McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can serve as an “equalizer” against women in power, motivated more by control and domination than by sexual desire. The interviews point to social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender non-conformity and women’s authority, particularly in male-dominated work settings. PMID:23329855
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, although it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. Popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, but power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal…
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. 216.107 Section 216.107 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Incidental to Specified Activities § 216.107 Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. (a...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be...
... location, and the time. (d) Where the proposed activity may affect the availability of a species or stock of marine mammal for taking for subsistence purposes, proposed monitoring plans or other research... an incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters must submit reports to the Assistant...
Notohamiprodjo, G.; Schmid, A.; Spohr, G.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.
This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered
Notohamiprodjo, G.; Schmid, A.; Spohr, G.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.
This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered.
Ghezzi, C.; Bontemps, L.; Demaison, L.; Dubois, F.; Comet, M.; Cuchet, P.
IHA has been proposed for the study of myocardial metabolism by external detection. This requires numerical data on the iodinated fatty acid metabolism of the myocardium which can be derived from an analysis of the time activity curve. We developed a mathematical 4-compartment model for this purpose with compartments 0, 1, 2 and 3 representing vascular IHA, intracellular IHA, esterified forms and iodide, respectively. To validate this model it was applied to the study of the effect of fasting on rat myocardial metabolism. Two groups of rats were used, one fed ad lib. and the other fasted for 36 hours. After a bolus injection of IHA into the perfused rat coronaries myocardial time activity curves were recorded for 30 minutes and the activity distribution in the 4 compartments was simulated. Then intracellular activity in perfused rat heart homogenates was determined at different intervals p.i.. Measured and computed values were found to agree well in all compartments. A 36-hour fast was associated with increased uptake and accelerated β-oxidation, while esterification was unchanged. In conclusion, the proposed mathematical model helps to demonstrate even discrete changes of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in the isolated rat heart. Our results, once again, document the excellent suitability of IHA for assessing myocardial metabolism. (Author)
Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.
Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Véronique Ducret is a consultant social psychologist specialising in cases of harassment. She is author of the work'Pour une entreprise sans harcèlement sexuel', and has given several seminars on the subject at CERN. Her talk will be given in French, in the main auditorium at 14:00 on 31 May.
Dekker, I; Barling, J
The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.
Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W
We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.
... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from sexual harassment... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300...
Imagines the role of the male college professor in view of the erotic and sexual nature of his subjectivity and the glaring possibilities of sexual misconduct with students. Outlines some experiences related to the sexual harassment policies of one private college. (HB)
Maypole, Donald E.
Of 50 percent of the members of the Iowa chapter of the National Association of Social Workers, 27 percent of the women and men surveyed reported they had experienced sexual harassment at work. Discusses sources and types of sexual harassment found, as well as recourses taken by those harassed. (Author/ABB)
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…
Yang, Tao; Cui, Tong; Xu, Chong-Yu; Ciais, Philippe; Shi, Pengfei
The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) based on 33 parameters in five dimensions (flow magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and change rate) have been widely used in evaluation of hydrologic alteration in river systems. Yet, inter-correlation seriously exists amongst those parameters, therefore constantly underestimates or overestimates actual hydrological changes. Toward the end, a new method (Representative-IHA, RIHA) is developed by removing repetitions based on Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) algorithm. RIHA is testified in evaluating effects of future climate change on hydro-ecology in the Niger River of Africa. Future flows are projected using three watershed hydrological models forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. Results show that: (1) RIHA is able to eliminate self-correlations amongst IHA indicators and identify the dominant characteristics of hydrological alteration in the Upper Niger River, (2) March streamflow, September streamflow, December streamflow, 30-day annual maximum, low pluses duration and fall rates tends to increase over the period 2010-2099, while July streamflow and 90-day annual minimum streamflow shows decrease, (3) the Niger River will undergo moderate flow alteration under RCP8.5 in 2050s and 2080s and low alteration other scenarios, (4) future flow alteration may induce increase water temperatures, reduction dissolved oxygen and food resources. Consequently, aquatic biodiversity and fish community of Upper Niger River would become more vulnerable in the future. The new method enables more scientific evaluation for multi-dimensional hydrologic alteration under the context of climate change.
Grauerholz, E; King, A
This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Lewis, John F.; And Others
As in many other areas of society, sexual harassment has become an important issue in education. It has left the educational community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about sexual harassment in…
McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa
The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.
Offermann, Lynn R; Malamut, Adam B
Using cases of harassment by leaders, the authors examined the effects of target perceptions of leader responses to sexual harassment and whether leader implementation of harassment policies made a difference beyond the impact of the policies themselves. Results showed that women who perceived that leaders made honest efforts to stop harassment felt significantly freer to report harassment, were more satisfied with the complaint process, and reported greater commitment than did those viewing leaders as more harassment tolerant. Different leadership levels had different effects, with hierarchically proximal leaders generally having the greatest impact. Leadership mediated the relationship between organizational policy and outcomes, supporting the view that a key role for leaders is establishing an ethical organizational climate that reinforces formal harassment policies through actions.
Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N
This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and nine medical students from four medical schools in Ghana were interviewed. We also considered if academic and financial dependence would predict either traditional or contra power sexual harassment. We further investigated, whether women were more bothered by sexual harassment than men and the correlation between sexual harassment and health. Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%. Sexual harassment negatively affects the victims' health outcome. We found that the traditional form of sexual harassment was prevalent in medical schools in Ghana and that academic dependence predicted attacks. In the first and second years, women at these institutions are more likely to be sexually harassed than men. Sexual harassment policies of medical school need to be widely circulated. The various medical schools should provide reporting procedures and counseling for victims. This paper would inform policy and research.
Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M
To gauge the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) and to understand the issues regarding its disclosure among radiologists. A questionnaire on ethics and SH was sent by e-mail to 1,569 radiologists and radiology trainees in an institutional database maintained for continuing medical education purposes on three separate occasions between September 17 and October 31, 2016. The link to the survey was also posted on social media sites via the authors' divisional and institutional accounts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Aunt Minnie, as well as on ACR and RSNA web blogs. Overall, 9.75% (39 of 400) respondents stated they had suffered SH, with more female (22 of 90 = 24.4%) than male victims (11 of 249 = 4.4%) (P school graduates (119 of 220 = 54.1%) were less likely than graduates from outside the United States (37 of 48 = 77.1%). Of 401 respondents to questions on SH, 28.7% (n = 115), including more women (38 of 91 = 41.8%) than men (61 of 249 = 24.5%) (P = .002), said they had witnessed SH. By percentage responding, female radiologists are more frequently victims and witnesses of sexual harassment but are less likely to report such cases. Steps need to be taken to eliminate a culture that leads radiologists to tolerate SH without addressing it. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magley, V J; Hulin, C L; Fitzgerald, L F; DeNardo, M
Research has consistently documented a discrepancy between experiencing offensive sex-related behaviors and labeling these situations as sexual harassment, leading to several attempts to understand this phenomenon. The authors propose that the issue of why it is that women who report such experiences generally do not indicate that they have been sexually harassed is an important psychological question, and may provide a path through the nested meanings of workplace harassment. The authors argue for the value of moving beyond a descriptive approach to this issue by examining the effects of self-labeling on the psychological, health, and work-related outcomes of unwelcome, sex-related experiences. They present data from female employees working in 3 separate organizations, demonstrating that women exposed to such behaviors report very similar consequences, whether they label their experiences as harassment or not.
Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...
Hemalatha, Dr K; Sundaresh, Noopura
To understand the complexity of sexual harassment it requires more complex models but the general problem in the models of sexual harassment in the literature today is their over simplicity. The research paper examines three existing models of sexual harassment from the literature- the psychological model, the organizational model, and the socio-cultural model. From the psychological models, the author examines the impact that "attitudes towards women" has upon the presence of sexual harassme...
... harassment. 1300.105 Section 1300.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.105 National origin harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from...
Madison, J; Minichiello, V
This study identified how 16 Australian registered nurses classified sex-based harassers and explained their own behavior and the behavior of the harasser. A qualitative research design, relying on in-depth interviews, was used to collect the data. The study found that harassment is linked to gender roles and that the harassed are reluctant to blame the harasser--the harassed had "sound" rationalizations for harassment. Awareness of the interactional dynamics of self-blame and these rationalizations will help nurse executives ensure a harassment-free workplace.
Kim, Nicole Jung-Eun; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Torres, Elizabeth; Nicola, R M Bud; Karr, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to understand Mexican women farmworkers' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment, its related factors and consequences, and potential points of intervention. This community-based participatory research study conducted focus groups with 20 women farmworkers in rural Washington. Four coders analyzed and gleaned interpretations from verbatim transcripts. Three main themes were identified. It was learned that women farmworkers: (1) frequently experienced both quid pro quo and hostile work environment forms of sexual harassment; (2) faced employment and health consequences due to the harassment; and (3) felt that both individual- and industry-level changes could prevent the harassment. Based on these findings, the authors identified three sets of risk factors contributing to workplace sexual harassment and recommend using a multilevel approach to prevent future harassment in the agriculture industry.
Gosselin, H L
This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.
Elgart, Lloyd D.; Schanfield, Lillian
Sexual harassment in American higher education is currently a problem of ethics and morals rather than of law. Any meaningful remedy for the student victim must be created and implemented by the institution, because courts, legislatures, and administrative agencies do not offer a remedy to student victims of sexual harassment. (MSE)
Duldt, Bonnie W.
Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)
Full Text Available Education should safely shape the minds and attitudes of young adults and children, especially with the in loco parentis principle in mind. Young adults who have experienced sexual harassment in the very environment that should have protected them as learners suffer greatly from social problems and from emotional and academic strain. Victims often become future harassers themselves. Sexual harassment should be eradicated from the education sector in toto to ensure a safe learning environment. High incidences of harassment have been found among college students in America, while a very small percentage of such transgressions have been reported. Similar statistics in South African universities are not available, the problem is therefore managed in a void. The position in schools is more alarming. In South Africa it has been found that 30 per cent of girls are raped at school and that male learners and educators are the main culprits. Not only is the magnitude of this problem gravely underestimated, but the effect of sexual harassment on learners has also not been managed properly. The authors argue that the focus is on avoiding legal responsibility and accountability, rather than on being proactive. The historic invisibility of sexual harassment in education can be attributed to the wrongful silencing thereof.
harassment and unwanted sexual attention) appear to affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment more than the overt quid pro quo type of... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT...No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue Sexual harassment continues to be a
Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.
Sexual harassment affects students at all levels of education. To combat this problem, fundamental information that can help school administrators, teachers, students, and parents recognize and deal with sexual harassment under Title IX are presented in this pamphlet. The text describes quid pro quo harassment and hostile-environment harassment,…
Shoop, Robert J.
A "boilerplate" sexual harassment policy embedded in the district policy manual is insufficient. Schools need a comprehensive sexual harassment prevention program addressing authority, accountability, responsibility, and training. Since the vast majority of sexual harassment in schools is student-to-student, training efforts should not be limited…
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Harassment takes many forms, some more obvious than others. At first glance, you may think that cases of sexual harassment would be clear-cut, but often there is misunderstanding as to what is unacceptable behaviour. The golden rule is always to put yourself in the other person's shoes. What is important is not necessarily what you intend, but how it is received. A harmless joke to some may be deeply offensive to others. Other forms of harassment, such as moral harassment or 'mobbing' and exclusion are equally pernicious, equally damaging, and also not always clear-cut. In some cases, the perpetrators may not realise the impact of their actions. Following an introduction by the CERN Director of Administration, Jan van der Boon, Ducret's symposium wil...
Sexual Harassment 1 Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers Sexual harassment is generally categorized in one of two ways: quid pro quo ...power or status over the victim (McKinney, 1992). The very definition of quid pro quo sexual harassment generally necessitates a superior harassing a...Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers A Thesis Presented by Sarah K. Clapp to the
Berdahl, Jennifer L
In 3 studies, the author tested 2 competing views of sexual harassment: (a) It is motivated primarily by sexual desire and, therefore, is directed at women who meet feminine ideals, and (b) it is motivated primarily by a desire to punish gender-role deviants and, therefore, is directed at women who violate feminine ideals. Study 1 included male and female college students (N = 175) and showed that women with relatively masculine personalities (e.g., assertive, dominant, and independent) experienced the most sexual harassment. Study 2 (N = 134) showed that this effect was not because women with relatively masculine personalities were more likely than others to negatively evaluate potentially harassing scenarios. Study 3 included male and female employees at 5 organizations (N = 238) and showed that women in male-dominated organizations were harassed more than women in female-dominated organizations, and that women in male-dominated organizations who had relatively masculine personalities were sexually harassed the most. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Eom, Elizabeth; Restaino, Stephen; Perkins, Amy M; Neveln, Nicole; Harrington, John W
Sexual harassment can be physical interaction and touching, as well as, psychological, environmental, or via Internet and text messaging. An online survey in an urban clinic asked children, aged 12 to 18 years the following: demographic data, height and weight, chronic medical conditions, healthcare use, questions concerning sexual harassment-witnessed and exposure, and finally questions from the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-35). Overall, 124 of 210 (59%) of the 12- to 18-year-olds surveyed had experienced sexual harassment, with the predominance being female 69% (80/116) versus 48% (49/92) male. Participants who had experienced sexual harassment were significantly more likely to score positive for psychological impairment than those who had not experienced sexual harassment (chi-square test P harassment (2-sample t test P = .08). Sexual harassment has a direct correlation to psychological impairment in adolescents, especially females. © The Author(s) 2014.
Robbins, I; Bender, M P; Finnis, S J
Sexual harassment is a problem faced by women in the workplace which can lead to adverse psychological consequences as well as impaired work performance. Sexual harassment is about the abuse of power and status rather then merely being about sex per se and has to be viewed in the context of institutionalized male power. Although there is a relative dearth of research, there is increasing evidence that sexual harassment of nurses is common and that it can have adverse effects on nurses physical and psychological health as well as a direct impact on patient care. Nursing, by its very nature of having to care for patients bodily needs, transgresses normal social rules regarding bodily contact. This is exploited by the perpetrator who relies on nurses' caring attitude to be able to harass. A descriptive model of the processes involved in harassment is presented which offers the possibility of being able to intervene at a number of points in the process. Interventions need to be aimed at both individual and organizational levels if there is to be a prospect of reducing a major occupational stressor for nurses.
Issues in sexual harassment are discussed, including definitions, the experience of harassment, related behavior patterns, prevalence, beliefs, tolerance, and current research. The efforts and impact of a group of female faculty, staff, and graduate students (Women against Sexual Harassment) at the University of Rhode Island are described. (MSE)
Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia
Sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past decade yet we know relatively little about the characteristics of the harassing coach. How are harassing coaches characterised by their victims, that is, the athletes themselves? Do they demonstrate specific kinds of behaviours? One purpose of this article is to address…
This paper introduces ‘harassment’ in a model of bribery and corruption. We characterize the harassment equilibrium and show that taxpayers, with all possible levels of income, participate in such equilibrium. Harassment has a regressive bias. Harassment costs as such may not affect tax revenue.
Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.
Rabinerson, David; Maman, Maor; Glezerman, Marek
Sexual harassment is quite prevalent in medical organizations. The two most affected groups are medical students and nurses. In its broad perspective, sexual harassment is defined as any type of offensive behavior with sexual connotation aimed at any individual or minority. In Israel, sexual harassment is regarded as such only in the literal sense, although recently, courts tend to adopt a more comprehensive approach in their ruling. Final legislation of the law against sexual harassment, which includes employer liability for the actions of its workers, caused increased awareness of the phenomenon of sexual harassment and may serve in reducing its prevalence in the medical environment.
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan
A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena
This book presents a look at the "big picture." Is sexual harassment common? What kinds of behaviors are taking place? Who is being harassed, and who is doing the harassing? For students who admit to harassing others, why do they do it? How does sexual harassment affect students' educational experience? What do students think should be done about…
Rowe, Mary P.
Advice is presented for managers who encounter sexual harassment problems. Three recommendations are offered: complainants can be helped to help themselves, such conflicts can be resolved through procedures designed to deal with all kinds of complaints, and the issue of power differences should be confronted. (MLW)
Stein, Nan D.
Students and employees are legally protected against sexual harassment, regardless of the perpetrator's age or status. Although caution is needed when responding to complaints, school leaders should avoid making backroom deals with staff members accused of molestation or improper sexual conduct. All school community members need information and…
Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S
This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jacobs, C D; Bergen, M R; Korn, D
To measure the effect of an intervention to reduce gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at one medical school. Stanford University School of Medicine undertook a multifaceted program to educate faculty and students regarding gender issues and to diminish sexual harassment. The authors developed a survey instrument to assess the faculty's perceptions regarding environment (five scales) and incidences of sexual harassment. Faculty were surveyed twice during the interventions (1994 and 1995). Between the two years, the authors measured significant improvements in mean ratings for positive climate (p = .004) and cohesion (p = .006) and decreases in the faculty's perceptions of sexual harassment (p = 0006), gender insensitivity (p = .001), and gender discrimination (p = .004). The faculty also reported fewer observations of harassing behavior during the study period. An intervention program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment can measurably improve a medical school's environment.
Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A
Although workplace harassment affects the lives of many employees, until recently it has been relatively ignored in the organizational psychology literature. First, the authors introduced an attribution- and reciprocity-based model that explains the link between harassment and its potential causes and consequences. The authors then conducted a meta-analysis to examine the potential antecedents and consequences of workplace harassment. As shown by the meta-analysis, both environmental and individual difference factors potentially contributed to harassment and harassment was negatively related to the well-being of both individual employees and their employing organizations. Furthermore, harassment contributed to the variance in many outcomes, even after controlling for 2 of the most commonly studied occupational stressors, role ambiguity and role conflict. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Binder, Renee; Garcia, Paul; Johnson, Bonnie; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena
Although Title IX, the federal law prohibiting sexual harassment in educational institutions, was enacted in 1972, sexual harassment continues to be distressingly common in medical training. In addition, many women who experience sexual harassment do not report their experiences to authorities within the medical school.In this article, the authors review the literature on the prevalence of sexual harassment in medical schools since Title IX was enacted and on the cultural and legal changes that have occurred during that period that have affected behaviors. These changes include decreased tolerance for harassing behavior, increased legal responsibility assigned to institutions, and a significant increase in the number of female medical students, residents, and faculty. The authors then discuss persisting barriers to reporting sexual harassment, including fears of reprisals and retaliation, especially covert retaliation. They define covert retaliation as vindictive comments made by a person accused of sexual harassment about his or her accuser in a confidential setting, such as a grant review, award selection, or search committee.The authors concluding by highlighting institutional and organizational approaches to decreasing sexual harassment and overt retaliation, and they propose other approaches to decreasing covert retaliation. These initiatives include encouraging senior faculty members to intervene and file bystander complaints when they witness inappropriate comments or behaviors as well as group reporting when multiple women are harassed by the same person.
N Vanishree; V Chaithra; Amandeep Pabbla
Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Den...
Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...
Yieke, F. Vol 6, No 2 (2004) - Articles Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: A Case for Linguistic and Sexual Politics? Abstract. ISSN: 1595-0956. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...
Emma-Echiegu, NB. Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) - Articles Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-7410. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...
Rzygula, R. Vol 16, No 4 (2010): Supplement - Articles The perceptions and occurrence of sexual harassment among male student athletes with male coaches. Abstract. ISSN: 1117-4315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...
Anderson, Patricia L.
School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…
Stier, William F., Jr.
Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…
US Department of Education, 2008
Sexual harassment of students is illegal. A federal law, "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972" ("Title IX"), prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, including sexual harassment, in education programs and activities. All public and private education institutions that receive any federal funds must comply with…
O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W
A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.
Bracey, Gerald W.
A University of Michigan study that surveyed students about sexual harassment behaviors discovered that 83% of girls and 60% of boys have experienced harassment. Also, 75% of the victims had also been perpetrators. Another study examined how cultural influences may affect high-achieving Japanese students' use of will power and memorization…
Cleary, J S; Schmieler, C R; Parascenzo, L C; Ambrosio, N
The authors examined students' perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of sexual harassment by faculty members at a state university, using a sample of 1,139 graduate and undergraduate students. Twenty-six percent (292) of those in the sample responded. The instrument used in the study, adapted from a survey previously used at the University of Iowa, operationally defined eight categories of behavior: sexist comments, undue attention, verbal sexual advances, body language, invitations, physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. As many as 8% of the respondents indicated they had experienced the three most extreme forms of harassment--physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. Although most students thought they would report sexual harassment, only three incidents of the most extreme forms of sexual harassment were actually reported. Those who experienced harassment indicated that it generally came from one rather than from several faculty members and that it came from both male and female faculty. Twenty-three percent of the men reported experiencing sexist comments, and 5 male students reported they had experienced at least one of the three most extreme forms of sexual harassment. Recommendations for policy revisions and campus health promotion programming that were made following the survey are discussed.
