pairs from wild individuals. Mean diet-to-female Δ(13) C and Δ(15) N values were higher than the female-to-pup ones. Pup tissues were more (15) N-enriched than their mothers but (13) C-depleted in serum and plasma tissues. In most of the tissue comparisons, we found differences in both Δ(15) N and Δ(13) C values, supporting tissue-specific discrimination. We found no differences between captive and wild female-to-pup discrimination factors either in Δ(13) C or Δ(15) N values of blood components. Only the stable isotope ratios in pup blood are good proxies of the individual lactating females. Thus, we suggest that blood components are more appropriate to quantify the feeding habits of wild individuals of this species. Furthermore, because female-to-pup discrimination factors for blood components did not differ between captive and wild individuals, we suggest that results for captive experiments can be extrapolated to wild South American sea lion populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Adult meerkats modify close call rate in the presence of pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T; Rivers, Pearl R; Muller, Coline; Toni, Pauline; Manser, Marta B

    2017-06-01

    In animals, signaling behavior is often context-dependent, with variation in the probability of emitting certain signals dependent on fitness advantages. Senders may adjust signaling rate depending on receiver identity, presence of audiences, or noise masking the signal, all of which can affect the benefits and costs of signal production. In the cooperative breeding meerkat Suricata suricatta , group members emit soft contact calls, termed as "close calls", while foraging in order to maintain group cohesion. Here, we investigated how the close calling rate during foraging was affected by the presence of pups, that produce continuous, noisy begging calls as they follow older group members. Adults decreased their overall close call rate substantially when pups were foraging with the group in comparison to periods when no pups were present. We suggest this decrease was likely due to a masking effect of the loud begging calls, which makes the close call function of maintaining group cohesion partly redundant as the centrally located begging calls can be used instead to maintain cohesion. There was some support that adults use close calls strategically to attract specific pups based on fitness advantages, that is, as the philopatric sex, females should call more than males and more to female pups than male pups. Dominant females called more than dominant males when a pup was in close proximity, while subordinates showed no sex-based differences. The sex of the nearest pup did not affect the calling rate of adults. The study shows that meerkats modify their close call production depending on benefits gained from calling and provides an example of the flexible use of one calling system in the presence of another, here contact calls versus begging calls, within the same species.

  18. Adult meerkats modify close call rate in the presence of pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan T.WYMAN; Pearl R.RIVERS; Coline MULLER; Pauline TONI; Marta B.MANSER

    2017-01-01

    In animals,signaling behavior is often context-dependent,with variation in the probability of emitting certain signals dependent on fitness advantages.Senders may adjust signaling rate depending on receiver identity,presence of audiences,or noise masking the signal,all of which can affect the benefits and costs of signal production.In the cooperative breeding meerkat Suricata suricatta,group members emit soft contact calls,termed as "close calls",while foraging in order to maintain group cohesion.Here,we investigated how the close calling rate during foraging was affected by the presence of pups,that produce continuous,noisy begging calls as they follow older group members.Adults decreased their overall close call rate substantially when pups were foraging with the group in comparison to periods when no pups were present.We suggest this decrease was likely due to a masking effect of the loud begging calls,which makes the close call function of maintaining group cohesion partly redundant as the centrally located begging calls can be used instead to maintain cohesion.There was some support that adults use close calls strategically to attract specific pups based on fitness advantages,that is,as the philopatric sex,females should call more than males and more to female pups than male pups.Dominant females called more than dominant males when a pup was in close proximity,while subordinates showed no sex-based differences.The sex of the nearest pup did not affect the calling rate of adults.The study shows that meerkats modify their close call production depending on benefits gained from calling and provides an example of the flexible use of one calling system in the presence of another,here contact calls versus begging calls,within the same species.

  19. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone ...

  20. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  1. Fiber Optic Safeguards Sealing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    8217 or trade names does not constitute an official indorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not...an intergrity check of a seal than to photograph the seal’s fingerprints and to match positive/negative overlays. The seal identification time and

  2. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  3. Radial lip seals, thermal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakenborg, M.J.L.; van Ostaijen, R.A.J.; Dowson, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the influence of temperature on tne seal-snarc contact is studied, using coupled temperature-stress FEH analysis. A thermal network model is used to calculate the seal-shaft contact temperature for steady-state and transient conditions. Contact temperatures were measured under the seal

  4. Cover gas seals: FFTF-LMFBR seal test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, T.S.; Shimazaki, T.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor-inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configurations provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the CRBRP to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  5. Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

    2008-11-01

    Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

  6. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus, Northwestern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Zohari, Siamak; Krog, Jesper Schak

    2016-01-01

    and Denmark. Within a few months, this virus spread to seals of the coastal waters of Germany and the Netherlands, causing the death of thousands of animals. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of this seal influenza A(H10N7) virus revealed that it was most closely related...... to various avian influenza A(H10N7) viruses. The collection of samples from infected seals during the course of the outbreak provided a unique opportunity to follow the adaptation of the avian virus to its new seal host. Sequence data for samples collected from 41 different seals from four different......, various sequencing methods were used to elucidate the genetic changes that occurred after the introduction and subsequent spread of an avian influenza A(H10N7) virus among harbor seals of northwestern Europe by use of various samples collected during the outbreak. Such detailed knowledge of genetic...

  7. 77 FR 19967 - Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes temporary safety zones in the Port of Dutch Harbor... Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due to additional vessel traffic associated with...

  8. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  9. Army Engineers at Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    siblings, he was the grandson of David Belden Lyman—a Christian missionary from New England who settled in the Hilo , Hawaii area—and the descendent of...of Hawaii appeared over Oahu. Some headed for Ameri- can warships at Pearl Harbor and the planes on the ground at nearby Hickam Field; oth- ers...hit Schofield Barracks, Wheeler Field, and Bellows Field. USACE in Hawaii con- sisted of Soldier-engineers in the Army’s Hawaiian Depart- ment and

  10. Postnatal development of rat pups is altered by prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Pometlová, Marie; Charousová, Petra

    2006-01-01

    There are studies showing that drug abuse during pregnancy may have impairing effect on progeny of drug-abusing mothers. Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most common illicit drugs throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MA exposure on postnatal development of rat pups before the time of separation from their mothers. Female rats were injected with MA (5 mg/kg daily) for the duration of their pregnancy. Pups were then tested throughout the lactation period. They were weighed daily and the ano-genital distance was measured on postnatal day (PD) 1. Development of postural motor reaction was tested by righting reflex on surface between PD 1 and 12, and righting reflex in mid-air after PD 12 until successfully accomplished. On PD 15 homing test was examined as a test of pup acute learning. On PD 23 sensory-motor coordination was examined using the rotarod and bar-holding tests. Additionally, the markers of physical maturation, such as eye opening, testes descent in males and vaginal opening in females were also recorded. The birth weight in prenatally MA-exposed pups was lower than in controls or saline-exposed pups regardless of sex. There were no changes induced by prenatal MA exposure in weight gain or in sexual maturation. In righting reflexes, we demonstrated that pups exposed prenatally to MA were slower in righting reflex on surface and that they accomplished the test of righting reflex in mid-air later than controls or saline-exposed pups. The performance of homing test was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. The sensory-motor coordination was impaired in prenatally MA-exposed pups when testing in the rotarod test. Also, the number of falls in the bar-holding test was higher in MA-exposed pups than in controls. There were no sex differences in any measures. Thus, the present study demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure impairs development of postural motor movements of rat pups during the first 3 weeks

  11. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  12. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  13. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Sealing wells with gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E C

    1967-10-01

    A new system is being used in Mexico to temporarily plug producing wells. The temporary seal is a gel with a catalyst. The use of this temporary plug allows gas-lift wells to be taken off production in order to carry out emergency repairs. The gel solidifies by the action of the catalyst to a high temperature (70 - 150/sup 0/C). By locating the bottom of the tubing at the top of the production interval, the gel material will go into the permeable formation, and immediately set. When the gel has solidified, it seals off the horizon that must not be stimulated, and leaves the others exposed to the acid action. When the treatment is finished, the gel, by action of the catalyst, is liquefied and removed from the formation, being produced with the oil.

  15. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  16. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  17. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  18. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hindell

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007 with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13C and δ(15N measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005, the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006, the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals.

  19. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  20. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The

  1. Ethological analysis of mother-pup interactions and other behavioral reactions in rats: effects of malnutrition and tactile stimulation of the pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riul T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-pup interaction, as well as other behavioral reactions were studied during the lactation period in 24 litters of Wistar rats and their dams fed either a 16% (control - C; 12 litters or a 6% (malnourished - M; 12 litters protein diet. The diets were isocaloric. Throughout lactation there was a 36.4% weight loss of M dams and a 63% body weight deficit in the M pups when compared to control pups. During this period, half of the litters were exposed daily to additional tactile stimulation (CS or MS, while the other half were submitted to normal rearing conditions (CN or MN. The tactile stimulation of pups (handling consisted of holding the animal in one hand and gently touching the dorsal part of the animal's body with the fingers for 3 min. A special camera and a time-lapse video were used to record litter behavior in their home cages. Starting at 6 p.m. and ending at 6 a.m., on days 3, 6, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of lactation, photos were taken at 4-s intervals. An increase in the frequency (154.88 ± 16.19 and duration (455.86 ± 18.05 min of suckling was observed throughout the lactation period in all groups compared to birth day (frequency 24.88 ± 2.37 and duration 376.76 ± 21.01 min, but the frequency was higher in the C (84.96 ± 8.52 than in the M group (43.13 ± 4.37; however, the M group (470.2 ± 11.87 min spent more time suckling as compared with the C group (393.67 ± 13.09 min. The M dams showed a decreased frequency of resting position throughout the lactation period (6.5 ± 2.48 compared to birth day (25.42 ± 7.74. Pups from the C group were more frequently observed separated (73.02 ± 4.38 and interacting (258.99 ± 20.61 more with their mothers than the M pups (separated 66.94 ± 5.5 and interacting 165.72 ± 12.05. Tactile stimulation did not interact with diet condition, showing that the kind of stimulation used in the present study did not lead to recovery from the changes induced by protein malnutrition. The changes in

  2. Presence of pups suppresses hunger-induced feeding in virgin adult mice of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Li, Xing-Yu; Wang, Shao-Ran; Wei, Yi-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2017-10-24

    Despite recent progress on neural pathways underlying individual behaviors, how an animal balances and prioritizes behavioral outputs remains poorly understood. While studying the relationship between hunger-induced feeding and pup-induced maternal behaviors in virgin female mice, we made the unexpected discovery that presence of pups strongly delayed and decreased food consumption. Strikingly, presence of pups also suppressed feeding induced by optogenetic activation of Agrp neurons. Such a suppressive effect inversely correlated with the extents of maternal behaviors, but did not rely on the display of these behaviors, and was also present in virgin males. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of Vglut2+ neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region critical for maternal behaviors and motivation, was sufficient to suppress hunger-induced feeding. However, muscimol inhibition of the mPOA, while disrupting maternal behaviors, did not prevent pup suppression of feeding, indicating that neural pathways in other brain regions may also mediate such an effect. Together, these results provide novel insights into neural coordination of pup care and feeding in mice and organizations of animal behaviors in general. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Treadmill exercise ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through neuronal generation in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wan; Jung, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Sam-Jun; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation is known to induce emotional and behavioral changes in animals and humans. The effect of treadmill exercise on depression was investigated using social isolated rat pups. The rat pups in the social isolation groups were housed individually. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 34. In order to evaluate depression state of rat pups, forced swimming test was performed. Newly generated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. We examined the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe using immunofluorescence. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was detected by Western blot analysis. The present results demonstrated that social isolation increased resting time and decreased mobility time. Expression of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe and expression of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus were decreased by social isolation. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was suppressed by social isolation. Treadmill exercise decreased resting time and increased mobility in the social isolated rat pups. Expression of 5-HT, TPH, BDNF, and TrkB was increased by treadmill exercise. The present results suggested that treadmill exercise may ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through increasing neuronal generation.

  4. 78 FR 43861 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... jubatus), by harassment, and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or... annual monitoring report within the required timeframe and the report is posted on NMFS Web site: http...

  5. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Shindala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and itsinteraction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by usingpercentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex. The exposure of sucklingpups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage ofsurvival in pups to weaning to (0% as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally,1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmentaltoxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% asresult from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin insuckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57 minuets inthe postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pupsfrom developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

  7. 33 CFR 125.15 - Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft therein. 125.15 Section 125.15....15 Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft....09 to those waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

  8. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  9. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  10. Sealing of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Erlstroem, M.; Boergesson, L.

    1985-12-01

    The major water-bearing fractures in granite usually from fairly regular sets but the extension and degree of connectivity is varying. This means that only a few fractures that are interconnected with the deposition holes and larger water-bearing structures in a HLW repository are expected and if they can be identified and cut off through sealing it would be possible to improve the isolation of waste packages very effectively. Nature's own fracture sealing mechanisms may be simulated and a survey of the involved processes actually suggests a number of possible filling methods and substances. Most of them require high temperature and pressure and correspondingly sophisticated techniques, but some are of potential interest for immediate application with rather moderate effort. Such a technique is to fill the fractures with clayey substances which stay flexible and low-permeable provided that they remain physically and chemically intact. It is demonstrated in the report that effective grouting requires a very low viscosity and shear strength of the substance and this can be achieved by mechanical agitation as demonstrated in this report. Thus, by superimposing static pressure and shear waves induced by percussion hammering at a suitable frequency, clays and fine-grained silts as well as cement can be driven into fractures with an average aperture as small as 0.1 mm. Experiments were made in the laboratory using concrete and steel plates, and a field pilot test was also conducted under realistic conditions on site in Stripa. They all demonstrated the practicality of the 'dynamic injection technique' and that the fluid condition of the grouts yielded complete filling of the injected space to a considerable distance from the injection point. The field test indicated a good sealing ability as well as a surprisingly high resistance to erosion and piping. (author)

  11. Low-Torque Seal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Borowski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The EcoTurn Class K production prototypes have passed all AAR qualification tests and received conditional approval. The accelerated life test on the second set of seals is in progress. Due to the performance of the first set, no problems are expected.The seal has demonstrated superior performance over the HDL seal in the test lab with virtually zero torque and excellent contamination exclusion and grease retention.