Mar 28, 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at ... HarassMap's map of Cairo shows the location and type of incidents that ... HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt.
quid pro quo type of Sexual harassment and Organizational, 4 sexual harassment (e.g., sexual coercion). This should drive organizational efforts to... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL...Executive Summary] No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue
Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson
Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…
Goodwin, Megan P.; And Others
Examined Central Michigan University employees' (N=449) sexual harassment experiences through employee survey. Found that (1) more women than men reported sexual harassment; (2) most common harassers cited were male co-workers, administrators, and maintenance employees; (3) harassment most frequently attributed to working conditions and hours; (4)…
Holmes, Mary Anne; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Schneider, Blair
Harassment, sexual and otherwise, including bullying and discrimination, remains an ongoing problem in the science workforce. In response to monthly revelations of harassment in academic science in the U.S. in 2016, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) convened a workshop to discuss strategies for professional societies to address this pernicious practice. Participants included researchers on this topic and members from professional science societies, academia, and U.S. federal government agencies. We agreed on the following principles: - Harassment, discrimination and bullying most often occur between a superior (e.g., an advisor, professor, supervisor) and a student or early career professional, representing a power difference that disadvantages the less-powerful scientist. - Harassment drives excellent potential as well as current scientists from the field who would otherwise contribute to the advancement of science, engineering and technology. - Harassment, therefore, represents a form of scientific misconduct, and should be treated as plagiarism, falsification, and other forms of scientific misconduct are treated, with meaningful consequences. To address harassment and to change the culture of science, professional societies can and should: ensure that their Code of Ethics and/or Code of Conduct addresses harassment with clear definitions of what constitutes this behavior, including in academic, professional, conference and field settings; provide a clear and well-disseminated mechanism for reporting violations to the society; have a response person or team in the society that can assist those who feel affected by harassment; and provide a mechanism to revisit and update Codes on a regular basis. The Code should be disseminated widely to members and apply to all members and staff. A revised Code of Ethics is now being constructed by AGU, and will be ready for adoption in 2017. See http://harassment.agu.org/ for information updates.
12. aktinäitus "Mees ja Naine" Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis 29. augustini. Väljapanekul on esindatud: Amandus Adamson, Boaz Tal, Edward Lucie-Smith, Ken Wardrop, Daniel de Chenu, Elina Brotherus, Mark Sadan, Konstantin Tabanakov, Ellen Kolk, Ilme ja Riho Kuld, Hille Palm, Elo Liiv, Hannes Starkopf, Jüri Tenson, Merike Estna, Raili Ilmsalu
Sexual Harassment in Public Medical Schools in Ghana. ... of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the ... Results: Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%.
Sadrabad, Akram Zolfaghari; Bidarizerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Farahmand Rad, Reza; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Alimohammadi, Hossein
The widespread epidemic of emerging abuse in Emergency Departments (ED) toward residents generates negative effects on the residents' health and welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine and highlight the high prevalence of abuse and harassment toward Emergency residents. In 2011, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional study was conducted at seven Emergency Residencies of central hospitals in Iran. Residents were asked about their age, marital status, postgraduate year (PGY) levels, and work experiences before residency. Prevalence of abuse in four categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; verbal and physical threat; physical assault and sexual harassment; and by whom. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Two hundred fifteen of the 296 residents (73%) completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 89%; 43% of residents experienced verbal and physical threats, 10% physical assault, and 31% sexual harassment. Verbal abuse and verbal and physical threats without the use of weapons were higher in men in comparison with women (pmen to encounter sexual harassment (31% vs. 7%, psexual harassment categories, sexual jokes (51%) were the most prevalent between residents. Junior residents (PGY-1) were more likely to experience abuse than senior residents (PGY-2 and PGY-3; pharassment during residency in ED are highly prevalent. Educational programs and effective preventive measures against this mistreatment are urgently required. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Dentists also have a role in advocacy, expert consultation or testimony, research and prevention through education and training. It is a fact that sexual harassment is very commonly encountered by almost everyone especially women. It is the most unresolved and under recognized problem of today especially when professionals are concerned. Preventing sexual harassment requires a considerable investment of time and personnel. This paper reviews the topic of sexual harassment as a problem from its legal aspects and recommendations for further steps to resolve this issue in dentistry.
Rotundo, M; Nguyen, D H; Sackett, P R
Research on gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment informs an ongoing legal debate regarding the use of a reasonable person standard instead of a reasonable woman standard to evaluate sexual harassment claims. The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions. An earlier quantitative review combined all types of social-sexual behaviors for a single meta-analysis; the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the female-male difference varies by type of behavior. An overall standardized mean difference of 0.30 was found, suggesting that women perceive a broader range of social-sexual behaviors as harassing. However, the meta-analysis also found that the female-male difference was larger for behaviors that involve hostile work environment harassment, derogatory attitudes toward women, dating pressure, or physical sexual contact than sexual propositions or sexual coercion.
Hinze, Susan W
Despite larger numbers of women in medicine and strong statements against gender discrimination in written policies and the medical literature, sexual harassment persists in medical training. This study examines the everyday lives of women and men resident physicians to understand the context within which harassment unfolds. The narratives explored here reveal how attention is deflected from the problem of sexual harassment through a focus on women's 'sensitivity'. Women resist by refusing to name sexual harassment as problematic, and by defining sexual harassment as 'small stuff' in the context of a rigorous training program. Ultimately, both tactics of resistance fail. Closer examination of the relations shaping everyday actions is key, as is viewing the rigid hierarchy of authority and power in medical training through a gender lens. I conclude with a discussion of how reforms in medical education must tend to the gendered, everyday realities of women and men in training.
Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of o...
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.
Diehl, Charlotte; Glaser, Tina; Bohner, Gerd
Prior research has shown that (1) better knowledge about the consequences of rape goes along with less rape-supportive attitudes and lower rape proclivity, and (2) empathy with the victims correlates negatively with sexual aggression. In two experiments, the authors combined these approaches in order to reduce sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) and the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH). In Study 1, 101 male and female university students read a report describing sexual harassment as either serious or harmless, and completed scales assessing dispositional empathy and SHMA. Results showed that higher empathy was associated with lower SHMA; furthermore, learning about the seriousness (vs. harmlessness) of sexual harassment led to lower SHMA, particularly in participants low in empathy. Gender differences in SHMA were fully explained by gender differences in empathy. In Study 2, perspective taking, a crucial aspect of empathy, was manipulated. One hundred nineteen male and female participants read either a neutral text or a description of a sexual harassment case, which was written either from the female target's or from the male perpetrator's perspective; then they completed scales measuring SHMA and (only male participants) LSH. The target's perspective led to lower SHMA and to lower LSH than did the neutral text, whereas no such effect was found for the perpetrator's perspective. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Davidhizar, R; Erdel, S; Dowd, S
Research reveals a widespread and frequently mismanaged problem--sexual harassment. Federal and state rulings, workplace guidelines and the Equal Opportunity Commission's definition of sexual harassment can help determine where to draw the line.
Kopels, Sandra; Dupper, David R.
Describes extent and impact of harassment; responses of victims, school personnel, and perpetrators to harassment; and legal redress available to victims. Includes specific steps social workers and other school personnel should take to prevent or alleviate such problems. (LBT)
There's no question that sexual harassment-and worse-is common at the country's hospitals, clinics, research labs, and doctor's offices. Health care's gender imbalances create situations that are ripe for abuse: Women make up the majority of the workforce in health care but men still dominate positions of authority.
HarassMap is an Egyptian organisation that works to create an environment where sexual harassment is not tolerated, and where individuals and institutions take action against it. For the purpose of this project, the project team cleaned up, organised, and made openly available for the public to access and use through a web portal, three main types of data: Crowdsourced reports of sexual harassment incidents (reports on HarassMap’s online reporting and mapping system) - CSV and XL...
In recent years, an accumulation of Japanese research about sexual harassment and a number of very public court cases involving prominent public figures placed the issue of sexual harassment in the media spotlight. Japan was forced to recognise sexual harassment as a national problem, and not an issue, which was confined to the Western world. In April 1999, the Japanese government realised the need to amend existing laws to include sexual harassment under article twenty-one of the Equal Oppor...
Silva, Sarah Cristina Andrade; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN; Bittar, Cléria Maria; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN
Current investigation is a bibliographical review on feminine vulnerability with regard to moral harassment. Moral harassment is defined as all vexation during work, especially when a hierarchy between people has been established. Horizontal moral harassment among people of the same occupation, although it exists, is more difficult to be proved in court. Literature shows that victims of moral harassment may be women and men but research in Brazil and in other countries reveals that most victi...
We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.
... employees, an employer is responsible for acts of sexual harassment in the workplace where the employer (or... the acts of non-employees, with respect to sexual harassment of employees in the workplace, where the... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604.11 Labor...
Wasserman, Nora M. Fraser
This document discusses the developing law of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is discussed not only in the school environment, but also in the workplace. Two legally recognized forms of sexual harassment are described: (1) quid pro quo, or demanding sexual favors in exchange for grades, raises, promotions; and (2) the hostile environment…
Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette
While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…
Information on characteristics of harassers can help policymakers and educators develop more effective prevention programs. Results of a survey of 336 men and 333 women are presented in terms of institutional size, satisfaction with institutional response, views on the acceptability of harassment, beliefs related to harassment, and types of…
Franke, Ann H.
Several recent incidents have brought national attention to issues involving male professors and sexual-harassment policies on campuses. Allegations of harassment can involve high stakes for the accused, with dismissal as a possible penalty. Criminal charges for harassment, in contrast to assault, are rare. Within an institution, people accused of…
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees shall not engage in harassment on the basis of sex. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or...
Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.
This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…
Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly
Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…
Apr 26, 2018 ... The research group leading HarassMap in Egypt are combatting sexual harassment with an online tool, developed in 2014, that enables the general public to voluntarily report incidents of harassment that they have experienced or witnessed. The reported incidents are displayed on a free interactive map ...
Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol
To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.
... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004. Congress directed the Task Force to assess and make recommendations concerning how the Departments of the Army and the Navy may more effectively address sexual harassment and assault at the United...
Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa H
Despite scholars' and practitioners' recognition that different forms of workplace harassment often co-occur in organizations, there is a paucity of theory and research on how these different forms of harassment combine to influence employees' outcomes. We investigated the ways in which ethnic harassment (EH), gender harassment (GH), and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) combined to predict target individuals' job-related, psychological, and health outcomes. Competing theories regarding additive, exacerbating, and inuring (i.e., habituating to hardships) combinations were tested. We also examined race and gender differences in employees' reports of EH, GH, and GWH. The results of two studies revealed that EH, GH, and GWH were each independently associated with targets' strain outcomes and, collectively, the preponderance of evidence supported the inurement effect, although slight additive effects were observed for psychological and physical health outcomes. Racial group differences in EH emerged, but gender and race differences in GH and GWH did not. Implications are provided for how multiple aversive experiences at work may harm employees' well-being. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Krøjer, Jo; Lehn-Christiansen, Sine; Nielsen, Mette Lykke
Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women...... institutions might act to prevent sexual harassment toward caregivers......., are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus...
Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia
To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.
Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea
Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the survey on sexual harassment in public transportation in Belgrade, conducted during 2007. Authors of the survey are Milena Račeta and Branislava Tanasković, students on Philosophy faculty in Belgrade, psychology department. In introduction, authors give a short review of research methodology. In the rest of the paper, authors present quantitive survey results obtained through exploration of specific aspects of real sexual harassment experiences. Qualitive analysis of recommendations given by questioned females is also presented. This survey has been conducted using a questionnaire specially constructed by authors for the purpose of this research. Finally, in conclusion, authors summarize the data, and emphasizing the need of an appropriate social action offer some possible solutions for minimizing this type of violence.
Full Text Available Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. It is an unjustified interference of integrity, dignity and well-being of workers, causing problems from headaches to depression, loss of confidence, panic attacks and perhaps suicide as the only way appearing to be the sole possible relief from the unremitting and frightening behavior. This article presents information concerning the sexual harassment at workplace, covering topics such as, the definitions for sexual harassment in both international and national context, a short history of sexual harassment, types of sexual harassment, effect of sexual harassment, measure to combat and prevent sexual harassment. It offers a short overview in sexual harassment legislation of some industrialized EU Member States and the legal remedies available against sexual harassment. The main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding and prevention concerning the issue of sexual harassment in workplace.
Valente, Sharon M; Bullough, Vern
Nurses who are sexually harassed at work face frustration and emotional and economic consequences. Historically before the 1970s, nurses had little legal recourse and tolerated sexual harassment as a necessary "evil" associated with working. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the option for legal remedies for sexual harassment/discrimination cases. Successful court cases established the legal criteria for sexual harassment. This article discusses the history, definition, high profile cases, research, consequences, and prevention of sexual harassment. Although research is scant and little is known of how nurses respond to harassing behavior, prevention requires coordinated activities of employers, individual employees, and the healthcare profession. Sexual harassment at work increases anxiety and undermines the nurse's ability to focus on the delivery of safe and competent care.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective. It specifically focuses on the definition of sexual harassment, incidence of sexual harassment of students in tertiary institutions, effects of sexual harassment on victims; and victims’ responses to sexual harassment. It also offers suggestions for curtailing sexual harassment in these institutions.
Shepela, Sharon Toffey; Levesque, Laurie L.
Studied sexual harassment, including mild forms of harassment, experienced by male and female college students (n=369). Men and women were harassed with similar frequency, and more subtle forms of harassment were common. The very frequency of these subtle behaviors may explain why they are less likely to be labeled as harassment. (SLD)
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.
Baker, Nancy V.
More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…
Woods, Krystle C; Buchanan, Nicole T; Settles, Isis H
The current study examined differences in appraisal, harassment, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms among 105 Black women who were sexually harassed by either a White (cross-racial sexual harassment) or a Black man (intraracial sexual harassment). Analyses revealed that women appraised cross-racial more negatively than intraracial harassment, despite there being no significant differences in the likelihood of experiencing gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion. Further, cross-racial harassment was more likely to include racialized sexual harassment (harassing behaviors combining race and gender simultaneously) and higher status perpetrators. Finally, cross-racial sexual harassment had an indirect (but not direct) mediated effect on posttraumatic stress via participants' appraisals of their harassment. Specifically, the more negative appraisal associated with cross-racial sexual harassment was associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. In light of these findings, consideration of perpetrator race and racially sexualized behaviors could prove significant additions to current models of sexual harassment.
Fnais, Naif; Soobiah, Charlene; Chen, Maggie Hong; Lillie, Erin; Perrier, Laure; Tashkhandi, Mariam; Straus, Sharon E; Mamdani, Muhammad; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Tricco, Andrea C
Harassment and discrimination include a wide range of behaviors that medical trainees perceive as being humiliating, hostile, or abusive. To understand the significance of such mistreatment and to explore potential preventive strategies, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and sources of harassment and discrimination among medical trainees. In 2011, the authors identified relevant studies by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE, scanning reference lists of relevant studies, and contacting experts. They included studies that reported the prevalence, risk factors, and sources of harassment and discrimination among medical trainees. Two reviewers independently screened all articles and abstracted study and participant characteristics and study results. The authors assessed the methodological quality in individual studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. They also conducted a meta-analysis. The authors included 57 cross-sectional and 2 cohort studies in their review. The meta-analysis of 51 studies demonstrated that 59.4% of medical trainees had experienced at least one form of harassment or discrimination during their training (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.0%-66.7%). Verbal harassment was the most commonly cited form of harassment (prevalence: 63.0%; 95% CI: 54.8%-71.2%). Consultants were the most commonly cited source of harassment and discrimination, followed by patients or patients' families (34.4% and 21.9%, respectively). This review demonstrates the surprisingly high prevalence of harassment and discrimination among medical trainees that has not declined over time. The authors recommend both drafting policies and promoting cultural change within academic institutions to prevent future abuse.
Godier, Lauren R; Fossey, M
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertaining to the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in the military, explore potential reasons for this gap in knowledge and outline future directions and priorities for academic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric
Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. © 2016 The Author(s).
Bronner, Gila; Peretz, Chava; Ehrenfeld, Mally
Nursing has dealt with sexual harassment long before the term was coined during the 1970s. The current study investigated sexual harassment of nurses and nursing students in Israel following new legislation against sexual harassment in the workplace. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 281 nurses and 206 nursing students (80% women) from five medical centres in Israel. Seven types of sexual harassment behaviour patterns were evaluated. Frequency of sexual harassment decreased as the behaviour became more intimate and offensive. Ninety percent of subjects reported experiencing at least one type of sexual harassment and 30% described at least four types. A significant difference was found between nurses and nursing students. Furthermore, "severe" types of behaviour were experienced by 33% of nurses, in comparison with 23% of nursing students. Women were significantly more exposed than men to "mild" and "moderate" types of sexual harassment, while 35% of men vs. 26% of women were exposed to "severe" types of harassment. However, women responded significantly more assertively than men to "severe" sexual harassment. Particular attention is needed when sexual harassment occurs to male students and nurses because they may be subjected to the more offensive sexual conducts and at the same time may lack the ability to respond assertively.
most commonly cited are “ quid pro quo ” and “hostile environment.” Employers are charged with ensuring that the workplace is free from sexual ...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL COERCION AT NAVAL CONSOLIDATED BRIG MIRAMAR by Robert M. Collins September 2006 Suzanne M. Johnson...AND SUBTITLE: Within the Walls: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar 6. AUTHORS Robert M. Collins
Cortina, Lilia M.; Wasti, S. Arzu
This study explicates the complexity of sexual harassment coping behavior among 4 diverse samples of working women: (a) working-class Hispanic Americans, (b) working-class Anglo Americans, (c) professional Turks, and (d) professional Anglo Americans. K-means cluster analysis revealed 3 common harassment coping profiles: (a) detached, (b) avoidant negotiating, and (c) support seeking. The authors then tested an integrated framework of coping profile determinants, involving social power, stress...
(1) Sexual harassment is a violation of The Civil Rights Act of 1964. (2) Most states do not require employers to conduct sexual harassment training. (3) Most sexual harassment training for state legislators occurs at their orientation.
Rhodes, Frank H. T.
Discusses sexual harassment on college campuses. Focuses on harassing behavior that stems from power relationships and harassing behavior among peers. Describes how Cornell University is addressing these problems. (ABL)
Apr 5, 2013 ... To learn more about HarassMap, visit harassmap.org, follow ... وترسم خرائط لذلك على موقع harassmap.org، ثم تستخدم البيانات بعد ذلك لإقناع ...
Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F
Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.
Bell, Margret E; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane
Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.
Comparison of antibody titer against the infectious bursal disease virus following the disease with that obtained from live intermediate vaccines using indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in broiler chicks
Full Text Available In this study, antibody titer obtained from the outbreak of the infection bursal disease (IBD was compared with the titer obtained from live intermediate vaccines by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test in broiler chicks. A total of 450 one day old Cobb chicks were divided into 3 groups each containing 150 chicks and were kept for 42 days in the same rearing conditions. Chicks in groups 1 and 2 received Bursin-2 and D-78 vaccines respectively via drinking water n days 14 and 21. The rest of the chicks were kept as the controls (group 4 and did not receive any vaccine against the IBD. Serum samples were collected from all birds 2 weeks after the second IBD vaccination. Additional 150 serum samples were also collected from 3 broiler flocks that were affected by IBD and had a history of vaccination by the previously mentioned method, two weeks after the last clinical sings were observed (group 3. Antibody titer of the samples against the IBD virus were determined by the IHA test and the results were evaluated using ANOVA and SPSS software. The mean antibody titer obtained from Bursin-2 and D-78 vaccines were 3.19 and 3.21 respectively which is less than the titer of 6 needed for protection against the disease. The antibody titer in affected flocks was 7.19. comparison of the mean titer of the two vaccines did not show any significant difference but there was significant difference between the titer obtained from each vaccine and that of the effected flock (p
Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca
Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...
Lach, Denise H.; Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.
Sexual harassment is the most visible example of workplace disputes that systematically disadvantage women. The prevalence of sexual harassment contributes to the persistence of occupational sex segregation. (SK)
Alexander, Pamela C; Alexander, Elmore R; Warner, Stephanie
.... Based on the study findings, organizations with the best programs for prevention of sexual harassment had effective human relations strategies in which policies and training on sexual harassment...
Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites
Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the
Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.
Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K
The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.
Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S
Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.
Charney, D A; Russell, R C
A few widely publicized cases have made sexual harassment a salient subject in the 1990s. This article reviews the topic in a comprehensive manner, with particular attention to demographic information, psychosocial consequences, appropriate therapeutic interventions, and related psychological issues. Computerized literature searches were used to identify research and review papers from psychiatry and psychology journals. Nonscientific works that provide additional information are also cited. The literature suggests that sexual harassment is a widespread phenomenon, affecting 42% of women and 15% of men in occupational settings, 73% of women and 22% of men during medical training, and lower percentages in other educational settings. Despite the pervasive nature of this problem, only 1%-7% of victims file formal complaints. Sexual harassment produces an array of psychological and physical symptoms in over 90% of victims, and 12% seek help from mental health care professionals. Self-doubt is a central issue regardless of gender, but in instances where the perpetrator is male and the victim is female, there are ramifications unique to the trauma of gender-based abuse. It is critical that therapists avoid contributing to the process of "second injury" and not imply that patients have brought their troubles on themselves. Key therapeutic tasks include empathy, validation, and empowerment. Few experimental studies have focused on the victims of sexual harassment, and none have focused on the perpetrators. Psychiatry can play an invaluable role in the assessment and treatment of victims, the fostering of education and research in this area, and the understanding of underlying psychological and gender issues.
Asha P Shetty
Full Text Available Introduction: Workplace harassment is the belittling or threatening behavior directed at an individual worker or a group of workers. Matters of workplace harassment recently gained interest among practitioners and researchers as it is becoming one of the most sensitive areas of effective workplace management. Materials and Methods: Nonexperimental cross-sectional exploratory survey approach with quantitative design was adopted. Samples constituted both male and female employees 20–60 years working for minimum 6 h in an institution selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using demographic tool and workplace harassment experience tool developed by the investigator. The Institutional Ethics Committee approval and the individual subject consent were also obtained. Results: Data obtained from 210 employees indicated that majority (20% were between the age group of 30–35 years. Majority, 63.3%, of the employees had occasional harassment, 8.1% had mild harassment, 0.5% had severe harassment, and 28.1% reported no harassment at the workplace. Area-wise analysis indicated that highest possible area among participants was psychological (15.5 ± 7.26 and the lowest harassment was in the area of physical harassment (3.74 ± 1.75. Conclusion: Workplace harassment is a serious concern which requires immediate attention for better outcome. Although majority of the participants experience at least some form of harassment, they hesitate to objectively indicate the same due to fear of consequences of losing the job and facing further ramifications. The issue requires to be addressed with appropriate policies at the workplace. The study will help to plan the strategies to be implemented for building a healthy workplace environment.
Hoyman, Michele; Robinson, Ronda
Discusses sexual harrassment guidelines which legally define the term as sex discrimination. While this is good for those facing harassment, it unrealistically places a socially-based problem on the shoulders of personnel managers. Points out the long-term benefits of a workplace free from harassment and intimidation. (JOW)
Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson
Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)
This paper reviews the literature and case law related to the issue of sexual harassment of females and specifically focuses on the adolescent female in the public middle school setting. The controversial thesis statement the researcher explored was: "sexual harassment is a manifestation of the ubiquitous power imbalance between men and women…
Drawn from a larger study examining the experiences of lesbian teachers working in high schools across New South Wales (NSW), Australia, this article explores the ways in which interpersonal anti-lesbian harassment marginalises lesbian teachers. It relays some of the impacts harassment has on individuals, yet also shows that many of these teachers…
McIntyre, Jerilyn S.
Sexual harassment complaints are challenges to the abuse of power in certain kinds of communicative relationships, and sexual harassment policies and procedures are ways of defining the responsible exercise of power and providing the means to address grievances that result from irresponsible and potentially harmful uses of power in those…
Lewis, John F.; Hastings, Susan C.
As in most workplaces, sexual harassment has been an issue of significant magnitude in educational institutions as well. It has left the education community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about…
Thacker, Rebecca A.
Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)
Taylor, Elizabeth A.; Hardin, Robin; Rode, Cheryl R.
Sexual harassment and incivility in the workplace are the unwanted sexual attention and bullying of employees by their superior. There are times, however, when the roles are reversed and the superior is the target of such behavior. Contrapower harassment refers to subordinate incivility and/or sexual attention directed toward a superior. The focus…
Discusses difficulties in arriving at definition of sexual harassment. Uses a commonplace definition to distinguish quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. Outlines obligations of organizations, giving attention to the development of appropriate policies and procedures. Discusses effect of organization's climate on institutional…
Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz
Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson
Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…
Martin, Jennifer L.
This intervention study examines the problem of sexual harassment in an alternative high school for at-risk students. It was hypothesized that creating a forum where girls felt safe to share their experiences would increase their awareness of sexual harassment and its effects, eventually contributing to a decrease in incidents of sexual harassment…
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Perry, Cheryl L
This study described peer harassment in a large, multiethnic sample of adolescents, and explored the relationship between experiencing peer harassment and both school connectedness and achievement. Survey data came from 4,746 students in grades 7-12 at 31 public schools in ethnically and socioeconomically diverse communities in a Midwestern state. Frequency of five types of harassment were analyzed with data on school connectedness and grades. Multivariate analysis controlled for gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that most students periodically experience mistreatment; 10% to 17% report being treated disrespectfully, having others act superior, or being insulted at least once per week, and an additional 14% to 22% of students report suffering these behaviors a few times per month. Girls, Whites, Native Americans, and middle school students reported more harassment than boys, other ethnic groups, and high school students, respectively. Peer harassment related significantly to both aspects of school life; those who disliked school tended to suffer more mistreatment, and "B" students reported the least harassment on average. Young people mistreated by peers may not want to be in school and may thereby miss out on the benefits of school connectedness as well as educational advancement. The high prevalence of peer harassment and its association with school connectedness and school achievement provide justification for interventions aimed at prevention of peer harassment. A schoolwide approach using educational and policy components may provide an appropriate prevention strategy.
Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…
Relates story of a college program director's coercive sexual harassment and the response of women faculty and peers outside the university. Focuses on the distinction between "having affairs" and "sexual coercion." Claims only when definitions of sexual harassment are articulated can men and women begin to talk to one another about the problem.…
Williams, M F
This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of violence and sexual harassment experienced by registered nurses (RNs) in their workplaces in Illinois. A random sample of 1,130 RNs were selected to participate in the mail survey. The instrument used was the Nurse Assault Survey originally developed by the Nurse Assault Project Team in Ontario, Canada, and modified by the author. Three hundred forty-five subjects completed the survey (response rate: 30%). Fifty-seven percent of those responding reported personal experience with some aspect of sexual harassment, and 26% reported being victimized by physical assault while on the job. About one third of those who indicated they had been sexually harassed also had been physically assaulted. Patients/clients were the most frequent perpetrators of sexual harassment and physical assault, while physicians committed over half of the sexual assaults. Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between physical assault and levels of job satisfaction. A significant relationship also was found between sexual harassment and levels of job satisfaction. Results demonstrate that nurses need to take and active role in fostering a work environment free from violence and sexual harassment. They should be knowledgeable about institutional policies and, where none exist, they should work with administrators to develop them. Prevention and intervention programs should be developed for both student and registered nurses.
Barton, G Michael; Morrison, Eileen
The medical field has long endured the destructive forces of personal harassment in work environments. Personal harassment, often called workplace bullying, has historically been kept quiet. The targets of personal harassment suffered in silence. Many of the targets either left the organization or became passive-aggressive members of the work team. Personal harassment is no longer tucked away in the shadows, however. This issue is now being cited as a major cause of low morale, high employee turnover, and increased workplace violence. The intent of this article is to provide an awareness of personal harassment and how it has had a catastrophic impact on the medical field. Awareness of this issue is the first step toward its prevention. Medical practitioners, leaders, and employees must commit to addressing this issue before it can adversely impact their organizations.
Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T
employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly......BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work....... This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial...
Deane, Nancy H.; Tillar, Darrel L.
A practical approach to the prevention of sexual harassment is considered, and a study of sexual harassment as perceived by victims, the courts, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is presented. Attention is directed to the sociology of sexual harassment and to the following possible responses available to victims of harassment:…
Withers, Nancy A.
Sexual harassment is a problem in high schools, on college campuses, and in the workplace, although unclear definitions and misinterpretations of sexual harassment have led many to believe that the amount of sexual harassment that occurs is minimal. Sexual harassment has been defined as a continuum of behaviors, with physical sexual assault at one…
Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306... Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment is...
Pryor, John B.; And Others
Presents a Person X Situation (PXS) model of sexual harassment suggesting that sexually harassing behavior may be predicted from an analysis of social situational and personal factors. Research on sexual harassment proclivities in men is reviewed, and a profile of men who have a high a likelihood to sexually harass is discussed. Possible PXS…
Rosman, J P; McDonald, J J
Sexual harassment law presents a complex set of issues not only for lawyers but also for psychiatrists in their roles both as evaluators and clinicians. Judge Reinhardt of the US Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit, summed up these complexities: "We tend these days, far more than in earlier times, to find our friends, lovers, and even mates in the workplace. We ... often discover that our interests and values are closer to those of our colleagues or fellow employees than to those of people we meet in connection with other activities. In short, increased proximity breeds increased volitional sexual activity." On the other hand, he notes that Title VII "entitles individuals to a workplace that is free from the evil of sexual intimidation or repression. It is frequently difficult to reconcile the two competing values." He goes on to ask, "When does a healthy constructive interest in romance become sexual harassment? To what extent is pursuit of a co-worker proper but of a subordinate forbidden? Is wooing or courting a thing of the past? Must a suitor cease his attentions at the first sign of disinterest or resistance? Must there be an express agreement before the person seeking romance may even hold the hand of the subject of his affection? Is it now verboten to steal a kiss? In the workplace? Everywhere? Under all circumstances or only some? Has the art of romantic persuasion lost its charm? Questions relating to love and sex are among the most difficult for society to answer." The US Supreme Court has stressed the need for common sense in evaluating cases of sexual harassment. Perhaps psychiatrists can play a sobering role in developing answers to these questions.
This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...
Witte, Florence M; Stratton, Terry D; Nora, Lois Margaret
Previous studies have documented the prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical training, but very few have examined the behaviors that students perceive as discriminatory or harassing. The authors addressed this lack of information by examining graduating medical students' written descriptions of personal experiences with such behaviors during medical school. The authors reviewed the responses of graduating seniors at 12 U.S. medical schools to a questionnaire, administered in 2001-02, that asked them to provide written descriptions of their personal experiences with gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Seven response categories were created on the basis of recurring themes: educational inequalities; stereotypical comments; sexual overtures; offensive, embarrassing, or sexually explicit comments; inappropriate touching; sexist remarks; and not classifiable. The three authors examined the students' written accounts and placed each into one or more of the categories. Of the students' responses, 290 (36.6%) contained 313 written descriptions of personal experiences that the students perceived as either discriminatory or harassing. The most frequently reported experiences involved educational inequalities; experiences in this category were reported more frequently by men than by women. All other categories of experiences were reported more frequently by women. The results support earlier findings of the prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate medical education. Perhaps formal antiharassment policies should provide examples of unacceptable behavior that are based on categories such as those revealed by this analysis. Perhaps, too, medical students' comments could be used to develop educational interventions for physicians in supervisory positions.
Full Text Available HarassMap is an Egyptian organisation that works to create an environment where sexual harassment is not tolerated, and where individuals and institutions take action against it. For the purpose of this project, the project team cleaned up, organised, and made openly available for the public to access and use through a web portal, three main types of data: Crowdsourced reports of sexual harassment incidents (reports on HarassMap’s online reporting and mapping system - CSV and XLS Field data from HarassMap’s research on sexual harassment using traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods - DOCX, PDF, SAV, MP3 Social media conversations (comment threads and messages related to sexual harassment on harassMap’s Facebook page - XLS The social media data was collected retrospectively from our Facebook page during the project period and covers the period 2010-2016. The crowdsourced data and the research data was cleaned and organised to make sure it is usable for the public but still kept in its raw format. During the collection and organisation period, we also made sure to clear out all personal identifiers from the data to ensure anonymity and confidentiality, and prepared descriptions of each dataset that will help the public understand how the data was collected and how it can and cannot be used. The data is stored online on a web portal that we built together with a web developer during the project period. On the web portal, the data is available for the public to view, search and download for research or other purposes. The data is also backed up on a hard drive and the cloud. The web portal and HarassMap open data will be advertised on our website, and the direct link shared with our contacts and others who approach us with interest in our data.
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.
While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gende...
Robb, L A; Doverspike, D
The interaction between the likelihood of males engaging in sexual harassment and the effectiveness of a 1-hr. sexual harassment-prevention training was explored in a laboratory study. An interaction of scores on the Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale and training condition for 90 undergraduate men was found, such that sexual harassment-prevention training had a small negative effect on the attitudes of males with a high proclivity to harass.
Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M
This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction). Results showed that gender harassment-both sexist and policing subtypes-rarely occurred absent heterosexist harassment, and vice versa. Harassment severity (experiencing moderate to high levels of all three harassment types) was significantly associated with greater levels of job burnout (both disengagement and exhaustion) and job dissatisfaction. Even infrequent experiences of harassment related to large increases in the "threat" variety of job stress (i.e., sense of feeling hassled and overwhelmed on the job). Additionally, employees who perceived the lowest organizational support reported the most harassment. We interpret results in light of research on organizational behavior and LGBQ psychology. Moreover, we discuss our findings in the context of Title VII, currently interpreted to protect against harassment based on gender, sex, and sex stereotyping, but not sexual orientation. Our results can inform several possible avenues of expanding gay civil rights in employment: broadening judicial interpretations of Title VII, passing new legislation (e.g., the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, or ENDA), and strengthening organizational supports and policies that protect against sexuality-based abuses.
Lampman, C; Crew, E C; Lowery, S; Tompkins, K A; Mulder, M
Academic contrapower harassment (ACPH) occurs when someone with seemingly less power in an educational setting (e.g., a student) harasses someone more powerful (e.g., a professor). A representative sample of 289 professors from U.S. institutions of higher education described their worst incident with ACPH. Open-ended responses were coded using a keyword text analysis. Compared to the experiences of men faculty, women faculty reported that students were more likely to challenge their authority, argue or refuse to follow course policies, and exhibit disrespectful or disruptive behaviors. Although sexual harassment was uncommon, men faculty were more likely than women faculty to recount such incidents. Women faculty reported significantly more negative outcomes as a result of ACPH (e.g., anxiety, stress-related illness, difficulty concentrating, wanting to quit) than men faculty, and negative outcomes were most likely to result from ACPH involving intimidation, threats, or bullying from students. Implications for the prevention and reporting of ACPH are discussed.
DeSouza, Eros R; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment than those residing in their own homes, when controlling for participants' age, race, and social class. Women residing in their employers' residences used more alcohol and drugs than their counterparts. Harassed women had significantly higher self-esteem impairment and anxiety and depression than nonharassed women. Nonharassed women residing in their own homes had the best physical well-being. Concerning participants' worst sexually harassing experiences, the perpetrators were likely to be men (75%), who also engaged in more severe types of sexual harassment than female perpetrators. The emotional reactions to such incidents were significantly more negative when perpetrated by men than by women. Implications for foreign in-home workers employed by Europeans and North Americans are discussed.
R. Peters; P.A. Bourne
Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...
Licata, Betty Jo; Popovich, Paula M.
Presents a prototype training program using role theory as a framework for understanding sexual harassment in the workplace. Describes four phases of the program for employees, supervisors, and managers. (CH)
Last year, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit ruled in "Davis" that a student can sue for damages if school officials know a student is being sexually harassed but fail to intervene. (MLF)
... out if there's someone at your school. Most schools have a sexual harassment policy or a bullying policy to protect you. Ask a guidance counselor, school nurse, or administrator about your school's policy. If ...
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.
Background: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work...... workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...
... promotion, training, salary increases, rewards, etc., are based on an employee's submission to or rejection... productivity is also engaging in sexual harassment. (d) It is the policy of the Relocation Commission that...
Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. I...
Full Text Available This paper aims to present results of the survey on sexual harassment of students of the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation, University of Belgrade. It starts with presenting and discussing different definitions of the term ‘sexual harassment’. Afterwards, a brief overview of available surveys on this subject is provided. Results of the surveys completed so far show that this kind of students’ victimization in educational institutions is frequent in all parts of the world, regardless of the economic, ethnic and religious grounds. The aim of the survey conducted at the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation (FASPER was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among undergraduate students, as well as possible forms of assistance and support to students who experience sexual harassment. A survey was conducted by the students of FASPER during April and May 2014 on a sample of 147 students of all four years of undergraduate studies. For data collection a victimization survey was used. The survey results suggested that sexual harassment of students of FASPER is prevalent, while it only manifests itself in a form of verbal harassment with a sexual connotation. Female students are more exposed to harassment than male students, but we need to interpret this finding with a caution due to the fact that a sample was mostly consisted of female respondents. According to the students’ opinion, possible solutions for preventing and eliminating sexual harassment of students of FASPER are education of students and employees, adoption of rules for protection of students from this kind of victimization and establishment of support service for students who experience victimization by sexual harassment.
De Letter, Jolien; van Rooij, Tony; Van Looy, Jan
Objective. Online multiplayer games allow large numbers of participants to play simultaneously online. Unfortunately, this has also given rise to new forms of harassment and abuse. The current study used the criminological framework of Routine Activity Theory to identify possible circumstantial and individual risk factors that predict both general and sexual harassment victimization in this online context. Method. An online survey of online multiplayer gamers (N = 883) was conducted. Meas...
Cummings, Kimberly M.; Armenta, Madeline
Examined the impact of harasser gender, participant gender, and presence of bystanders on perceptions of penalty appropriateness for peer sexual harassment in college. Students responded to descriptions of potential sexual harassment between one college student and another and described the appropriate penalty. Participants were more likely to…
Pinkos Cobb, Ellen
Workplace Bullying and Harassment: New Developments in International Law provides a comprehensive tour around the globe, summarizing relevant legislation and key developments in workplace bullying, harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, violence, and stress in over 50 countries in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, the Americas region, and the Middle East and Africa. Workplace bullying, harassment, and other psychological workplace hazards are becoming increasingly acknowledged and legislated against in the modern work world. The costs of bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress at work are huge and far-reaching. Frequently under-reported and misunderstood, workplace bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress wreak havoc on the vitality and prosperity of organizations and individuals alike.
Allen, Ben T.
This booklet on sexual harassment on college campuses covers sexual harassment law, harassment prevention, protection from liability, and handling allegations. Chapter 1, "What Is Sexual Harassment?" defines the term and gives an overview of sexual harassment law. Chapter 2, "How Does Sexual Harassment Law Apply in Actual Situations?" illustrates…
... bottlenose dolphins, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS... School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Harassment Authorizations (IHAs) pursuant to section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA for similar specified...
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.
While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M
Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C
Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program-Make a Move-targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen's ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cortina, Lilia M; Wasti, S Arzu
This study explicates the complexity of sexual harassment coping behavior among 4 diverse samples of working women: (a) working-class Hispanic Americans, (b) working-class Anglo Americans, (c) professional Turks, and (d) professional Anglo Americans. K-means cluster analysis revealed 3 common harassment coping profiles: (a) detached, (b) avoidant negotiating, and (c) support seeking. The authors then tested an integrated framework of coping profile determinants, involving social power, stressor severity, social support, and culture. Analysis of variance, chi-square, and discriminant function results identified significant determinants at each of the 4 levels of this ecological model. These findings underscore the importance of focusing on whole patterns of experience--and considering influences at the level of the individual employee and multiple levels of the surrounding context--when studying how women cope with workplace sexual harassment.
... of Sexual Harassment in an Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 43, No 1 (2016) - Articles Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Harassment in an Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0047-651X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
... them. Data are from the 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Components (WGRR), which was designed both to estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of harassment...
World of Work, 1997
A discussion of judicial and arbitral trends regarding sexual harassment addresses what constitutes harassment, outlines legislative action and judicial decisions, and identifies recent trends that show the evolution of social responses to it. (JOW)
Gender and Behaviour ... Sexual harassment is a recurring decimal in tertiary institutions. The paper therefore investigates the effects of sexual harassment on the academic performance of female students, using Delta State University, Abraka, ...
data records from 1996 to 2006 on issues to do with sexual harassment from ... and protect the potential victim ... college women have been sexually harassed. There are .... environment which the University should provide for. , students to ...
... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action or...
Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.
Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…
This report describes the occurrence of discipline referrals and corresponding interventions and consequences used by schools for "harassment," "intimidation," or "bullying" behaviors during the 2013-2014 school year. Using data entered into the West Virginia Education Information System (WVEIS), the authors conducted…
Vohlídalová, M. (Marta)
The paper focuses on perceptions and constructions of sexual harassment by students and the gap between students’ individual definitions and expert definitions of sexual harassment. The paper centres on two main research questions: i) how do students perceive sexual harassment and ii) what are the factors and dimensions that contribute to particular behaviour being labelled as sexual harassment? The study is based on qualitative in-depth interviews with students.
Jardim, Lucia Rodrigues
This study aims to determine how sexual harassment can effectively be managed in the workplace in accordance with sexual harassment policies and procedures. The literature review takes an in depth view into: local and international codes with reference to the differences and similarities between the codes; the processes and procedures managers should follow when faced with sexual harassment grievances; the legal alternatives available to victims of sexual harassment. The empirical research wa...
Fasting, K; Brackenridge, CH; Walseth, K
Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and/or characteristics and/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in Norway who indicated in a prior survey (N =572) that they had experienced sexual harassment from ...
Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knežević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
Aim To develop a questionnaire on harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. Methods We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales –exposure to harassment,...
Describes and compares the law applicable to sexual harassment at work in 23 industrialized countries. Shows how different legal approaches have been adopted to combat sexual harassment in the countries surveyed and how this diversity reflects differences of legal traditions and of attitudes toward the legal classification of sexual harassment.…
Background: A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and ...
Sydell, Eric J.; Nelson, Eileen S.
Examines influence of gender and race on perception of sexual harassment and on recommended punitive measures by college judicial boards for potential harasser. Significant gender-based differences were found in perception of an ambiguous sexual-harassment situation, with men tending to attribute greater responsibility to victim than did women.…
Woody, Robert Henley; Perry, Nancy Walker
Examines legal proscriptions and practical definitions of sexual harassment, describes psychological effects of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Trauma Syndrome) for victim-client and impact on family system, and offers guidance for family therapy. Focuses on vulnerability of victim-client, reconstruction of self-concept as primary goal of…
Stedham, Yvonne; Mitchell, Merwin C.
This study focuses on sexual harassment and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover among casino employees. It is the first study investigating sexual harassment in the gaming industry. Based on sex-role spillover theory it was expected that sexual harassment has less of an impact on casino employees than on employees in other industries. Six Reno, Nevada casinos participated in the study and 330 responses were generated from casino employees. The study results show that sexual harassment of and by casino employees is perceived to occur at about the same rate as in other industries. Sexually harassed employees were compared to employees who indicated that they had not been sexually harassed. Sexually harassed employees were less satisfied with their jobs and less committed to the organization. However, they were not more likely to quit their jobs. Sexually harassed employees tended to be younger, Caucasian, and in dealer positions. Hence, in addition to the well-publicized cost of sexual harassment lawsuits, the study shows that sexual harassment in casinos may well be the source of hidden costs important to human resources managers. A result of major interest was that employees who had been harassed held management responsible for not ensuring a work environment that is free of sexual harassment. Implications for casino management are discussed.
Tochterman, Suzanne; Barnes, Fred
Discusses teachers as victims of sexual harassment in their classrooms. Includes examples involving preservice and new teachers. Discusses the impact of harassment on teachers themselves and on classroom performance. Offers strategies to support and intervene with new teachers who have been victims of sexual harassment. (MKA)
Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E.
Objective: An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares…
York, Kenneth M.