  12. Pollutants in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). I. Organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald, K; Frank, R J; Dougan, J L; Frank, R; Braun, H E

    1984-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, 248 harp seals were sampled from 5 locations in the Northwest Atlantic and Arctic for organochlorine (OC) residue analysis in tissue. Blood, kidney, brain, muscle and blubber samples were analysed for PCB, DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide. Levels were generally greatest in blubber tissue. Overall, mean levels of DDT and PCB were greater than those of other OC. A barrier prevented OC compounds from accumulating in the brain to the level one might expect in lipid tissues. Positive correlations were found between 1: DDT and PCB, 2: DDT and dieldrin, and 3: PCB and deildrin. Male harp seals bioaccumulated DDT, PCB, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin with age. As a group, adult males sampled in the Gulf of St. Lawrence carried the highest concentrations of all OC, except that chlordane did not appear to bioaccumulate and levels of hexachlorobenzene were minimal. Females generally ceased exhibiting significant bioaccumulation once breeding age was reached, due to transplacental and transmammary residue transfer of OC from mother to pup. There were some significant differences in OC levels between locations with DDT: Gulf greater than Front; PCB: Gulf greater than Front; dieldrin: Gulf greater than Front; heptachlor epoxide: Front greater than Gulf. No significant differences were found, however, when northern locations (Grise Fiord, Northwest Greenland, Pangnirtung) were compared to southern (Gulf, Front) on a group basis.

  13. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  14. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  15. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  16. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  17. Effects of undernutrition and litter size on material variables and pup development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K C; Wehmer, F; Morofski, J

    1978-05-01

    Differential effects of maternal nutrition and litter size variation were examined in a 2 x 2 factorial design in which undernourished or lib fed mothers nursed litters of 4 or 12. Litter size accounted for a greater proportion of pup body weight a weaning than did maternal nutrition. When the mother was fed ad lib, birth weight of individual pups and later body weight were correlated regardless of litter size. When the mother was undernourished, these correlations were not found. Enlargement of littersize increased the pup weight coefficient of variability only when the mother was fed ad lib. Size of the litter did not influence the maternal variables under study: open field behavior, adrenal weight, and body weight.

  18. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Moussaoui

    Full Text Available A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%, self-grooming (69%, and putting the pups back to the nest (167%. LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring.

  19. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  20. Joint seal in tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, J.; White, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    A seal for a joint or gap between edges of adjacent wall sections (e.g. of concrete) of a liquid-containing vessel, such as a nuclear reactor cooling pond, comprises a sheet metal strip having longitudinally-extending edge parts, secured to the respective vessel-section edges, and a central part which is longitudinally corrugated to provide sufficient flexibility to accommodate slight relative movements between the vessel-section edges (e.g. due to thermal expansions). The edges of the sheet metal of the strip are turned in so that the edge parts of the strip are formed as generally U-section channels. These accommodate longitudinally extending securing bars which are bolted to the vessel wall sections by bolts which pass through the bars, through the free-edged wall of the channel section and through a longitudinally extending resilient seal pad compressed between that wall of the channel section and the vessel wall section to which it is secured. The other wall of the channel section (integral with the corrugated central part of the strip) has access windows through which the bolts are inserted and tightened, the windows being then closed off in liquid-tight manner by welding closure caps over them. (author)

  1. Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia caused by ingestion of pennies by a pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, K.S.; Jain, A.V.; Inglesby, H.B.; Clarkson, W.D.; Johnson, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    A 4-month-old Pomeranian pup was examined because of anorexia, salivation, and persistent vomiting. Initial laboratory testing revealed marked hemolytic anemia with spherocytosis. Survey abdominal radiography revealed 4 metal objects which, when removed by gastrotomy, were identified as pennies. Of 4 pennies, 3 were minted since 1983 and were heavily pitted over the surface and rim. Partially digested pennies were composed of a copper-plated high zinc concentration alloy. Further laboratory testing indicated a marked increase in serum zinc concentration in the pup (28.8 mg/L), confirming metal toxicosis. Serum zinc concentrations decreased during recovery

  2. Early development and the emergence of individual differences in behavior among littermates of wild rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Bautista, Amando; Roder, Manuel; Gilbert, Caroline; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-05-01

    The ontogeny of associated individual differences in behavior and physiology during early postnatal life, and in particular the emergence of such differences among litter siblings, has been hardly explored in mammals under natural conditions. We studied such within-litter differences in behavior in European rabbit pups Oryctolagus cuniculus prior to weaning, and whether and how these differences co-varied with other individual characteristics such as postnatal body temperature and early growth. The study was conducted under semi-natural conditions in a colony of rabbits of wild origin, where the young were born and developed in nursery burrows. We equipped two siblings per litter with interscapular skin temperature loggers on postnatal day 2 and recorded temperature profiles for 48h. Individual body (skin) temperatures of pups within litters were repeatable across time, indicating the existence of consistent individual differences. Such differences within litters were associated with relative differences in pre-weaning growth, revealing that relatively warmer pups showed a greater increase in body mass during the nest period. Between postnatal days 12 and 17, after the pups had reached a developmental stage of greater mobility, we carried out different behavioral tests: a handling-restraint test, an open field test and a jump-down test from a platform. Individual responses in the former two tests were associated, as those pups showing a quicker struggling response to restraint during handling also exhibited greater exploratory activity in the open field. This correlation across contexts suggests the existence of personality types in wild rabbits at an early developmental stage. Furthermore, pups' behavioral responses were strongly associated with their relative within-litter body mass at testing. Animals with a lower body mass compared to their siblings showed a relatively quicker struggle response to handling restraint and covered a relatively larger distance in

  3. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  4. CRSMP Potential Harbor Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Harbor locations as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore) for California Department of Boating and...

  5. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  6. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  7. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    caulking compounds, nonhardening extruded tapes, nonhardening mastics, strippable spray coatings, pressure sensitive tapes, gaskets, adhesives, fabrics...films, etc. Although all of these materials may provide a seal, care must be taken when selecting a sealing material as to its chemical and...gaskets have performed satisfactorily. Another factor to be considered in the selection of gasketing material is its compatibility with both the

  8. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  9. Amphibious hearing in spotted seals (Phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-03-01

    Spotted seals (Phoca largha) inhabit Arctic regions that are facing both rapid climate change and increasing industrialization. While little is known about their sensory capabilities, available knowledge suggests that spotted seals and other ice seals use sound to obtain information from the surrounding environment. To quantitatively assess their auditory capabilities, the hearing of two young spotted seals was tested using a psychophysical paradigm. Absolute detection thresholds for tonal sounds were measured in air and under water over the frequency range of hearing, and critical ratios were determined using octave-band masking noise in both media. The behavioral audiograms show a range of best sensitivity spanning four octaves in air, from approximately 0.6 to 11 kHz. The range of sensitive hearing extends across seven octaves in water, with lowest thresholds between 0.3 and 56 kHz. Critical ratio measurements were similar in air and water and increased monotonically from 12 dB at 0.1 kHz to 30 dB at 25.6 kHz, indicating that the auditory systems of these seals are quite efficient at extracting signals from background noise. This study demonstrates that spotted seals possess sound reception capabilities different from those previously described for ice seals, and more similar to those reported for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). The results are consistent with the amphibious lifestyle of these seals and their apparent reliance on sound. The hearing data reported herein are the first available for spotted seals and can inform best management practices for this vulnerable species in a changing Arctic.

  10. Research on seal control systems for international nuclear safeguard and the vulnerability assessment on the seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongjian; Liu Tianshu; Cao Fangfang; Xu Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Safeguard seals, also called Tamper-indicating devices (TIDs), are widely used to detect tampering or unauthorized entry in the international safeguard and security systems, Seal control systems consist of seal implementing plan, seal development and the vulnerability assessment on tbe seals, effective implementing procedures and methods of the seals. The vulnerability assessment contents of safeguard seals, thermo-shrinked film seals being as an example, and seals control systems in the implementation program are researched. The seal control systems discuss task assignment, seals management flow and seals program data flow to promote applying effectively seals. The vulnerability assessment program of seals studies assurance level to some different tampering techniques and measures. The researches must promote utilizing seals effectively for nuclear security, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, radioactive waste management, and the nuclear material accounting and control. (authors)

  11. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  12. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  13. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  14. Tamper tape seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, B.W.; Undem, H.A.

    1994-07-01

    Tamper tapes are appealing for many applications due to their ease of use and relative robustness. Applications include seals for temporary area denial, protection of sensitive equipment, chain-of-custody audit trails, and inventory control practices. A next generation of adhesive tamper tapes is being developed that combines the best features of commercially available devices with additional state-of-the-art features in tamper indication, tamper-resistance, and counterfeit-resistance. The additional features are based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development (R ampersand D) activities that were originally associated with preparations for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). New features include rapid-set, chemical-cure adhesive systems that allow user-friendly application and layered levels of counterfeit-resistance based on unique open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes characteristics that can be accessed as desired

  15. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  16. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  17. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  18. Selfish Pups: Weaning Conflict and Milk Theft in Free-Ranging Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabi Paul

    Full Text Available Parent-offspring conflict theory predicts the emergence of weaning conflict between a mother and her offspring arising from skewed relatedness benefits. Empirical observations of weaning conflict have not been carried out in canids. In a field-based study on free-ranging dogs we observed that nursing/suckling bout durations decrease, proportion of mother-initiated nursing bouts decrease and mother-initiated nursing/suckling terminations increase with pup age. We identified the 7th - 13th week period of pup age as the zone of conflict between the mother and her pups, beyond which suckling solicitations cease, and before which suckling refusals are few. We also report for the first time milk theft by pups who take advantage of the presence of multiple lactating females, due to the promiscuous mating system of the dogs. This behaviour, though apparently disadvantageous for the mothers, is perhaps adaptive for the dogs in the face of high mortality and competition for resources.

  19. VARIATIONS IN MATERNAL DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AFFECTS THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF RAT PUPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P and lt;0.05 in pups of dietary fish oil and ndash; fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.

  20. Demographic, ecological, and physiological responses of ringed seals to an abrupt decline in sea ice availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven H; Young, Brent G; Yurkowski, David J; Anderson, Randi; Willing, Cornelia; Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether demographic declines of Arctic species at the southern limit of their range will be gradual or punctuated, we compared large-scale environmental patterns including sea ice dynamics to ringed seal ( Pusa hispida ) reproduction, body condition, recruitment, and stress in Hudson Bay from 2003 to 2013. Aerial surveys suggested a gradual decline in seal density from 1995 to 2013, with the lowest density occurring in 2013. Body condition decreased and stress (cortisol) increased over time in relation to longer open water periods. The 2010 open water period in Hudson Bay coincided with extremes in large-scale atmospheric patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation) resulting in the earliest spring breakup and the latest ice formation on record. The warming event was coincident with high stress level, low ovulation rate, low pregnancy rate, few pups in the Inuit harvest, and observations of sick seals. Results provide evidence of changes in the condition of Arctic marine mammals in relation to climate mediated sea ice dynamics. We conclude that although negative demographic responses of Hudson Bay seals are occurring gradually with diminishing sea ice, a recent episodic environmental event played a significant role in a punctuated population decline.

  1. A Radio Emission Analysis of Classical Nova V351 Pup (1991)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendeln, Carolyn; Chomiuk, Laura; Finzell, Thomas; Linford, Justin D.; Strader, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Previously, Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup) was measured to host one of the most massive ejections claimed in the literature. Multi-frequency radio detections from one epoch were published for this nova in the 1990's; and yet, the remaining data collected by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) have remained unpublished. In this paper, we analyze the remaining unpublished data sets for V351 Pup at frequencies of 4.9, 8.4, 14.9, and 22.5 GHz. We fit the resulting light curve to a model of expanding thermal ejecta, under the assumption that the radio emission is dominated by free-free radiation and accounting for high levels of clumping in the ejecta. Images of V351 Pup in both the radio (from the VLA) and Hα+[N II] (from Hubble Space Telescope) exhibit no aspherical structure, strengthening our assumption of spherical symmetry. From expansion parallax methods, we estimate the distance to V351 Pup to be 5.0 ± 1.5 kpc. Our light-curve fit yields a value of {{log}}10({M}{ej})=-5.2+/- 0.7 {M}⊙ for the ejecta mass, implying that V351 Pup is on the low end of expectations for ejecta mass from classical novae. A comparison between our derived ejecta mass and theoretical models gives evidence for a very massive (1.25 {M}⊙ ) white dwarf, which is consistent with spectroscopic evidence for an oxygen-neon white dwarf.