In 1980, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) published the Guidelines on Sexual Harassment, specifying that sexual harassment is a kind of sex discrimination under Title VII and is an unlawful employment practice. While the determination of the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment would enable employees to write more…
Townsley, Nikki C.; Geist, Patricia
Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication, illustrating the discursive enactment of hegemony through organizational responses to sexual harassment. Analyzes stories from both victims of sexual harassment and administrators who manage sexual harassment complaints at a major United States university. Argues that…
A study examined four reports of sexual harassment on college campuses. The reports show that harassers "key" their victims so that a contest will begin but the victims do not understand what is happening. Miscommunication occurs when power myths about men and women intersect during the harassment episode. Such myths include: the looking…
Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.
Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Lytell, Maria C.
Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…
Ashbaughm, Lauren P.; Cornell, Dewey G.
Sexual harassment is widely viewed as a form of bullying, but has received little attention in studies of middle school students. A survey of 109 6th grade students found that 29% of students reported at least one sexual harassment experience in the past 30 days, with 11% reporting harassment once per week or more. Although boys and girls reported…
DeSouza, Eros R.
The current study investigated incivility, sexual harassment, and racial-ethnic harassment simultaneously when the targets were faculty members and the perpetrators were students (i.e., academic contrapower harassment; ACH). The sample constituted 257 faculty members (90% were White and 53% were women) from a medium-sized state university in the…
Wishnietsky, Dan H.
Study surveyed North Carolina school superintendents (n=140) and high school seniors (n=300) on the extent of teacher-student sexual harassment. Data revealed discrepancies between the number of teachers disciplined for student sexual harassment and the number of students claiming harassment. Presents a structure for establishing guidelines to…
American Association of University Women, 2011
Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…
Holzbauer, Jerome J.; Conrad, Clifton F.
The purpose of this exploratory study of disability harassment was to develop a typology of disability harassment experiences anchored in the perspectives of students with disabilities who have experienced harassment in urban, suburban, and exurban-rural schools. Based on focus group interviews with four groups of young people with various…
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
This article provides an analysis of teachers' perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment,…
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Beran, Tanya N.; Rinaldi, Christina; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harassment in high school and into university, and the impact of one particular form of harassment: cyber-harassment. Participants were 1,368 students at one US and two Canadian universities (mean age = 21.1 years, 676 female students). They responded on five-point scales to questions about…
O'Connell, Colleen E.; Korabik, Karen
A survey of 214 female university employees found that gender harassment was most frequently experienced, but it was not related to age. Harassment by peers was associated with higher stress and intent to quit. Harassment by higher-level men was associated with a wider variety of negative outcomes. (SK)
Full Text Available Mobbing and harassment are widely analysed in organizations providing various services but are little studied in the companies undertaking industrial activities. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to diagnose the prevalence of mobbing and harassment in the steel enterprises. The case study analysis of the largest steel producer in the world, and specifically its division in Poland was used to determine the prevalence of these phenomena. It was found out that the said company is the example of the ethically and socially responsible organization. However, the interviews indicate that single cases of mobbing and harassment activities (though relatively rare were also observed. They were distributed among three groups of employees: 1 those who do physical work (are directly engaged in the production process; 2 employees involved in the administrative activity and sales; and 3 managerial staff.
Full Text Available This paper follows on a previous paper describing a studyconducted on sexual harassment in the physiotherapy work environment inSouth Africa. A survey questionnaire was used to determine the reactions ofphysiotherapists after they experienced their worst incidents of sexualharassment. The most common method of handling the sexual harassmentwas to avoid the perpetrator or situation. The most common effects relatedto work performance after the sexual harassment had occurred, were adecrease in concentration, job pleasure and confidence in job performanceand the most common emotional effect experienced was anger.
L. Bütow-Dûtoit; C.A. Eksteen; M. De Waal
This paper follows on a previous paper describing a studyconducted on sexual harassment in the physiotherapy work environment inSouth Africa. A survey questionnaire was used to determine the reactions ofphysiotherapists after they experienced their worst incidents of sexualharassment. The most common method of handling the sexual harassmentwas to avoid the perpetrator or situation. The most common effects relatedto work performance after the sexual harassment had occurred, were adecr...
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Garbin, Artênio José Insper; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba
Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611)]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Baird, C L; Bensko, N L; Bell, P A; Viney, W; Woody, W D
Perceptions of sexual harassment were investigated as a function of perpetrators' and recipients' gender. Undergraduate students (100 women, 98 men) were presented 34 scenarios of men and women interacting at work. Participants were asked to read carefully each scenario and indicate on a scale anchored by 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree) their opinions as to whether the scenario represented an incident of sexual harassment. Analysis indicated that women rated "hostile environment" scenarios as more harassing than men, and male perpetrators were rated as more harassing than female perpetrators. Even though some scenarios were rated as more harassing than others, the full range of the 7-point scale was used on every scenario, indicating a lack of agreement on what constitutes harassment. This lack of agreement highlights the debate within the legal community about whether the "reasonable person" or the "reasonable woman" standard should be used to judge sexual harassment in the workplace.
Dresden, Brooke E; Dresden, Alexander Y; Ridge, Robert D; Yamawaki, Niwako
The prevalence of gender harassment in male-dominated workforces has been well established, but little is known regarding the experiences of women in male-dominated majors within academia. The current study examines the experiences and gender-related biases of 146 male and female students in male-dominated (MD) and gender-equivalent (GE) majors. This study hypothesizes that men from MD majors, as opposed to GE majors, will exhibit more explicit and implicit bias regarding women in positions of power and authority, resulting in a higher prevalence of gender harassment towards women in MD majors. Results showed that there was no significant difference in self-reported explicit bias against women in positions of power and authority between men from MD and GE majors, but there was significantly more implicit bias among men from MD majors as opposed to GE majors. Additionally, women from MD majors experienced significantly more gender harassment than women from GE majors. Implications of these findings and suggestions to assist those working in education to combat these biases and instances of harassment are discussed.
Witkowska, Eva; Gillander Gådin, Katja
The aim of the study was to explore what behaviors experienced from peers and school staff at school are acknowledged as sexual harassment, and perceived as problematic, by female high school students, and what other factors may be relevant. Analyses were performed of responses (to 540 questionnaires) in an anonymous self-report mail survey from a random sample of female Swedish high-school students (59% response rate). Exposure to relevant behaviors, of varying levels of severity, alone, does not explain the acknowledgment of harassment. Many students were subjected to many of the potentially offensive behaviors without labeling them as sexual harassment, despite the fact that they saw many of them as problematic. Further, viewing the relevant behaviors as problems in one's school did not necessarily lead to acknowledging that sexual harassment in general was a problem. However, the behaviors seen as problems were less likely to be dismissed as sexual harassment than personal experiences. This was especially true of the most common behaviors, namely verbal ones. The results demonstrate female students' reluctance to label incidents as sexual harassment, despite the fact that actual behaviors are perceived as environmental problems. Potentially offensive sex-related behaviors become normalized in the school environment and are difficult to address, when little support is provided by schools.
Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne
Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…
Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather
Studies of legal mobilization often focus on people who have perceived some wrong, but rarely consider the process that selects them into the pool of potential “mobilizers.” Similarly, studies of victimization or targeting rarely go on to consider what people do about the wrong, or why some targets come forward and others remain silent. We here integrate sociolegal, feminist, and criminological theories in a conceptual model that treats experiencing sexual harassment and mobilizing in response to it as interrelated processes. We then link these two processes by modeling them as jointly determined outcomes and examine their connections using interviews with a subset of our survey respondents. Our results suggest that targets of harassment are selected, in part, because they are least likely to tell others about the experience. Strategies that workers employ to cope with and confront harassment are also discussed. We find that traditional formal/informal dichotomies of mobilization responses may not fully account for the range of ways individuals respond to harassment, and we propose a preliminary typology of responses. PMID:20300446
Newman, Meredith A.; Jackson, Robert A.; Baker, Douglas D.
Data from the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n=8,081) determined that worker characteristics (age, marital status, employment status) are the principal influence on the likelihood that workers will be sexually harassed. Those most likely also perceive training to be ineffective. Training programs must be reevaluated and upgraded. (Contains…
... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... to Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex, § 1604.11(a) n. 1, 45 FR 7476 sy 74677 (November 10... for acts of harassment in the workplace on the basis of national origin, where the employer, its...
Rogers, Frances E.
No school board member, administrator, or teacher wants to see a student suffering from taunts of the student's peers, but with budget cutbacks, reductions in force, and increased class size, teachers and administrators are stretched too thin to easily identify, investigate, and remedy student-on-student harassment. But school districts must…
Knowledge of HIV/sexually transmitted infections, sexual behavior and HIV ... and outcome of HIV+ sero-status disclosure to a significant other among men and ... Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in Ebonyi ...
Niven, D; Wang, C; Rowe, M P; Taga, M; Vladeck, J P; Garron, L C
The past year has seen a growing public awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace. The question of what constitutes sexual harassment and how to recognize it has been debated in the news, the courts, and Congress. This HBR case study is less concerned with defining it than with examining what a manager should do about it. When Filmore Trust manager Jerry Tarkwell found out one of his employees was being sexually harassed on the job, he thought he knew exactly what to do. Following company policy, he immediately notified the bank's equal employment office. Then he called Jill McNair, the employee being harassed. Her response dumbfounded him. "You had no right to call EEO before talking to me," McNair said angrily. Do you have any idea what could happen to me and to my career if people find out about this?" Tarkwell didn't understand; McNair wasn't to blame. He believed the only person who should be worried was the harasser. Tarkwell tried to spell out the procedure for her. "All you have to do is write a letter and ..." McNair cut him off. "If this gets investigated by EEO, everyone in the building could be questioned. I'll probably get transferred, and then I won't have a chance at promotion. And who'd want to work with me? Every man in the company would be afraid I'd report him if he so much as opened a door for me."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Using nationally representative data from the 1992 U.S. National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the prevalence and risk factors of lifetime workplace sexual harassment among both women and men. Among those aged 18-60 reporting ever having worked, 41% of women (CI, 37-44) reported any workplace harassment over their lifetime, with men's harassment prevalence significantly lower, at 32% (CI, 29-35). In the youngest age groups (those in their 20s or younger), there was no statistically significant difference between women's and men's harassment prevalence. Multivariate analysis of risk factors suggested that, in contrast to much of the harassment literature, among both genders workplace harassment seemed to have at least as much to do with a system of "routine activities" mechanisms-a victim's conscious or unconscious sexual signaling, more exposure to potential harassers, and a perpetrator's lower cost of harassment-as with unobserved differences in power between victim and perpetrator. Strikingly, both women's and men's harassment was strongly linked to markers of sexualization, whether early developmental factors or behavioral patterns in adulthood-a mechanism insufficiently emphasized in the harassment literature.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E
Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knežević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
Aim To study the incidence of harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. Methods We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales –exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. Results All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach α coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (χ21 = 249.301; P harassment disturbed women more than men (χ21 = 5.27; P = 0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U = 31401.50; z = 2.129; P = 0.033). Conclusion The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment. PMID:18717002
Luo, T Y
This study, with the use of a questionnaire survey method, examined the characteristics of sexual harassment experiences and the dynamics of the attitudes toward sexual harassment among male and female workers in Taipei. An occupationally representative sample of male and female workers was recruited to participate in the survey. The findings showed that 1 in 4 workers in Taipei experienced some sort of sexual harassment in the workplace, 36% (n = 493) of the surveyed women and 13% (n = 415) of the surveyed men reported experiencing workplace sexual harassment. The most frequently reported type of sexual harassment was unwanted sexual jokes/comments, followed by unwanted deliberate body contact, and unwanted requests/pressure for a date. The major source of sexual harassment came from coworkers of the opposite sex. Majority of the alleged victims attributed their sexual harassment incident to insensitivity of the initiator. In being consistent with previous research, the study established three attitudinal models toward sexual harassment among Chinese workers: the victim-blame/trivialization model, the natural/biological explanation, and the power/manipulation model. The study found no consistent relationship between the self-rated attitudes toward sexual harassment and the self-reported sexual harassment experiences.
Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro
Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation
Halgas, Jordan T. L.
In a litigious society, it is of particular importance that students understand the law of sexual harassment and sexual harassment investigations. Sexual harassment litigation can create a heavy financial burden on employers. Sexual harassment investigations and litigation also cause a social impact on employers. In order to provide students with…
Guidelines and institutional policies regarding sexual harassment in academia have a relatively short and controversial background. Deference to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines in employment sexual harassment incidents guides much of the thinking in contemporary courts. Title IX of the Educational Amendments and the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 are but two of the legal redresses available to students with harassment grievance complaints. Lack of definition of the term as well as research studies in nursing complicate the issue of sexual harassment. The potential impact of harassment on nursing students both in the classroom and in the practice area is significant. Nursing administrators and educators must be proactive in writing and implementing policies regarding sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment and hostile work environments are explored. Managerial roles are discussed, including taking a proactive approach and dealing appropriately with an employee's claim. Nurse managers must confront the issue of sexual harassment as complaints continue to develop throughout the industry. Because managers are responsible for employees' actions, it is essential that they familiarize themselves with what constitutes the act and how to handle a claim. Sexual harassment is defined by US Civil Rights Acts (1964 and 1991), US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, UK's Equal Opportunities Commission, American Nurses Association and the Royal College of Nursing. Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation is also related to workplace sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is a widespread problem within the industry, claiming both men and women as its victims. Managers can be held responsible for sexual harassment even if they are unaware of the existence of behaviour.
Full Text Available No study has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of 982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist. Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.
Cortina, Lilia M
Bridging the social support, sexual victimization, and cultural psychology literatures, this study examines social-support processes in the context of sexual harassment and Hispanic American culture. Surveys were administered to a community sample of Hispanic American working women, 249 of whom described some encounter with sexual harassment at work. Regression results provided mixed backing for hypotheses about support-seeking behavior, which appeared largely dependent on the social power of the harassment perpetrator. Additional findings upheld predictions about support-perception patterns; harassed women perceived more supportive social reactions when they turned to informal networks of friends and family, but responses were less positive when they turned to formal, organizational sources. Finally, as expected, perceived support and acculturation interacted to moderate relations between sexual harassment and job satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for research and interventions related to social support and sexual harassment.
Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
Sexual harassment has traditionally been studied as men's harassment of women. This has led to a lack of knowledge about same sex harassment, and women harassing peers. This has also downplayed the inherent sexual nature of sexual harassment acts. While keeping in mind that sexual harassment is undesirable and causes distress, one needs to consider that many acts that are perceived as unwanted may not primarily be motivated by a wish to derogate but rather by an interest in soliciting short-t...
María del Carmen Herrera; Antonio Herrera; Francisca Expósito
Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different v...
Equal Opportunities in the Employment (Amendment) Act of 2006 has introduced the employers' compulsory obligation to prevent sexual harassment and has reinforced the employers' liability for taking measures against sexual harassment in the workplace. Recently some court cases charging sexual harassment as sexual violence have appeared. These cases of rape in the workplace try defendants from the viewpoint of psychological studies, using such concepts as rape-trauma syndrome. These trends, how...
Jo Krøjer; Sine Lehn-Christiansen; Mette Lykke Nielsen
Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working li...
harassment conduct. It concludes that the direct criminalization of sexual harassment poses serious constitutional and practical problems that need...34an unlawful employment practice for any employer . . . to discriminate against an individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or...women only after they either simulated masturbating it or performing fellatio on it) 76 had official "zero tolerance" policies on sexual harassment
Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knezević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
To develop a questionnaire on harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales -exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (chi(2)(1)=249.301; Pharassment disturbed women more than men (chi(2)(1)=5.27; P=0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U=31401.50; z=2.129; P=0.033). The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment.
Lee Kum Chee; Mohd Nazari Ismail; Chan Foong Bee
This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual hara...
Rospenda, Kathleen M
Given the negative outcomes associated with sexual harassment (SH) and generalized nonsexual workplace harassment (GWH), this study examines the relationship between SH and GWH and help-seeking behavior in a sample of 2,038 university employees. Employees who experienced SH or GWH were more likely to report having sought mental health or health services to deal with workplace issues, compared with those who did not experience SH or GWH, controlling for job stress and prior services use. Women experiencing GWH were more likely to use services than men, but the same was not true for SH. Men experiencing SH who sought services exhibited higher levels of some alcohol outcomes, contrary to expectations. Implications for workplace interventions and for service providers are discussed.
Fitzgerald, L F
Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although true epidemiological studies do not exist, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that approximately 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The data indicate that harassment is degrading, frightening, and sometimes physically violent; frequently extends over a considerable period of time; and can result in profound job-related, psychological; and health-related consequences. This article provides a brief review of the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment and outlines social policy implications for research, legislation, and primary prevention.
M. Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers’ ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim’s self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men’s perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The study involved 101 men who were administered a questionnaire focusing on two of the most frequent types of harassment (gender harassment vs. unwanted sexual attention and victim response (confrontation vs. non confrontation, both of which were manipulated. Moreover, the influences of ideological variables, ambivalent sexism, and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception were also assessed. The results highlight the complexities involved in recognizing certain behaviors as harassment and the implications of different victim responses to incidents of harassment. As the coping strategies used by women to confront harassment entail drawbacks that pose problems or hinder them, the design and implementation of prevention and/or education programs should strive to raise awareness among men and women to further their understanding of this construct.
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Around 300 people attended the talk on 'Sexual and psychological harassment: suffering at work' given by specialist Véronique Ducret at CERN at the end of May. The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel organised this event with the aim of making it clear to CERN personnel what sexual harassment and mobbing are, and how to combat them. Véronique Ducret during her talk at CERN. A look can have a thousand different connotations. But at what point does it stop being just a look and become an intrusion on someone's privacy? When someone persists in this kind of behaviour, it ends up by making the other person feel uncomfortable. This was one of the questions that was answered during Véronique Ducret's talk on 'Sexual and psychological harassment: suffering at work'. Another question answered concerned mobbing - up to what point is it acceptable to put pressure on someone at work? Here again her answer pointed to situations which persist over time and the manner in which the pressure is applied. These kinds o...
Quick, James Campbell; McFadyen, M Ann
Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH in organizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there is an increase in complaints by males. No, there has been an increase in the percentage of merit resolutions and monetary benefits. Maybe, because how do we explain the complexity of SH with emergent gay, lesbian, and transgender workforce members. One persistent problematic aspect of SH lack of agreement on definition. We address 2 of the 3 definitional approaches. We consider the broad, negative consequences for organizations and for individual victims. Harassers and aggressors destroy lives, leaving long legacies of suffering. In addition, we offer some suggestions for moving forward in science and practice, with emphasis on the role of the bystander. We conclude that SH is a preventable, if not always predictable, occupational health problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Serafim, Alessandra da Cruz; Custódio, Kamilla Valler; da Silva, Lizandra; Cruz, Roberto Moraes
Programs geared towards the occupational health of public workers, that include the prevention of moral harassment, have been created in Santa Catarina. Any institution identified for its poor records in regards to moral harassment will end up having its image tainted before society at large. This is due to its use of arbitrary and embarrassing means for accomplishing everyday tasks. This article aims to consider Workplace Psychological Harassment (WPH), its risks and implications for the health of public workers. The methodology chosen was a teacher's case study, which consisted of document research, interviews, anamnesis and observation, all in order to relate both theory and practice. The results indicate that WPH is a complex phenomenon, which can be studied in a variety of ways. WPH risks the biopsychosocial health of the worker, causing the deterioration in social-professional relations, illness, and incapacity, as well as higher costs and certain degradation in production. It is difficult to prove incidents and their impact. Nevertheless, this research concluded that WPH has harmful consequences for the physical and mental health of workers, and is in the ergonomic field, since part of this profession's role is to seek understanding of work in order to reorganize it.
Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Shannon, Candice A
Using three waves of data from an ongoing study of current and former university employees (N = 1,656), the authors reexamined the roles of sexual (SH) and generalized (GWH) workplace harassment and gender in predicting use of professional services by focusing on patterning (chronic, remission, onset, intermittent, and never harassed). The authors also reexamined whether services moderated relationships between SH and GWH patterns and drinking and mental health outcomes. All patterns of SH, but only chronic GWH, predicted increased odds of services use. Services use did not moderate relationship between SH patterns and outcomes, but was associated with lower alcohol consumption for men with GWH remission or chronicity, reduced escape drinking for those with GWH remission, and reduced hostility for those with intermittent GWH.
Cass, Stacie A; Levett, Lora M; Kovera, Margaret Bull
Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 128) read a sexual harassment trial summary in which harassment severity and the organization's sexual harassment policy and response were manipulated. Jurors who read the severe harassment scenario were more likely to agree that the plaintiff had suffered and should be compensated for her suffering and that the organization should be punished than were jurors who read the mild harassment scenario. When the organization had and enforced a sexual harassment policy, jurors believed that the plaintiff had suffered little and the organization should not be punished compared with conditions in which the organization did not have an enforced sexual harassment policy. Harassment severity influenced jurors' compensatory awards, and organizational behavior influenced jurors' punitive awards. These results have implications for plaintiffs, who must decide whether to claim specific or garden-variety damages; organizations, which could create or modify sexual harassment policy to limit damages; and trial lawyers, who could tailor arguments to maximize or minimize awards. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Review of national legislation and key cases on sexual harassment in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa identified the following trends: recognition of harassment as employment discrimination, the importance of the legal framework used and the composition of the hearing body, the issue of individual or employer liability, and the influence of…
Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.; Crosswhite, Alicia M.
Both sexual harassment and managerial crisis communication are important topics in undergraduate, graduate, and executive programs. This article describes a group role-play exercise that engages students in the process of responding to a public claim of workplace sexual harassment and requires small groups to share their reactions within a press…
Watstein, Sarah Barbara
Examines the issue of sexual harassment in the library workplace and library profession. Laws relating to sexual harassment in the library are explored, and the immediate and long-term preventive solutions at the individual, institutional, and association levels are discussed. (KRN)
28 mars 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens. The HarassMap project is aiming to change that attitude at home and abroad, empowering women and changing the attitudes of men in the process.