  2. Leak detection of KNI seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, G.; Peter, A.; Windberg, P.

    1990-03-01

    In Unit 3 and 4 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, KNI type seals are used as lead-throughs with conical nickel sealing rings. Their failure can be critical for the operation of the reactor. An Acoustical Leak Detection System (ALDS) was constructed and tested for the operational testing of the seals. Some individual papers are presented in this collection on the calibration and testing of the ALDS intended to be placed on the top of the reactor vessels. The papers include simulation measurements of Unit 3 of NPP, laboratory experiments, evaluation of measurements, and further development needs with the ALDS. (R.P.) 50 figs.; 19 tabs

  3. Silicone foam for penetration seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Yoshikazu

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants or general buildings, it is very important to form a fire-resistant seal around cables, cable trays and conduits passing through a wall or a floor. Rockwool, asbestos, glasswool and flame-retarded urethane foam have so far been used for these purposes. However, they were not satisfactory in sealing property, workability and safety. The silicone foam newly developed, ''TOSSEAL'' 300, has cleared these defects. It has now come to be used for fire resistant seal in nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  5. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  6. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  7. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  8. Immunogenicity of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, C M; DeBouck, P; Wiseman, A

    1997-02-01

    The study evaluated the ability of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccine to produce seroconversion in pups with maternally derived hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers ranging from attenuated and therefore more infective than conventional modified live CPV strains in order to overcome relatively greater levels of maternally derived antibodies, the principal cause of CPV vaccine failures in pups. To assess vaccine performance under field conditions, healthy pups presented at five private veterinary clinics were used as test animals. A single dose of vaccine was given to 59 pups at 12 weeks of age (Group A). To accommodate the protocol of clinics where earlier CPV vaccination was practiced, 87 other pups were vaccinated with two doses, the first at 8-10 weeks of age, and the second at 12 weeks of age (Group B). Geometric mean HI titers were measured for blood samples obtained at the time of vaccination and at 14 weeks of age. Seroconversion was considered to have occurred if pups developed a fourfold or greater increase in HI titer to a level > or = 64. Of the 59 pups in Group A, 100% seroconverted following the single vaccine dose at 12 weeks of age. Of the 87 Group B pups, 82 (94.3%) seroconverted following either of the two vaccine doses. A geometric mean HI titer of 4828 was measured for Group A, and a geometric mean HI titer of 2028 was measured for Group B. An overall seroconversion rate of 96.5% was achieved in pups with maternally derived HI titers < or = 256.

  9. Seals Research at AlliedSignal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    1996-01-01

    A consortium has been formed to address seal problems in the Aerospace sector of Allied Signal, Inc. The consortium is represented by makers of Propulsion Engines, Auxiliary Power Units, Gas Turbine Starters, etc. The goal is to improve Face Seal reliability, since Face Seals have become reliability drivers in many of our product lines. Several research programs are being implemented simultaneously this year. They include: Face Seal Modeling and Analysis Methodology; Oil Cooling of Seals; Seal Tracking Dynamics; Coking Formation & Prevention; and Seal Reliability Methods.

  10. Sealing Failure Analysis on V-Shaped Sealing Rings of an Inserted Sealing Tool Used for Multistage Fracturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The inserted sealing tool is a critical downhole implement that is used to balance the downhole pressure in multistage fracturing operations and prevent fracturing fluid from overflow and/or backward flow. The sealing ring of an inserted sealing tool plays an important role in downhole sealing since a sealing failure would ail the fracturing operation. In order to improve the sealing performance and reduce the potential fracturing failures, this research aims to investigate the influence of V-shaped sealing ring geometries on sealing performance. Constitutive experiments of rubber materials were carried out and the parameters of the constitutive relationship of rubber materials were obtained. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model considering the sealing ring has been established and influences are investigated with considerations of various system parameters and operating conditions. It is found that the stresses concentrated at the shoulder and inner vertex of the sealing ring have direct impact on the damage of the sealing rings under operational conditions. Moreover, the sealing interference, among several other factors, greatly affects the life of the sealing ring. A new design of the sealing ring is suggested with optimized geometric parameters. Its geometric parameters are the edge height of 5 mm, the vertex angle of 90°–100°, and the interference of 0.1 mm, which show a better performance and prolonged operation life of the sealing ring.

  11. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal is comprised of a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body, visible from outside the seal, adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same postion. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked

  13. Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Ochi, Yoko; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Takahashi, Shin; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A.; Batoev, Valeriy B.; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600 ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000 ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209 pg/g). - Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs remain high in Baikal seals

  14. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  15. Effects of prenatal triphenyl-tin exposure on the development of behavior and conditioned learning in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Szeberenyi, J M; Gonda, Z; Horkay, F; Kiss, A

    1982-01-01

    Neurotoxic effects of the fungicide triphenyl-tin acetate were examined in pups of mothers treated perorally on day 7-15 of gestation. The gait and development of motor coordination did not differ from those of control animals, in spite of the high mortality rate of control pups during the nursing period. Spontaneous locomotor activity of treated pups at the age of 23 and 36 days was increased, however by the age of 90 days activity returned to control levels. Conditioned avoidance was acquired more rapidly, but was also extinguished sooner in animals born from, the nursed by poisoned mothers than in control.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Floating-Harbor syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patton MA, Hurst J, Donnai D, McKeown CM, Cole T, Goodship J. Floating-Harbor syndrome. J Med ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  17. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel based ‘mouse pup syllable classification calculator’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine eGrimsley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified ten syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  18. Madaket Harbor, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Water Resources Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    will continue to be, important increases in the recreational use of land and water. The harbor area is an important arena for commercial shellfishing...an important arena for commercial shell fishing. The past few years have seen a rather rapid increase in residential land use. Construction has...beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY

  19. Reproduction of mouse-pup ultrasonic vocalizations by nanocrystalline silicon thermoacoustic emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Takashi; Harada, Toshihiro; Kato, Masahiro; Nakano, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Osamu; Kikusui, Takefumi; Koshida, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    As one of the functional properties of ultrasound generator based on efficient thermal transfer at the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) layer surface, its potential as an ultrasonic simulator of vocalization signals is demonstrated by using the acoustic data of mouse-pup calls. The device composed of a surface-heating thin-film electrode, an nc-Si layer, and a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, exhibits an almost completely flat frequency response over a wide range without any mechanical surface vibration systems. It is shown that the fabricated emitter can reproduce digitally recorded ultrasonic mouse-pups vocalizations very accurately in terms of the call duration, frequency dispersion, and sound pressure level. The thermoacoustic nc-Si device provides a powerful physical means for the understanding of ultrasonic communication mechanisms in various living animals.

  20. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  1. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters motor behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in CD-1 mouse pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, Aldina; Ricceri, Laura; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2009-03-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP) largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term adverse effects in children deriving from low-level exposures during prenatal life and infancy. Late gestational exposure [gestational day (GD) 14-17] to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg was evaluated in CD-1 mice during early development, by assessment of somatic and sensorimotor maturation [reflex-battery on postnatal days (PNDs) 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15] and ultrasound emission after isolation from the mother and siblings (PNDs 4, 7 and 10). Pups' motor skills were assessed in a spontaneous activity test on PND 12. Maternal behavior of lactating dams in the home cage and in response to presentation of a pup previously removed from the nest was scored on PND 4, to verify potential alterations in maternal care directly induced by CPF administration. As for the effects on the offspring, results indicated that on PND 10, CPF significantly decreased number and duration of ultrasonic calls while increasing latency to emit the first call after isolation. Prenatal CPF also reduced motor behavior on PND 12, while a tendency to hyporeflexia was observed in CPF pups by means of reflex-battery scoring. Dams administered during gestation with CPF showed baseline levels of maternal care comparable to those of controls, but higher levels of both pup-directed (licking) and explorative (wall rearing) responses. Overall our results are consistent with previous epidemiological data on OP neurobehavioral toxicity, and also indicate ultrasonic vocalization as an early marker of CPF exposure during development in rodent studies, with potential translational value to human infants.

  2. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters motor behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in cd-1 mouse pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamandrei Gemma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term adverse effects in children deriving from low-level exposures during prenatal life and infancy. Methods Late gestational exposure [gestational day (GD 14–17] to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg was evaluated in CD-1 mice during early development, by assessment of somatic and sensorimotor maturation [reflex-battery on postnatal days (PNDs 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15] and ultrasound emission after isolation from the mother and siblings (PNDs 4, 7 and 10. Pups' motor skills were assessed in a spontaneous activity test on PND 12. Maternal behavior of lactating dams in the home cage and in response to presentation of a pup previously removed from the nest was scored on PND 4, to verify potential alterations in maternal care directly induced by CPF administration. Results As for the effects on the offspring, results indicated that on PND 10, CPF significantly decreased number and duration of ultrasonic calls while increasing latency to emit the first call after isolation. Prenatal CPF also reduced motor behavior on PND 12, while a tendency to hyporeflexia was observed in CPF pups by means of reflex-battery scoring. Dams administered during gestation with CPF showed baseline levels of maternal care comparable to those of controls, but higher levels of both pup-directed (licking and explorative (wall rearing responses. Conclusion Overall our results are consistent with previous epidemiological data on OP neurobehavioral toxicity, and also indicate ultrasonic vocalization as an early marker of CPF exposure during development in rodent studies, with potential translational value to human infants.

  3. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  4. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters.

  5. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  6. The study of triple systems V949 Cen, V358 Pup and V1055 Sco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasche, P.; Hoňková, K.; Juryšek, Jakub; Mašek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2015), s. 151-168 ISSN 0001-5237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * V949 Cen * V358 Pup * V1055 Sco Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2015

  7. Group and Individual Variability in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls Recorded on the Same Day Show Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra D. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations. Here we use biological consistency as a way of determining which are reproducible in mouse pup vocalizations. We present a comprehensive analysis of the normal variability of these vocalizations in groups of mice, individual mice and different strains of mice. To control for maturation effects, we recorded pup isolation calls in the same group of C57BL/6J 5 days old mice twice, with 1 h of rest in between recordings. In almost all cases, the group averages between the first and second recordings were the same. We also found that there were high correlations in some parameters in individual mice across recording while others were not well correlated. These findings could be replicated for the majority of features in a separate group of C57BL/6J mice and a group of 129/SvEvBrd-C57BL/6J mice. The averages of these mouse USV features are highly consistent and represent a robust assay to test the effects of genetic and other interventions in the experimental setting.

  8. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  9. Pairmate-dependent pup retrieval as parental behavior in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eLiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., Nat. Commun, 4:1346, 2013. This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.

  10. Spray sealing: A breakthrough in integral fuel tank sealing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin D.; Zadarnowski, J. H.

    1989-11-01

    In a continuing effort to increase readiness, a new approach to sealing integral fuel tanks is being developed. The technique seals potential leak sources by spraying elastomeric materials inside the tank cavity. Laboratory evaluations project an increase in aircraft supportability and reliability, an improved maintainability, decreasing acquisition and life cycle costs. Increased usable fuel volume and lower weight than conventional bladders improve performance. Concept feasibility was demonstrated on sub-scale aircraft fuel tanks. Materials were selected by testing sprayable elastomers in a fuel tank environment. Chemical stability, mechanical properties, and dynamic durability of the elastomer are being evaluated at the laboratory level and in sub-scale and full scale aircraft component fatigue tests. The self sealing capability of sprayable materials is also under development. Ballistic tests show an improved aircraft survivability, due in part to the elastomer's mechanical properties and its ability to damp vibrations. New application equipment, system removal, and repair methods are being investigated.

  11. Seal Related Development Activities at EG/G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Harold F.

    1991-01-01

    Seal related development activities including modeling, analysis, and performance testing are described for several current seal related projects. Among the current seal related projects are the following: high pressure gas sealing systems for turbomachinery; brush seals for gas path sealing in gas turbines; and tribological material evaluation for wear surfaces in sealing systems.

  12. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Acoustic alterations of ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups induced by perinatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hiromi

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal hypothyroidism causes serious damage to auditory functions that are essential for vocalization development. In rat pups, perinatal hypothyroidism potentially affects the development of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) as a result of hearing deficits. This study examined the effect of perinatal hypothyroidism on the development of USVs in rat pups. Twelve pregnant rats were divided into three groups and treated with the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) via drinking water, from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 21. The MMI concentration (w/v) was 0% (control group), 0.01% (low-dose group), or 0.015% (high-dose group). After birth, the pups were individually separated from the dam and littermates on PNDs 5, 10, 15, and 20, and their USVs were recorded for 5min. On PNDs 5 and 10, compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose groups exhibited reductions of both frequency-modulated and downward USVs. On PND 15, however, the low- and high-dose groups displayed increases in number, duration, and amplitude of USVs compared with those in the control group. Lower body weights were observed for the low- and high-dose groups than for the control group. Total thyroxine concentrations in plasma were dose-dependently reduced. The onset of auditory functions appeared on PNDs 11-14. Thus, the rat pups were unable to hear externally produced USVs before PND 11. USVs emitted on PNDs 5 and 10 might have been spontaneous and independent of the pups' own or littermate-emitted USVs. The developmental retardation of vocalization-related organs or muscles might underlie the acoustic alterations of USVs on PNDs 5 and 10. The greater number, duration, and amplitude of USVs on PND 15, after which the hearing onset occurred, suggested that the elevation of auditory thresholds occurred as a result of hearing deficits in the low- and high-dose groups. Perinatal hypothyroidism appears to have caused acoustic alterations in the USV development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  14. Food consumption estimates of Barents Sea harp seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell T Nilssen

    2004-05-01

    total consumption, other gadoids (dominated by cod, but also including haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and saithe (Pollachius virens, herring, and "other fish". Using the same set of assumptions as in the previous estimate, the total consumption would have been 3.47 million tonnes, divided between various prey species as follows (in tonnes: polar cod 876,000, codfish (cod, saithe and haddock 359,700, "other fish" 618,800, herring 392,500, and crustaceans 1,204,200. Overall, the largest quantities of food were estimated to be consumed in the period June-September. In 1999, the total Barents Sea harp seal stock size was estimated to be 2.18 (95% CI, 1.79 to 2.58 million animals, which would give an annual food consumption in the range of 2,69 - 3.96 million tonnes (based on upper and lower 95% confidence limits and adjusted for a pup mortality rate of 0.3 if capelin is assumed to be abundant.

  15. Postnatal undernutrition in rats: attempts to develop alternative methods to food deprive pups without maternal behavioral alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo, W; Carlini, E A

    1979-09-01

    Two methods were investigated as attempts to undernourish rat pups without the disturbances in maternal behavior that accompany the procedures used to date for this purpose. In the 1st method, a litter of 12 pups was raised by both a lactating mother and a "sensitized" female. The sensitized female was provided under the assumption that she could correct for the deficit in maternal care when 1 mother raises a large litter. The results showed that the pups raised by the 2 females were constantly removed by the females from each other's nests; the females engaged in constant fighting and showed altered maternal behavior. As a consequence the pups lost more weight than control underfed young. The 2nd method consisted of removing 6-8 nipples from virgin females which were mated 10 days later. After delivery these females raised litters of 6 pups. Their maternal behavior was equal to that of unoperated controls, and at weaning the pups had 20-50% less body weight. This method could be useful to study undernutrition effects on behavior, without confounding experimental variables.