The paper focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment in tertiary science education and its attendant effects on students and academics. Data from a survey of six higher institutions comprising two universities, two colleges of education and two polytechnics was used. Results indicate high rate of sexual harassment of ...
Quietly, many women in the world face an uphill battle at home, at work and on college campuses. The battle is sexual harassment. The numbers are staggering. Every day, hundreds of thousands of women are sexually harassed. In the developing nations, because of customs and traditions, women are afraid to speak out.
Roč. 47, č. 6 (2011), s. 1119-1147 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007; GA ČR GAP 404/10/0021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : sexual harassment * higher education * anti-harassment policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2011
Henning, Marcus A.; Zhou, Chen; Adams, Peter; Moir, Fiona; Hobson, Jennifer; Hallett, Charlene; Webster, Craig S.
Workplace harassment in higher education adversely impacts workforce productivity and has deleterious health effects on victims. The aim of this study was to review the literature pertaining to workplace harassment in higher education. This systematic literature search was conducted in December 2013 and completed in January 2014. Refereed journal…
Lewis, Jacqueline; Coursol, Diane; Wahl, Kay Herting
Workplace harassment includes dysfunctional personal interactions characterized by bullying behaviors, personal attacks, and attempts to denigrate others. Targets of workplace harassment may experience stress, depression, low self-esteem, loss of sleep, and even posttraumatic stress disorder. Strategies that counselors can use to work effectively…
Loeffler, T. A.
Sexual harassment can be devastating and have tremendous impact on the emotional well-being, physical health, and vocational success of those who experience it. It is especially important for outdoor education program staff to proactively address sexual harassment because these programs often take place in remote locations that may make escape…
A practicum to determine the need for a sexual harassment policy and to develop an appropriate policy for Sheldon Jackson College, Alaska, is described. The objective of the practicum was to determine the impact of equal opportunity legislation, specifically as it relates to sexual harassment of students, on the private college campus. The…
Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.
This paper focuses on the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. The legal definition of sexual harassment as drawn up by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is: "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that are explicitly or implicitly a term or condition…
Vance, Suzy; Wendt, Anne
Developed a construct of sexual issues/sexual harassment in the workplace based on survey responses of 101 participants in a training program on sexual harassment before the training and 111 participants after the training. Results show a progression of attitudes toward behaviors from safe to most dangerous. (SLD)
Keyton, Joann; Rhodes, Steve
A study identified the verbal and nonverbal behaviors that people associate with flirting as opposed to sexual harassment, determined whether people could successfully distinguish between flirting and sexual harassment, and examined the relationship between variables that might affect the first two objectives. Subjects, 57 females and 32 males…
Robin, Gaëlle; Stéphan, Florian; Le Galudec, Mickaël; Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Walter, Michel
Harassment may be either moral, physical or sexual. It is defined as a phenomenon that happens repeatedly. It is underestimated in professional environments and probably even more so in private life. Without referring to a pathological personality, harassers have common pathological traits.
de Haas, Stans; Hoing, Mechtild; Timmerman, M.C.
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual
De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.
In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article, we present the results of our review study of research on sexual harassment in the workplace in 11 Northern and Western European countries and consider
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Young disadvantaged workers are especially vulnerable to harassment due to their age and social class position. As young people enter the workforce, their experiences of, and reactions to, harassment may vary dramatically from those of older adult workers. Three case studies introduce theory and research on the relationship between social class…
Waldo, C R; Berdahl, J L; Fitzgerald, L F
Research on sexual harassment has recently expanded to include examination of men's experiences. Such research, however, has ignored the power dynamics involved in sexual harassment and typically assumed exclusively heterosexual situations. We examine legal cases illustrating the many forms that male-male harassment may take and the complex array of situations in which such harassment occurs. We then report the frequencies of experiences of harassment in three large samples of working men as well as the sex of the perpetrators of the harassment. Finally, we examine men's evaluations of these situations to determine the degree to which they found them to be harassing in a psychological sense. Our results indicate that men experience potentially sexually harassing behaviors from other men at least as often as they do from women; however, men in all samples reported relatively few negative reactions to these experiences. Future research should examine the predictors and outcomes of such situations to clarify the meaning of such behavior for male targets.
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Beck, Amy Gray; Fung, Kakim; Montiel, Marta; Goldman, Madeline
Gender discrimination and sexual harassment persist on college campuses across the United States. This seems especially obvious at the beginning of the academic year when many freshman women and their parents are welcomed to campus with sexually explicit signs displayed on all-male residences. But, sometimes, sexual harassment and gender…
Sexual harassment broke into the national consciousness in 1991, when Anita Hill accused Clarence Thomas--then a nominee to the U.S. Supreme Court--of having made sexually inappropriate comments to her. The controversy spawned a flood of charges nationwide, including on college campuses. Since then colleges have tried to stem harassment with…
Mansell, Jamie; Moffit, Dani M.; Russ, Anne C.; Thorpe, Justin N.
Context: Sexual harassment is a growing concern in higher education. Athletic training students should feel safe in their programs, whether in the didactic or clinical setting. Though the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education creates standards to keep the students safe, there are none regarding sexual harassment training for…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior...
Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.
Bossler, Adam M.; Holt, Thomas J.; May, David C.
Online harassment can consist of threatening, worrisome, emotionally hurtful, or sexual messages delivered via an electronic medium that can lead victims to feel fear or distress much like real-world harassment and stalking. This activity is especially prevalent among middle and high school populations who frequently use technology as a means to…
Conroy, Nicole E.
This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…
Websites Employee Resources Gender Relations Academies Work to Prevent Assault, Harassment WASHINGTON, Dec . 13, 2007 - The Defense Department's Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the U.S assault at the U.S. service academies during the 2006-2007 school year, officials are calling them a sign
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…
Questionnaires were distributed to 351 students in a public university in East Coast Malaysia. The findings revealed that 58.6% of the respondents have been harassed at least once and majority of them were female. The greatest form of sexual harassment experience by the respondents was offensive behavior followed by ...
Asserts that men's confusion concerning sexual harassment stems primarily from the difficulty inherent in trying to differentiate between traditional male sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Describes the "5C" model of traditional heterosexual male sexuality (control, conquest, competition, climax, and confusion). Presents approaches for…
de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Konrad, Alison M.; Gutek, Barbara A.
Three theories account for individuals' perceptions of sexual harassment: (1) men and women view and define sexual harassment differently; (2) differential sexual experiences at work account for different perceptions; and (3) gender role "spillover" accounts for perceptual differences. A sample of 1,232 working men and women supports these…
Williams, Karen B.; Cyr, Ramona R.
Studies divergent sexual harassment perceptions in a case of a perpetrator's gradual sexual advancements and a target's escalating commitment to their relationship, using 60 male and 60 female undergraduates. Males' ratings of sexual harassment decreased when female target participated in increasingly informal friendly interactions. Females'…
Brown, Cindy M.; Flatow, Gail M.
Surveys Indiana journalists, finding that two models tested (the sociocultural model and the organizational model, both grounded in conception of power differences between harassed and harasser) have explanatory power, but that they explain the same results in different ways and sometimes combinations of the models provide better explanations of…
Graser, M; Manaouil, C; Verrier, A; Doutrellot-Phillipon, C; Jardé, O
The recent French Law on Social Modernisation of 17 January 2002 introduced into the French Labour Code and into the French Criminal Code, the concept of "moral" harassment. The definition of psychological harassment under this law adopts quite a broad conception of the notion of psychological harassment. The legislator has established a means for "friendly" settlement of disputes: mediation. When it has not been possible to settle the dispute internally, the Courts have a number of sanctions available to them. The French Labour Code provides that any termination of the contract of employment resulting from a situation of psychological harassment is automatically null and void. Such nullification should therefore be applicable whatever the nature of the termination: dismissal, resignation or negotiated departure and it punishes psychological harassment at work by imprisonment for one year and a fine of 3,750 Euros. The French Criminal Code prescribes penalties of one year and 15,000 Euros.
Fornés, Joana; Cardoso, Meiremar; Castelló, Joana Maria; Gili, Margalida
Psychological harassment in the workplace involves disrespectful or humiliating behavior to workers. Nurses make up one of the groups that are most exposed to these behaviors. This descriptive study investigated the most common types of psychological harassment in the nursing workplace and their relationship with sociodemographic variables among 285 nurses in Spain. Findings indicate differences in the prevalence of psychological harassment depending on the criterion that was used. Psychological harassment is positively correlated with a desire to abandon the profession and negatively with participation in decision making. The results suggest combining different measures to evaluate psychological harassment in the workplace and zero-tolerance polices for psychological abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee Kum Chee
Full Text Available This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual harassment which was evaluated using the Sexual Experience Questionnaire developed by Fitzgerald, Shullman, Bailey, Richards, Swecker, Gold, Ormerod, and Weitzman (1988. Data were collected from 657 women employees working in Malaysian organizations. The findings showed that the predictions of the four-factor model are also largely true in the case of the Malaysian workplace. The study also found that sexual harassment behaviors are fairly widespread in Malaysia.
Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F; Ates, Metin
Sexual harassment remains a universal factor that can affect nursing performance and worker productivity in any type of health care facility. There are few studies in this area that have been conducted in developing countries. To measure the occurrence of sexual harassment, a questionnaire was given to 353 nurses in two different hospitals yielding a response rate of 61%. Overall, the majority of the respondents (n = 157 out of 251) reported that they had been subjected to sexual harassment in the workplace, and the harassment experience was strong enough to affect worker productivity. In addition, many nurses reported the belief that sexual harassment remains a disturbing problem in this developing country that should not be ignored. Based on these findings, implications for policy and further study are suggested.
Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason
This study investigated measurement invariance by gender among commonly used teen dating violence (TDV), sexual harassment, and bullying measures. Data were collected from one cohort of seventh-grade middle school students (N = 754) from four schools. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed measurement models and tested measurement invariance by gender for aggression measures. Analyses invoked baseline data only. Physical and psychological TDV perpetration measures achieved strict measurement invariance, while bullying perpetration demonstrated partial strict invariance. Electronic TDV and sexual harassment perpetration achieved metric/scalar invariance. Study findings lend validation to prior and future studies using these measures with similar populations. Future research should increase attention to measurement development, refinement, and testing among study measures. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.
In 2001 the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation released the research report "Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in Schools." According to the report, in the eight years since the original AAUW study, "Hostile Hallways: The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment in America's Schools" (1993), not a lot…
Comer, Debra R.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.
Describes how to use Michael Crichton's novel "Disclosure" and the film based on it for class discussions of such issues as what constitutes sexual harassment, harassment of men, relationship between sexual harassment and power, organizational responses to harassment, and gender differences in career advancement tactics. (SK)
Ivy, Diana K.; Hamlet, Stephen
Shows that more women than men reported being targets of peer sexual harassment. Notes that women view certain behaviors as harassing and as more severe than men. Finds that classmates were a primary category of harassers for women and a secondary category for men. Documents peer sexual harassment in college classrooms and discusses implications…
The literature of sexual harassment, particularly on college campuses, is reviewed. Topics discussed include definition of sexual harassment, legal implications, the role of individual perceptions, victim and peer response to harassment, and development of institutional policy and strategies for combatting harassment. A substantial bibliography is…
Michiue, Masanori. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan)
Authors carried out the outside evaluation that the education system, equipment from curriculum and results of faculty staff were checked by not only self-inspection and evaluation but also insight people outside the faculty in the engineering faculty in the Tottori University. As one part of this evaluation, a guideline to the sexual harassment was made. After then, a guideline to the sexual harassment in each university was completed after learned from the example of the Tottori University. This kind of regulation was made in offices of each ministry and agency, self governing body and company according to the direction of the National Personal Authority. Until recent time, the regulation related to student discussion on the sexual harassment was set up in whole the Tottori University, an environment to make students study at ease was adjusted. These items had the regulation related to student discussion, protection, guideline, when damage happened, and the student discussion room. These items were listed in the student living guideline on the homepage of the Tottori University. (NEDO)
Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan
This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency
Van Niekerk, RL. Vol 16, No 4 (2010): Supplement - Articles The perceptions and occurrence of sexual harassment among male student athletes with male coaches. Abstract · Vol 16, No 4 (2010): Supplement - Articles Understanding the barriers to and reasons for physical exercise among university students. Abstract.
Popoola, BI. Vol 1, No 1 (2008) - Articles Peer Sexual Harassment And Coping Mechanisms Of Female Students In A Nigerian University Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 2 (2010) - Articles Personality Traits as Predictors of Stress among female Teachers in Osun State Teaching Service Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-7593.
Cattell, K. Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Harassment and discrimination experienced by quantity surveyors in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2415-0487. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Bowen, P. Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Harassment and discrimination experienced by quantity surveyors in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1023-0564. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Edwards, P. Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Harassment and discrimination experienced by quantity surveyors in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2415-0487. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Rezvan, Mohammadreza; Shekarpour, Saeedeh; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Shalin, Valerie; Sheth, Amit
Having a quality annotated corpus is essential especially for applied research. Despite the recent focus of Web science community on researching about cyberbullying, the community dose not still have standard benchmarks. In this paper, we publish first, a quality annotated corpus and second, an offensive words lexicon capturing different types type of harassment as (i) sexual harassment, (ii) racial harassment, (iii) appearance-related harassment, (iv) intellectual harassment, and (v) politic...
Long, Denise A.
Sexual harassment has serious implications for both the individual and the organization. However, there appears to be confusion among different groups of people as to what behaviors constitute sexual harassment. The present study was designed as an aid in defining sexual harassment and an attempt to discover any differences which may exist between groups in what is considered to be sexual harassment. Perceiving certain behaviors as being sexual harassment appears to be...
Pierre Joubert; Christo van Wyk; Sebastiaan Rothmann
This article aims to investigate the perceptions of academic staff relating to the incidence of sexual harassment at higher education institutions in South Africa. The results show a relatively low incidence level of sexual harassment, with gender harassment being more prevalent than unwanted sexual attention and quid pro quo harassment. No statistically significant effect of gender, age, population group or years of service was found on the perceptions of the incidence of sexual harassment. ...
The individual perception of sexual harassment and the gap between the individual and legal-institutional defi nitions of sexual harassment has been subject to intense scientifi c scrutiny as this is considered to be one of the reasons for the failure of anti-harassment policies. This article focuses on perceptions and constructions of sexual harassment by students and the gap between students’ individual defi nitions and expert (mainly legislative) definitions of sexual harassment. The artic...
Garbin, Andréia De Conto; Fischer, Frida Marina
To analyze discourses on workplace psychological harassment in print media. Documental study on workplace psychological harassment that analyzed news stories published in three major newspapers of the State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil) between 1990 and 2008. Discourse analysis was performed to identify discursive practices that reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.
Takeuchi, Masumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Okinaga, Hiroko; Perumalswami, Chithra R; Jagsi, Reshma
The purpose of this study is three-fold: (1) to compare harassment (sexual, gender, and academic harassment both directly and indirectly experienced - i.e. "directly harassed" and "have seen or heard of someone who experienced harassment", respectively) experienced by males and females, (2) to investigate whether such experiences correlate with burnout, and (3) to explore whether social support might mitigate any such relationship between harassment and burnout. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a private university in Japan in February 2014 and is based on a work-life balance survey obtained from 330 academic faculty members. We investigated the association between each of the six subcategories of harassment (direct and indirect forms of each of the three types) and burnout using general linear regression models; we then evaluated interactions between harassment and social support in these models. The prevalence of direct and indirect experiences of harassment was higher in females than in males for all three types of harassment. Males showed higher burnout scores if they had direct experiences of harassment. There were significant interactions between social support and the direct experience of harassment; high social support mitigated the effect size of direct harassment on burnout among males. Females showed higher burnout scores if they had indirect experiences of harassment. However, the same buffering effect of social support on burnout as observed in males was not observed in females. Direct harassment experiences increased the risk of burnout in males, and indirect harassment experiences increased burnout in females.
María del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different victim responses to harassment. A total of 138 women were administered a questionnaire where the type of harassment, and victim response were manipulated. Moreover, the influence of ideological variables (i.e. ambivalent sexism and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception was assessed. Results show perception of sexual harassment was lower in gender harassment than in unwanted sexual attention and participants believed women who confronted their harasser would be evaluated negatively by men. Furthermore, effects of ideology on perception of harassment were found. The results underscore the complexities involved in defining certain behaviours as harassment, and the implications of different victim responses to harassment.
Abo Ali, Ehab A; Saied, Shimaa M; Elsabagh, Hala M; Zayed, Hanaa A
Sexual harassment against nurses is a major workplace problem causing adverse psychological effects and may affect the occupational performance of the nurses. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of this problem, and its characteristics and consequences among the nursing staff in Tanta University Hospitals, Gharbeia Governorate, Egypt. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 430 nurses at Tanta University Hospitals using a semistructured, self-administered questionnaire to collect the data concerning the exposure and characteristics of harassment situations. A representative sample of the nurses was taken randomly from the emergency, medical and surgical departments. Overall, 70.2% of the studied nurses were ever exposed to sexual harassment at the workplace; 43.7% of the harassed nurses were working in both day and night shifts. Staring in a suggestive manner emerged as the most common form of harassment, followed by hearing sexual words and comments or jokes (70.9, 58.6 and 57.3%, respectively). The relatives of the patients were the most common perpetrators, followed by the hospital staff other than the doctors (61.9, 45.4%, respectively). During the harassment situation, astonishment and shock were the most frequent responses in 65.2% of the harassed nurses, while after its occurrence 38.4% ignored the situation. About 95% of the harassed nurses were left with psychological effects, mostly in the form of disappointment and depression (76.5 and 67.9%, respectively). The prevalence of sexual harassment among nurses at the workplace was high with relation to certain occupational factors, and it led to marked psychological effects on the victims. Hence, protective legislations and measures should be taken by the hospital management for prevention of this problem in the future.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus focusing on the relation between elderly citizens in need of care and their professional caregivers. In this article, we argue that sexual harassment from the elderly toward newcomers in elder care should also be seen as an effect of institutional practices. Based upon a Foucauldianinspired notion of practice-making, the article carries out a secondary analysis of three different empirical studies in order to explore how sexual harassment is produced and maintained through institutional practices in elder care. The term institution in this perspective includes three dimensions; a political, an educational (educational institutions in health and elder care, and a work organizational dimension. By examining elder care in these different dimensions, we identify how sexual harassment of professional caregivers is produced and maintained through institutional practice-making in elder care. The article thus contributes to our knowledge on working life by expanding and qualifying the understanding of the problematic working environment in care work, and by offering an alternative theoretical and analytical approach to the study of sexual harassment. Together, these insights suggest how elder care institutions might act to prevent sexual harassment toward caregivers.
sexual harassment in the workplace has largely been neglected...influences on sexual harassment. In M.S. Stockdale (Ed.) Sexual harassment in the workplace : Perspectives, frontiers, and response strategies (pp...Dealing with harassment: A systems approach. In Margaret S. Stockdale (Ed.) Sexual Harassment in the Workplace ; Perspectives, Frontiers,
Lawson, Angela K; Wright, Caroline Vaile; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Relatively few targets of sexual harassment cope with the psychological sequelae of their experiences by engaging in litigation. Those who do are often subjected to forensic examination to evaluate their history of psychological distress or disorder and to determine whether such a condition could be reasonably attributed to the alleged harassment, as opposed to some other cause. An unbiased approach to such examinations is critical to all parties, as well as to the profession itself. This study investigates the relationship between the clinical and restructured clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Trauma Symptom Inventory subscales, the Crime-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CR-PTSD) scale, and an American Psychiatric Association diagnosis (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM-IV-TR; 4th ed., text rev., 2000, Washington, DC, Author) of PTSD in a sample of sexual harassment plaintiffs. All measures performed well independently, but together provided improved predictive accuracy, suggesting that the use of multiple validated measures as well as structured diagnostic interviews may help us better understand litigants' experiences and reduce bias in evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Perry, Elissa L; Kulik, Carol T; Bourhis, Anne C
Some federal courts have used a reasonable woman standard rather than the traditional reasonable man or reasonable person standard to determine whether hostile environment sexual harassment has occurred. The current research examined the impact of the reasonable woman standard on federal district court decisions, controlling for other factors found to affect sexual harassment court decisions. Results indicated that there was a weak relationship between whether a case followed a reasonable woman precedent-setting case and the likelihood that the court decision favored the plaintiff. The implications of our findings for individuals and organizations involved in sexual harassment claims are discussed.
Settles, Isis H; Buchanan, Nicole T; Yap, Stevie C Y; Harrell, Zaje A T
This study examined data from U.S. military personnel (1,764 men; 4,540 women) to determine whether appraisals of sexual harassment as frightening mediate the relationship between perpetrator characteristics (perpetrator sex and rank) and three psychological/job outcomes (psychological distress, role limitations, and work satisfaction), and whether these relationships were stronger for women than men. Results indicated that frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator rank and all outcomes for both sexes. However, frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator sex and outcomes only for women. As predicted, having a male perpetrator or a higher status perpetrator was more strongly related to frightening appraisals for women than men. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between frightening appraisals and more psychological distress, more role limitations, and less work satisfaction was stronger for men than women. We discuss the results in terms of expectancy norm violations and sexual harassment as a form of dominance.
sexual harassment in 2012 (Defense Manpower Data Center, 2012). More recently , the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study found that approximately...Journal of Women’s Studies , 8, 388-397. Campbell, R. (2008). The psychological impact of rape victims’ experiences with the legal, medical, and...and alcohol related outcomes: The mediating role of psychological distress. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 63, 412-419. Rosen, L. N
Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Flaherty, Joseph A; Freels, Sally; Zlatoper, Ken
Research has linked workplace harassment and abuse with distress and drinking. However, increasing societal attention to sexual harassment (SH) has been accompanied by pressures on work organizations to censure harassing behaviors. We address altered perceptions of the organizational tolerance (OT) for SH and generalized workplace abuse (GWA), changes in the prevalence and incidence of these experiences, and their impact on distress and drinking behaviors. A cohort of workers completed a mail survey at three points in time. Questionnaires assessed perceptions of OT for SH and GWA, experiences of SH and GWA, coping, and distress and drinking behaviors. Both sexes perceived that tolerance of SH and GWA has decreased over time. Changes in reported prevalence of these experiences differed by gender, and incidence for both genders decreased more strongly than prevalence. The linkages between SH/GWA and distress and drinking changed over time, but in different ways for women and men. SH and GWA still have deleterious consequences, and replications of this research and greater efforts at prevention are needed.
Best, Connie L; Smith, Daniel W; Raymond, John R; Greenberg, Raymond S; Crouch, Rosalie K
There is a high incidence of sexual harassment and gender discrimination in academic health center (AHC) settings according to multiple surveys of medical students. Therefore, it is incumbent on AHCs to develop programs both to educate faculty, residents, and students and to handle complaints of possible episodes of sexual harassment or gender discrimination. Despite the apparent high prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment, and the importance of handling complaints of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in a prompt, consistent, and rational manner, there are few descriptions of programs that address those concerns in AHCs.Herein, the authors describe their experiences in dealing with complaints of sexual harassment and gender discrimination for a 10-year period of time (late 1997 to early 2007) at the Medical University of South Carolina, through an Office of Gender Equity. They describe their complaint process, components of their prevention training, and the outcomes of 115 complaints. Key elements of their policies are highlighted. The authors offer an approach that could serve as a model for other AHCs.
Naveed, Anila; Tharani, Ambreen; Alwani, Nasreen
In today's world women are increasingly participating in the realm of work force, yet they are facing many obstacles in their way. Sexual harassment is one of those obstacles. Sexual harassment at work place is prevalent in every society. It could happen to anyone but women are the targeted victims. Sexual harassment is considered as a traumatic event and the victim may end up in having physical and mental sufferings that hinders a person to work effectively. At an organisational level this may result in decrease work effectiveness, decreased work productivity, high absenteeism, high turnover, and low staff morale. Hence there is a need that, organisations and government should look seriously into this matter. Proper education and training programs should be developed to deal with these issues. The goal must be both to deal with sexual harassment incidents effectively and to prevent the occurrence of future incidents.
Chema, J. R
.... Navy has adopted a punitive regulation that directly criminalizes sexual harassment, and has pending a legislative proposal to add a specific article to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ...
Sexual Harassment DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE...DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES Directed by Dr. Daniel P. McDonald, Executive Director 366 Tuskegee Airmen Drive Patrick AFB
Mar 13, 2012 ... and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly ..... incidents, which were widely reported in the media, spurred many dis- ... impact on the general economic development of Egypt and on the tourist.
Cook, Paul J; Jones, Alan M; Lipari, Rachel N; Lancaster, Anita R
This report provides the results for the Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey that the Defense Manpower Defense Center conducted in response to Section 527 of the National Defense...
Expósito, Francisca; Herrera, Antonio; Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Herrera, M Carmen; Lozano, Luis M
Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p sexual harassment.
Gema Martín Seoane
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.
relationship between job stress and harassment and discrimination .... job satisfaction (Ensher, Grant-Vallone & Donaldson, 2001: 56) and ...... income. These findings are consistent with previous research in the field of organisational justice, ...
Fields, Cheryl M.
A review of court decisions indicates that colleges generally had not been held liable for injuries arising from use of alcohol in dormitories or fraternities. Sexual harassment perpetrators are becoming more sophisticated and the incidents are less blatant. (MLW)
Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E
An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares outcomes for girls who experienced harassment versus those who did not. Students in a small, suburban high school for girls completed a paper and pencil survey during class. A modified version of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ: Fitzgerald et al., 1988) was used to identify sexually harassed working teenagers. Work attitudes, assessments of physical health and mental health, and school-related outcomes were measured using standardized scales. Data were analyzed using difference of proportions tests, t-tests, and regression. The percentage of harassed girls was significantly higher than the figures reported in most studies of working women. Girls who were sexually harassed were less satisfied with their jobs and supervisors, had higher levels of academic withdrawal, and were more apt to miss school than their non-harassed peers. Sexual harassment significantly impacts employed high school girls' connections to work and school. It not only taints their attitudes toward work but it also threatens to undermine their commitment to school. Educators, practitioners and community leaders should be aware of the negative impact this work experience may have on adolescents and explore these issues carefully with students who are employed outside of school. Teenage students, stressed by sexual harassment experienced at work may find their career development or career potential impeded or threatened due to school absence and poor academic performance. In addition, the physical safety of working students may be at risk, creating a need for teenagers to receive training to deal with sexual assault and other types of workplace violence
Over the last decade, there has been a growing awareness worldwide of the existence and extent of sexual harassment in the workplace. Governments, employers’ and workers’ organizations in both industrialized and developing countries have introduced a range of laws, policies and procedures aimed at preventing and combating it. Given this proliferation of measures designed to prevent sexual harassment, it is useful to review their development and consider the range of issues enco...
The hospitality industry is seen as one of the industries with the highest number of sexual harassment incidents happening at the work floor. Research discussed reasons for its occurrence, stating reasons as power, vulnerability, but also misinterpretation of one party to another based on body language. One may claim that this industry’s image and having the bedroom as work floor are playing important roles as trigger for sexual harassment to happen casually. To add, the division between sexu...
Lampman, C.; Crew, E. C.; Lowery, S.; Tompkins, K. A.; Mulder, M.
Academic contrapower harassment (ACPH) occurs when someone with seemingly less power in an educational setting (e.g., a student) harasses someone more powerful (e.g., a professor). A representative sample of 289 professors from U.S. institutions of higher education described their worst incident with ACPH. Open-ended responses were coded using a keyword text analysis. Compared to the experiences of men faculty, women faculty reported that students were more likely to challen...
of which are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely one to be...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Mohamed, Ashgar Ali Ali
The vitality of school in proffering solutions to the societal challenges cannot be underrated. However, school as a hub and pivot place in addressing multifarious challenges in our society is faced with some social ills such as bullying and sexual harassment. More profusely, an escalation of sexual harassment in schools’ and on campuses cannot be denied. More copiously, of greater challenges in our contemporary period is inadequate and ineffective measure to curb prevalence of sexual harassm...
Jovanović Slađana; Simeunović-Patić Biljana
The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (in)equality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also giv...
GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba; ZINA, Lívia Guimarães; GARBIN, Artênio José Insper; MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba
OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic...
Lippel, Katherine; Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Funes, Amélie
This article reports on the results of an empirical study of working conditions including psychological harassment (workplace bullying) in the province of Québec, Canada, the first North American jurisdiction to regulate psychological harassment in its labor legislation. All empirical data provided in this article was drawn from the Québec Survey on Working, Employment and Occupational Health and Safety Conditions, conducted through 5071 telephone interviews of a representative sample of Québec workers, including the self-employed. Here we focus on employees, and provide bivariate and multivariate analyses. All analyses were stratified by gender. We provide a portrait of exposure to psychological harassment, and exposure to other psychosocial factors in the workplace associated with exposure to psychological harassment. Results show associations between exposure to psychological harassment and negative health measures including psychological distress, symptoms of depression, traumatic work accidents, musculoskeletal disorders and negative perception of health status. We report on steps taken by employees to put an end to the harassment. Gender similarities and differences in exposure, associated risk factors, health measures and strategies are presented and discussed in light of the legal context in which the study took place. We conclude with recommendations for prevention strategies that take into consideration the gender composition of the workplace. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dionisi, Angela M; Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E
We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed.
Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M
Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.
Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.
Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S
While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.
Zeira, Anat; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
Current empirical literature on sexual harassment in schools is mostly based on nonrepresentative samples of middle-class high-school Caucasian female students. Thus the scope of research regarding gender, age, and cultural differences is very limited. This article reports on findings on sexual harassment in Jewish and Arab schools in Israel with regard to gender, age, and cultural differences. The study is part of the first national survey on school violence in Israel. The representative sample includes 10,400 students in grades 7 through 11 attending public schools in Israel. Students were asked to report whether they were victims of specific acts of sexual harassment in school during the month before the survey. Overall, 29.1% of the students were victims of at least one act of harassment. The more common acts were to show offensive pictures or to send obscene letters, to take off or to try to take off part of the student's clothing, and to try to kiss a student. The most vulnerable groups are the Arab boys and 8th grade students. Report rates were the lowest among Arab girls. Sexual harassment is prevalent in Israeli schools. The pattern of victimization is different for boys and girls and for students in Jewish and Arab schools. These patterns are a complex phenomenon that must be considered in the intervention and policy measures addressing sexual harassment at school.
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women's careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women's career attainment.
MCLAUGHLIN, HEATHER; UGGEN, CHRISTOPHER; BLACKSTONE, AMY
Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women’s careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women’s career attainment. PMID:29056822
Gill, Ritu; Febbraro, Angela R
Recent studies examining sexual harassment in the military indicate a decrease in reports of harassment, which may be attributed to several factors, including zero-tolerance policies or anti-harassment programs. However, the decrease may also be attributed to fears of losing one's job or of being derogated by colleagues if harassment is reported. This qualitative study of women employed in the Canadian combat arms examined spontaneously shared perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment. Six of the 26 women interviewed shared their experiences or perceptions of harassment, including concerns about potential repercussions of reporting. Implications for gender integration in military organizations are discussed.
Wolak, Janis; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David
To shed light on the nature of online harassment and the extent to which it may be bullying by examining differences in the characteristics of harassed youth, online harassment incidents, and distressing online harassment based on the identity of online harassers (known peer vs. online-only contact). A telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 1500 youth Internet users, ages 10 to 17, conducted between March and June 2005. Nine percent (n = 129) of youth were harassed online in the past year, 43% (n = 56) by known peers and 57% (n = 73) by people they met online and did not know in person (online-only contacts). Most online harassment incidents did not appear to meet the standard definition of bullying used in school-based research and requiring aggression, repetition, and power imbalance. Only 25% of incidents by known peers and 21% by online-only contacts involved both repeated incidents and either distress to targets or adult intervention. In many cases, the concept of "bullying" or "cyber-bullying" may be inappropriate for online interpersonal offenses. We suggest using "online harassment," with disclaimers that it does not constitute bullying unless it is part of or related to offline bullying. This would include incidents perpetrated by peers that occur entirely online, but arise from school-related events or relationships and have school-related consequences for targets. The Internet provides opportunities for the extension of conventional school bullying to new venues. Those who study conventional school bullying should include online forms of the behavior in research, prevention, and intervention paradigms.
... related to the activities authorized in the IHA (e.g., previously wounded animal, carcass with moderate to... measures if such species/stock of animal approaches the 120 dB Level B harassment zone. Finally, to avoid...] Location within the ZOI; and [ssquf] Animals' reaction (if any) to pile-driving activities. During...
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To document the prevalence of harassment on the basis of weight, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, as well as sexual harassment, among a diverse population of adolescents. Specifically, this study examined rates of each type of harassment reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category (e.g., racial/ethnic category differences in prevalence of racial harassment), and also explored patterns of "cross-harassment" (i.e., differences in prevalence of each harassment type across all other sociodemographic characteristics). We used data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 for the study. The sample was composed of 2,793 adolescents (53% female; 81% nonwhite). We conducted regression analyses to yield prevalence estimates of each type of harassment in each demographic and body mass index category. Weight- and race-based harassment (35.3% and 35.2%, respectively) was most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (25.0%) and socioeconomic status-based harassment (16.1%). Overweight and obese adolescents reported disproportionately higher rates of all forms of harassment than did normal-weight and underweight adolescents. In addition, Asian and mixed-/other race adolescents were more vulnerable to harassment overall compared with those from other racial/ethnic groups. Harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent boys and girls. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category, but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each type of harassment emerge across a variety of sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents from various intersecting sociodemographic and weight-status groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan
Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan
Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076
Kattari, Shanna K; Hasche, Leslie
Given the increasing diversity among older adults and changes in health policy, knowledge is needed on potential barriers to health care for transgender and gender non-conforming (GNC) individuals. Using the 2010 National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), logistic regression models test differences between age groups (below 35, 35-49, 50-64, and 65 and above) in lifetime experience of anti-transgender discrimination, harassment, and victimization within health care settings while considering the influences of insurance status, level of passing, time of transition, and other socio-demographic factors. Although more than one fifth of transgender and GNC individuals of all ages reported health discrimination, harassment, or victimization, significant age differences were found. Insurance status and level of passing were also influential. Medicare policy changes and this study's findings prompt further consideration for revising other health insurance policies. In addition, expanded cultural competency trainings that are specific to transgender and GNC individuals are crucial. © The Author(s) 2015.
O'Connor, Maureen; Gutek, Barbara A; Stockdale, Margaret; Geer, Tracey M; Melançon, Renée
In two decades of research on sexual harassment, one finding that appears repeatedly is that gender of the rater influences judgments about sexual harassment such that women are more likely than men to label behavior as sexual harassment. Yet, sexual harassment judgments are complex, particularly in situations that culminate in legal proceedings. And, this one variable, gender, may have been overemphasized to the exclusion of other situational and rater characteristic variables. Moreover, why do gender differences appear? As work by Wiener and his colleagues have done (R. L. Wiener et al., 2002; R. L. Wiener & L. Hurt, 2000; R. L. Wiener, L. Hurt, B. Russell, K. Mannen, & C. Gasper, 1997), this study attempts to look beyond gender to answer this question. In the studies reported here, raters (undergraduates and community adults), either read a written scenario or viewed a videotaped reenactment of a sexual harassment trial. The nature of the work environment was manipulated to see what, if any, effect the context would have on gender effects. Additionally, a number of rater characteristics beyond gender were measured, including ambivalent sexism attitudes of the raters, their judgments of complainant credibility, and self-referencing that might help explain rater judgments. Respondent gender, work environment, and community vs. student sample differences produced reliable differences in sexual harassment ratings in both the written and video trial versions of the study. The gender and sample differences in the sexual harassment ratings, however, are explained by a model which incorporates hostile sexism, perceptions of the complainants credibility, and raters' own ability to put themselves in the complainant's position (self-referencing).
Rademakers, Jany J D J M; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C; Slappendel, Geerte; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Borleffs, Jan C C
Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only). We aimed to identify whether Nijmegen constitutes a positive sample of Dutch medical schools or whether incidents of sexual harassment are less prevalent in the Netherlands than elsewhere, and to establish if and how these experiences impact the professional lives of students. Students received a semi-structured questionnaire containing questions about their experiences of sexual harassment during clerkships. The questions referred to students' reactions to any incidents, the possible consequences for their wellbeing or professional functioning and the way cases of sexual harassment were handled. The prevalence of sexual harassment was significantly higher in Utrecht than in Nijmegen. In both studies rates were relatively low compared with international data. Nevertheless, 1 in 3-5 Dutch female medical students had experienced unwelcome sexual attention from patients, colleagues or supervisors. Three of 10 students who had experienced such an incident stated that it had a negative impact on their functioning afterwards. Prevalence rates of sexual harassment in medical schools in the Netherlands are low compared with international rates. However, the number of women students who experience sexual harassment is still 1 in 3-5. The occurrence of and ways to deal with these incidents should be important topics in the training of medical students and supervisors.
The research contained herein is an examination of managerial harassment experienced by drivers, and whether harassment is associated with the method used to log hours of service (HOS). Similar information was gathered from a sample of carriers. : Tr...
Dec 11, 2017 ... HarassMap has also led to another profound impact in Egypt: Cairo ... of sexual harassment in Egypt is empowering women and changing men's attitudes. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change ...
Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.
Tests the perceived effectiveness of different messages responding to sexual harassment in the organizational environment. Finds that none of the messages were perceived as being particularly effective at stopping the harasser's offensive conduct. (MM)
Kohl, John P.; Greenlaw, Paul S.
Reviews early court decisions and federal guidelines on sexual harassment. Defines quid pro quo and hostile work environment. Provides suggestions for developing policy and including information on sexual harassment in business curricula. (SK)
In October 2013, the media widely reported about a lab assistant who set herself ablaze outside the Delhi Secretariat and succumbed to injuries. She was protesting against sexual harassment from the college principal and termination from job. Though she repeatedly filed complaints with several authorities including the University, it was in vain. Such incidents highlight break down of grievance redress mechanisms within the organisations and throw light on the predicament of women facing sex...
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
This paper presents an analysis of the past decade (1997-2007) of research conducted in the areas of bullying and harassment in secondary schools. The author presents trends in the research as well as addresses the significant gaps left in a field that is heavily influenced by one school thought. By applying a critical feminist lens to this body…
Based on literature reviews, methodologies, and findings, this paper presents an empirical study of sexual harassment in the hospitality industry. Zhongjing Grand Hotel is used as a case study of sexual harassment in the context of China. The similarities and differences from literatures and research findings are indicated. The research proposes two main arguments: (1) the definitions of sexual harassment need to be improved and specific. (2) sexual harassment can happen every places and ever...
Pina, Afroditi; Gannon, Theresa A.; Saunders, Benjamin
Sexual harassment has been recognized as a serious problem in the literature over the past 30 years. In this\\ud paper, we review the existing research surrounding the phenomenon of sexual harassment, paying particular\\ud attention to factors of relevance for understanding perpetrators of sexual harassment. We also provide an\\ud overview of the perplexing nature of sexual harassment and the various concerns that have surrounded the\\ud topic leading to its recognition. The different theoretical...
Morgan, J.; Porter, S.
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment `sometimes' or `frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be `sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of `zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis. PMID:10474725
Morgan, J F; Porter, S
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment 'some-times' or 'frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be 'sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of 'zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis.
About one year since I last covered the topic of sexual harassment, I am returning to this theme again as it continues to be raised in the Ombud office. This trend is likely to continue as long as everyday sexism and harassment remain hidden and our workplace culture persists in turning a blind eye to these issues… In previous articles, we discussed how to say “stop” to unwelcome behaviour and what to do when the situation persists. We also discussed what is meant by harassment, defined in CERN’s Operational Circular No. 9 as “…unwelcome behaviour that has the effect of violating a person’s dignity and/or creating a hostile work environment…” Finally, we underlined the need to promote a peer culture that recognises the early signs of any behaviour that risks deteriorating into harassment. So, what more is there to say? Sexual harassment in the workplace remains an invisible i...
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Bill*, thanks to his technical competence, has been nominated leader of a group in charge of various projects. During his learning phase, he benefited from the experience of his collaborators and had a good working relationship with all of them. However, after few months, his relationship with Mike*, a senior member of the group in charge of some specific developments, turned sour. As the situation did not improve after many weeks, Mike decided to file an informal complaint of harassment with the Ombuds against his group leader, as he was convinced that Bill was bullying him. Mike explained that Bill was interfering more and more with his responsibilities in the project, by interac...
Reviews issues and relevant court decisions related to sexual harassment in the workplace. Focuses on definitions and types of sexual harassment, circumstances and institutional settings under which it occurs, its effects on an organization, and steps an organization might take to keep sexual harassment out of the workplace. (35 citations) (MAB)
Malloy, David Cruise; Zakus, Dwight H.
The literature discussing harassment issues in sport primarily focuses on sexual harassment and abuse. Discussion of this topic is dominated by definitions of harassment in terms of the biological, psychological, cultural, and organizational rationale for its occurrence and a variety of educational methods to transmit the "facts" of this…
Murrell, Audrey J.; Dietz-Uhler, Beth L.
Examines impact of gender identity and adversarial sexual beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward sexual harassment for 52 female and 55 male college students. Adversarial beliefs and experience with sexual harassment predict less tolerant attitudes toward harassment for males, whereas strong gender group identity and experience with harassment…
Beauregard, Terri Kinion
The sexual harassment experienced by a sample of women (N=154) in a university setting was compared with the sexual harassment experienced by them in a workplace setting. Results appeared to support the following generalizations: (1) there is greater gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion in the workplace setting than in…
Darnell, Doyanne A.; Cook, Sarah L.
Street harassment, the act of sexual harassment by strangers in public, is a common experience shared by many women. This paper reports the first experimental evaluation of the impact of a popular documentary-style film, "War Zone," on men's attitudes toward street harassment and empathy for women who experience it. The sample was an ethnically…
Zewude, Bereket Tessema; Ashine, Kidus Meskele
An attempt has been done on attitude towards sexual harassment which is critical issue nowadays in higher institutions. The result of the study could suggest for putting proper polices in place which is considered as vital in preventing sexual harassment as well as creating awareness about sexual harassment issue specially in higher institutions…
Clark, Pat, Ed.
This brief report discusses sexual harassment in public schools and presents six recommendations for all school personnel to follow to help lower the incidence of sexual harassment. The report provides a definition of sexual harassment and cites several provisions of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Contains three resources for…
Bates, Rebecca C.
This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…
Trigg, Mary; Wittenstrom, Kim
Corroborates the findings of past surveys that sexual harassment is present in secondary public schools, and analyzes findings from two different theoretical perspectives. Explores student definitions and responses to sexual harassment, and discusses barriers to knowledge and prevention of sexual harassment in secondary schools. (JPS)
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.
Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…
Tully, Carol A.
Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…
Sexual harassment, once an issue only among women, is becoming a serious issue among men. The number of law suits brought by men alleging sexual harassment is increasing and will likely continue to increase as more women attain supervisory and management positions. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) defines harassment as…
Watstein, Sarah Barbara
This second part of an article on sexual harassment and libraries features stories of library workers who have suffered sexual harassment. Highlights include problems from men and women; homosexuality issues; harassment from supervisors, employees being supervised, co-workers, and patrons; and the involvement of Equal Employment Opportunity…
Reason, Robert D.; Rankin, Susan R.
Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (N = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore the different experiences with harassment and campus climates reported by men and women. Both men and women reported experiencing harassment, although women experienced harassment at statistically significantly…
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie
This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…
Layman, Nancy S.