  16. Mineral elements and essential trace elements in blood of seals of the North Sea measured by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesel, S.; Mundry, R.; Kakuschke, A.; Fonfara, S.; Siebert, U.; Prange, A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral and essential trace elements are involved in numerous physiological processes in mammals. Often, diseases are associated with an imbalance of the electrolyte homeostasis. In this study, the concentrations of mineral elements (P, S, K, Ca) and essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr) in whole blood of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were determined using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Samples from 81 free-ranging harbor seals from the North Sea and two captive seals were collected during 2003-2005. Reference ranges and element correlations for health status determination were derived for P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn level in whole blood. Grouping the seals by age, gender and sample location the concentration levels of the elements were compared. The blood from two captive seals with signs of diseases and four free-ranging seals showed reduced element levels of P, S, and Ca and differences in element correlation of electrolytes were ascertained. Thus, simultaneous measurements of several elements in only 500 μL volumes of whole blood provide the possibility to obtain information on both, the electrolyte balance and the hydration status of the seals. The method could therefore serve as an additional biomonitoring tool for the health assessment

  17. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  18. Turbine interstage seal with self-balancing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Jones, Russell B; Sexton, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    An interstage seal for a turbine of a gas turbine engine, the interstage seal having a seal carrier with an axial extending seal tooth movable with a stator of the engine, and a rotor with a seal surface that forms the interstage seal with the seal tooth, where a magnetic force produced by two magnets and a gas force produced by a gas pressure acting on the seal carrier forms a balancing force to maintain a close clearance of the seal without the seal tooth contacting the rotor seal surfaces during engine operation. In other embodiments, two pairs of magnets produce first and second magnetic forces that balance the seal in the engine.

  19. EBR-II rotating plug seal maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The EBR-II rotating plug seals require frequent cleaning and maintenance to keep the plugs from sticking during fuel handling. Time consuming cleaning on the cover gas and air sides of the dip ring seal is required to remove oxidation and sodium reaction products that accumulate and stop plug rotation. Despite severely limited access, effective seal cleaning techniques have removed 11 800 lb (5 352 kg) of deposits from the seals since 1964. Temperature control modifications and repairs have also required major maintenance work. Suggested seal design recommendations could significantly reduce maintenance on future similar seals

  20. Self-acting and hydrodynamic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    Self-acting and hydrodynamic seals are described. The analytical procedures are outlined for obtaining a seal force balance and the operating film thickness. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis revealed three different vibration modes. Proposed applications of self-acting seals in gas turbine engines and in rocket vehicle turbopumps are described. Also experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given; these data show the feasibility of operating the seal at conditions of 345 newtons per square centimeter (500 psi) and 152 meters per second (500 ft/sec) sliding speed.

  1. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  2. 76 FR 8653 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to replace all of the...

  3. 75 FR 78601 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Harvey Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to adjust the...

  4. Secondary seal effects in hydrostatic non-contact seals for reactor coolant pump shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Koga, T.; Tanoue, H.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a seal flow analysis in a hydrostatic non-contact seal for a PWR coolant pump shaft. A description is given of the non-contact seal for the reactor coolant pump. Results are presented for a distortion analysis of the seal ring, along with the seal flow characteristics and the contact pressure profiles of the secondary seals. The results of the work confirm previously reported findings that the seal ring distortion is sensitive to the o-ring location (which was placed between the ceramic seal face and the seal ring retainer). The paper concludes that the seal flow characteristics and the tracking performance depend upon the dynamic properties of the secondary seal. (U.K.)

  5. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Houser, Dorian S.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    To better interpret previously described hormonal changes observed during the natural postweaning fast (2-3 months) endured by pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), we compared plasma cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin in pups (n=5) measured during nursing and fasting periods. Blood samples were taken at four times; early (9 days postpartum) and late (18-22 days postpartum) nursing, and early (second week postweaning) and late (eighth week postweaning) fasting. Plasma cortisol increased 39% between early and late nursing and almost 4-fold by late fasting. After the early nursing period, cortisol and body mass were negatively correlated (y=28.3-0.19 x; R=0.569; p=0.027). Total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), total triiodothyronine (tT3) and reverse T(3) (rT(3)) were greatest at early nursing and reduced by late nursing and remained so throughout the fast, with the exception of tT(4), which increased between late nursing (17.7+/-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and late fasting (30.1+/-2.8 ng mL(-1)) periods. Leptin remained unaltered among the four sampling periods and was not correlated with body mass. Pups appear to exhibit a shift in the relationship between cortisol and body mass suggesting a potential role for cortisol in the regulation of body fat. The higher concentrations of tT(3) and tT(4) during early nursing may reflect enhanced growth and development during this period, however the increase late in fasting is likely physiologically insignificant and an artifact of reduced metabolic clearance of these hormones. Transition of the pups from nursing to fasting states is characterized by a striking lack of change in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin suggesting that any metabolic alterations associated with this transition may occur independent of these hormones.

  6. Estimating dispersal rates of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus mother-pup pairs from a natal rookery using mark-resight data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey E Kuhn

    Full Text Available To monitor population trends of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska, newborn pups are counted during aerial surveys. These surveys are scheduled to occur after the majority of pups are born, but before pups begin to spend significant time in the water. Some studies have reported dispersal of mother-pup pairs away from breeding beaches during the pupping season (July, which may influence survey results. Using a multistate mark-recapture model with state uncertainty, we estimated the amount of dispersal during the pupping season based on observations of permanently marked sea lions. Research was conducted at land-based observation sites on Marmot Island, Alaska, between 2000 and 2013. Both marked adult females with dependent pups and marked pups were observed at two rookery beaches from May to July. Cumulative dispersal rates were minimal (< 1% prior to the planned start of the aerial survey (23 June and increased to 11.2% by the planned survey completion date (10 July. The increased cumulative dispersal rate during the remainder of the observation period (end of July suggests potential bias in surveys that occur beyond 10 July, however surveys past this date are rare (< 10% between 1973 and 2016. As a result, movements of mother-pup pairs during the pupping season are not likely to influence aerial survey estimates.

  7. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  8. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Crittercam video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  9. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward; Ruggiero, Eric John; Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja

    2017-03-07

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.

  10. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Ultrasound Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ultrasound images for measuring the condition of juvenile seals at Laysan Island during 2009-2010, collected when seals were handled as part of the De-Worming Project

  11. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Telemetry Tag Deployments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  12. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals Observers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents observers that have collected monk seal data as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts by PSD personnel and cooperating...

  13. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  14. Recent advances in magnetic liquid sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, K.; Stahl, P.; Bottenberg, W.; True, D.; Martis, G.; Zook, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper recent work in design and testing of two special magnetic liquid seals extending the state-of-the-art of ferrofluidic sealing is discussed. These custom seals are a moving belt edge seal and an exclusion seal. The first seal provides a hermetic barrier to solid particulates expected to be present in enclosed nuclear environments. The second seal is used on a magnetic disk drive spindle and reduces the particulate contaminants in the memory disk pack area by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, bearing life in the spindle is found to be doubled due to reduction of operating temperature. The fundamentals of magnetic fluid sealing are presented in terms of magnetic circuit design and physical properties of ferrofluids

  15. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Argos Location Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with satellite...

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  17. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  18. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  19. Pre-sealing risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, D.A.; Hough, M.E.; Oston, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes studies of accidents involving high-level radioactive waste before sealing the waste into a repository. The report summarizes work done in this area during Fiscal Year 1978 and supplements previous work. Models of accident probability, severity, and consequences are refined and extended

  20. New Harbor in Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstad, Jaran Gjerlandj; Eppeland, Kjetil Grødal; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transported by rivers from the inland ice to the inner parts of the fjord. These sediment layers reduce the water depth and prevent container- and cruiseships to dock, imposing large additional maintenance costs, and inefficient operability. Through engineering geological field and lab investigations......, a possible new harbor location around 10 km further out the fjord near Hancock Pynt, has been investigated. The onshore area was found to be highly suitable for a harbor support area, where a sub-base thickness of 1.8 m with gravel cover-layer was found adequate for the calculated design loads. Existing...

  1. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  2. Reactor coolant pump seals: improving their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Metcalfe, R.

    1986-06-01

    Large CANDU plants are benefitting from transient-resistant four-year reliable reactor coolant pump seal lifetimes, a direct result of AECL's 20-year comprehensive seal improvement program involving R and D staff, manufacturers, and plant designers and operators. An overview of this program is presented, which covers seal modification design, testing, post-service examination, specialized maintenance and quality control. The relevancy of this technology to Light Water Reactor Coolant Pump Seals is also discussed

  3. Development of simplified rotating plug seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, M.; Ichimiya, M.; Kanaoka, T.; Sekiya, H.; Ueda, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a compact and simplified rotating plug seal structure and conducted experiments for key elements of the concept such us the mechanical seal structure and sodium deposit prevention system. Good characteristics were confirmed for the mechanical seal structure, which utilizes an elastomer seal and thin lathe bearing. Applicability of the density barrier concept was also confirmed as the sodium deposit prevention system. This concept can be applied to actual plants. (author)

  4. Impaired Cerebellar Maturation, Growth Restriction, and Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Preterm Rabbit Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Kristbjörg; Länsberg, John-Kalle; Sveinsdóttir, Snjólaug; Garwicz, Martin; Ohlsson, Lennart; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois; Gram, Magnus; Ley, David

    2018-01-01

    Cerebellar growth is impeded following very preterm birth in human infants and the observed reduction in cerebellar volume is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Decreased levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with decreased cerebellar volume. The relationship between preterm birth, circulating IGF-1, and key cell populations supporting cerebellar proliferation is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preterm birth on postnatal growth, circulating IGF-1, and cerebellar maturation in a preterm rabbit pup model. Preterm rabbit pups (PT) were delivered by cesarean section at day 29 of gestation, cared for in closed incubators with humidified air, and gavage fed with formula. Control term pups (T) delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at day 32 of gestation were housed and fed by their lactating doe. In vivo perfusion-fixation for immunohistochemical evaluation of cerebellar proliferation, cell maturation, and apoptosis was performed at repeated time points in PT and T pups. Results show that the mean weight of the pups and circulating IGF-1 protein levels were lower in the PT group at all time points (p staining at P0 (p = 0.003), P2 (p = 0.004), and P5 (p = 0.04) in the PT group compared to in the T group. Staining for sonic hedgehog was positive in neuronal EGL progenitors and Purkinje cells at early time points but was restricted to a well-defined Purkinje cell monolayer at later time points. Preterm birth in rabbit pups is associated with lower circulating levels of IGF-1, decreased postnatal growth, and decreased cerebellar EGL proliferation and Purkinje cell maturation. The preterm rabbit pup model exhibits important characteristics of human preterm birth, and may thus be suitable for the evaluation of interventions aiming to modify growth and cerebellar development in the preterm population. PMID:28972955

  5. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  6. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  7. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... law of the state in which executed. However, when the charter or governing statute of a corporation requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  8. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  9. Improved sealing for in-core systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, S.

    1989-01-01

    The in-core instrumentation sealing nozzles designed by Framatome have three mechanical seals in series instead of the one traditional seal, and are pressurized by simply tightening up the nozzle covers. They have been installed from the start on all Framatome PWRs, as well as having been backfitted on Belgium and Yugoslavian units and chosen for the Chinese Qinshan plant. (author)

  10. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  11. Sealing performance of a magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Kano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Higuchi, Taka-Aki

    2009-09-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) for a rotary blood pump seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and, hence, has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Under the condition of continuous flow, the MF seal remained in perfect condition against a pressure of 298 mm Hg (pump flow rate: 3.96 L/min). The seal was also perfect against a pressure of 170 mm Hg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 275 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against clinically used pressures. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  12. Evaluation of Sediment Contamination in Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    ancient Hawaiians, was a large natural inland lagoon. Numerous walled fishponds located inside the harbor were used to cultivate various species of fishes... Ecotoxicology , Commission on Natural Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 103 pp. National Research Council, 1989. Contaminated Marine

  13. Five decades on: Use of historical weaning size data reveals that a decrease in maternal foraging success underpins the long-term decline in population of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Clausius

    Full Text Available The population of Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina at Macquarie Island has declined since the 1960s, and is thought to be due to changing oceanic conditions leading to reductions in the foraging success of Macquarie Island breeding females. To test this hypothesis, we used a 55-year-old data set on weaning size of southern elephant seals to quantify a decrease in weaning size from a period of population stability in 1950s to its present state of on-going decline. Being capital breeders, the size of elephant seal pups at weaning is a direct consequence of maternal foraging success in the preceding year. During the 1940-1950s, the mean of female pups at weaning was similar between the Heard and Macquarie Island populations, while the snout-tail-length length of male weaners from Heard Island were longer than their conspecifics at Macquarie Island. Additionally, the snout-tail-length of pups at weaning decreased by 3cm between the 1950s and 1990s in the Macquarie Island population, concurrent with the observed population decline. Given the importance of weaning size in determining first-year survival and recruitment rates, the decline in the size at weaning suggests that the decline in the Macquarie Island population has, to some extent, been driven by reduced maternal foraging success, consequent declines in the size of pups at weaning, leading to reduced first-year survival rates and recruitment of breeding females into the population 3 to 4 years later.

  14. Turbine Seal Research at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Low-leakage, long-life turbomachinery seals are important to both Space and Aeronautics Missions. (1) Increased payload capability (2) Decreased specific fuel consumption and emissions (3) Decreased direct operating costs. NASA GRC has a history of significant accomplishments and collaboration with industry and academia in seals research. NASA's unique, state-of-the-art High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility is an asset to the U.S. Engine / Seal Community. Current focus is on developing experimentally validated compliant, non-contacting, high temperature seal designs, analysis, and design methodologies to enable commercialization.

  15. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  16. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  17. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    2017-08-15

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed also with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.