The purpose of this book is to familiarize middle and high school administrators, teachers, and students with the laws concerning sexual harassment and strategies for dealing with it. The book can also help educators avoid liability for sexual harassment. Part 1 defines sexual harassment and emphasizes that men and women may perceive the same…
Vägivaldset surma esineb teleekraanil järjest tihemini ja detailsemalt. Selle trendi loojaks peetavast menusarjast "C.S.I.: Kriminalistid". Sama artikkel pealkirjaga "Telelaibamäed" : Nädal, 30. jan. 2006, nr. 4, lk. 16 : ill
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms:A cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.; Folker, Anna P.; Kjær, Susie; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E. H.
Background Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassmen...
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations.
Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T; Folker, Anna P; Kjær, Susie; Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E H
Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected in 2012. WEHD is based on a random sample of employed individuals aged 18-64. In WEADW, organizational supervisors or employee representatives provided information on workplace characteristics. By combining WEHD and WEADW we included self-reported information on working conditions and health from 7603 employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (2.05; 95% CI: 0.98-3.12) compared to no exposure. Employees harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates had a higher mean level of depressive symptoms (2.45; 95% CI: 0.57-4.34) than employees harassed by clients or customers. We observed no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0.05). The association between sexual harassment and depressive
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations
Maria K. Friborg
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW collected in 2012. WEHD is based on a random sample of employed individuals aged 18–64. In WEADW, organizational supervisors or employee representatives provided information on workplace characteristics. By combining WEHD and WEADW we included self-reported information on working conditions and health from 7603 employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (2.05; 95% CI: 0.98–3.12 compared to no exposure. Employees harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates had a higher mean level of depressive symptoms (2.45; 95% CI: 0.57–4.34 than employees harassed by clients or customers. We observed no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0
Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (inequality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also given an overview of national legislative in this domain proceeding by conclusion that only few initial steps in creating the adequate mechanisms of protection from sexual harassment in the workplace have been made so far. .
Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of harassment on the basis of weight, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, as well as sexual harassment, among a diverse population of adolescents. Specifically, this study examined rates of each type of harassment reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category (e.g., racial/ethnic category differences in prevalence of racial harassment), and also explored patterns of “cross-harassment” (i.e., differences in prevalence of each harassment type across all other sociodemographic characteristics). Methods Data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current study. The sample was comprised of 2,793 adolescents (53% female; 81% non-white). Regression analyses were conducted to yield prevalence estimates of each type of harassment in each demographic and BMI category. Results Weight- and race-based harassment (35.3% and 35.2%, respectively) were most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (25.0%) and SES-based harassment (16.1%). Overweight and obese adolescents reported disproportionately higher rates of all forms of harassment than did normal-weight and underweight adolescents. In addition, Asian and mixed-/other-race adolescents were more vulnerable to harassment overall as compared to those from other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent boys and girls. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category, but a pattern of “cross-harassment” also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each type of harassment emerge across a variety of sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents from various intersecting sociodemographic and weight-status groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. PMID:23566562
Chan, Darius K. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Chan, Wai
Investigated the impact of sexual harassment on women in the workplace and college in Hong Kong. Questionnaires assessed sexual harassment experiences, perceived prevalence of sexual harassment at work, job or study satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Personal experience with sexual harassment negatively associated with job and study…
Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment. Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions. Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry. Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews. Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion. Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts. Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.
Kumi Hirokawa; Toshiyo Taniguchi; Jiro Takaki
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ? 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using th...
Waugh, Irma Morales
This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them.
Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L
The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.
Sinclair, Katerina O; Bauman, Sheri; Poteat, V Paul; Koenig, Brian; Russell, Stephen T
To examine how two forms of interstudent harassment, cyber and bias-based harassment, are associated with academic, substance use, and mental health problems. We used a population-based survey of 17,366 middle and high school students that assessed harassment due to race/ethnicity or sexual orientation, and harassment through the Internet or text messaging along with other forms of interstudent harassment. Odds ratios indicated that students experiencing both cyber and bias-based harassment were at the greatest risk for adjustment problems across all indicators, with suicidal ideation and attempts having the largest risk differences. Assessments of adolescent health and adjustment should include questions regarding both cyber and bias-based harassment. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freels, Sally A; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M
Data from a longitudinal study of university employees across four waves is used to determine the extent to which workplace harassment predicts drinking or conversely the extent to which drinking predicts workplace harassment, and to address gender differences in these relationships. Mixed effects regression models are used to test the effects of 1) harassment at the previous wave on drinking at the current wave, adjusting for drinking at the previous wave, and 2) drinking at the previous wave on harassment at the current wave, adjusting for harassment at the previous wave. For males, drinking at the previous wave predicts sexual harassment at the current wave, whereas for females, sexual harassment at the previous wave predicts drinking at the current wave.
Rosen, L N; Martin, L
This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.
Shute, Rosalyn H
This study, carried out in the high school context, is the first direct test of Berdahl's status theory of sex-based harassment. The theory covers not just male harassment of females, but female harassment of males and same-sex harassment. Participants were 771 males and 679 females, from Years 8 to 10, in five co-educational lower socioeconomic status (SES) Australian city schools, participating in a wider study of peer victimization. They indicated on a 5-point scale (from never to almost every day) how frequently they had experienced each of six sex-based harassment behaviors over the previous year, from same-sex and from opposite-sex peers, and responded to a question about sense of safety at school. Nonparametric analyses supported five of seven hypotheses derived from the theory: boys harassed others most often, girls were harassed most often, boy-to-girl harassment was the most frequent, girls harassed girls more than they did boys, and girl-to-boy harassment was the least frequent. However, contrary to the theory, boys' same-sex harassment was no more frequent than that between girls, and girl-to-girl harassment was just as threatening to victims' sense of safety as boy-to-boy harassment. The study largely supports Berdahl's theory. The unexpected results can be understood in terms of the intimate nature of adolescent girls' groups in high schools and their centrality for identity formation. In this context, girls are highly motivated to defend their status in terms of stereotypically feminine standards regarding appearance, sexual activity, and access to high-status boys. The theory implies that structural changes to reduce the salience of sex differences and sex stereotyping will be crucial to efforts to address sex-based harassment.
Gibbs, M; Sigal, J; Friedman, C R; Orosy-fildes, C
This paper presents two studies investigating judgments in a simulated sexual harassment hearing in which 240 male and female undergraduates participated. The transcript presented a female student's allegations of sexual harassment against a male professor. In the first experiment, 4 versions of a transcript were created, varying the aggressiveness of the attack on the female student complainant and the status of the accused professor. The findings supported the hypothesis that an aggressive attack negatively affects believability of the victim. The findings are also consistent with previous studies, which found out that denial was an effective technique for handling attacks. In the second experiment, the case was modified as to the emotionality of both the victim and the accused and the time of the between the occurrence and the reporting of the alleged harassment incident (1 month vs. 6 months). The results indicated that emotionality was important to decisions about the severity of punishment and guilt; when the victim was emotional, the defendant was punished more severely. Both experiments indicated that process variables (e.g., aggressiveness of attack) might be important in the perception of sexual harassment.
Nahar, P.; van Reeuwijk, M.; Reis, R.
Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular
A male student in a California State University-Sacramento psychology lecture on female masturbation has filed a sexual harassment complaint, claiming the lecture violated institutional policy by creating an intimidating, hostile, and offensive learning environment. He felt the lecture was inappropriately graphic and political in intent. (MSE)
Stanko, Brian; Miller, Gerald J.
Female accountants (330 of 650) in local, state, or federal agencies responded to general attitude statements and added narrative comments indicating that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the government accounting workplace. Many feel that their agencies have not addressed the issue adequately. (SK)
Riddle, Patricia; Johnson, Geraldine A.
Health educators can encourage educational institutions and other organizations to develop programs that teach people to deal with sexual harassment. Such programs should: (1) build awareness of the problem; (2) help define suitable workplace behavior; and (3) develop skills, such as self-assertiveness, to ward off offensive behavior. (PP)
Objective: To assess the prevalence, types and consequences of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in the University. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Using a cluster sampling method, 295 female students resident in the four campuses of the university were recruited and ...
The Socio-Legal Analysis Of Sexual Harassment And Kindred Offences. Adeniyi Olatunbosun. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ifep.v12i1.23512 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...
After1994 several pieces of legislation were passed in South Africa to ensure equity in education and equal opportunities for all learners. Some shocking reports have indicated that sexual harassment of girls is a serious problem in many of our schools. These girls are denied equal opportunities and effective education in ...
Ziegler, Scott A.
This case was developed for a class on administration and supervision. It describes the classroom speech of a teacher who uses questionable terms when referring to female students in his class. The case explores the distorted boundary between inappropriate speech and sexual harassment as a principal is called on to deal with a teacher's use of the…
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the extent to which sexual harassment, self-esteem, and academic engagement predict academic success of female secondary school students in Gondar city. Correlational design was employed to answer the research questions raised. Respondents were 366 female ...
This data-based study examined the nature and practice of cyber-harassment and its negative implications for psychological violence against women using Facebook as an example. This study was anchored on the uses and gratification theory, which stipulates that many individuals gain satisfaction by using Facebook for ...
Maryland State Department of Education, 2016
In accordance with the provisions of Section 7-424.1 of the Education Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland, the Maryland State Board of Education has developed and adopted a Model Policy to address bullying, harassment, or intimidation. This report presents the Model Policy, which is organized into the following eight points: (1) Prohibition…
Shoop, Robert J.
Discusses legal aspects of sexual harassment in educational settings: definitions, the central issue of impact on the educational environment, questions about consensual sexual relationships, the concept of welcomeness, rights of the accused, issues of academic freedom, and successful defenses. Overviews relevant legislation, court cases,…
Shrier, D K
Sexual harassment and sexual discrimination continue to be pervasive problems for women in business, academia, and medicine, with widespread and often serious health, emotional, and economic consequences. It is important that health care providers become aware of the common physical and emotional symptoms associated with these victimization experiences and serve as supportive and informed resources to their patients.
Pletcher, Beth A
The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.
Although illegal, sexual harassment is frequent in the American workplace and extremely disruptive and costly to employees and employers alike. Most organizational responses to the problem have been hard line, short term, after-the-fact measures that inform, threaten, or discipline employees. What is needed, however, is a training program with an…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca
School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…
Sexual harassment and sexual violence are complex social issues and a prevalent problem on college and university campuses. College students are an "at risk" population because of their age, developmental stage, proximity to one another, and their access to social activities influenced by peer pressure, alcohol, and other drugs. In this…
Rubin, Linda J.; And Others
College students (n=182) answered a questionnaire about personal and educational information, and completed the Feminist Attitudes Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. In response to a standardized sexual harassment scenario, participants answered a series of questions about reporting the incident. Discusses findings and offers recommendations.…
Wolohan, John T.
This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…
Decker, Robert H.
Reviews the 1980 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines defining sexual harassment as a form of sex discrimination. Advises 11 steps, including creating clear-cut policies and guidelines to help school officials deal with the problem. Insets offer policy "pointers" and several recommendations for staff members desiring to counter…
Sparks, Sarah D.
A national survey finds that, when it comes to sexual harassment in school, many students do not know where to draw the line. Based on the first nationally representative survey in a decade of students in grades 7-12, the study conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW), found that 48 percent of nearly 2,000 students surveyed…
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students
Gloppen, Kari M.; Gower, Amy L.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.
Background: Peer harassment can have serious implications for students' success and well-being, and prevention programs need to consider the school context. This study aimed to: (1) identify groups of similar schools based on their risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics and (2) examine associations between school profiles and…
Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather
Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…
Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Ybarra, Michele L.; Jones, Lisa M.; Espelage, Dorothy
This article examines characteristics of online harassment episodes associated with increased distress for youth. Data were collected as part of the Third Youth Internet Safety Survey, a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted in the United States in 2010. Interviews were conducted with 1,560 Internet-using youth, ages 10 through 17. Harassment…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005
This paper provides a background and discussion regarding the need for school policy and procedures to prevent bullying, intimidation and harassment in schools. The paper is intended to focus discussion on the responsibility of school boards, administrators and staff in making the school environment a safe place for all students. In so doing,…
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students
Gutek, Barbara A.
Sexual harassment at work has recently received considerable attention. Working men (N=405) and women (N=827) in Los Angeles County responded to questions about respondent's work, job characteristics, and work climate. Other questions concerned the respondent's experience of socio-sexual behaviors on current and previous jobs, definitions of…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur
This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…
Broad, Jonathan; Matheson, Marion; Verrall, Fabienne; Taylor, Anna K; Zahra, Daniel; Alldridge, Louise; Feder, Gene
Discrimination and harassment create a hostile environment with deleterious effects on student well-being and education. In this study, we aimed to: (i) measure prevalences and types of discrimination and harassment in one UK medical school, and (ii) understand how and why students report them. The study used a mixed-methods design. A medical school population survey of 1318 students was carried out in March 2014. Students were asked whether they had experienced, witnessed or reported discrimination or harassment and were given space for free-text comments. Two focus group sessions were conducted to elicit information on types of harassment and the factors that influenced reporting. Proportions were analysed using the Wilson score method and associations tested using chi-squared and regression analyses. Qualitative data were subjected to framework analysis. Degrees of convergence between data were analysed. A total of 259 (19.7%) students responded to the survey. Most participants had experienced (63.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.3-69.0) or witnessed (56.4%, 95% CI: 50.3-62.3) at least one type of discrimination or harassment. Stereotyping was the form most commonly witnessed (43.2%, 95% CI: 37.4-49.3). In the qualitative data, reports of inappropriate joking and invasion of personal space were common. Black and minority ethnic students had witnessed and religious students had experienced a greater lack of provision (χ 2 = 4.73, p = 0.03 and χ 2 = 4.38, p = 0.04, respectively). Non-heterosexual students had experienced greater joking (χ 2 = 3.99, p = 0.04). Students with disabilities had experienced more stereotyping (χ 2 = 13.5, p harassment. Seven of 140 survey respondents had reported incidents (5.0%, 95% CI: 2.4-10.0). Reporting was perceived as ineffective and as potentially victimising of the reporter. Harassment and discrimination are prevalent in this sample and associated with gender, ethnicity, sexuality, disability and year
DiBaise, Michelle; Tshuma, Lisa; Ryujin, Darin; LeLacheur, Susan
A 2014 meta-analysis found that by graduation, 16.6% of medical students had reported abuse, harassment, or discrimination and that this hostile environment caused an increase in depression and anxiety. The purpose of this research study was to increase the understanding of discrimination and psychological/physical abuse in physician assistant (PA) education programs and the potential impact on student attrition. Information was collected using an online, anonymous survey that asked about witnessed or experienced discrimination and psychological or physical abuse during the didactic and clinical years of training in PA programs in the United States. The survey received 1159 respondents, which represents 6.1% of total PA student enrollment. Up to 30% of respondents had witnessed or experienced discrimination, and up to 2.3% had experienced psychological abuse while in PA school. The majority of witnessed or experienced discrimination during PA education was not reported (retribution or they simply did not know who to report to, particularly if the incident involved faculty. Reducing the prevalence of discrimination in PA education requires recognition of this issue and targeted efforts to ensure that the infrastructure of every program is inclusive and values diversity of all kinds. The authors advocate that PA programs discuss their current institutional reporting structure; develop a universal curriculum on workplace violence, discrimination, and harassment; and develop value statements that explicitly identify diversity and equity as a core value as an important first step to improving the overall "climate" and culture of the program.
Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz
Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H
Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.
The assumption of a twofold cost of sex not only complicates the maintenance of sex but also sets conditions for sexual conflict: in organisms with the twofold cost, males often sexually harass females. Sexual harassment is detrimental to female fitness and thus might help maintain sexual populations if male harassment inflicts a harsher cost on parthenogens than on sexual females (asymmetric harassment cost). However, the generality of this concept is now considered doubtful because selective harassment of parthenogens results in loss of mating opportunities for males. Using three mathematical models, I show here that sexual harassment still can impose the asymmetric cost on parthenogens. First, I apply the Lotka-Volterra model to show the degree of asymmetric harassment cost that permits sex to be maintained stably in the population. Second, using adaptive dynamics, I examine whether sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment, which occurs only in sexual populations, can promote the asymmetric harassment cost. Finally, an individual-based model, which assumes a spatial structure unlike that in the other two, demonstrates that the asymmetric evolution of harassment cost prevents further invasions of parthenogens from different patches into sexual lineages; these mechanisms may account for allopatric distributions of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages as well as the maintenance of sex.
Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P
Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.
Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.
Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C
Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Street, Amy E; Gradus, Jaimie L; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie
The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental health symptoms. As expected, women reported a higher frequency of sexual harassment. Further, women had increased odds of experiencing all subtypes of sexual harassment. Being female conferred the greatest risk for experiencing the most serious forms of harassment. For both men and women, sexual harassment was associated with more negative current mental health. However, at higher levels of harassment, associations with some negative mental health symptoms were stronger for men than women. Although preliminary, the results of this investigation suggest that although women are harassed more frequently than men, clinicians must increase their awareness of the potential for sexual harassment among men in order to provide the best possible care to all victims of harassment. Copyright 2007 APA.
Houle, Jason N; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald's theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald's model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt.
Wayne, J H; Riordan, C M; Thomas, K M
Given recent court decisions, there is a need to investigate less common forms of sexual harassment, including women harassing men and same-gender harassment. The present study was a 2 (harasser gender) x 2 (target gender) x 2 (participant gender) factorial design in which 408 mock jurors made decisions in a hostile work environment case. Women harassing men were more likely to be found guilty than were men harassing women, and harassers in same-gender cases were more likely to be found guilty and were perceived more negatively than harassers in cross-gender cases. Participant gender differences were found in cross-gender, but not same-gender, conditions. Results suggest that the gender composition of the harasser and target may be an extralegal factor influencing managerial and juror decision making.
Chapman, Gordon R., Ed.; And Others
The problem of harassment of women in the workplace has received increasing attention from government agencies, Congress, and the courts in recent years. This growing general awareness of the problem of harassment and sex discrimination by both employers and employees is being made more acute by women's growing demands for career opportunities…
Madison, J; Minichiello, V
To explore how registered nurses (RNs) recognized and labeled incidents of sex-based and sexual harassment in the Australian health care workplace. Qualitative, using 16 unstructured interviews with registered nurses in Australia. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed largely by inductive analysis. Key categories were identified as themes or concepts for analysis. RNs reported several indicators of sexual harassment, including the invasion of space, confirmation from others, lack of respect, the deliberate nature of the behavior, perceived power or control, overly friendly behavior, and a sexualized workplace. RNs rarely labeled harassing behaviors as sex-based or sexual harassment. Many forces reduce the likelihood that RNs will correctly recognize and label unwelcome sexualized behavior as sexual harassment. Recognition is associated with a variety of workplace behaviors that sometimes precede harassment. Implications for the health care workplace are discussed.
Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy
The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rolfe, Shawn M; Schroeder, Ryan D
Research has recently found that sexual harassment occurs throughout our education system. Although the focus of these studies has been on both verbal and physical sexual harassment, the literature is scant when examining just verbal sexual harassment. Using self-report data from 30 New York City middle schools, the current study adds to the literature by examining the prevalence of verbal sexual harassment victimization and perpetration through the lens of gender and dating experiences. The study highlights that boys are verbally sexually harassed more than girls and students with dating experience are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of verbal sexual harassment. Additional findings, limitations, and policy implications are discussed.
L. Bütow-Dütoit; C. A. Eksteen; M. De Waal
This paper presents the legal framework within which sexual harassment of healthcare professionals, including physiotherapists, may be managed in their work environment in South Africa. According to both international and national legal principles, sexual harassment is considered a form of discrimination. There are various statutes in South Africa that may assist physiotherapists when they seek redress after being sexually harassed. These entail labour-related laws, laws aimed at removing all...
Hoof, Hubert B. Van; Serrano, Ana-Lucia; Torres, Leonardo
In light of the conspicuous absence of workplace harassment (“acoso laboral”) in the Ecuadorian Constitution and the country’s Labor and Penal Codes, this article reports on an exploratory study about abusive supervision, a form of workplace harassment, in the country’s hospitality industry. Based on a review of the literature on various forms of workplace harassment, the study investigated employee opinions about their supervisors’ behaviors and found that abusive supervision ...
AbstractHostile Environment?The Development of Sexual Harassment Law in the United States 1971 - 1991by Pamela CoukosDoctor of Philosophy in Jurisprudence and Social PolicyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Lauren B. Edelman, ChairHow did the sexual harassment litigation campaign succeed in defining a new antidiscrimination principle in the midst of the Reagan-era backlash against civil rights? In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court definitively established sexual harassment as a violation...
Godier, Lauren; Fossey, Matt
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertainin...
Thomas C. Head; Peter F. Sorensen, Jr.; Laura B. Pincus
A major difficulty in controlling sexual harassment is that it is actually a perceptual phenomenon. A survey was created to determine what effects a perpetratorÕs gender and management status and evaluatorÕs education have on whether fifteen behaviors are perceived as sexual harassment. Responses indicated a strong negative bias towards male superiors, while a positive bias appeared for female peers. Graduate degree subjects perceived more of the behaviors as harassing, but were much less bia...
Romito, P; Cedolin, C; Bastiani, F; Beltramini, L; Saurel-Cubizolles, M J
Menstrual disorders and sexual harassment are common among young women and interfere with their life and activities. We aimed to describe the association of sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among female university students. This cross-sectional, observational study examined the association between sexual harassment and menstrual disorders in a sample of 349 university students in Italy. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measures were associations between levels of exposure to sexual harassment (none, levels 1 and 2) and five menstrual disorders (premenstrual symptoms, heavy bleeding, pain, irregular cycles, and amenorrhea). Among the women interviewed (mean age 20.4 ± 1.45 years), 146 (41.8%) had experienced sexual harassment in the previous 12 months: 91 (26.1%) level 1 and 55 (15.7%) level 2. The frequency of premenstrual symptoms was 31.9% ( n=110); heavy bleeding, 35.3% ( n=124); pain, 51.4% ( n=181); irregular cycles, 55.5% ( n=195); and amenorrhea, 6.7% ( n=23). After adjustment for age, place of birth, being in a couple relationship and receiving hormone therapy, the frequency of menstrual disorders, except for amenorrhea, was increased with sexual harassment, with a regular gradient from no harassment to level 2 harassment. Introducing factors of depression, specific gynaecological problems and lifetime sexual violence did not change the results. For instance, the adjusted odds ratios of premenstrual symptoms were 2.10 [1.19-3.68] for women with level 1 harassment and 3.58 [1.83-7.03] for women with level 2 compared with women without harassment exposure. Sexual harassment is related to the prevalence of menstrual disorders. Healthcare providers should encourage dialogue with patients and address the issue of sexual violence or harassment.
Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie
Sexual harassment occurs with regularity during medical training, and it remains largely unreported. This study is one institution’s attempt to understand how third and fourth-year medical students perceive and experience sexual harassment, what they believe about reporting sexual harassment, and how they believe it might be eradicated from the educational environment. We used a qualitative research method for our investigation, which would generate more specific language to use in a larger e...
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Shannon, Candice A.; Richman, Judith A.
Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH pre...
Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical fram...
Carr, Tracey; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Robertson, Susan; Gerrard, Angie
Realist synthesis techniques can be used to assess complex interventions by extracting and synthesizing configurations of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes found in the literature. Our novel and multi-pronged approach to the realist synthesis of workplace harassment interventions describes our pursuit of theory to link macro and program level theories. After discovering the limitations of a dogmatic approach to realist synthesis, we adapted our search strategy and focused our analysis on a subset of data. We tailored our realist synthesis to understand how, why, and under what circumstances workplace harassment interventions are effective. The result was a conceptual framework to test our theory-based interventions and provide the basis for subsequent realist evaluation. Our experience documented in this article contributes to an understanding of how, under what circumstances, and with what consequences realist synthesis principles can be customized. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conflict happens, and in a large international organisation like ours it is often inevitable. Indeed, when it happens in the context of a confrontation of different ideas, opinions or methods it can be considered to be a healthy component of effective collaboration. Yet, when conflict becomes personal, when it is underpinned by unethical actions and hostile interactions, these interpersonal differences can rapidly deteriorate into moral harassment or bullying behaviour. Moral harassment or bullying behaviour occurs in the work environment when healthy relations break down between two people or between an individual and a group of people. As stated in CERN’s Operational Circular No. 9, it is behaviour that is “contrary to the principles of equal opportunity, non-discrimination and mutual respect [and]… it is detrimental to health and safety at the workplace and the good functioning of the Organization in general”. It often involves an abuse or misuse of p...
Nielsen, M B; Einarsen, S
Exposure to workplace sexual harassment (SH) has been associated with impaired mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the relationship are lacking. To examine gender differences in prospective associations between SH and psychological distress. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2005 in a representative sample of Norwegian employees. Follow-up data were collected in 2007. SH was measured with the Bergen Sexual Harassment Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the 25 item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) with cases of psychological distress defined as having a mean score of Workplace measures against SH would be expected to lead to a reduction in mental disorders. The finding that psychological distress predicts SH among men may indicate either a vulnerability factor or a negative perception mechanism.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T
, sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing......) with 39 care workers. SETTINGS: Ten workplaces participated in the study, including hospitals, nursing homes, community health centres, rehabilitations care centres, and psychiatric residential facilities. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted group interviews with care workers (employees), managers, shop stewards...... and/or safety representatives. The majority of the interviewees were trained nurses. RESULTS: The interviews revealed that sexual harassment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The care workers often separated between intentional and unintentional behaviours initiated by cognitively impaired...
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842
Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E
This cross-sectional study investigated the association between harassment, career suicidality, and psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Women firefighters (n = 290) completed self-report measures of experiences with harassment on the job, career suicidality, and various psychiatric symptoms. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance were used to address study aims. Of the sample, 21.7% reported having experienced sexual harassment and 20.3% reported having been threatened or harassed in another way on their firefighting job. Sexual harassment and other threats/harassment on the job were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting career suicidal ideation, as well as reporting more severe psychiatric symptoms. Harassment and threats experienced on the job may be associated with increased suicide risk and more severe psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Efforts are needed to reduce the occurrence of harassment and threats within the fire service and provide support for women firefighters who have been harassed or threatened.
Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal
There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were collected using the questionnaire of "workplace violence in the health sector" developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. According to the findings, the frequencies of sexual harassment and racial harassment were, respectively, 4.7% and 12% for the 12 months prior to the study (2011). Among healthcare workers, nurses reported the highest rate of violence. The most important contributing factors in sexual and racial harassment were lack of security facilities (45.8%) and people's ignorance of employees' tasks (55.7%). The presence of security force, safety measures in the wards, and guards were noted as the most important preventive factor to harassment. Based on the results, the frequency of sexual and racial harassment is low, which can be attributed to underreporting due to cultural sensitivity or fear. So, identifying the reasons for refusal to report harassment, developing a clear mechanism for reporting and providing the necessary trainings to health workers are essential in order to deal with harassment.
Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L
While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.
Ybarra, Michele L; Diener-West, Marie; Leaf, Philip J
As more and more youth utilize the Internet, concern about Internet harassment and its consequences for adolescents is growing. This paper examines the potential overlap in online and school harassment, as well as the concurrence of Internet harassment and school behavior problems. The Growing Up with Media survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1588 youth between the ages of 10 and 15 years old. Our main measures were Internet harassment (i.e., rude or nasty comments, spreading of rumors, threatening or aggressive comments) and school functioning (i.e., academic performance; skipping school; detentions and suspensions; and carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days). Although some overlap existed, 64% of youth who were harassed online did not report also being bullied at school. Nonetheless, youth harassed online were significantly more likely to also report two or more detentions or suspensions, and skipping school in the previous year. Especially concerning, youth who reported being targeted by Internet harassment were eight times more likely than all other youth to concurrently report carrying a weapon to school in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 8.0, p = .002). Although the data do not support the assumption that many youth who are harassed online are bullied by the same (or even different) peers at school, findings support the need for professionals working with children and adolescents, especially those working in the schools, to be aware of the possible linkages between school behavior and online harassment for some youth.
Paludi, Michele; Nydegger, Rudy; Desouza, Eros; Nydegger, Liesl; Dicker, Kelsey Allen
The incidence, psychological dimensions, reporting, and impact of sexual harassment of college students throughout the world are reviewed. Special attention is paid to methodological constraints in conducting cross-cultural research in sexual harassment, including difficulty in securing research participants, different methodologies to collect incidence data, use of retrospective data, and varying, definitions of sexual harassment. Recommendations for implementing intervention programs are offered. The strategies suggested deal with the social causes that maintain the harassment, including renegotiating the balance of power between men and women.
Dardis, Christina M; Vento, Stephanie A; Gradus, Jaimie L; Street, Amy E
Victims' conceptualizations of traumatic experiences can impact screening responses and decisions to utilize health care. Despite experiencing events constituting sexual harassment, many victims do not label their experiences as such. In the military, specific situational factors (e.g., occurred on-duty, higher ranking harasser) and victim appraisals of experiences (e.g., offensive, threatening) have been associated with increased labeling of sexual harassment. However, no research has examined sexual harassment labeling among those deployed in recent Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts, where the context of harassment may differ from peacetime settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine frequencies of labeling sexual harassment during deployment, factors associated with labeling, and associations between labeling and perceived need for and use of mental health services. 2,348 veterans (51% women, 49% men) drawn from a random sample of veterans deployed in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq completed a mail survey. Women were significantly more likely than men to label experiences as harassment. Whereas appraisals of events were associated with both women's and men's labeling, situational factors were only associated with women's labeling. Among women, labeling was associated with a greater perceived need for and use of mental health services among those who experienced nonassaultive harassment. These results confirm the importance of using behavioral language when screening for experiences of harassment among veterans returning from deployment. We discuss strategies for addressing labeling in the context of mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
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Arief, H. Hanafi
Sexual harassment is a criminality that the government of Malaysia should give protection to the victims. Malaysia Criminal Act, Employment Act 1955, and Industrial Relations Act 1967 and Regulation or Act 117 were enforced to do. The protection includes any victim living in Malaysia without discrimination citizens or non-citizens, including labour migrants whether documented or undocumented. Sometimes employer violated their worker's rights because he believes that workers tend not to reveal...
Norman D. Pautasso
This article is intended to collect some results of the several studies that have been made concerning Bullying and Harassment among boys and girls who attend basic education institutions in the central part of Santa Cruz province, in Argentina. It encloses theoretical framework about the problem of bullying and violence among children at school. It presents information about the region, some common aggressive behaviors as well as different ways and places in which those violent habits might ...
Epstein, Gil S.; Gang, Ira N.
We often observe minority ethnic groups at a disadvantage relative to the majority. Why is this and what can be done about it? Efforts made to assimilate, and time, are two elements working to bring the minority into line with the majority. A third element, the degree to which the majority welcomes the minority, also plays a role. We develop a simple theoretical model useful for examining the consequences for assimilation and harassment of growth in the minority population, time, and the role...
The overall aim of this project was to empirically explore and critically analyze the social phenomenon of sexual harassment in schools, its prevalence, structure and perceptions. Data were collected from a random sample of high-school students, horn in 1983, from all regions of Sweden, in a self-report mail survey administered in the spring of 2 001. Five hundred and forty girls and 440 boys participated. The questionnaire addressed personal experiences and perceptions ...
Maibi, Moeti Gilbert
Workplace harassment is a major problem in all employment relationships. It has negative implications for employee satisfaction, performance and productivity. This in turn leads to poor organisational performance, and often causes formal grievances and labour disputes which are not in the best interest of the employee or the employer. The constitution of the Republic of South Africa and other related acts like Employment Equity Act (EEA) protect employees against any form of un...
Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalya
Using data from a structured survey and in-depth interviews in three Russian cities, our study engages the scholarship on immigration legal regimes and racialization practices to examine the experiences of ethnoracially motivated harassment among working migrant women from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Russia. The results of statistical analyses show that regularized legal status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing harassment at the hands of law enforcement agents and other actors alike. Regardless of legal status, however, the analyses reveal significant variations across the three migrant groups, with members of the group that is seen as racially most distinct from the host population having the highest odds of reporting harassment. The analysis of in-depth interviews confirms and expands on these patterns, providing additional insights into the complex expressions and interplay of legality and race in migrants' everyday experiences. The study findings are situated within the cross-national literature on migrants' legal and ethnoracial exclusion in receiving contexts.
Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalya
Using data from a structured survey and in-depth interviews in three Russian cities, our study engages the scholarship on immigration legal regimes and racialization practices to examine the experiences of ethnoracially motivated harassment among working migrant women from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Russia. The results of statistical analyses show that regularized legal status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing harassment at the hands of law enforcement agents and other actors alike. Regardless of legal status, however, the analyses reveal significant variations across the three migrant groups, with members of the group that is seen as racially most distinct from the host population having the highest odds of reporting harassment. The analysis of in-depth interviews confirms and expands on these patterns, providing additional insights into the complex expressions and interplay of legality and race in migrants’ everyday experiences. The study findings are situated within the cross-national literature on migrants’ legal and ethnoracial exclusion in receiving contexts. PMID:29109593
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913 at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ≥ 77.1%. Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The frequency of pain experienced by workers in the previous month was evaluated using a four-point scale. Many of the associations of person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints were positive and significant (p < 0.05. Even after adjustment for depression, some of the associations remained significant (p < 0.05. For example, changes in the prevalence ratio for headache associated with a 1-point increase in the work-related bullying score were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.01 to 1.09 in men and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05 in women after adjustment for age, marital status, employment status, work shift, and depression.
Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Hirokawa, Kumi
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ≥ 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The frequency of pain experienced by workers in the previous month was evaluated using a four-point scale. Many of the associations of person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints were positive and significant (p < 0.05). Even after adjustment for depression, some of the associations remained significant (p < 0.05). For example, changes in the prevalence ratio for headache associated with a 1-point increase in the work-related bullying score were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09) in men and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) in women after adjustment for age, marital status, employment status, work shift, and depression.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Isabelle Cristinne Pinto Costa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze scientific production about workplace bullying and harassment in dissertations and theses in Brazil, with emphasis on the year of publication; educational institution; area of knowledge; professional and academic background of the authors; keywords used; and concept map organization. METHOD Bibliometric study with a quantitative approach with a sample consisting of 57 papers, 5 theses and 52 dissertations, published between 2002 and 2012. RESULTS It was found that 2012 was the year with the highest number of publications in this topic area. The region that stood out was the Southeast. The institution with the highest number of publications was the Federal University of Santa Catarina. There was a predominance of dissertations and most publications were produced by researchers focused on a multidisciplinary perspective. CONCLUSION Expanding the views regarding bullying in order to disseminate scientific production was proposed, promoting further advancement of debates and raising pertinent questions.
Isabelle Cristinne Pinto Costa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze scientific production about workplace bullying and harassment in dissertations and theses in Brazil, with emphasis on the year of publication; educational institution; area of knowledge; professional and academic background of the authors; keywords used; and concept map organization. METHOD Bibliometric study with a quantitative approach with a sample consisting of 57 papers, 5 theses and 52 dissertations, published between 2002 and 2012. RESULTS It was found that 2012 was the year with the highest number of publications in this topic area. The region that stood out was the Southeast. The institution with the highest number of publications was the Federal University of Santa Catarina. There was a predominance of dissertations and most publications were produced by researchers focused on a multidisciplinary perspective. CONCLUSION Expanding the views regarding bullying in order to disseminate scientific production was proposed, promoting further advancement of debates and raising pertinent questions.
Costa, Isabelle Cristinne Pinto; Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo da; Andrade, Cristiani Garrido de; Oliveira, Regina Célia de; Abrão, Fátima Maria da Silva; Silva, Carlos Roberto Lyra da
OBJECTIVE To analyze scientific production about workplace bullying and harassment in dissertations and theses in Brazil, with emphasis on the year of publication; educational institution; area of knowledge; professional and academic background of the authors; keywords used; and concept map organization. METHOD Bibliometric study with a quantitative approach with a sample consisting of 57 papers, 5 theses and 52 dissertations, published between 2002 and 2012. RESULTS It was found that 2012 was the year with the highest number of publications in this topic area. The region that stood out was the Southeast. The institution with the highest number of publications was the Federal University of Santa Catarina. There was a predominance of dissertations and most publications were produced by researchers focused on a multidisciplinary perspective. CONCLUSION Expanding the views regarding bullying in order to disseminate scientific production was proposed, promoting further advancement of debates and raising pertinent questions.
Every-Palmer, Susanna; Barry-Walsh, Justin; Pathé, Michele
Due to the nature of their work, politicians are at greater risk of stalking, harassment and attack than the general population. The small, but significantly elevated risk of violence to politicians is predominantly due not to organised terrorism or politically motivated extremists but to fixated individuals with untreated serious mental disorders, usually psychosis. Our objective was to ascertain the frequency, nature and effects of unwanted harassment of politicians in New Zealand and the possible role of mental illness in this harassment. New Zealand Members of Parliament were surveyed, with an 84% response rate (n = 102). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on Parliamentarians' experiences of harassment and stalking. Eighty-seven percent of politicians reported unwanted harassment ranging from disturbing communications to physical violence, with most experiencing harassment in multiple modalities and on multiple occasions. Cyberstalking and other forms of online harassment were common, and politicians felt they (and their families) had become more exposed as a result of the Internet. Half of MPs had been personally approached by their harassers, 48% had been directly threatened and 15% had been attacked. Some of these incidents were serious, involving weapons such as guns, Molotov cocktails and blunt instruments. One in three politicians had been targeted at their homes. Respondents believed the majority of those responsible for the harassment exhibited signs of mental illness. The harassment of politicians in New Zealand is common and concerning. Many of those responsible were thought to be mentally ill by their victims. This harassment has significant psychosocial costs for both the victim and the perpetrator and represents an opportunity for mental health intervention. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Song, Ju-Eun; Kim, Sue
The purpose of this study was to identify the experience and perception of sexual harassment during the clinical practice of Korean nursing students. The descriptive study was conducted using a self-report questionnaire from December 2009 to January 2010. Participants were 542 nursing students recruited from 12 nursing colleges in Korea, who had finished 1,000 hours of clinical practice which is the minimum requirement for graduation. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Ninety-seven participants (17.9%) reported that they experienced sexual harassment during clinical practice and 36 participants (6.7%) answered whether it was a sexual harassment or not. When sexual harassment was asked by the specific 18 items in the sexual harassment checklist, 52.0% (n = 282) of participants reported that they experienced at least 1 item among 18 items of sexual harassment. Sexual harassments were frequently made by the persons in their 40s (41.2%), men (97.9%) and patients (96.9%) and in the psychiatric wards (67.0%). Many respondents recognized that sexual harassment during clinical practice was caused by abnormal sexual desire of a pervert (34.5%) or men's sexual impulse (26.2%). Also, sexual harassment was perceived as a serious problem (19.4%) and education was necessary for prevention (88.3%). Education program is needed to prevent sexual harassment and enhance the gender sensitivity of nursing students, who are in the high-risk group of sexual harassment during clinical practice. This will in turn contribute to a safe educational environment for clinical practice. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kabat-Farr, Dana; Cortina, Lilia M
Legal definitions of sex-based harassment have evolved over the decades; it is important that social science perspectives on this phenomenon evolve as well. This study seeks to refine our understanding of conditions in which sex-based harassment thrives, with empirical evidence from three organizations. Previous research has suggested that underrepresentation of one's gender in the employment context increases risk for sex-based harassment. This work has focused mainly on sexual-advance forms of harassment, mainly in the lives of women. Less is known about the gender harassment of women, or about any kind of harassment of men. Extending this scholarship, we analyzed survey data from women and men working in three diverse domains: academia (N = 847), the court system (N = 1,158), and the military (N = 19,960). Across all samples, the underrepresentation of women in a workgroup related to increased odds of women experiencing gender harassment, but not sexual-advance harassment. For men, the opposite pattern emerged: underrepresentation did not increase men's risk for either type of harassment, instead relating to decreased odds of harassment in some contexts. We interpret these results in light of theories of tokenism, gender stereotyping, and sex role spillover in organizations. Our findings support the recommendation that, to reduce harassment (whether it be illegal or legal, gender- or sexuality-based, targeted at women or men), organizations should strive for gender balance in every job at every level. For male-dominated contexts, this implies a need to recruit, retain, and integrate more women throughout the organizational hierarchy.
Evidence from five studies focusing on different factors that influence interpretation of different behaviors constituting different forms of sexual harassment and gender harassment is presented. Six factors of influence were studied: (1) physical attractiveness and (2) quality of financial resources of the harasser, (3) gender and (4) attitudes of the harassee, (5) interpreting derogatory versus interpreting "flirtatious" behavior, and (6) interpreting actual harassment versus interpreting i...
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.
This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally-representative random-digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003–2004 (n=2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment, and perceived harassment or discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and e...
Gostlow, Hannah; Vega, Camila Vega; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy
To assess and report on surgeons' ability to identify and manage incidences of harassment. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is committed to driving out discrimination, bullying, harassment, and sexual harassment from surgical training and practice, through changing the culture of the workplace. To eradicate these behaviors, it is first critical to understand how the current workforce responds to these actions. A retrospective analysis of video data of an operating theatre simulation was conducted to identify how surgeons, from a range of experience levels, react to instances of harassment. Thematic analysis was used to categorize types of harassment and participant response characteristics. The frequency of these responses was assessed and reported. The type of participant response depended on the nature of harassment being perpetuated and the seniority of the participant. In the 50 instances of scripted harassment, active responses were enacted 52% of the time, acknowledgment responses 16%, and no response enacted in 30%. One senior surgeon also perpetuated the harassment (2%). Trainees were more likely to respond actively compared with consultants. It is apparent that trainees are more aware of instances of harassment, and were more likely to intervene during the simulated scenario. However, a large proportion of harassment was unchallenged. The hierarchical nature of surgical education and the surgical workforce in general needs to enable a culture in which the responsibility to intervene is allowed and respected. Simulation-based education programs could be developed to train in the recognition and intervention of discrimination, bullying, harassment and sexual harassment.
Shaw, Brian C.; Hyde, W. Brent
During its 1997-98 term, the U.S. Supreme Court decided four major sexual harassment cases. This article summarizes those cases' impact on the analytical framework governing school boards' liability of sexual harassment. The text opens with the issue of sexual harassment of employees by supervisors and two cases that established new standards…
Perry, Elissa L.; Kulik, Carol T.; Bustamante, Jennifer; Golom, Frank D.
The current study explored the use of best training practices on human resources managers' perceptions of sexual harassment training success and frequency of sexual harassment complaints. Results revealed no main effects of best training practices on sexual harassment training success. However, effects of best training practices on sexual…
Clodfelter, Tammatha A.; Turner, Michael G.; Hartman, Jennifer L.; Kuhns, Joseph B.
Sexual harassment of college students may lead to more serious forms of sexual assault. Few studies have investigated sexual harassment predictors framed within competing theoretical perspectives. In this study, the literature is extended by examining (a) three types of sexual harassment on a college campus, (b) the nature of reporting, and (c)…
Foley, Colby; May, David C.; Blevins, Kristie R.; Akers, Jon
Although the topic of cyber-harassment in schools is one that has received significant media and research attention, much of that attention has been given to harassment against (and among) students. In this article, we examine responses from more than 5,700 public schoolteachers regarding their experiences with cyber-harassment by parents, a topic…