  18. Insecurity of imperfect quantum bit seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum bit seal is a way to encode a classical bit quantum mechanically so that everyone can obtain non-zero information on the value of the bit. Moreover, such an attempt should have a high chance of being detected by an authorized verifier. Surely, a reader looks for a way to get the maximum amount of information on the sealed bit and at the same time to minimize her chance of being caught. And a verifier picks a sealing scheme that maximizes his chance of detecting any measurement of the sealed bit. Here, I report a strategy that passes all measurement detection procedures at least half of the time for all quantum bit sealing schemes. This strategy also minimizes a reader's chance of being caught under a certain scheme. In this way, I extend the result of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. by proving that quantum seal is insecure in the case of imperfect sealed bit recovery

  19. Development of the seal for nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lu Zhao; Zhao Yonggang; Zhang Qixin; Xiao Xuefu

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of double cap metallic seal and an adhesive seal are developed for the purpose of the accounting for and control of nuclear material. Two kinds of double cap metallic seal are made of stainless steel and copper, respectively and the self-locked technique is used. The number and the random pattern are carved out side and in side of a cap, respectively, for the seal. The random pattern carved inside of a cap for seal is taken a picture using numeral camera and memorized in computer. Special software is developed for verification of the random pattern memorized in computer. The adhesive seal is made of special adhesive paper for purpose of security, and a special pattern guarded against falsification is printed on seal paper using ultraviolet fluorescent light technique

  20. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ingestive behavior in rat pups is modified by maternal sodium depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillán, Carmen; Núñez, Paula; Costales, Marina; Vijande, Manuel; Argüelles, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental programming by maternal stress during pregnancy is found to influence behavioral development in the offspring. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal sodium depletion in rats during pregnancy on the development of thirst mechanisms in the offspring. Pregnant rats underwent 3 episodes of saline depletion, induced by injecting sc 10 mg of Furosemide in saline (0.5 ml). The treatment, given on the 14th, 17th and 20th days post-conception, is thought to induce acute sodium depletion on dams. The offspring were tested for their drinking responses to Isoproterenol (500 µg/kg sc). In accordance to the known sequence of ontogenic development of drinking mechanisms, all groups of pups drunk after being stimulated with Isoproterenol at 6 days of age. The offspring from Furosemide-treated dams drank significantly less than the control group after Isoproterenol (p<0.001). Nevertheless, basal intake (water drunk after vehicle-saline only) was also significantly lower in these pups (p<0.001). In conclusion, offspring exposed to saline depletion in utero, modify their thirst responses at 6 day of age. This confirms that in utero conditions determine thirst responses in the offspring and they could provide adaptive advantages.

  2. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, J.; Belsick, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for sealing the annulus defined between a substantially cylindrical rotatable first riser assembly and plug combination disposed in a substantially cylindrical second riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor system. The apparatus comprises a flexible member disposed between the first and second riser components and attached to a metal member which is attached to an actuating mechanism. When the actuating mechanism is not actuated, the flexible member does not contact the riser components thus allowing the free rotation of the riser components. When desired, the actuating mechanism causes the flexible member to contact the first and second riser components in a manner to block the annulus defined between the riser components, thereby sealing the annulus between the riser components

  3. Transport of multiassembly sealed canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.D.; Lehnert, R.A.; Rosa, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A significant portion of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in dry storage in the US will be stored in multiassembly sealed canisters before the DOE begins accepting fuel from utilities in 1998. This paper reports that it is desirable from economic and ALARA perspectives to transfer these canisters directly from the plant to the MRS. To this end, it is necessary that the multiassembly sealed canisters, which have been licensed for storage under 10CFR72, be qualified for shipment within a suitable shipping cask under the rules of 10CFR71. Preliminary work performed to date indicates that it is feasible to license a current canister design for transportation, and work is proceeding on obtaining NRC approval

  4. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  5. Fabrication of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given for fabricating a sealed radiation source, consisting in depositing on a metal substrate a thin active coat of a radioelement, termed first coat, submitting this coated substrate to an oxidation treatment in order to obtain on the first coat an inactive coat of an oxide of the metal, termed second coat, and depositing a coat of varnish on this second inactive coat [fr

  6. Modeling of Tsunami Currents in Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently

  7. Development of the central nervous system functions in rat pups prenatally exposed to alcohol (study on the behavioural teratology of ethanol in CFY rat pups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Ungváry, G; Szeberényi, J M; Kiss, A

    1988-01-01

    As a model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) the rate of the maturation of the functions of the central nervous system was studied in the offspring of pregnant CFY rats receiving (from the 7th-15th day of gestation) either oral ethanol treatment or liquid diet containing ethanol. Both types of exposure caused numerous behavioural impairments, besides high perinatal mortality also the opening of the eyes and ears, and the appearance of postural reflexes were delayed. The newborn rats could be characterized by hyperactivity and weak motor coordination. The learning capacity, the avoidance conditioned reflexes was the poorest in the case of the offspring of mothers kept on liquid diet, containing alcohol, the latency of the conditioned response was significantly lenghtened. During reconditioning, in the case of the sexually already mature pups, the weakest performance was observed in the offspring of mothers having received oral alcohol treatment. This findings indicated, on one hand, that the retardation ceased and, on the other, that the learning and memory impairments caused by oral alcohol exposure was persistent. Following prenatal alcohol exposure carried out by different methods the neurotoxic effect, the retardation of the rate of maturation of the central nervous functions, and the adaptive mechanisms were all affected to different extent. Besides alcohol exposure also other factors (relative protein insufficiency, malnutrition) may be involved in the pathomechanism of the above mentioned phenomena.

  8. Seals for sealing a pressure vessel such as a nuclear reactor vessel or the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, H.J.; Huelsermann, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of seals for sealing a pressure vessel such as a nuclear reactor vessel, steam boiler vessel, or any other vessel which is desirably sealed against pressure of the type including a housing and a housing closure that present opposed vertical sealing surfaces which define the sides of a channel. The seals of the present invention comprise at least one sealing member disposed in the channel, having at least one stop face, a base portion and two shank portions extending from the base portion to form a groove-like recess. The shank portions are provided with sealing surfaces arranged to mate with the opposed vertical pressure vessel sealing surfaces. A shank-spreading wedge element also disposed in the channel has at least one stop face and is engaged in the groove-like recess with the sealing member and wedge element stop face adjacent to each other

  9. Atypical Red Blood Cells Are Prevalent in California Sea Lion Pups Born during Anomalous Sea Surface Temperature Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Morán, Adriana; Banuet-Martínez, Marina; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; García-Ortuño, Luis Enrique; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects that abnormal sea surface temperature (SST) can have on the physiology of neonate pinnipeds. However, maternal nutritional deficiencies driven by alimentary restrictions would expectedly impact pinniped development and fitness, as an adequate supply of nutrients is essential for growth and proper functioning of all body systems, including red blood cell synthesis and clearance. Here, we investigated red blood cell morphology of California sea lion (CSL) pups from the San Benito Archipelago born during the 2014 and 2015 anomalously high SST events recorded in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We examined whether atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more common in 2015, when the high SST event was more pronounced, and whether the stable isotope signature of pup fur, as an indicator of maternal feeding strategies, accounted for the number of atypical cells. Various atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more prevalent and more abundant than reference values. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in both years, and only pups born in 2014 showed evidence of active erythropoiesis. Microcytes and reticulocytes were more common in pups with higher isotopic δ 13 C and lower δ 15 N values, suggesting a probable relationship between maternal feeding strategies and the effect of climatic anomalies on red blood cell physiology of their pups. As developing pinnipeds require increased oxygen storage capacity for diving and foraging, the presence of atypical erythrocytes could be relevant to CSL pup fitness if the underlying cause is not reverted. This study is a first step to explore the effects that climatic alterations in the marine environment can have on the blood physiology of developing individuals.

  10. Sex-Specific Consequences of Neonatal Stress on Cardio-Respiratory Inhibition Following Laryngeal Stimulation in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy, Cécile; Chamberland, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The presence of liquid near the larynx of immature mammals triggers prolonged apneas with significant O2 desaturations and bradycardias. When excessive, this reflex (the laryngeal chemoreflex; LCR) can be fatal. Our understanding of the origins of abnormal LCR are limited; however, perinatal stress and male sex are risk factors for cardio-respiratory failure in infants. Because exposure to stress during early life has deleterious and sex-specific consequences on brain development it is plausible that respiratory reflexes are vulnerable to neuroendocrine dysfunction. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is sufficient to exacerbate LCR-induced cardio-respiratory inhibition in anesthetized rat pups. Stressed pups were separated from their mother 3 h/d from postnatal days 3 to 12. At P14–P15, pups were instrumented to monitor breathing, O2 saturation (Spo2), and heart rate. The LCR was activated by water injections near the larynx (10 µl). LCR-induced apneas were longer in stressed pups than controls; O2 desaturations and bradycardias were more profound, especially in males. NMS increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) of males but not females. The positive relationship between corticosterone and testosterone observed in stressed pups (males only) suggests that disruption of neuroendocrine function by stress is key to sex-based differences in abnormal LCR. Because testosterone application onto medullary slices augments EPSC amplitude only in males, we propose that testosterone-mediated enhancement of synaptic connectivity within the DMNV contributes to the male bias in cardio-respiratory inhibition following LCR activation in stressed pups. PMID:29308430

  11. [Behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of depressive WAG/Rij rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, A V; Razumkina, E V; Rogozinskaia, É Ia; Sarkisova, K Iu; Dybynin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it has been studied for the first time behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats. Offspring of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats at age of 6-16 days compared with offspring of "normal" (non-depressed) outbred rats of the same age exhibited reduced rate of pshychomotor development, lower body weight, attenuation in integration of coordinated reflexes and vestibular function (greater latency of righting reflex, abnormal negative geotaxis), hyper-reactivity to tactile stimulation, reduced motivation to contact with mother (reduced infant-mother attachment). Differences in a nest seeking response induced by olfactory stimuli (olfactory discrimination test) and in locomotor activity (tests "gait reflex" and "small open field") have not been revealed. Acute injection of the antagonist of D2-like dopamine receptors clebopride 20 min before testing aggravated mother-oriented behavior in 15-days-old pups of both "depressive" and "non-depressive" rats. However this effect was greater in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with pups of "normal" rats that may indicate reduced functional activity of the dopaminergic brain system in offspring of "depressive" rats. It is proposed that reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats might be a consequence of maternal depression and associated with it reduced maternal care. Moreover, reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" rats might be an early precursor (a marker) of depressive-like pathology which become apparent later in life (approximately at age of 3 months).

  12. Maternal behavior of the mouse dam toward pups: implications for maternal separation model of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orso, Rodrigo; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Creutzberg, Kerstin Camile; Centeno-Silva, Anderson; Glusman Roithmann, Laura; Pazzin, Rafaelly; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Benetti, Fernando; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    Maternal care is essential for an adequate pup development, as well as for the health of the dam. Exposure to stress in early stages of life can disrupt this dam-pup relationship promoting altered neurobiological and behavioral phenotypes. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on the pattern of maternal behavior. The aim of this study is to compare the patterns of maternal behavior between mice exposed to MS and controls. BALB/c mice were subjected to MS for a period of 180 min/day from postnatal day 2-7 (n = 17) or designated to be standard animal facility reared (AFR) controls (n = 19). Maternal behaviors were computed as frequency of nursing, licking pups and contact with pups, and nonmaternal behaviors were computed as frequency of actions without interaction with pups and eating/drinking. A total of 18 daily observations of maternal behavior were conducted during these six days, and considering the proportion of maternal and nonmaternal behaviors, an index was calculated. There was no difference when comparing the global index of maternal behavior between the AFR and MS animals by the end of the observed period. However, the pattern of maternal behavior between groups was significantly different. While MS dams presented low frequency of maternal behavior within the first couple days of the stress protocol, but increasing over time, AFR dams showed higher maternal behavior at the beginning, reducing over time. Together, our results indicate that MS alters the maternal behavior of the dams toward pups throughout the first week of the stress protocol and provoked some anxiety-related traits in the dams. The inversion of maternal behavior pattern could possibly be an attempt to compensate the low levels of maternal care observed in the first days of MS.

  13. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  14. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  15. Teaching about Pearl Harbor. Curriculum Enhancement Series #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Anna Marshall

    These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…

  16. Effects Of Erdosteine On Oxidative-Antioxidative Equilibrium And On Cataract Formation In Rat Pups With Selenite-Induced Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Adil; Selek, Şahbettin; Erel, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether erdosteine supplementation following selenite exposure affects oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium and prevents cataract formation in rat pups. Methods: Thirty-nine Wistar-albino rat pups were divided into 3 groups. In Group 1 (n=16) only s.c saline was injected. In Group 2 (n=10) subcutaneous (s.c.) sodium selenite (30 nmol / g body weight) was injected on postpartum day 10. In Group 3 (n=13) s.c. sodium selenite (30 nmol/g body weight) were injected on postpartum day...

  17. Design optimization of seal structure for sealing liquid by magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tonggang; Cheng Yusheng; Yang Zhiyi

    2005-01-01

    The durability of the magnetic fluid seal clearly decreases when sealing another liquid because of the interface instability caused by the applied magnetic field and the velocity difference of the two liquids. With an intention to establish a stable interface during sealing liquid, a new magnetic fluid seal was developed in this paper. The parameters of the structure were optimized by a simulation apparatus. And the magnetic fluid seal designed based on the optimum parameters shows good performance and long life for sealing lubricating oil

  18. Remembering Pearl Harbor at 75 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth

    2016-12-01

    : On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.

  19. Vacuum sealing with a spiral grooved gas dynamic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tadashi

    1979-01-01

    Gas dynamic seals with rectangular spiral grooves are studied theoretically taking the effects of sidewalls of the grooves and the effects of gas compressibility into account, and slip boundary conditions are employed. The results are compared with the existing experimental data and the validity of the theory is confirmed over a wide pressure range except for the extremely low pressures. Suggestions are made regarding the choice of the geometrical dimensions, i.e., aspect ratio, helix angle, clearance parameter and groove width ratio. (author)

  20. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  1. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1995-07-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  2. Discovery of a novel hepatovirus (Phopivirus of seals) related to human Hepatitis A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. S.J.,; St. Leger, J.A; Liang, E.; Hicks, A.L.; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Ip, Hon S.; Jain, K.; Lefkowitch, J. H.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Knowles, N.; Goldstein, T.; Pugliares, K.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    Describing the viral diversity of wildlife can provide interesting and useful insights into the natural history of established human pathogens. In this study, we describe a previously unknown picornavirus in harbor seals (tentatively named phopivirus) that is related to human hepatitis A virus (HAV). We show that phopivirus shares several genetic and phenotypic characteristics with HAV, including phylogenetic relatedness across the genome, a specific and seemingly quiescent tropism for hepatocytes, structural conservation in a key functional region of the type III internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), and a codon usage bias consistent with that of HAV.

  3. Guide to optimized replacement of equipment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    A reevaluation of current scheduled replacement intervals of polymeric seals in plant equipment can achieve significant benefits. Information is provided which has the potential for increasing replacement intervals based on better information on how seals have performed through unique nuclear industry tests to qualify equipment, improved elastomers and increased knowledge of the failure mechanisms and related performance. The research was performed by reviewing applications of elastomeric seals in nuclear plants and practice associated with defining seal replacement intervals in the nuclear power and other industries. Performance indicators and how they predict degradation of seals were evaluated. Guidelines and a flow chart for reevaluating seal replacement intervals are provided. 29 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Seal analysis technology for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liangang; Zhang Liping; Yang Yu; Zang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    There is the coolant with radiation, high temperature and high pressure in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is closely correlated to RPV sealing capability whether the whole nuclear system work well or not. The aim of this paper is to study the seal analysis method and technology, such as the pre-tensioning of the bolt, elastoplastic contact and coupled technology of thermal and structure. The 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method really and generally consider the loads and model the contact problem with friction between the contact plates. This method is easier than the specialized seal program and used widely. And it is more really than the 2 D seal analysis method. This 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method has been successfully used in the design and analysis of RPV. (authors)

  5. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  6. Management of disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukauskas, D.; Skridaila, N.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the requirements on management of disused sealed sources in Lithuania; disused sealed source disposal facilities; performed safety analysis and planed repository safety improvements. The requirements on pre-disposal management of Disused Sealed Sources (DSS) are presented. The requirements on disposal of short lived VLLW and LILW (A, B and C classes) radioactive waste approved in 2002-2003. Generic Waste Acceptance Criteria for Near Surface Disposal, P-2003-01 approved in 2003. Requirements on disposal of Low and intermediate level long lived waste do not exist (D and E classes). Requirements for the disposal of disused sealed sources (F class) do not exist. Disposal method for the F class - Near Surface or Deep geological repository, depending on the waste acceptance criteria. Only one repository for institutional radioactive waste exist in Lithuania - Maisiagala repository. It is near surface RADON type disposal facility, built in 1963 and closed in 1988. It was constructed of the monolithic reinforced concrete with the dimensions 5 m x 15 m x 3 m, the thickness of the sidewalls is about 0.25 m and the thickness of the bottom is about 0.2 m. The overall volume is about 200 m 3 . At time of closure only three fifths of the volume had been filled. The empty two fifths of the vault were filled with concrete, then with sand, then with the concrete (0.01 m), hot bitumen and the 0.05 m asphalt layers. Monolithic concrete that was covered with bitumen and 0.05 m thick layer of asphalt closed the vault. Sand layer the thickness of which was not less than 1.2 m formed the cap. Disused radioactive sources embedded in a biological shielding were buried together with their shielding, the sources without the shielding were buried in two stainless steel containers. The total activity of buried radioactive nuclides is 3.42.10 -15 Bq (calculated according the documentation). There are some uncertainties about the inventory: from 1963 to 1973. After the

  7. Comparative biology of Uncinaria spp. in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Gulland, F M; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C; Spraker, T R

    2000-12-01

    Studies on several aspects of the life cycle of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) were conducted on material collected on San Miguel Island (SMI), California and at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Examination of Z. californianus intestines for adult hookworms and feces for eggs revealed that longevity of these parasites in pups is about 6-8 mo, and infections are probably not present in older sea lions. Parasitic third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered from the ventral abdominal tissue of Z. californianus, suggesting transmammary transmission. Callorhinus ursinus pups had no hookworm eggs in their feces or adult worms (except for 1 probable contaminant) in their intestines in the fall and early winter, revealing that adult Uncinaria spp. are spontaneously lost at <3 mo of age of the pups. Sand samples from rookeries, used by both Z. californianus and C. ursinus, on SMI were negative for free-living, L3 in summer months but positive in fall and winter months, indicating seasonality occurred.

  8. Sealing method and sealing device for radioactive waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwatari, Koji; Otsuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A radioactive waste-containing body is hoisted down into a strong-material vessel opened upwardly, and a strong-material lid is hoisted down to the opening of the strong-material-vessel and welded. The strong material vessel is hoisted up and loaded on a corrosion resistant-material bottom plate placed horizontally. A corrosion resistant-material vessel having one opening end and having a corrosion resistant-material flange on the other end and previously agreed with the strong material-vessel main body is hoisted up by a hoisting device having an inserting device so that the opening of the corrosion resistant vessel is directed downwardly. The corrosion resistant vessel is press-fitted to the outside of the strong material-vessel by the inserting device while being heated by a preheater to shrink. Subsequently, the lower end of the corrosion resistant-material vessel and the corrosion resistant-material bottom plate are welded to constitute a corrosion resistant-material vessel. Then, the radioactive waste containing body can be sealed in a sealing vessel comprising the strong-material vessel and the corrosion resistant-material vessel. (N.H.)

  9. Comment on 'Quantum string seal is insecure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guangping

    2007-01-01

    An attack strategy was recently proposed by Chau [Phys. Rev. A 75, 012327 (2007)], which was claimed to be able to break all quantum string seal protocols. Here it will be shown that the attack cannot obtain nontrivial information and escape the detection simultaneously in a class of quantum string seal, including the one proposed by He [Int. J. Quantum Inf. 4, 677 (2006)]. Thus it is insufficient to conclude that all quantum string seals are insecure

  10. A seal analyzer for testing container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.; Jenkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of laboratory and production seal analyzer that offers a rapid, nondestructive method of assuring the seal integrity of virtually any type of single or double sealed container. The system can test a broad range of metal cans, drums and trays, membrane-lidded vessels, flexible pouches, aerosol containers, and glass or metal containers with twist-top lids that are used in the chemical/pesticide (hazardous materials/waste), beverage, food, medical and pharmaceutical industries

  11. Colony-level assessment of Brucella and Leptospira in the Guadalupe fur seal, Isla Guadalupe, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehl-Quirós, E Carolina; García-Aguilar, María C; Mellink, Eric

    2017-01-24

    The relatively small population size and restricted distribution of the Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi could make it highly vulnerable to infectious diseases. We performed a colony-level assessment in this species of the prevalence and presence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., pathogenic bacteria that have been reported in several pinniped species worldwide. Forty-six serum samples were collected in 2014 from pups at Isla Guadalupe, the only place where the species effectively reproduces. Samples were tested for Brucella using 3 consecutive serological tests, and for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test. For each bacterium, a Bayesian approach was used to estimate prevalence to exposure, and an epidemiological model was used to test the null hypothesis that the bacterium was present in the colony. No serum sample tested positive for Brucella, and the statistical analyses concluded that the colony was bacterium-free with a 96.3% confidence level. However, a Brucella surveillance program would be highly recommendable. Twelve samples were positive (titers 1:50) to 1 or more serovars of Leptospira. The prevalence was calculated at 27.1% (95% credible interval: 15.6-40.3%), and the posterior analyses indicated that the colony was not Leptospira-free with a 100% confidence level. Serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Bratislava were detected, but only further research can unveil whether they affect the fur seal population.

  12. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition and causes pup mortality in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    from gestational day 7 to postnatal day (PND)13 with either vehicle (control) or a mixture of the five pesticides at 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of their individual NOAELs for causing major effects on pregnancy length and pup survival in our earlier studies. The pregnancy length was dose....... Although laboratory animal studies have shown that some endocrine disrupting pesticides can affect reproduction and sexual differentiation, individual pesticides may appear to be present in human tissues at too low levels to cause concern for adverse reproductive effects. However, recent studies in our...... laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Here, we present results from range finding studies with combined exposure...

  13. Ceramic blade with tip seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, B.; Bhardwaj, N.K.; Jones, R.B.

    1997-08-05

    The present gas turbine engine includes a disc assembly defining a disc having a plurality of blades attached thereto. The disc has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the plurality of blades have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the disc. A shroud assembly is attached to the gas turbine engine and is spaced from the plurality of blades a preestablished distance forming an interface there between. Positioned in the interface is a seal having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being generally equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the plurality of blades. 4 figs.

  14. The Sealed Tube Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, L.N.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Hurley, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and tested at Special Technologies Laboratories (STL) in Santa Barbara, California. Unlike similar tubes that have been used for years in other applications, e.g., by the oil well logging industry, the present device was designed primarily to be part of the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system. Consequently, the size and quality of the neutron spot produced by the STNG is of primary importance. Results from initial measurements indicate that performance goals are satisfied

  15. Treatment and prophylaxis with sucralfate ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury in pup rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, Arzu Bostanci; Sencan, Aydin; Aktas, Safiye; Habif, Sara; Kabaroglu, Ceyda; Parildar, Zuhal; Karaca, Irfan

    2005-04-01

    Sucralfate is widely used as a cytoprotective agent in patients with peptic ulcer and other intestinal mucosal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sucralfate has any effect on the prevention and treatment of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury. Four groups of 10 1-day-old rat pups were studied. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/O)-induced intestinal injury was created. Group 1 was subjected to H/O just after birth and sacrificed at the end of the third day (Treatment Control). Group 2 was subjected to H/O just after birth and treated with sucralfate for 3 days. They were sacrificed at the end of the third day (Treatment). Group 3 was subjected to H/O on the third day after birth and then sacrificed (Prophylaxis Control). Group 4 was treated with sucralfate for the first 3 days, then H/O was created. Just after H/O, the pups were sacrificed (Prophylaxis). The intestinal tissues were harvested for histopathological investigation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the intestinal tissues were determined. The mucosal injury grades of the treatment and prophylaxis groups were significantly lower than those of control groups (p<0.05). The mean MDA level in the treatment and prophylaxis groups were 0.42+/-0.17 and 0.21+/-0.23 nmol/mg respectively. The MDA levels of both groups were significantly lower than in the control groups (p<0.05). The present study shows that sucralfate has beneficial effects in an experimental model of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury.

  16. Upgrading primary heat transport pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, T.; Metcalfe, R.; Rhodes, D.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the operating environment at the Bruce-A Nuclear Generating Station created the need for an upgraded Primary Heat Transport Pump (PHTP) seal. In particular, the requirement for low pressure running during more frequent start-ups exposed a weakness of the CAN2 seal and reduced its reliability. The primary concern at Bruce-A was the rotation of the CAN2 No. 2 stators in their holders. The introduction of low pressure running exacerbated this problem, giving rapid wear of the stator back face, overheating, and thermocracking. In addition, the resulting increase in friction between the stator and its holder increased stationary-side hysteresis and thereby changed the seal characteristic to the point where interseal pressure oscillations became prevalent. The resultant increased hysteresis also led to hard rubbing of the seal faces during temperature transients. An upgraded seal was required for improved reliability to avoid forced outages and to reduce maintenance costs. This paper describes this upgraded 'replacement seal' and its performance history. In spite of the 'teething' problems detailed in this paper, there have been no forced outages due to the replacement seal, and in the words of a seal maintenance worker at Bruce-A, 'it allows me to go home and sleep at night instead of worrying about seal failures.' (author)

  17. Seal for an object containing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerpflug, W.; Nentwich, D.

    1977-01-01

    This seal which cannot be counterfeited, specially for sealing nuclear objects, e.g. fuel rods, not only makes any damage which has taken place obvious, but makes identification according to a key possible. For this purpose a minimum number of 'particles' or small bodies, which are identical but of different permeability, are fixed inside a short tube during 'loading' of the seal in a certain or an accidental sequence. The sequence of the spheres, which represents a key, can only be determined by special electromagnetic measuring equipment. On first opening the seal, this key sequence is irrevocably destroyed. (HP) [de

  18. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampdla, D.S.; Speer, E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed

  19. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampolia, D.S.; Speer, E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed

  20. Reusable tamper-indicating security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable tamper-indicating mechanical security seal for use in safeguarding nuclear material has been developed. The high-security seal displays an unpredictable, randomly selected, five-digit code each time it is used. This five digit code serves the same purpose that the serial number does for conventional non-reusable seals - a unique identifier for each use or application. The newly developed reusable seal is completely enclosed within a seamless, tamper-indicating, plastic jacket. The jacket is designed to reveal any attempts to penetrate, section or to chemically remove and replace with a counterfeit for surreptitious purposes

  1. Ductile alloys for sealing modular component interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J.; Wessell, Brian J.; James, Allister W.; Marsh, Jan H.; Gear, Paul J.

    2017-08-08

    A vane assembly (10) having: an airfoil (12) and a shroud (14) held together without metallurgical bonding there between; a channel (22) disposed circumferentially about the airfoil (12), between the airfoil (12) and the shroud (14); and a seal (20) disposed in the channel (22), wherein during operation of a turbine engine having the vane assembly (10) the seal (20) has a sufficient ductility such that a force generated on the seal (20) resulting from relative movement of the airfoil (12) and the shroud (14) is sufficient to plastically deform the seal (20).

  2. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampolia, Donald S.; Speer, Elmer

    1990-01-01

    A quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed.

  3. Properties of Sealing Materials in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köser, Claus

    pellets as sealing material in groundwater wells. The way and the pattern, in which bentonite pellets are deposited, have been shown to have an effect on the swelling pressure of the bentonite seal. During the transport phase of pellets from the terrain to a given sedimentation depth, a sorting process......) into densities for clay/water systems has been developed. This method has successfully been used to evaluate e.g., macroporosity, homogenization of the bentonite seal during the hydration of water, hydraulic conductivity and the creation of channels in the bentonite seals. Based on the results obtained...

  4. Bingham Sealing and Application in Vacuum Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. M.; Teo, Wee Kin; Geng, Zunmin; Turner, Sam; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Vacuum clamping is extensively used in shell machining. In this paper a Bingham Sealing (BS) is presented and formulized based on Bingham plastic performance. The sealing capability of BS is evaluated in various cases. A new Bingham plastic is developed and the yield stress is measured. The performances of "O"ring sealing and BS with the developed Bingham plastic are compared to the static experiment. In this experiment the same vacuum is achieved and the distortion of the blade with BS is better than that with "O" ring sealing.

  5. Bingham Sealing and Application in Vacuum Clamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S M; Teo, Wee Kin; Geng Zunmin; Turner, Sam; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum clamping is extensively used in shell machining. In this paper a Bingham Sealing (BS) is presented and formulized based on Bingham plastic performance. The sealing capability of BS is evaluated in various cases. A new Bingham plastic is developed and the yield stress is measured. The performances of Or ing sealing and BS with the developed Bingham plastic are compared to the static experiment. In this experiment the same vacuum is achieved and the distortion of the blade with BS is better than that with 'O' ring sealing.

  6. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  7. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup

    OpenAIRE

    Headley,Selwyn Arlington; Saito,Taís Berelli

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...

  8. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose response (BBDR) Model***

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the 1-IPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model...

  9. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (BPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the HPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model p...

  10. Septicaemia and meningitis caused by infection of New Zealand sea lion pups with a hypermucoviscous strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, W D; Rogers, L; Pinpimai, K; Dittmer, K; Marshall, J; Chilvers, B L

    2015-04-17

    This study describes a syndrome of neonatal septicemia and meningitis in New Zealand sea lions, caused by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that is phenotypically similar to strains causing environmentally-acquired septicemia and neuro-invasive disease in humans. Between late 2006 and early 2010, 123 pups from the Enderby Island breeding colony died of K. pneumoniae infection, with lesions including fibrinous to fibrinosuppurative meningitis, subdural hemorrhage, septic arthritis, herniation and hemorrhage of the cerebellar vermis, lymphadenitis and cellulitis. This infection was responsible for 58% of observed pup mortality over this time period, with most deaths occurring in the latter part of the breeding season (mid February onwards). The results of this study suggest that the pattern of this disease has changed since it was first described in 2002, when most deaths occurred early in the season (early to mid-January), and that it is an important and consistent cause of pup mortality in this population. In addition, a similar disease syndrome and bacterial strain was diagnosed in a single pup in a fragile recolonizing New Zealand sea lion population on mainland New Zealand, and the potential effect on this population is unknown but could have a negative impact on recolonisation at this site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hee Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. Methods The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth. Results Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex. Conclusions Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.

  12. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-11-01

    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  14. 30 CFR 75.337 - Construction and repair of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sealed areas. (b) Prior to sealing, the mine operator shall— (1) Remove insulated cables, batteries, and other potential electric ignition sources from the area to be sealed when constructing seals, unless it... after April 18, 2008, the seal at the lowest elevation shall have a corrosion-resistant, non-metallic...

  15. Albinistic common seals (Phoca vitulina) and melanistic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) rehabilitated in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Nynke; 't Hart, Pieter; Vader, Pieter C. van Voorst

    2010-01-01

    The Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in Pieterburen, The Netherlands, rehabilitates seals from the waters of the Wadden Sea, North Sea and Southwest Delta area. Incidental observations of albinism and melanism in common and grey seals are known from countries surrounding the North Sea.

  16. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  17. Safeguards sealing systems for Zebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, G.; Jamieson, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    A relatively simple design has been produced for safeguards seals to be applied throughout the fuel containing areas at Zebra. It is based on the use of wire seals and regular Inspector surveillance. The application of the system would allow an Inspector to establish to a high degree of confidence that significant quantities of fuel had not been diverted during an intensive experimental programme. It would add about 5% to the time required for experiments, and careful planning would reduce this value. The inspection effort required to witness element movements during the experimental programme would average about 2 hours per day, with a further 2 hours spent each week on NDA of the fuel exposed. The Safeguards Inspector would require to spend about 25% of his time in the reactor area and would have ample time to deal with the relatively small number of fuel movements taking place in the storage area and with his duties elsewhere in the plant. During a core change, full-time inspection effort would be required for about 6 weeks each year. (author)

  18. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fate of tritium-labeled vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in rabbit does and thier pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidiroglou, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mammary transfer of label from intraperitoneally injected 50 μCi [1α, 2α(n)-hydrogen-3] cholecalciferol, and 50 μCi (26,27-methyl-hydrogen-3)cholecalciferol was studied in nursing rabbits. Does were injected at 3 days postpartum with one of the two labeled compounds. Pups were killed at either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days after dosing of the does, and does were killed after 5 days. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in tissues of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D 3 than in tissues of those dosed with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in maternal tissues than in tissues of pups. On the 5th day following administration of tritiated vitamin D 3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , the major portion of the radioactivity in does' plasma and liver was associated with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . In pups from the tritiated vitamin D 3 group, the concentration of plasma radioactivity associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography) increased significantly with time, reaching 85% of the total vitamin D and metabolite radioactivity in the pups at the 5th day. Over 90% of the total recovered plasma radioactivity of pups of the tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 group was associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Much more radioactivity was secreted in the milk of tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 dosed does than in milk of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D 3 . 16 references, 3 tables

  20. Protective effects of Morus alba leaves extract on ocular functions of pups from diabetic and hypercholesterolemic mother rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, H I H; El-Sherbiny, M A; Sobh, M A; Abou-El-Naga, A M; Ibrahim, M A N; Mousa, S A

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  1. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: effects of seal structure on long-term performance in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2011-03-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of an MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We developed an MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism, and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Three types of MF seals were used. Seal A was a conventional seal without a shield. Seal B had the same structure as that of Seal A, but the seal was installed at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal C was a seal with a shield and the MF was set at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal A failed after 6 and 11 days. Seal B showed better results (20 and 73 days). Seal C showed long-term durability (217 and 275 days). The reason for different results in different seal structures was considered to be different flow conditions near the magnetic fluid. Fluid dynamics near the MF in the pump were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We have developed an MF seal with a shield that works in liquid for >275 days. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  2. Cultural Resources Survey of Mobile Harbor, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    improvement from the point of view of supply and communication with other European settlements, since it cut the lightering distance to the capital in half...order to cut the costs of building (Bathe 1978:08.00-02; Millar 1978:15-29). 32 6e The sharing of ship builders, the borrowing of vessel lines and the... Eslava Street Mobile. Burned to water’s edge during overhaul. Notes: Served as HINGHAM in Boston Harbor; served as ORIENT in Long Island Sound. Operated

  3. Stationary spiraling eddies in presence of polar amplification of global warming as a governing factor of ecology of Greenland seals White Sea population: results of verification study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K.; Chernook, V.; Melentyev, V.

    2003-04-01

    Ice-associated forms of marine mammals are representatives of a high level of fodder chains in the ocean and taxation of population number for different group, as assessment of ecology and animal welfare are the important tasks for marine biology, ecology, fishery and other application uses. Many problems create a global warming and antropogenical impact on marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to investigate ice covered Arctic Ocean and charting the number of seals were performed annual inspections onboard research aircraft PINRO "Arktika". Multi-spectral airborne and satellite observations were fulfilled regularly from Barents and White Sea to the Bering and Okhotsk Sea (1996-2002). A contemporary status of different group of sea mammals was evaluated, where number of adults and pups were checked separately. In situ observations were provided with using helicopter and icebreaker for gathering a water samples and ice cores (with following biochemical and toxicological analysis). A prevailing part of life cycle of Greenland seals (harp seal) is strongly depended from winter hydrology (water masses, stable currents, meandering fronts, stationary eddies) and closely connected with type of ice (pack, fast ice) and other parameters of ice (age, origin, salinity, ice edge.). First-year ice floes which has a specific properties and distinctive features are used by harp seals for pupping, lactation, molting, pairing and resting. Ringed seals, inversely, use for corresponding purposes only fast-ice. Different aspects of ecology, and migration features of harp seals were analyzed in frame of verification study. It was revealed a scale of influence of winter severity and wind regime, but stationary eddies in the White Sea is most effective governing factor (novelty). Following relationship " eddies - ecology of Greenland seal White Sea population " will be discussed: A) regularities of eddies formation and their spatial arrangement, temporal (seasonal and annual

  4. Cover gas seals. 11 - FFTF-LMFBR seal-test program, January-March 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, F.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor - inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configuration provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at LMFBR Clinch River Plant operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the LMFBR Clinch River Plant to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  5. Phocine Distemper in German Seals, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Beineke, Andreas; Haas, Ludwig; Greiser-Wilke, Irene; Siebert, Ursula; Fonfara, Sonja; Harder, Timm; Stede, Michael; Gruber, Achim.D.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 21,700 seals died during a morbillivirus epidemic in northwestern Europe in 2002. Phocine distemper virus 1 was isolated from seals in German waters. The sequence of the P gene showed 97% identity with the Dutch virus isolated in 1988. There was 100% identity with the Dutch isolate from 2002 and a single nucleotide mismatch with the Danish isolate. PMID:15200869

  6. Electron beam selectively seals porous metal filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. A.; Tulisiak, G.

    1968-01-01

    Electron beam welding selectively seals the outer surfaces of porous metal filters and impedances used in fluid flow systems. The outer surface can be sealed by melting a thin outer layer of the porous material with an electron beam so that the melted material fills all surface pores.

  7. Performance evaluation of chip seals in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The intent of this research project is to identify a wide variety of parameters that influence the performance of pavements treated via chip seals within the State of Idaho. Chip sealing is currently one of the most popular methods of maintenance for...

  8. 39 CFR 2.4 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Secretary of State, and is required by 39 U.S.C. 207 to be judicially noticed. The Seal shall be in the... description of the Postal Service emblem is described at 39 CFR 221.7. ...

  9. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MAGNETIC FLUID SEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bashtovoi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependences of critical pressure drop, being held by magnetic fluid seal, on time in a static state and shaft rotation velocity in dynamics have been experimentally determined. The significant influence of particles’ redistribution in magnetic fluid on static parameters of magnetic fluid seal has been established.

  11. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagan, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A glass-ceramic composition is described having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, and a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum. The composition is adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures between 900 and about 950 0 C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body

  12. Sealing a Loosely Fitting Valve Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L.; Tellier, G.

    1986-01-01

    Double-ring seal avoids expense of remachining or redesigning valve parts. Mating fittings on valve sealed by pair of rings - one O-ring and backup ring. Backup ring fills relatively large gap between parts. Prevents softer O-ring from being pushed into and through gap.

  13. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department...

  14. Dura Seal recommendations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Reactor systems (BWR, PWR and Candu) are briefly reviewed with reference to the pumping services encountered in each system, to indicate the conditions imposed on mechanical seals for nuclear power plant liquid handling equipment. A description of the Dura Seals used in each service is included. (U.K.)

  15. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  16. Machine Vision Inspection of Polymeric Traypack Seal Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, John

    2002-01-01

    .... Since entrapped matter can lead to open seals, defects, and seal anomalies, a method of measurement for seal area contamination is useful in quantifying effects of filler changes, line speeds, and product formulations...

  17. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  18. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  19. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...

  20. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  1. PWR thermocouple mechanical sealing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiuping; He Youguang

    1991-08-01

    The PWR in-core temperature detection device, which is one of measures to insure reactor safety operation, is to monitor and diagnose reactor thermal power output and in-core power distribution. The temperature detection device system uses thermocouples as measuring elements with stainless steel protecting sleeves. The thermocouple has a limited service time and should be replaced after its service time has reached. A new sealing device for the thermocouples of reactor in-core temperature detection system has been developed to facilitate replacement. The structure is complete tight under high temperature and pressure without any leakage and seepage, and easy to be assembled or disassembled in radioactive environment. The device is designed to make it possible to replace the thermocouple one by one if necessary. This is a new, simple and practical structure

  2. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R Elorriaga-Verplancken

    Full Text Available The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus (CSLs and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi (GFSs from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators (SIAR/SIBER-R. Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll (Chl-a concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015. Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014 and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg. The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs. This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters.

  3. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  4. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  5. Auditory detection of ultrasonic coded transmitters by seals and sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kane A; Hayes, Sean A; Michelle Wargo Rub, A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonic coded transmitters (UCTs) are high-frequency acoustic tags that are often used to conduct survivorship studies of vulnerable fish species. Recent observations of differential mortality in tag control studies suggest that fish instrumented with UCTs may be selectively targeted by marine mammal predators, thereby skewing valuable survivorship data. In order to better understand the ability of pinnipeds to detect UCT outputs, behavioral high-frequency hearing thresholds were obtained from a trained harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a trained California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Thresholds were measured for extended (500 ms) and brief (10 ms) 69 kHz narrowband stimuli, as well as for a stimulus recorded directly from a Vemco V16-3H UCT, which consisted of eight 10 ms, 69 kHz pure-tone pulses. Detection thresholds for the harbor seal were as expected based on existing audiometric data for this species, while the California sea lion was much more sensitive than predicted. Given measured detection thresholds of 113 dB re 1 μPa and 124 dB re 1 μPa, respectively, both species are likely able to detect acoustic outputs of the Vemco V16-3H under water from distances exceeding 200 m in typical natural conditions, suggesting that these species are capable of using UCTs to detect free-ranging fish.

  6. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  7. Analysis on the Viscous Pumping in a Magnetic Fluid Seal Under a Rotating Load and the Seal Design

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 大沼, 浩身; 佐藤, 淳

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of viscous pumping in a magnetic fluid seal under a rotating load. The Reynolds equation was presented for the seal based on magnetic fluid mechanics, and the expressions for obtaining pressures in the seal, eccentricities of the rotating shaft due to the viscous pumping and seal pressures were given. Numerical Calculations were carried out for some sample problems, and the effect of magnetic flux densities on the pressure in the seal and the seal pressures were c...

  8. Vibration-based structural health monitoring of harbor caisson structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, So-Ra; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2011-04-01

    This study presents vibration-based structural health monitoring method in foundation-structure interface of harbor caisson structure. In order to achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, vibration-based response analysis method is selected and structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is designed for harbor caisson structure. Secondly, the performance of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is examined by FE analysis. Finally, the applicability of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is evaluated by dynamic tests on a lab-scaled caisson structure.

  9. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  10. Design and development of face seal type sealing plug for advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Patel, R.J.; Agrawal, R.G.; Vaze, K.K.

    2005-09-01

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor is a vertical pressure tube type reactor having light water as its coolant and heavy water as moderator. Sealing plug is required to close the pressure boundary of main heat transport system of the reactor by preventing escape of light water/steam From the coolant channel. There are 452 coolant channels in the reactor located in square lattice pitch. Sealing plug is located at the top of each coolant channel (in the top end fitting). Top end fitting is having a stepped bore to create a sealing face. Sealing plug is held through its expanded jaws in a specially provided groove of the end fitting. The plug was designed and prototypes were manufactured considering its functional importance, intricate design and precision machining requirements. Sealing plug consists of about 20 components mostly made up of precipitation hardening stainless steel, which is suitable for water environment and meets other requirements of strength and resistance to wear and galling. Seal disc is a critical component of the sealing plug as it is the pressure-retaining component. It is a circular disc with protruded stem. One face of the seal disc is nickel plated in the peripheral area that creates the sealing by abutting against the sealing face provided in the end fitting. The typical shape and profile of seal disc provides flexibility and allows elastic deformation to assist in locking of sealing plug and creating adequate seating force for effective sealing. Design and development aspects of the sealing plug have been detailed out in this report. Also results of stress analysis and experimental studies for seal disc have been mentioned in the report. Stress analysis and experimental testing was required for the seal disc because high stresses are developed due to its exposure to high pressure and temperature environment of Main Heat Transport system. Hot testing was carried out to simulate the reactor-simulated condition. The performance was found to be

  11. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  12. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Radial Lip Seal Geometry on Sealing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, G.; Parlar, Z.; Temiz, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sealing elements are often needed in industry and especially in machine design. With the change and development of machine technology from day to day, sealing elements show continuous development and change in parallel with these developments. Many factors influence the performance of the sealing elements such as shaft surface roughness, radial force, lip geometry etc. In addition, the radial lip seals must have a certain pre-load and interference in order to provide a good sealing. This also affects the friction torque. Researchers are developing new seal designs to reduce friction losses in mechanical systems. In the presented study, the effect of the lip seal geometry on sealing performance will be examined numerically. The numerical model created for this purpose will be verified with experimental data firstly. In the numerical model, shaft and seal will be modeled as hyper-elastic in 2D and 3D. NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as seal material will be analyzed for the rotating shaft state at constant speed by applying a uniform radial force.

  13. Tamper-indicating quantum optical seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Williams, Brian P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Confidence in the means for identifying when tampering occurs is critical for containment and surveillance technologies. Fiber-optic seals have proven especially useful for actively surveying large areas or inventories due to the extended transmission range and flexible layout of fiber. However, it is reasonable to suspect that an intruder could tamper with a fiber-optic sensor by accurately replicating the light transmitted through the fiber. In this contribution, we demonstrate a novel approach to using fiber-optic seals for safeguarding large-scale inventories with increased confidence in the state of the seal. Our approach is based on the use of quantum mechanical phenomena to offer unprecedented surety in the authentication of the seal state. In particular, we show how quantum entangled photons can be used to monitor the integrity of a fiber-optic cable - the entangled photons serve as active sensing elements whose non-local correlations indicate normal seal operation. Moreover, we prove using the quantum no-cloning theorem that attacks against the quantum seal necessarily disturb its state and that these disturbances are immediately detected. Our quantum approach to seal authentication is based on physical principles alone and does not require the use of secret or proprietary information to ensure proper operation. We demonstrate an implementation of the quantum seal using a pair of entangled photons and we summarize our experimental results including the probability of detecting intrusions and the overall stability of the system design. We conclude by discussing the use of both free-space and fiber-based quantum seals for surveying large areas and inventories.

  14. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  15. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Alexeev

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity.Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d from birth to postnatal day (PD 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35 and passive avoidance (PD40 tests were used to evaluate cognitive development.Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed.Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases TNFα and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response in Male Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Riddle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR programs adult disease, including obesity and insulin resistance. Our group previously demonstrated that IUGR dysregulates adipose deposition in male, but not female, weanling rats. Dysregulated adipose deposition is often accompanied by the release of proinflammatory signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. TNFα contributes to adipocyte inflammation and impaired insulin signaling. TNFα has also been implicated in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, which impairs insulin signaling. We hypothesized that, in male rat pups, IUGR would increase TNFα, TNFR1, and components of the UPR (Hspa5, ATF6, p-eIF2α, and Ddit3 prior to the onset of obesity. We further hypothesized that impaired glucose tolerance would occur after the onset of adipose dysfunction in male IUGR rats. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-characterized rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Our primary findings are that, in male rats, IUGR (1 increased circulating and adipose TNFα, (2 increased mRNA levels of UPR components as well as p-eIF2a, and (3 impaired glucose tolerance after observed TNFα increased and after UPR activation. We speculate that programmed dysregulation of TNFα and UPR contributed to the development of glucose intolerance in male IUGR rats.

  17. ANTAGONISM OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES CAROTID BODY RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA AND NICOTINE IN RAT PUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOSEPH, V.; NIANE, L. M.; BAIRAM, A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists. Rats were treated with the PR antagonist mifepristone (daily oral gavage 40 μg/g/d) or vehicle between post-natal days 3 and 15. In 11–14-day-old rats, we used in vitro carotid body/carotid sinus nerve preparation and whole body plethysmography to assess the carotid body and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (65 mmHg in vitro, 10% O2 in vivo) and to nicotinic receptor agonists (as an excitatory modulator of carotid body activity—nicotine 100 μM for in vitro studies, and epibatidine 5 μg/kg, i.p., which mainly acts on peripheral nicotinic receptors, for in vivo studies). The carotid body responses to hypoxia and nicotine were drastically reduced by mifepristone. Compared with vehicle, mifepristone-treated rats had a reduced body weight. The ventilatory response to epibatidine was attenuated; however, the hypoxic ventilatory response was similar between vehicle and mifepristone-treated pups. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mifepristone treatment did not change carotid body morphology. We conclude that PR activity is a critical factor ensuring proper carotid body function in newborn rats. PMID:22326965

  18. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques

    2015-11-15

    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  20. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M. [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Noren, Shawn R. [Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Usenko, Sascha, E-mail: Sascha_Usenko@baylor.edu [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Davis, Jay [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Kanatous, Shane B. [Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p Prime -DDE, p,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p Prime -DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p Prime -DDE, o,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p Prime -DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p Prime -DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p Prime -DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE measuring in Weddell seal blubber. Black

  1. Design, construction and monitoring of sealing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischle, W.R.; Schwieger, K.

    1986-01-01

    By flooding a worked-out mine, it was possible to test the sealing work on a full scale. The aim is to erect an impermeable, statically secure seal requiring no maintenance. Apart from testing measuring equipment, data were to be obtained for later safety calculations. The measurements are also used to check the computer programs. After a dry period of over a year, flooding started at the beginning of 1985 and so did the testing of the seal and the measuring equipment in caustic soda solution. (orig./PW) [de

  2. Magnetic fluid seals for DWDM filter manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhixin

    2002-01-01

    Performance requirements of rotary magnetic fluid seals for thin film dense wavelength division multiplexing filter manufacturing are discussed. High speed, large diameter, tight tolerance for rotating accuracy and motion control are some of the technical challenges in this application. Analytical methods for studying these technical issues and experimental data are presented. Innovative design approaches are also discussed. It is shown that using the most advanced magnetic fluid technology and seal design technology, magnetic fluid seals can provide satisfactory performance in this challenging new application

  3. Pilot cryo tunnel: Attachments, seals, and insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. F.; Ware, G. D.; Ramsey, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Several different tests are described which simulated the actual configuration of a cryogenic wind tunnel operating at pressures up to 5 atmospheres (507 kPa) and temperatures from -320 F (78K) to 120 F (322K) in order to determine compatible bolting, adequate sealing, and effective insulating materials. The evaluation of flange attachments (continuous threaded studs) considered bolting based on compatible flanges, attachment materials, and prescribed bolt elongations. Various types of seals and seal configurations were studied to determine suitability and reusability under the imposed pressure and temperature loadings. The temperature profile was established for several materials used for structural supports.

  4. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  5. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  6. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...... survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual...

  7. Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of female patients survive cancer, but succumb to primary ovarian insufficiency after chemotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that Bortezomib (Bort protects ovaries from doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy by treating female mice with Bort 1 hour prior to DXR. By preventing DXR accumulation in the ovary, Bort attenuated DXR-induced DNA damage in all ovarian cell types, subsequent γH2AFX phosphorylation, and resulting apoptosis in preantral follicles. Bort pretreatment extended the number of litters per mouse, improved litter size and increased pup weight following DXR treatment, thus increasing the duration of post-chemotherapy fertility and improving pup health. As a promising prophylactic ovoprotective agent, Bort does not interfere with cancer treatment, and is currently used as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Bort-based chemoprotection may preserve ovarian function in a non-invasive manner that avoids surgical ovarian preservation, thus diminishing the health complications of premature menopause following cancer treatment.

  8. [Change of character of intersystemic interactions in newborn rat pups under conditions of a decrease of central influences (urethane anesthesia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S V; Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E

    2014-01-01

    On newborn rat pups, for the first day after birth, there was studied the character of mutual influences between the slow-wave rhythmical components of the cardiac, respiratory, and motor activities reflecting interactions between the main functional systems of the developing organism. The study was carried out in norm and after pharmacological depression of the spontaneous periodical motor activity (SPMA) performed by narcotization of rat pups with urethane at low (0.5 g/kg, i/p) and maximal (1 g/kg, i/p) doses. Based on the complex of our obtained data, it is possible to conclude that after birth in rat pups the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly by the slow-wave oscillations of the near- and manyminute diapason. The correlational interactions mediated by rhythms of the decasecond diapason do not play essential role in integrative processes. Injection to the animals of urethane producing selective suppression of reaction of consciousness, but not affecting activating influences of reticular formation on cerebral cortex does not cause marked changes of autonomous parameters, but modulates structure and expression of spontaneous periodical motor activity. There occurs an essential decrease of mutual influences between motor and cardiovascular systems. In the case of preservation of motor activity bursts, a tendency for enhancement of correlational relations between the modulating rhythms of motor and somatomotor systems is observed. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more pronounced in intact rat pups in the near- and many-minute modulation diapason, under conditions of urethane, somewhat decrease, whereas the rhythmical components of the decasecond diapason--are weakly enhanced.

  9. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of bar sealing parameters on OPP/MCPP heat seal strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bar sealing parameters on the heat seal strength of oriented polypropylene (OPP/metallic cast polypropylene (MCPP laminate film was investigated. Based on the results obtained from the parametric study, a bar sealing process window was developed. All points drop within the process window are combinations of platen temperature and dwell time that produce acceptable heat seal. Optimum combinations are indicated by the lower border of the window. The plateau initiation temperature, Tpi of OPP/MCPP laminate film used in the present study occurred before the final melting temperature, Tmf of the sealant material. The highest achievable heat seal strength was at the plateau region, and the corresponding failure modes were delaminating, tearing or combine failure modes (delaminating and tearing. Minimum pressure level of 1.25 bars is necessary to bring the laminate interface into intimate contact in order to effect sealing.

  11. Aerial surveys of seals at Rødsand seal sanctuary and adjacent haul-out sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, J.; Dietz, R.; Edren, Susi M.C.

    This report describes the preliminary results of aerial surveys at Rødsand seal sanctuary, southeast Denmark and adjacent seal haul-out sites in southwestern Baltic. The work was carried out in connection with studies of potential effects of the Nysted offshore wind farm. Rødsand seal sanctuary...... is a part of seal management area 4, and the area is believed to hold a more or less closed population with little exchange to other areas. Although the harbour seal is relatively stationary there may be movements between the haul-out sites in the area. A possible reaction to disturbance from...... the construction and operation of the wind farm may be that the seals use other haul-out sites to a higher extend....

  12. Investigating the sealing capacity of a seal system in rock salt (DOPAS project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantschik, Kyra; Moog, Helge C.; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This paper describes research and development work on plugging and sealing repositories, an issue of fundamental importance for the rock salt option which represents one of the three European repository options, besides the clay rock and the crystalline rock options. The programme aims at providing experimental data needed for the theoretical analysis of the long-term sealing capacity of concrete- based sealing materials. In order to demonstrate hydro-mechanical material stability under representative load scenarios, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme is carried out. This comprises investigation of the sealing capacity of the combined seal system and impact of the so-called excavation-damaged zones (EDZ) as well as investigation of the hydro-chemical long-term stability of the seal in contact with different brines under diffusive and advective conditions. This paper presents experimental approaches and preliminary results from laboratory investigations on salt concrete and combined systems as obtained to date.

  13. T-2 mycotoxin treatment of newborn rat pups does not significantly affect nervous system functions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, Petra; Béldi, Melinda; Kovács, Melinda; Világi, Ildikó

    2018-03-01

    T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.

  14. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alaska Steller sea lion pups blood serum chemistry and hematology values measured from 1998-06-01 to 2011-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0137994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  16. Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimla Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMAat tunes maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (eLMA. However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placementto assess the ventilatooy and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraopera-tively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.

  17. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  18. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line drawn...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI...

  20. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS...