WorldWideScience

Sample records for harakat-ul jihad islami

  1. Devolving Jihadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Rosler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The danger and effectiveness of religiously motivated terrorist organizations is undeniable. However, a different type of threat is on the rise on the global playing field as a result of the ongoing operations against these organizations. "Devolved" jihadism, Islamist terrorism conducted by native, amateur, untrained and unfunded individuals, or small ad hoc groups, has recently garnered headlines and the attention of terrorists and counterterrorists alike. These devolved jihadist operations are planned and carried out by native members of a country's populace, radicalized in their home country, resulting in the interchangeable monikers of "homegrown" or "grassroots" jihadism.

  2. Burger Jihad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Based on a number of ‘burger episodes’ during ten days of itikaf at a Sufi lodge in Pakistan, this article discusses the difficulties of religious self-cultivation among young Muslim pilgrims from Denmark. The focus on food and eating is not only used to discuss how religious brotherhoods and spi...... and spiritual kinship are created and maintained, but also becomes a prism to discuss emic conceptualizations of the nafs, the lower self, as well as how the jihad of dedicated Sufi Muslims is tested by fatal attractions of various kinds – in this case, in the guise of tasty burgers....

  3. Takmilah: Menuju Teori Sastra Islami

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    Asep Supriadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Banyaknya karya sastra Indonesia yang bernuansa islami sejak tahun 2000-an telah dijadikan objek kajian sastra. Pengkajian karya sastra islami tersebut sangat relevan jika menggunakan pendekatan teori sastra Islam. Pendekatan teori sastra Islam yang dianggap sesuai dengan karakter sastra Indonesia bernuansa islami adalah teori sastra Islam Melayu Malaysia. Para pakar sastra Melayu telah berhasil menciptakan teori sastra islami, di antaranya Shafie Abu Bakar yang telah memperkenalkan teori sastra Islam yang disebut dengan teori takmilah. Abstract: The outburst of Indonesian Islamic literatures has been the object of literary study since the 2000s. The study of Islamic literature is very relevant when using the approach of Islamic literary theory. The approach of Islamic literary theory is considered in accordance with Indonesian Islamic literary character. It is descending from the literature of Malay. The Malay literary experts have succeeded in creating an Islamic literary theory. Shafie Abu Bakar has introduced Islamic literary theory called the theory Takmilah. Key Words: Islamic literature, theory of Takmilah

  4. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  5. KONSEP JIHAD DALAM PERSPEKTIF ISLAM

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    Rif’at Husnul Ma’afi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was a fatal mistake when terrorism equated with the doctrine of jihad in Islam. Terrorism in Arabic word termed as al-Irhab is not taught in the Qur’an. Even in Surah al-Anfal: 60 wrote the word “turhibûna”, but it can’t be used as the argument that terrorism is taught Islam. The word “turhibûna” here is more to frighten the enemy on the battlefield. By studying the turats and contemporary books, this simple paper triesto explore some of the misunderstandings about jihad. Then, those errors will be corrected by refering to the original opinion of the Muslim scholars, which in this paper refered to Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi’s opinions. The results of the study showed that this misunderstanding lied on the meaning and concept of jihad. As understood by some people that jihad is a war in the path of Allah (fi sabilillah only. In fact, the realm of jihadis very wide. Ibn Qayyim explained that jihad consists of 13 levels. These levels can be reduced to four parts, which one of them is fighting the infidels. Jihad against the infidels is not using the weapons. There are several steps that must be passed, so that jihad to infidels can be done. Of this division is also seen that the jihad war is not the onlysolution used by Islam in upholding Allah’s name (kalimatullah. So, this paper is expected to be able to describe the jihad in Islam based on the Qur’an and Prophetic traditions.

  6. MAKNA JIHAD DALAM KERANGKA DAKWAH

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    Riza Pahlevi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mission at its core meaning is invited to persuasive. Prophet Muhammad as a treatise da'wah carrier has no authority to compel. Reality in the community with a call attempt is often not negligible. When you arrive at the implementation level, should the missionary do with violence in the name of jihad? Or what exactly is the meaning of jihad in the context of propaganda. That is why this paper is derived as a reflection and an attempt to explain how the actual context of jihad and da'wah.

  7. MEMBENTUK LINGKUNGAN PENDIDIKAN YANG ISLAMI

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    Wartono *

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Islam adalah agama yang sempurna. Kesempurnaan Islam meliputi seluruh aspek-aspek kehidupan. Mulai dari pen-ciptaan manusia, proses terjadinya manusia, tujuan penciptaan manusia, bahan baku manusia, penciptaan langit dan bumi, penciptaan jin, lingkungan hidup, ekonomi, politik, sejarah, angkatan bersenjata, pendidikan dan lain-lain. Bertolak dari kesempurnaan Islam sebagaimana tersebut di atas, maka sudah semesinya setiap muslim menjadikan Islam sebagai rujukan setiap persoalan yang dihadapinya. Hanya kembali kepada Islamlah manusia akan mendapatkan keselamatan,  kebaikan, kedamaian, kebahagiaan keuntungan dunia dan akhirat. Dengan Islamlah manusia dapat membentuk lingkungan pedidikannya dengan baik. Sebab Islam senantiasa memberi perhatian yang sangat serius dan utama  terhadap lingkungan  pendidikan yang islami. Manusi tidak akan menjadi hamba yang taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya jika tidak dididik berdasarkan Islam. Tidak ada konsep dan teori di luar Isalam yang mampu memberikan kontribusi secara integral terhadap pendidikan manusia seutuhnya,sehingga manusia  menajdi orang yang beriman. Yang paling tahu tentang manusia bukanlah manusi itu sendiri, akan tetapi yang menciptakan manusia yaitu Allah . Allah Ta’ala memilih Muhammad seorang Rasul dengan tujuan agar beliau menyampaikan risalah-Nya. Risalah yang dibawa oleh Nabi itu berisi nilai-nilai yang sangat tinggi sehingga dapat mengangkat derajat manusia dan martabat pada tingkat yang tinggi.Jika manusia mau menjalankan risalah yang dibawa oleh Muhammad secara benar, maka mereka akan mendapatkan predikat mu’min dan pada gilirannya orang-orang mu’min itu akan ditempatkan di dalam surga.

  8. Facilitering van de gewelddadige jihad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verhoeven; P. Mascini (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSummary in English
    Muslims who do not actively contribute to the violent jihad but who tacitly or openly sympathize with it are vital to the persistence of this kind of terrorism according to some terrorist fighters and scholars. We used interviews and public information in order

  9. Perilaku agresif dan penanganannya melalui konseling islami

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    Zain Irwanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were (1 To determine the factors causing the emergence of Aggressive Behavior student at SMPN 1 Tondong Tallasa Pangkep district. (2 To know the description of the results of the counseling process Islami against the aggressive behavior of students at SMPN 1 Tondong Tallasa Pangkep district. This study used a qualitative approach to the type of case studies with data collection through interviews, observation, and documentation. The results showed that (1 the factors agtresif behavior was arrogant, selfish, family economy, family environment, (2 the application of Islamic counseling to the students' problems aggressive behavior indicate a change student behavior from aggressive to not be aggressive.

  10. PENDIDIKAN BERKARAKTER ISLAMI BAGI ANAK YATIM

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    Abdurohman Misno Bambang Prawiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan adalah hak setiap warga Negara Indonesia, sehingga pemerintah wajib menyediakan kesempatan seluas-luasnya kepada rakyatnya agar dapat memperoleh pendidikan yang berkualitas. Pembukaan UUD 1945 alinea 4 menyatakan bahwa Negara bertujuan mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa. Efektifitas suatu proses pembelajaran secara umum ditentukan oleh kurikulum dan system pendidikan yang diterapkan pada lingkungan  pendidikan tersebut, berkaitan dengan pendidikan yang diterapkan terhadap anak yatim maka diperlukan adanya kurikulum khusus yang dapat menjawab dan mengakomodir kebutuhan seorang anak yatim, baik secara fisik maupun secara spiritual. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pesantren Yatim Ibnu Taimiyah Bogor dengan audience santri-santri yatim dari jenjang Madrasah Ibtidaiyyah (MI, Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs dan Madrasah Aliyah (MA. Secara psikologi anak-anak yatim merasa kehilangan dengan meninggal-nya salah satu orang tua mereka yaitu ayah. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa hilangnya figur ayah dalam kehidupan mereka mengakibatkan mereka merasa kurang terlindungi sehingga kepribadian mereka cenderung lebih bebas. Diperlukan adanya model pendidikan yang mengarahkan dan membimbing mereka untuk menjadi manusia yang mandiri baik pada saat proses pembelajarannya ataupun hasil dari pembelajaran tersebut. Pendidikan berkarakter Islami yang memberikan pola pembelajaran yang disesuaikan dengan tingkatan umur dan kematangan spiritual menjadi sesuatu yang harus ada bagi pendidikan mereka.

  11. Can the violent jihad do without sympathizers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAccording to some terrorist fighters and academicians, the constituencies of Muslim extremists are vital to the persistence of the jihad. I have established that although sympathizers are indispensable for recruiting and sponsoring, they are less crucial for making foreign journeys,

  12. RELEVANSI PEMIKIRAN TAFSIR JIHAD M. QURAISH SHIHAB DALAM TAFSIR AL-MISBAH

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    Moh. Cholil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews concepts and ideas of M. Quraish Shihab on jihad in his landmark work, Tafsir al-Mishbah. As an interpreter of contemporary Muslim in Indonesia, Shihab interprets Jihad as trials and tribulations for the quality of a person who requires patience and fortitude. Jihad also implies Mujâhid’s ability to mobilize all his power and ability to achieve objectives. However, Shihab did not deny that jihad in some verses means war. Moreover, jihad is a level examination of one’s faith. For Shihab, jihad not only means war, but also means sincerity, hard work, and determination. He also classifies jihad into three kinds, namely jihad against real enemies, jihad against devils, and jihad against lust contained within each human being. For Quraish Shihab, in the context in Indonesia and in some phenomena in other countries, jihad is allowed if there is persecution and violation of human rights.

  13. PENERAPAN MODEL TERPADU DALAM PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS CERPEN ISLAMI

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    Emah Khuzaemah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the lack of a culture still writing among students. The ability to write literature students is still low. For that how to develop an integrated model of literary learning and its application to improve the writing skills of students. Thus the spiritual experience of students / students would be more meaningful if it is able to be expressed in a literary work. With a unified theoretical model developed by Fogarty (1991 and developed a theory of writing short stories integrated learning model in teaching writing short stories. Through a qualitative approach with descriptive analytic method, can be described Islami ability to write short stories high school students Kramat Dukupuntang after application of integrated learning model. Students' ability to write short stories Islami was satisfactory, catchy title, theme and content laden with religious values with storytelling techniques that have been organized.

  14. Indonesian Salafism on Jihad and Suicide Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Rusli, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suici...

  15. Global Insurgency Strategy and the Salafi Jihad Movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shultz, Jr, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    ... on a global scale by the Salafi Jihad movement. This work lays out the case that terrorism and insurgency differ, and that the current "long war" is actually being fought by the other side as an insurgency...

  16. PENGARUH GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN, MOTIVASI DAN DISIPLIN KERJA TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN DENGAN PEMAHAMAN ETIKA KERJA ISLAMI

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    Endah Susetyo Indriyati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan, Motivasi dan Disiplin Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Dengan Pemahaman Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami Sebagai Variabel Moderating Studi Kasus Pada Koperasi Jasa Keuangan Syari’ah (KJKS Baitul Maal wa Tamwil (BMT Beringharjo Yogyakarta. Responden yang digunakan sebanyak 97 karyawan yang bekerja di Kantor Cabang Yogyakarta. Data diolah menggunakan analisis Partial Least Squares (PLS berbasis variance, dengan software SmartPLS 2.0. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Gaya Kepemimpinan memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap Pemahaman Karyawan Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami, Motivasi tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Pemahaman Karyawan Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami, Disiplin Kerja tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Pemahaman Karyawan Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami. Sementara Gaya kepemimpinan, motivasi, dan disiplin kerja secara bersama-sama memilki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap Pemahaman Karyawan Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami. Hasil dari analisis moderating (analisis jalur menunjukkan bahwa Gaya Kepemimpinan berpengaruh positif tidak langsung terhadap kinerja karyawan. Motivasi memiliki pengaruh negatif tidak langsung terhadap kinerja karyawan. Disiplin Kerja memilki pengaruh positif tidak langsung terhadap kinerja karyawan. Pemahaman Karyawan Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami berpengaruh positif tidak langsung terhadap kinerja karyawan. Secara keseluruhan Gaya Kepemimpinan, Motivasi, Disiplin Kerja, dan Pemahaman Karyawan Terhadap Etika Kerja Islami secara bersama-sama berpengaruh positif terhadap kinerja karyawan.

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION:A STUDY ON CONVENTIONAL AND ISLAMI BANKS OF BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Evana NUSRAT DOOTY; Syeda Tamanna FAHIM; Israth SULTANA

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to undertake a comparative study regarding employee satisfaction between conventional and islami banks of Bangladesh. Job satisfaction, compensation and benefit, promotion, supervision, communication, career development, work environment and work-life balance were selected as indicator of employee satisfaction. The sample was collected from five islami banks and five conventional banks. Fifty sample was collected from each type of bank. The study was conducted t...

  18. The Egyptian Islamic Group’s Critique of Al-Qaeda’s Interpretation of Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kamolnick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif. In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.

  19. Deconstruction of Jihad Radicalism in Islamic Law: A Conceptual Proposal to Combat Isis Terrorism in Indonesia

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    Warkum Sumitro, SH, MH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic State of Iran and Syria (ISIS has become a global movement that penetrates into Indonesia. This movement leads back to the trauma of Indonesian nation to a series of destructive events of terrorism in the country. The meaning of jihad in Islam is hijacked by ISIS activists into violence and war against western infidels in their perspective. They do not care if their target is civilian or military. Meanwhile, the actual concept of jihad in Islam is essential jihad, namely jihad by striving earnestly to improve the quality of individual and community. A wrong interpretation of jihad can not only be solved by force because enforcement effort through violence leaves an endless conflict between terrorists and law enforcer. One conceptual proposal in combating terrorism in Indonesia is by deconstructing the perspective of the physical jihad into essential jihad.

  20. INDONESIAN SALAFISM ON JIHAD AND SUICIDE BOMBINGS

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    Rusli Rusli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suicide bombings are equivalent to killing oneself, and this is extremely forbidden in Islam. The second is Salafi-jihadists who have justified suicide bombing attacks to infidel targets and the symbols of tagut (false god. The reason is blowing oneself is not the same as committing suicide, for suicide is a sin. However, he is believed as carrying out “martyrdom operations”, sacrificing himself for the sake of the superior goal of defending his religion and community, while suicide is a hopeless deed performed by a person who kills himself for his own selfish reason.

  1. Russia’s Homegrown Insurgency: Jihad in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    culminated in the full “ Salafization ” or “tak- firization” of the ChRI’s ideology and the jihadization of its goals, operations, and tactics.2 With the... Salafization and jihadization processes were made official. We can point to a series of factors that for more than a decade drove the radicalization...and takfir. As- temirov, like many of the CE’s young generation of leaders, studied Islam abroad in the late 1990s be- fore turning to Salafism and

  2. PENDEKATAN HUKUM ISLAM TERHADAP JIHAD DAN TERORISME

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    Lukman Arake

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   There is a presumption of some circles of non-Muslims that Muslims are the spreader of terrors and terrorism throughout the world through the implementation of the concept of jihād. This assumption seemed to be justified the emerging terrorism cases involving Muslim actors, such as suicide bombings. This paper aims to clarify the issue by critically scrutinizing the true meaning of jihād rooted both in the holy book the al-Qur’an and sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad. Socio-historical approach is applied to better understand the holistic context of the meaning of jihād concept in both sources of Islamic teachings. The author concludes that the presumption is a misconception resulting from ignorance of certain parties about the true meaning of jihād in Islam. There is also a possibility that the misunderstanding is intentional, because the motives of abusing the dignity of Islamic teachings, especially about jihād.  Abstrak:  Pada sebagian kalangan non-muslim terdapat anggapan bahwa orang Islam adalah penyebar teror dan terorisme di seluruh dunia melalui implementasi konsep jihād. Anggapan itu seolah mendapatkan pembenaran dengan munculnya kasus-kasus terorisme yang melibatkan pelaku-pelaku muslim, seperti bom bunuh diri. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengklarifikasi masalah tersebut dengan cara menelisik secara kritis pemaknaan jihād yang sebenarnya baik yang termaktub dalam kitab suci al-Qur’an maupun sunnah Nabi Muhammad saw. Pendekatan sosial-historis diterapkan untuk lebih memahami konteks holistik bagi pemaknaan konsep jihad dalam dua sumber ajaran Islam itu. Penulis berkesimpulan bahwa anggapan tersebut adalah suatu kesalahpahaman akibat dari ketidaktahuan pihak-pihak tertentu tentang makna jihād yang sebenarnya dalam Islam. Tidak tertutup kemungkinan bahwa kesalahpahaman itu disengaja, karena adanya motif-motif untuk mencederai keluhuran ajaran Islam, khususnya tentang jihād.

  3. The Fulani Jihad and its Implication for National Integration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fulani Jihad (1804-1810) led by Shehu, Uthman Dan Fodio was successfully prosecuted against the established Hausa dynasty in Northern Nigeria. It led to the emergence of a theocratic state, the Sokoto Caliphate, which was administered largely as a federation, due to its wide expanse and diverse composition of its ...

  4. Global Jihad: The Role of Europe’s Radical Muslims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    social state governed by the rule of law.”41 Correspondingly, Turkish immigrants have not been involved in any jihadi activity that has occurred in...Muslims with no choice other than jihad to rectify their situation. 57 Dr. Vije Franchi ...Education National Focal Point for Germany,” 29. 63 Tikly, “Analytical Report on Education National Focal Point for Great Britain,” 19. 64 Franchi

  5. PENDIDIKAN ISLAMI DALAM NILAI-NILAI KEARIFAN LOKAL DIDONG

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    Eliyyil Akbar

    2015-08-01

    رثت من الاجداد ويعيثون مخّ تربية الاسلام كوسيلة فنّ الغناء الإقْليمي وبذلك المهم جداً، طلب حلّ المشكلة إتخد موقفا ايجابياً في تلك المسئلة. فنّ الغناء الإقليمي تملك عنصر الجمال، الدين والوحدة "موكميل، ترتيب، ستيّي، سماياع كماسيه، موتنتو، امنة، كناف مفاكة، الاع تولوغ، برسيككميلين". قيم الإسلامي من فن الغناء الإقليمي لا تخلوْ من العادة والشريعة ويمتصّها مجتمع وبذلك صفة التسامح التي قد بنيت جعلت الأمن والمخّ الإسلامي كمنطقة منفذة شريعة الإسلامي.Abstrak: Terancamnya identitas bangsa Indonesia yang bersemboyan Bhinneka Tunggal Ika dengan munculnya konflik antar suku, agama, ras, kekerasan yang menjadi ajang perpecahan persatuan bangsa ini. Peristiwa tersebut tercipta karena pudarnya sikap toleran yang termanifestasikan dalam Islam yang rahmatan lil ‘alamin dan tidak mengindahkan kearifan yang sudah terbina. Di tengah maraknya perpecahan tersebut, daerah dataran tinggi Gayo yang merupakan daerah penegak syari’at Islam yang didiami oleh berbagai suku mampu menetralisir keadaan dengan mempertahankan nilai yang arif dari peninggalan leluhur  dan menghidupkan suasana pendidikan Islami menggunakan sarana atau media seni Didong. Oleh karena itu, pentingnya solusi untuk menyikapi suatu perbedaan yang rentan menimbulkan konflik dengan menjunjung kearifan lokal. Nilai seni Didong berunsur keindahan, religius dan kebersamaan yang tertransformasi dari pesan kebijaksanan lokal, yaitu mukemel, tertib, setie, semayang-gemasih, mutentu, amanah, genap-mupakat, alang-tulung, dan bersikekemelen. Pendidikan Islami dari pertunjukan Didong tidak lepas dari adat, syari’at, dan lebih bisa diserap oleh masyarakat dengan begitu sifat

  6. KONSELING ISLAMI MELALUI PENDIDIKAN KESEHATAN SEKSUAL DALAM ISLAM PADA REMAJA

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    Sugianto Sugianto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memberikan informasi yang tepat tentang kondisi kebutuhan remaja yang sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yaitu: mengenal fungsi perbedaan jenis kelamin, organ reproduksi dan persiapan pernikahan agar dapat mengenali fungsi anatomi tubuh sesuai dengan nilai-nilai Islam, misalnya tentang kesehatan seksual dalam Islam. Meskipun data yang ditemukan terdapat beragam problematika remaja tentang seksual,  sehingga dibutuhkan profesi konseling  Islami untuk membantu remaja tumbuh kembang secara optimal dalam berprestasi dibidang kognitif-afektif-psikomotorik.  Kemampuan kognitif dengan diupayakannya  pengayaan pengetahuan tentang alam semesta beserta fenomena alam, kemampuan  afektif dengan trampilnya mengolah dan mengendalikan emosi ke arah positif  kepada sesama makhluk hidup,  sedangkan kemampuan psikomotorik dengan adaptifnya manusia dalam bersikap ketika berinteraksi di lingkungan dengan keragaman budaya Bhineka Tunggal Ika. Dengan berdasar pada nilai-nilai pendidikan Islam maka manusia dapat mengoptimalkan 3 daya dengan berdasarkan pada al-Qur’an yang memberikan keselamatan  dan kebahagiaan  pada remaja untuk memahami kesehatan seksual dalam Islam. Kata Kunci: Konseling Islam, Pendidikan  Seksual, Pemuda THROUGH THE ISLAMIC COUNSELLING SEXUAL HEALTH EDUCATION IN ISLAM IN ADOLESCENT. This paper provides precise information  about the conditions in accordance with the needs of adolescent development tasks are: to know the function of gender, reproductive organs and wedding preparations in order to identify the function of anatomy of the body in accordance with Islamic values, example about sexual health in Islam. Although the data were found to contain a variety of sexual problems of adolescence, so it needs the counseling profession Islamic to help teens grow and develop optimally in achievement in the field of cognitive-affective-psychomotor. Cognitive abilities with the enrichment begun all the knowledge of the universe

  7. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  8. Penumbuhan Karakter Islami melalui Pembelajaran Fisika Berbasis Integrasi Sains-Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khoiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Classroom Action Research aims to find out physics learning based on science-Islamic integration can improve learning outcomes and foster the Islamic character of class XI RPL 1 SMK Takhassus Al-Qur'an. The Action research is done in two cycles namely: (1 planning, (2 implementation of corrective action, (3 observation, and (4 reflection. The Research Instrument through Test for learning result data, Observation to observe the implementation of learning and questionnaire of religious attitude and social attitude and Documentation. The results of research shows the application of physics-based learning science-Islamic integration can improve learning outcomes, religious and social attitudes. The Percentage mastery is 74 to 90. Religious attitudes is increased from 72 to 79 and social attitudes is increased from 67 to 76 as evidenced by indicators not cheating or giving cheat and reporting learning activities in a transparent manner. The implementation of learning-based integration of science-Islamic can improve learning outcomes and Islamic characters in the form of honesty and cooperation of students on the physics in the concept of fluid.   Penelitian Tindakan Kelas bertujuan mengetahui pembelajaran fisika berbasis integrasi sains-islami dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar serta menumbuhkan karakter islami siswa kelas XI RPL 1 SMK Takhassus Al-Qur’an. Penelitian tindakan dilakukan dua siklus yakni: (1 perencanaan, (2 pelaksanaan tindakan perbaikan, (3 observasi, dan (4 refleksi. Instrumen Penelitian melalui Tes untuk data hasil belajar, Observasi untuk mengamati pelaksanaan pembelajaran dan angket sikap religious dan sikap sosial serta Dokumentasi. Hasil Penelitian menunjukan penerapan pembelajaran fisika berbasis integrasi sains-islami dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar, sikap religius dan sikap sosial. Prosentase ketuntasan 74 menjadi 90. Sikap religius meningkat dari 72 menjadi 79 serta sikap sosial meningkat dari  67 menjadi 76 yang

  9. The GSPC: Newest Franchise in al-Qa'ida's Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudali, Lianne K

    2007-01-01

    ... of support in Europe. The alignment of the GSPC with al Qa ida represents a significant change in the group's strategy, however, its decision to join al Qa ida's global jihad should be understood as an act of desperation...

  10. The asylum-jihadism nexus: non-government actors and detection of jihadism among asylum seekers. : A case study of the Dutch Refugee Council and the guardianship organization for unaccompanied minors (Nidos).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, J.; Bolhuis, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores why, how and to what extent two non-government organizations working with asylum seekers in the Netherlands engage in the detection of jihadism. It concludes that the organizations acknowledge the importance of sharing possible signs of jihadism with relevant governmental

  11. THE PERFORMANCE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT SCHEME IN ISLAMI BANK BANGLADESH FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saiful Islam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL is one of the leading and efficient financial institutions in the globe. The Rural Development Scheme (RDS has become an exclusive domain to play a significant role in increasing the performance of development in nation building. As a result, IBBL is playing a vital role in the rural area in applying the RDS for poverty alleviation. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of the RDS of IBBL in the rural area. This paper will also discuss the achievements of this scheme in the present context to evaluate its performance. Finally, the researcher will come up with some suggestions and recommendations for further improvement. =========================================== Bank Islami Bangladesh Limited (IBBL adalah salah satu lembaga keuangan terkemuka dan efisien di dunia. “Skema Pembangunan Pedesaan” (RDS telah menjadi suatu domain yang ekslusif dalam memainkan peranan yang signifikan bagi peningkatan performa dalam pembangunan negara. Sebagai hasilnya, IBBL memainkan peranan yang penting di daerah pedesaan dalam mengaplikasikan skama RDS bagi upaya penanggulangan kemiskinan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisa performa skema RDS dari IBBL di daerah pedesaan. Paper ini juga akan mendiskusikan pencapaian skaema ini dalam konteks saat ini guna mengevaluasi performanya. Pada akhirnya, peneliti akan menyampaikan beberapa saran dan rekomendasi untuk peningkatan di masa yang akan datang.

  12. Violent Jihad and Beheadings in the Land of Al Fatoni Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Andre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The early 2000s has seen a revival of the Patani resistance manifesting in a violent jihad and new forms of extreme violence never witnessed before in the century-long Southern Thailand conflict. Transported by neojihadism, this new energised generation of fighters is injecting new meaning to their struggle, re-identifying friends and foes, spreading terror in hearts and minds to control mental and physical spaces through the slashing of the body, all in the hope of establishing Al Fatoni Darussalam. This article examines the reflexive repositioning of the Patani struggle through the process of transference of neojihadism and its transformation into a glocalised violent jihad.

  13. Responding to Cyber Jihad: Towards an Effective Counter Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “Who is in control of the narrative?” is the mantra that now echoes in the hallways of the EU’s headquarters in Brussels. Spurred in part by large-scale jihadist propaganda, approximately 20,000 people from 50 countries have joined the fight in Iraq and Syria. So far, authorities in their countries of origin have not been able to address the jihadist radicalisation messages transmitted via the internet and social media. Many new initiatives were recently announced, however, including the establishment of a European counter-narrative centre in Brussels. Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the role of the internet and social media in processes of radicalisation. It offers an outline of the various aspects of the jihadist narrative, in order better to understand what message needs to be countered. The counter-actions against this cyber jihad can take different forms. Parallel to the way in which advertisement campaigns are tailored to sell products to a certain target group, strategic communication should take into account how a number of recurring elements play a role in the counter-messaging. The understanding of who the target group is, what jihadist narrative is used and how that message can be countered, who the credible messenger should be, and what medium can best be used to deliver the message are all relevant questions that can only be answered in a context-specific manner. The Research Paper concludes with several recommendations on how the recently announced new European counter-narrative centre can effectively contribute to the already diverse landscape of counter-narrative initiatives.

  14. Analisis dan Perancangan Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Persediaan pada PT Nur Islami Tour and Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titan Titan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of sales and inventory information system performed at PT Nur Islami is aimed to identify the organization needs to control and manage the data and information of operational transaction. The result will be used as a base for developing a new computerized system. The activity in analysis and design is focused in sales and inventory activities, which is the main core of the organization. These needs will be documented using unified modeling language. The C# and SQL Server 2005 will be used to design and develop the application and database for fulfilling the needs. This information system will ease the organization in doing their activity in selling and monitoring the stock. On the other hand, it will also minimize the data lost, which is usually caused by the conservative storage mechanism of transactional data.

  15. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  16. Whose "Jihad"? Oral History of an American Muslim Educational Leader and U.S. Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzani, Miriam D.; King, Kelley M.

    2018-01-01

    While case studies have documented how teachers can either ameliorate or exacerbate situations of ignorance or hate in the classroom toward Muslim students, the role of educational leaders in U.S. public schools remains negligible. In response, this paper aims to develop the knowledge base of educational leadership as it pertains to the jihad or…

  17. Laskar Jihad : Islam, militancy and the quest for identity in post-New Order Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the intellectual and political history of Laskar Jihad, the most spectacular Muslim paramilitary group that emerged in Indonesia in the aftermath of the collapse of the New Order regime in May 1998. Using an interpretive framework derived from social movement theory and identity

  18. MENARIK MINAT SISWA PADA LAYANAN BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING ISLAMI DI SEKOLAH MENGGUNAKAN LAYANAN INFORMASI DENGAN TEKNIK MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismah -

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rendahnya minat siswa pada layanan bimbingan dan konseling terlihat dari minimnya siswa yang datang keruang BK untuk memanfaatkan layanan bimbingan dan konseling di sekolah. Permasalahan yang dikaji dalam penulisan ini adalah, Bagaiman layanan informasi dengan teknik modelling dapat menarik terhadap minat siswa pada layanan bimbingan dan konseling di sekolah khususnya bimbingan dan konseling islami. Tujuan yang hendak dicapai dalam penulisan ini adalah untuk memberi masukan kepada guru BK di sekolah supaya siswa-siswinya tertarik atau berminat berkunjung di ruang BK, menggunakan cara ”layanan informasi dengan teknik modelling terhadap minat siswa pada layanan bimbingan dan konseling siswa di sekolah khususnya bimbingan dan konseling islami”. Pada kajian ini dapat dianalisis bahwa: layanan informasi dengan teknik modelling, diharapkan dapat berdampak positif terhadap minat siswa berkunjung ke ruang BK, sehingga guru BK dapat memberi layanan bimbingan konseling khusunya bimbingan dan konseling islami dengan kesadaran siswa tanpa pemaksaan.

  19. POLA PENGASUHAN ISLAMI DALAM PENDIDIKAN KELUARGA (Penguatan Peran Keluarga Jamaah Masjid Baitul Abror Teja Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan Islam memiliki varian yang kompleks, tidak hanya pada kegiatan pendidikan formal, dan non formal, akan tetapi juga ada pada pendidikan informal, ketiganya memiliki keterkaitan yang sinergis untuk saling menguatkan, sebagaimana halnya yang terjadi pada ibu-ibu Jamaah masjid Baitul Abror yang putra-putrinya mengikuti pendidikan pra sekolah pada RA. Muslimat NU yang dikelola oleh Ta’mir masjid. Para Ibu jama’ah yang rata-rata tingkat pendidikan rendah, mereka minim pengetahuan, pengalaman dn keterampilan dalam memberikan pengasuhan secara islami, hal tersebut menjadi concern sasaran program pengabdian akademik dalam memberikan penguatan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan, keterampilan dan afeksi dalam mengasuh pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak khususnya usia pra sekolah. Program penguatan  yang dikhususkan pada peningkatan pengetahuan dalam mengasuh, praktek pengasuhan dan keterampilan dalam memberikan perlindungan kepada anak, ternyata memberi kontribusi yang signifikan terhadap perolehan ketiga aspek yang diberikan selama mengikuti kegiatan penguatan tersebut. Hal tersebut terlihat pada saat proses kegiatan pengabdian berlangsung seperti tanggapan dan respon tentang materi dan praktek yang dilakukan bersama antara Tim Pengabdian dan pra ibu jama’ah masjid.

  20. Breaking the Waves: How the Phenomenon of European Jihadism Militates Against the Wave Theory of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proshyn Denys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available David Rapoport’s Wave theory of terrorism is one of the most oftencited theories in the literature on terrorist violence. Rapoport is praised for having provided researchers with a universal instrument which allows them to explain the origin and transformation of various historical types of terrorism by applying to them the concept of global waves of terrorist violence driven by universal political impulses. This article, testing the Wave theory against the recent phenomenon of homegrown jihadism in Europe, uncovers this theory’s fundamental weaknesses and questions its real academic and practical value.

  1. Paradigmatic Shifts in Jihadism in Cyberspace: The Emerging Role of Unaffiliated Sympathizers in Islamic State’s Social Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Veilleux-Lepage

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper provides an overview of the evolution of the concept of jihadism as it presently exists in cyberspace. From its roots during the Chechen conflict to the current use of social media by the Islamic State (IS, this paper identifies and examines three highly significant paradigm shifts: (1 the emergence of rudimentary Web 2.0 platforms and jihadist forums; (2 the advent of advanced Web 2.0 and social media platforms as methods of spreading jihadism; and (3 turn towards ‘lone wolf’ terrorism.  In this paper, the author argues that IS’ extensive reliance on unaffiliated sympathizers, who either re-tweet or re-post content produced and authorized by the IS leadership can be seen as a groundbreaking paradigm shift in the evolution of jihadism in cyberspace. Furthermore, it is also argued that IS’ strategy of empowering of unaffiliated sympathizers represents a further development in the evolution of jihadism in cyberspace and can best be understood as an attempt to normalize and legitimize IS’ existence through its efforts to dominate the ‘IS narrative’ across social media platforms.' ' '

  2. Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda's Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Braniff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Al-Qaeda has suffered a number of setbacks, but has also successfully spawned an expansionist global jihadist movement that will survive the death of Osama bin Laden. This article describes how the multifaceted threat posed by global jihadism has evolved over the last decade. It first recounts some of the more salient examples of Al-Qaeda’s post-9/11 strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations, and then offers a balance sheet of Al-Qaeda’s contemporary strengths and weaknesses. Al-Qaeda continues to enable the violence of others, orient that violence towards the United States and its allies in a distributed game of attrition warfare, and foster a dichotomous “us versus them” narrative between the Muslim world and the rest of the international community. Despite this overarching consistency, Al-Qaeda shepherds a different phenomenon than it did ten years ago. The aggregation of the movement’s strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations has fundamentally changed the nature of the jihadist threat to the West. This evolved threat is not inherently more dangerous, as counterterrorism efforts today focus on and disrupt capability earlier and more consistently than prior to September 2001. This multifaceted global jihad will, however, continue to produce greater numbers of attacks in more locations, from a more diverse cadre of individuals spanning a wider ideological spectrum.   

  3. METODE DAN TEKNIK BIMBINGAN KONSELING ISLAMI UNTUK MEMBANTU PERMASALAHAN PADA ANAK-ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikah Atikah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan pada usia anak akan mempengaruhi perkembangan pada fase berikutnya.  Jika  anak usia dini dalam pengasuhan yang benar dan sesuai dengan karakter anak maka akan mampu menghadapi tugas perkembangan (task development berikutnya, dan akan sebaliknya ketika anak usia dini dalam pengasuhan yang salah atau perlakuan yang salah pada anak (child abuse. Sehingga dibutuhkan pemahaman tentang usia anak,  lengkap dengan karakteristik-kebutuhan-permasalahan untuk membantu tumbuh kembang anak agar optimal sesuai dengan tahapan kemampuan yang harus dimiliki anak. Cara-cara membantu masalah yang sering dialami anak-anak disesuaikan dengan tahapan usia. Ciri khas pada anak adalah bermain dan bergembira, sehingga anak-anak dapat menyelesaikan masalah yang sering muncul dengan suasana senang dan ceria. Memahamkan anak-anak tentang penyelesaian masalah juga diperlukan agar siap menghadapi permasalahan dengan kemampuan yang dimiliki. Salah satu teknik dalam metode kelompok yaitu karyawisata. Dengan mengunjungi tempat-tempat wisata,  memberi kesempatan pada anak-anak berganti situasi (rutinitas ke obyek wisata untuk mengatasi masalah dengan tetap bersenang-senang bermain. Sehingga permainan di tempat obyek wisata akan memberikan dampak kesegaran fisik  dan beban- beban masalah yang terjadi terbantukan dengan mengalihkan ke permainan yang di setting untuk membantu pemecahan masalah. Dan teknik-teknik bimbingan konseling Islam yang lainnya dapat digunakan untuk menyelesaikan sesuai dengan berbagai macam permasalahan. kata kunci: Metode Bimbingan  Konseling, Konseling Islami, Permasalahan Anak METHODS AND TECHNIQUES TO HELP THE ISLAMIC GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROBLEMS IN  CHILDREN. Development of the child’s age will affect the development of the next phase. If early childhood in the care of the correct and in accordance with the character of the child will be able to face the developmental task(taskdevelopmentnext,  and will instead when early

  4. Whose Hearts and Minds? Narratives and Counter-Narratives of Salafi Jihadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Al Raffie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the Global War on Terror, the world has witnessed the continuation of terrorist activity under the banner of Salafi Jihad. With military action proving insufficient to defeat the propagators of the ideology, attention has turned to the ideology itself. Understanding the narratives that constitute this ideology and the systems in place that help propagate it is crucial to defeating it. Analysis brings to light elements that arguably constitute a Jihadist master narrative as well as support structures that help perpetuate key underlying messages of this master narrative. Successful counter-narratives should focus on rolling back and containing Jihadist narratives whilst simultaneously highlighting the values and attitudes of democratic, free societies

  5. Hubungan Shalat Fardu Berjamaah Dengan Kecerdasan Emosional Pada Jamaah Mesjid Al Jihad Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jauhari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Al Jihad  Mosque Banjarmasin is a mosque that is identical with Muhammadiyah, this mosque is followed by many pilgrims and loyal at the time of the implementation of prayers fardu congregation. Jamaah consists of various groups regardless of background, both in terms of age, economy, organization and even the sick pilgrims (post-stroke are actively involved in congregation. Active Jamaat prayers in congregation do not only come from residents around the mosque complex, but also many pilgrims who come from outside the mosque complex, even the distance difference between their residence with the mosque a few kilometers. In heavy rainy weather conditions, they still enthusiastically follow the prayers in congregation fardu mosque. In addition, there are things that are felt by pilgrims such as comfort, tranquility of heart and mind, emotional stability, silaturrahim which all is related to emotional intelligence. In this study, the main problem is how is the relationship of prayer in congregation with emotional intelligence in the congregation of Al Jihad Mosque Banjarmasin ?. The method used is quantitative and qualitative descriptive method with methodological arrangement such as approach and type of research, research location, population and sample, data and data source, procedure and data collection, quantitative and qualitative technical data analysis. The result of the study found that there is a correlation between salat fardu congregation with emotional intelligence, this is proved by the data from questionnaires from 30 pilgrims (respondents that is: able to control the impulse of worldly lusts with the highest opinion is 60% said yes and 40% stated sometimes .Motivating yourself with the highest opinion is 90% states yes and 10% states sometimes. Able to survive in the face of trials with the highest opinion is 86.67 states yes and 13, 33 states sometimes. No exaggeration with the highest opinion is 90% states yes and 10% states

  6. La Politique coloniale française et les Ahl Shaykh Ma al-cAynin. Jihad et resistances tribales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bonte

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El destino de Ahl Shaykh Mâ al-cAynîn está conectado a la resistencia contra la colonización europea en el Sahara y Marruecos. La literatura colonial francesa ha concebido la lucha del Sheij como consecuencia de un panislamismo activista. El contexto tribal regional lleva al Sheij a oponerse a la colonización francesa en Mauritania y Marruecos cuestionándose la legitimidad dinástica alawi. El desarrollo de la yihad concluyó con el nombramiento del sultán de Marruecos. Se subraya las contradicciones de un proyecto político basado en el guerrero tlamid del Sheij y las movilizaciones tribales contra el orden colonial. The fate of the Ahl Shaykh Mâ al-cAynîn is connected to the resistance against the European colonization in Sahara and Morocco. The french colonial literature has conceived the Shaykh’s fight as a consequence of an activistic panislamism. As a matter of fact it is located in a tribal regional context leading the Shaykh to be opposed to the French colonization in Mauritania and Morocco and to question finally the calawi dynastic legitimacy. The development of the jihad concluded in the name of the Moroccan Sultan underlines the contradictions of a political project depending on the warrior tlamid of the Shaykh and tribal mobilizations against the colonial order. The check of the jihad reduces the family’s part in the organization of the resistance; after 1920 this part becomes a secondary one.

  7. MENATA RUMAH YANG ISLAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidz Zamroni Zien, Tarranita Kusumadewi

    2012-06-01

    An Islamic house is not always designed like mosques or houses which are full of Islamic ornaments, such as calligraphy, and more. An Islamic house is an efficient house which can be used to  dhikr to Allah, and to remember death. The house is not always facing the Qibla or the lavatory was not facing Mecca. An Islamic house is a house that allows occupants to stay and interact with others. Besides, the privacy of each person can also be maintained in it. It is then becoming the task of the architects to make Islamic houses. However, the most important thing of an Islamic house is that it does not isolate the occupants from the outside world. Further, it could create a better interaction and social relationship with its surroundings and neighbors. Key words: Islamic House, rules, adab

  8. A comparative study of Ayatollah Motahhari’s views on Jihad and Rawls’ views on Humanitarian Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Maghami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since there appears to be a relationship between Ayatollah Mutahhari’s ‘Jihad’ theory and John Rawls’s Humanitarian War theory, and between their shared social concerns, this study aims at investigating whether the two theories are similar or different in terms of legitimacy of war and the use of force. It seems that humanitarian jihad and liberal humanitarian intervention have a similar genesis, the difference being that the former is prescribed on theological foundations and the latter is founded on ethical liberalism, though the two have similar claims. Can this apparently unprofessed resemblance in permissibility of jihad in Jihad theory of Ayatollah Motahhari – as a Muslim jurist and philosopher - and the justification of war to confront violation of human rights in “The Law of Peoples” as a complement to theory of justice of Rawls – as a Kantian liberal philosopher be considered a significant relationship? نسبتی ناخواسته میان نظریه جهاد شهید مرتضی مطهری و جان رالز و مشابهت برخی دغدغه‌های اجتماعی آن‌ها بهانه‌ای است برای کنجکاوی در امکان تشابه یا افتراق نظریه این دو در باب مشروعیت جنگ و توسل ابتدایی به زور. در این بررسی به نظر می‌رسد جهاد بشردوستانه آن گونه که از نامش پیداست سنخیتی با مداخله بشردوستانه دارد؛ با این تفاوت که اولی از منظری ایدئولوژیک و الهی تجویز می‌شود و دومی از منظر لیبرالیسم اخلاقی؛ گر چه هر دو تقریباً مدعای یکسانی دارند. آیا این تشابه علی الظاهر ناخودآگاه در میان موارد تجویز جهاد در نظریه جهاد شهید مطهری به عنوان یک فقیه فلسفه‌گرای مسلمان و توجیه

  9. Muslim Women and Women’s Organizations: Allies in the War of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    imposing their view of Islam. Iran, Egypt, Algeria, Sudan, and Afghanistan are just some of the more prominent examples in which Islamists gained a...the breadwinner and the active member in public life.”22 Qutb continues by saying that a woman’s “entire organic and physiological formation is...Jihad (Jihad Group), the Groupe Islamique Arme or Armed Islamic Group (GIA), al-Jihad al Islami (Islamic Jihad) – just to name a few – are groups that

  10. ARSITEKTUR ISLAM ATAU ARSITEKTUR ISLAMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sativa Sativa

    2011-01-01

      ABSTRACT. It has been regarded, there are so many discussion and study of Islamic architecture, particularly among academics and practitioners. Most of the discussion focuses on aspects of form, style, historical relics and other things that are considered physical is part of the culture of Muslims. Meanwhile, some people feel that the real Islam is not enough just realized with the physical aspect only. Currently, growing discourse about Islamic architecture which tends to emphasize Islamic values rather than physical typology of product architecture. In this matter, the author referred to it as Islamic Architecture. This paper is aimed to discover how extend to which the differences between two thinking about Islam Architecture and Islamic Architecture, and to find out the aspects which influence in Islamic Architecture product planning, through the study of various sources of the Qur'an and hadith, books, journals, and several articles, in addition to analysis of the author's own thoughts. From those studies it was found that a discussion of Islam architecture is very different from Islamic architecture. Islam architecture emphasizes the physical aspects of the built environment, while Islamic architecture is more advanced on Islamic values which root on Al Quran and hadith or sunnah of the Prophet. Aspects of Islamic architecture that need to be developed is efficiency, egalitarian, privacy and genius loci.   Keywords : Islam Architecture, Islamic Architecture, Islamic values

  11. Etika Bisnis Islami Dalam Periklanan

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmaniah, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    As a bridge between producers and consumers, advertisement has a very strategic position from business point of view, since it can present complete and accurate information to the consumer about the product or service. Therefore, the advertisement should be paid attention seriously in Islamic business ethics. Advertisement that does not use ethics will damage the corporate image; and gradually the company may be unseen by the consumer. On the other hand, doe consumer may also have bad conseq...

  12. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... Global jihadis have spent more than 40 years refining their philosophy, gaining experience, building their organization, and developing plans to re-establish what they see as the only true Islamic state on earth...

  13. Waging and Fighting e Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    terrorists would have roughly the same impact as techniques used by ordinary hackers, hactivists and cyber criminals .” 25 Ironically, the group that...beyond their capability. Increased collaboration with cyber criminals and recruiting better educated members moved their technological knowledge

  14. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... The 9/11 attacks set this plan in motion. In the years leading up to and following the 9/11 attacks, global jihadis have written copiously on their military strategy for creating an Islamic state...

  15. ETOS KERJA ISLAMI DALAM MEWUJUDKAN KESEJAHTERAAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Fitriah Elkarimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of human quality is a human who has a high work ethic, human quality means certainly have high motivation, always work and achievement. The quality of human resources is a central point of movers and managers from various types of other resources. The work ethic in Islam perspective is not enough to get the one purpose of welfare, but a manifestation of pious charity whose purpose is more comprehensive, Islam assess welfare  must be guided with other instruments such as charity, donation, and shadaqah. The fact, Muslim has not been fully implemented yet the instrument. For this reason will be explained relation work ethic and social welfare in Islam perspective as a mediator to contact among segments

  16. ETIKA BISNIS ISLAMI DALAM PRAKTEK BISNIS RASULULLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saifullah

    2011-06-01

    Kajian sejarah mengenai perilaku dan etika bisnis Muhammad sebelum ditunjuk sebagai nabi merupakan kajian yang menarik, karena peri laku dan etika bisnis yang diterapkan oleh Muhammad didasarkan pada kajian ayat-ayat al-Qur’an. Setelah ditunjuk sebagai nabi (usia 40 tahun, kehidupan Nabi Muhammad lebih dibimbing oleh wahyu-wahyu al-Qur’an. Beberapa prinsip yang diterapkan oleh Muhammad adalah jujur, amanah, timbangan yang tepat, menghindari gharar, tidak menimbun barang, tidak melakukan al-ghalb dan tadlis di antara penjual dengan pembeli.

  17. Menjadi Manusia Kreatif: Sudut Pandang Psikologi Islami

    OpenAIRE

    Nashori, Fuad

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThis writing intended to reveal Islamic Psichology view to creativity. Islamic Psichology it selfmeans a study about human soul and behaviour based on Islamic world view. Islamic Psichology bas aview that religiousness gives impact to crativity. Fervent belief, diligent worship, charities and farventreligious experince are proved anable man to get creative idea that has bigher or more eternal truth level.Creativity certainly gives impact to the glory of  Islamic society.Keyword : Crea...

  18. Asuransi Islami Dan Pembangunan Ekonomi Umat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iswadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the debate jurists of insurance, there are some that allow and prohibit, with various arguments. At the next turn spawned Takaful is a concrete solution to address the issue of people who really need insurance. Islamic insurance does have differences in terms of both form and nature with conventional insurance. There are two types of takaful insurance products, namely family takaful and general takaful. This insurance can also increase or help the economic development of the people, with a range of multiplier effect caused

  19. TEMBHANG MACAPAT DALAM TRADISI ISLAMI MASYARAKAT MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Susanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is about to describe Tembhang Macapat in the tradition of Madurese people, particularly in the village of Larangan Luar that is located in Larangan district of Pamekasan regency. It has been stated that Tembhang Macapat appears as cultural treasure that its existence needs to conserve. However it is as well claimed as out of dated culture since its noble and gallant values have been decreased. Hence structured and thoughtful attempts must be designed to promote Tembhang Macapat and the other traditional treasures in form of local content curriculum. Furthermore the department in charge, The Youth, Sport, and Cultural Affairs (Disporabud, must get optimally involved to look after and develop the local tradition by supporting any events of tradition development. As a result it could raise and fertilize the local tradition everlastingly or at least it is able to survive in the future time.

  20. In Their Own Words: Voices of Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the tyranny of nature.’ The shrines of such a culture are huge factories and cinemas , chemical laboratories and dance halls and power stations. The...priests of such a worship are bankers and engineers, cinema stars and indus- trialists and aviators. The inevitable result of this state of affairs...weapon.” Based on U.S. and Japanese biological weapons programs from World War II, it showed “how to inject carrier animals, like rats, with the virus

  1. Islam’s Challenge: Jihad and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    themselves as the ‘Ikhwan’ or brotherhood. They, like Mohammad who had cleansed the Kaba of its idols, destroyed Sufi shrines and sacred tombs in Mecca and...Medina, including those of the Prophet and his companions. They also destroyed the tomb of Hussain at Karbala, a major Shii holy place, an act...In the Muslim Brotherhood, he quickly emerged as the most important ideologue amid the growing confrontation with the Egyptian regime (Richardson

  2. The Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sara E

    2007-01-01

    .... Global jihadis have spent more than 40 years refining their philosophy, gaining experience, building their organization, and developing plans to reestablish what they see as the only true Islamic state on earth...

  3. BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theo

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... aimed at churches, mosques, banks and police stations. ..... exported to the United States, which makes Nigeria the fourth largest oil supplier to .... state structure of Nigeria and the provinces within the federal states.

  4. In Their Own Words: Voices of Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aaron, David

    2008-01-01

    ... from the Qur'an, Hadith, and earlier Islamic writers and scholars. This book offers unfiltered access to a broad range of the stories, rationales, ideas, and arguments of jihadi terrorists and those who...

  5. BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theo

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... How is Boko Haram positioned within the Muslim community in. Nigeria? How does the group affect the relations between Muslims and Christians? ...... government and elite delinquency finally ripening into social chaos”.54 It ...

  6. Jihad Bunuh Diri Menurut Hadis Nabi SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adynata Adynata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada zaman sekarang sering kita mendengar dan melihat di media massa banyaknya terjadi born bunuh diri, baik di tempat-tempat fasilitas umum seperti hotel, rumah ibadah, tempat pertemuan ataupun yang terjadi di daerah peperangan seperti di Palestina ketika perang antara tentara Israel dan Palestina. Para ulama telah mengkaji tentang hukum melakukan bom bunuh diri. Mereka berbeda pendapat tentang hukumnya; ada yang membolehkan dan ada pula yang melarang secara mutlak. Ayat-ayat al­ Quran dan hadis Rasulullah SAW yang terkait dengan persoalan ini, secara zahir tampak bertentangan. Dalam sebuah hadis Beliau melarang membunuh diri dengan cara apapun dan nanti di dalam neraka Jahannam pelakunya akan disiksa dengan cara yang dilakukannya ketika membunuh dirinya serta kekal di dalamnya. Sementara dalam Hadis yang lain disebutkan Rasulullah SAW menawarkan kepada satu orang sahabatnya untuk melawan musuh yang banyak yang diyakini akan membawa kematiannya pada perang Uhud sehingga terkesan sahabat tersebut mengorbankan dirinya. Hadis-hadis yang tampak bertentangan ini perlu dikaji lebih mendalam untuk ditemukan relevansinya dengan peristiswa born bunuh diri yang banyak terjadi sekarang. Penulis memahami bahwa bom bunuh diri pada prinsipnya diharamkan, tetapi jika dilakukan dalam kondisi terpaksa dalam medan peperangan untuk menyelamatkan pasukan dan menghindarkan bahaya yang lebih besar lagi maka boleh dilakukan asalkan atas perintah pemimpin perang. tetapi jika dilakukan tidak kondisi perang maka tidak boleh dilakukan dan termasuk sikap putus asa terhadap kemaksiatan yang terjadi

  7. In Their Own Words: Voices of Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aaron, David

    2008-01-01

    .... A minimum of introductory and contextual material is provided, so that the reader may experience the full impact of what they are saying to each other and to the world. It is hoped that this will provide greater insights into the motives, plans, and participants in jihadi terrorism, as well as the nature of the threat they pose.

  8. Crime and Insurgency in the Tribal Areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    formerly the NWFP)  LT    Lashkar‐e‐Taiba  LI     Lashkar‐e‐Islami  NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  NDS    National Directorate of Security...Lashkar‐e‐Islami  ( LI ),  the  Islamic Movement  of Uzbekistan  (IMU),  the  Islamic  Jihad  Union (IJU), al‐Qa’ida and Lashkar‐e‐Jhangvi.    Note on...those  people without  any mercy.”57 When  U.S.  Marines pushed  into  Mian  Posteh  in Helmand province, villagers  initially  refused  to  frequent

  9. STRATEGI PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI YANG ISLAMI MENURUT FAHIM KHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murtadho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several theories about the development strategy formulated by the most conventional neo-classical economists much criticized. Fahim Khan including contemporary Islamic economic thinkers who criticize conventional economic development strategy with alternative bids from the Islamic economics perspective. Their thinking is exciting to examined substance and its correlation with the economic development of contemporary Islamic discourse that dominated the development of financial institutions/syariah banking. The creation of entrepreneurial opportunities made Fahim Khan as a keyword in the concept of criticizing conventional strategy and supporting the Islamic economic development strategy. Strategy opened and graced this productive creative independent businesses are deemed appropriate and supported by the Islamic economic system based on profit and loss sharing partnership (profit-loss sharing. The idea is to promote excellence banking system of sharing based on the conventional interest-based banking system in spurring economic development suplus to enliven the entrepreneurial workforce.

  10. STRATEGI PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI YANG ISLAMI MENURUT FAHIM KHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Murtadho

    2017-01-01

    Several theories about the development strategy formulated by the most conventional neo-classical economists much criticized. Fahim Khan including contemporary Islamic economic thinkers who criticize conventional economic development strategy with alternative bids from the Islamic economics perspective. Their thinking is exciting to examined substance and its correlation with the economic development of contemporary Islamic discourse that dominated the development of financial institutions/sy...

  11. Islamic literature and Sastera Islami: A Conceptual Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah bt. Ahmad H. Osman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: A comparative analysis of the Middle Eastern and Malay Islamic literatures shows that in both traditions, there is an emphasis on morality and good values. However, the discussion on Islamic literature in the Middle East is more philosophically-rooted compared to the Malay literature which is in tune with Malay tradition and is focussed on the daily necessities of life.

  12. Mengungkap Kesadaran Islami atas Riba pada Proses Pembelajaran Akuntansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Nur Rahmanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to know awareness of teachers (lecturers specifically on subject of Financial Accounting including recognition, measurement, and reporting of “interest”. Muslims believe that interest is forbidden as riba. Indeed, the practice of interest is not limited as Islamic issue, but it is viewed as universal issue based on housing bubble price cycle that may affect all sectors. By employing post-phenomenology as well as thought of Don Ihde, this research involving five diversified informant. The results showed that the subjects of Financial Accounting lecturer (Muslim still stuck on "technology" (term of Ihde in the form of international curriculum standards, reference books, and subject (course planning.

  13. Pemberdayaan Pesantren: Membangun Generasi Islami melalui Pembinaan Keterampilan Berbahasa Asing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prastyo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesantren is a religious educational institution managed by the society that is called as Pengasuh. Therefore, Pengasuh is a leader in a community. The educational background of Pengasuh effects activities developed in it. Furthermore, the activities in pesantren relate to the students’ competence and skills. In the modern and global world, the students’ competence and skills should be the primary consideration in developing program at Pesantren. One of the competencies and skills that must be mastered by the students are foreign-language skills. This article discussed about Pesantren Empowerment through the Development of Foreign Language Skills Program to Create an Islamic Generation. This was a research article that used Research and Development Design. This research was conducted at Pesantren I'anatut Tholibin Mojokerto. The first step of this research was to do Need Analysis by using questionaire and interview. Based on the results of questionaire and interview, the researchers developed a program to empower pesantren. The results of this research will be useful for pengasuh, because the result of this research will give a real contribution for pesantren in the form of program that is related to the competence and skills of students as a form of empowerment for pesantren

  14. Etika Konsumsi Islami dari Pegawai SMU di Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Amaliah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out how is the Islamic consumption behavior of the employees working at the Senior High Schools in Bandung. This paper used the quantitative descriptive approach with survey method. The respondents were 100 people taken from all the employees (teachers and administration staffs working at 10 selected Senior High Schools. The result shows that there was no significant difference of the consumption behavior between the employees working at Islamic education institutions and public institutions in Bandung. In general, the Islamic consumption behavior from the employees working around Senior High Schools environment was categorized high mainly for the indicator of selecting the halal brand food, good and useful in the consumption.However, there was still the behavior directing to useless and excessive behavior caused by the effect of advertisement, discount and personal prestige. There fore,internalization of the religious values in all aspects of life as well as the improvement of knowledge in which an individual can minimize the consumptive behavior that engenders him or her as well as their whole life is considerably required

  15. Konseling Islami Untuk Meningkatkan Efikasi Diri Pasien HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Hajja Ristianti

    2018-01-01

    HIV/AIDS sufferers show low self efficacy that causes hypochondria which people often think about loss, loneliness and sinful feelings above all of what has been done. This causes them less emphasis on health care. Implementation of the value of Islamic religion in counseling or called Islamic counseling is very important to do because of a strong relationship between religious Islam with increase self-efficacy. This study wanted to know how self efficacy of HIV/AIDS sufferers in Rejang Lebong Regency can be improved by Islamic counseling. This research was conducted in clinic VCT RSUD Curup Rejang Lebong with the counselor as the key informant.Triangulasi is done by interviewing doctor hwo is handling patient and also companion of peer (PS. Data collection is done by interview and documentation. Futuremore the data is analyzed by doing data reduction, data presentation and conclusion and meaning. The result of research shows that Islamic Counseling is done by counselor on post test counseling by giving advice concerning Allah's greatness, His forgiveness and taubatan nashuhah that bring the patient becomes more resilient, anthusiastict with the process of treatment, more eager to fulfill worship and dayly activity.

  16. PSIKOTERAPI ISLAMI TERHADAP PSIKOPATOLOGI (Perspektif Psikologi Pendidikan Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evita Yuliatul Wahidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a review of psychology, psychopathology can be started from three assumptions. First, the Freudian assumed that the human soul was basically born in sickness, evil, negative / destructive. To be positive, it need companion ways that are impersonal and directive / directing. Second, as a behaviorist, Skinner assumed that the human soul was born in neutral (not sick and unhealthy, where the environment plays a role in determining the direction of its development. Third, Maslow and Rogers as a humanistic figure assumed that the human soul was born in a state of conscious, free, responsible and guided by positive forces emanating from itself to the expansion of all human potential to its fullest. Whereas in Islamic studies of psychopathology can be divided into two categories, namely the worldly, as has been formulated by contemporary psychology, and the hereafter. This paper attempts to explain kinds of psychotherapy according to the study of Islam and how Islam is doing its part in the psychotherapy world and ukhrowi psychopathology. Discussion of Islam against psychopathology of psychotherapy becomes important. In addition to see the growing of Islamization method, as well as to explore therapist aspects in Islam based on the Qur'an and Hadith. The Islamic Psychotherapy is also to provide an alternative to the criticisms made against modern psychology that break away from the values of divinity. This paper begins his discussion of the notion of Psychopathology, Islamic psychotherapy understanding and the existing concept of the theories.

  17. Efektivitas Prinsip Dan Implementasi Islami Pendidikan Karakter di Keluarga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Hasyim Afandi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is the key in forming the character of children early on, because the essence of education is not just limited to transfer of knowledge but also to transfer of values, all of those are done to build the character of the nation's noble personality and cope with juvenile delinquency from various social deviations. Character education has been the National Action Plan since May 2nd, 2010 by Muh. Nuh as Education Minister of Indonesia. The draft sets the year 2010-2014 as consolidation and the placement of the foundation. Then in 2015-2019 as a consolidation strategy implementation and continued in 2020-2024 as a sustainable development. There are many factors that cause the importance of Indonesian society to work together to succeed the character education in Indonesia. Schools have a strategic role in value education, the reality shows that schools cannot do it alone. Apparently, the family has a big enough role. Family is the first moral educator for children. Their parents were the first moral teachers and directly influential element. Whereas, teachers at school can change at any time. Parent-child relationships are built upon a very meaningful emotional foundation that allows a child to feel loved and valuable or unloved and worthless. If the individual character is based on religious values as the foundation/main base, then will be born the soul of strong character and become strong nation shoots anyway. The main goal of character education according to Islam is to form the personality of learners so having ethics, and a good sense of culture and make it happen in everyday life.

  18. Jihad Cool/Jihad Chic”: The Roles of the Internet and Imagined Relations in the Self-Radicalization of Colleen LaRose (Jihad Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Joan S. Picart

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The internet provides the means through which a “self-activating terrorist” may first self-radicalize through some imaginary or sympathetic connection with an organized terrorist network. Additionally, the internet allows such a self-activating terrorist to move into the stage of radical violent action. The internet serves both functions by providing the lone wolf with not only a rhetorical medium for self-justification and communication through the use of “monster talk” and its converse, the rhetoric about the “good citizen,” but it is also a source for relatively inexpensive and more unpredictable technologies of mass destruction. Crucial to this analysis is the distinction between radicalization of thought and radicalization of action, as a theoretical rhetoric of radicalization does not automatically convert into a rhetoric of radical action unless there are catalysts at work. The internet, as well as imagined relations cemented by the rhetorics of “jihadi cool” or “jihadi chic,” function as these crucial catalysts, galvanizing monster talk into monstrous action. The article focuses specifically on the case of self-activating terrorist Colleen LaRose to analyze how different factors—mental, psychological, social, and economic—interact with imaginative elements, such as surrogate father-mentor-lover relations for LaRose, and contribute to the formation of a self-activating terrorist, and what ultimately motivates and galvanizes her to move from a rhetoric of radical talk to a rhetoric of radical action, using Silber and Bhatt’s model of radicalization as an initial heuristic. In the case of Colleen LaRose, the romance of “jihadi chic” or “jihadi cool” (the converse of the rhetoric of the monstrous “infidel” or “lone wolf terrorist” was an essential factor to her self-radicalization. It is this imagined status of “jihadi chic” or “jihadi cool” (that nevertheless must somehow have a look of “reality” or “authenticity” and command a response from its audience that continues to be a crucial component of the success of recruitment strategies of radical jihadi groups, such as ISIS.

  19. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    resulted in entire group disengagement, while the German HAYAT Program and Saudi Counseling Program seek individual de-radicalization/disengagement... Counseling Y Optional N/A Y Y Family Counseling N Y N Y Y Practical Support Measures Y Y Y Y Y Disengage Guarantee – Type Y - Family N Y – Group N...disengagement. The U.S. could easily support religious counseling in de-radicalization programs in partner nations overseas. Group or Individual Programs

  20. Taking Jihad Out of the Hands of Infidels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    both Mecca and Medina from the Turks. In taking Mecca, the Wahhabis demonstrated their religious ferocity by destroying the tomb of Muhammad...did not sit well with the Turkish sultan. He tasked Mehmed Ali, the Egyptian Sultan, “to recover the holy cities.”73 On their third attempt, the...notable contributor to this transformation was an Egyptian named Sayyed Qutb, whose book, Milestones, was published in 1964. Qutb developed and

  1. Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krummrich, Seth

    2007-01-01

    In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks...

  2. Distance Learning and Jihad: The Dark Side of the Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger; Mooney, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reach a variety of audiences in diverse environments has made distance learning a major form of education and training in the 21st century. Though traditionally encountered in the educational and business communities, distance learning has proven an important resource for a variety of other constituencies. Terrorist groups have…

  3. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie P. Mejia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  4. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    antithetical to its ruggedly individualistic culture . Family accountability in maintaining disengagement of a former radical is a remarkable method...terrorist organization seeking national self-determination may be satisfied with a local political settlement granting more autonomy or some other sort...prisoner, once released, does not return to violence. Saudi culture places high value on family responsibility, as evident by concepts of family honor.36

  5. The Fulani Jihad and its Implication for National Integration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    International Studies, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. E-mail Address: ... 14th century by foreign Mallams and merchants, such as Wagara Arabs and the Fulanis ... had an ancient tradition of Islamic learning and piety. It is not ... and pamphlets written in Arabic, Fulfude and Hausa languages, he was able to spread ...

  6. CONFLICT, JIHAD, AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITY IN MALUKU, EASTERN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrus Sholeh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of Suharto’s New Order is a starting point of the quest of religious identity for Indonesian Muslims. A lot of radical groups are founded under the umbrella of liberty and democracy. However, many of them have destroyed the structure of democracy and multicultural society. Conflicts of Maluku (and Poso (1999-2003 are the best local context of how religious groups (Muslims and Christians fighted severely in the name of God. The conflict is also a good case to understand the weakening of state and the involvements of military (para-military forces in instigating the conflicts, which impacted to thousands people killed, and destroyed the ethnic and religious harmony in the region. This paper will analyse the conflicts of Maluku and compare it to other religious conflicts in Poso, Central Sulawesi and ethnic conflicts in West Kalimantan, Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines. I argue the growth of local nationalism and unstability of States in Southeast Asian regions brings the rise of civil society and paramilitary forces, which challenges the entities of harmony, peace and multiculturalism in the region.

  7. Global Insurgency Strategy and the Salafi Jihad Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Coll and Glasser,  is through public e­mail services such as  Hotmail . Here is how it  works: An operative opens an account on Hotmail , “writes a...secretly, reported by Coll and Glasser,  is through public e­mail services such as  Hotmail . Here is how it  works: An operative opens an account on... Hotmail , “writes a message  in draft form, saves it as a draft, and then transmits the e­mail account  name and password during chatter on a relatively

  8. Decentralised Leadership in Contemporary Jihadism: Towards a Global Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bartolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On October 19th 2003, nearly six months after the outset of the invasion of Iraq by US troops, a video was released by al-Qaeda media arm 'al-Sahab' showing Osama bin Laden directly threatening Spain. In his words, Spain, then governed by Prime Minister José Maria Aznar from the 'Partido Popular' (PP, may face a terrorist attack should Spanish military forces continue to be part of the coalition that invaded Iraq[1] and toppled the Saddam Hussein regime. Less than six months later, on March 11th 2004, Madrid was shaken by coordinated bomb attacks in several commuter trains at peak hours, killing 191 people and wounding thousands. The “first well-known al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist conspiracy in Europe”[2] had been in preparation for years thanks to the long-term presence of radical Islamists on Spanish soil. The first jihadist bombing on this continent since 9/11[3] seemed to have answered Osama bin Laden’s warning call. Those who later claimed responsibility for these attacks pointed out Iraq as their main source of motivation. Symbolically the bombings were carried out a few days before the first anniversary of Iraq’s invasion. On the national scene, because “terrorism is meant to terrify”[4] and affect an audience, terrorists clearly intended to affect the outcome of the national general elections scheduled three days later. The Madrid terrorists were not self-starters, nor were they members of al-Qaeda who had performed an oath of allegiance to bin Laden. Instead, they were mostly first-generation immigrants from Northern Africa or the Near East who had been settled in Spain for years, had decent jobs and for some of them wives and children[5]. The setting up of the Madrid bombings was an illustration of the rising context of the contemporary jihadist movement, targeting a country and blaming it for what was happening thousands of kilometres away. This example is highly valuable to describe the continuously evolving nature of the jihadist movement up to now.

  9. Shari’ah Compliant Finance: Toward Economic Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    aig/ takaful /index.jsp (all three accessed October 9, 2009). 48 Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer, Islamic Law: The Sharia from Muhammad’s Time to the...Group. AIG- Takaful . October 9, 2009. http://www.aigtakaful- enaya.com/aig/ takaful /index.jsp (accessed October9, 2009). Anti-Defamation League

  10. To Our Great Detriment: Ignoring What Extremists Say About Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    scripture of Islam itself, Western analysts tried to explain it in political and economic terms in keeping with their own secular- humanistic orientation...virtue of the fact that it is said or written, is meant to indicate that the Orientalist is outside the Orient, both as an existential and moral fact...with their own secular- humanistic orientation.606 (Emphasis added) In the same article, hardly religious and written by a Hindu, Rajaram argues

  11. Global Salafist Jihad in UK -- Strategies of Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    global Jihadist movement has become decentralised and more diffuse, events in Iraq are shaping a new generation of terrorist leaders and operatives...Qaeda’s(pl~ers could conceive, plan and prepare attacks. Germany was favoured due to their security forces’ ignorance ofMiddle Eastern networks - most...social value, there is little intellectkI energy devoted to a better understanding of radicalisation and methods to blunt its ¢ffect, a paucity of

  12. Interview with Ramadan Shallah, Secretary General, Palestinian Islamic Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Atran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On December 14-16, 2009, a delegation from the World Federation of Scientists, including the authors, traveled to Damascus to interview senior Syrian and Palestinian leaders from Syria and various Palestinian factions, including the members of the leadership of Hamas and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The objective was to gain insight from field interviews into how to further advance scientific understanding of cultural and political conflict in order to create new theoretical and practical frameworks for negotiation and cooperation.

  13. Delegitimizing Al-Qaeda: A Jihad-Realist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a...unique “ brand ” of violent extremism: complex, simultaneous, multiple-target, mass casualty terrorist attacks directed at the U.S. 2 homeland.8 Short...Terror,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 32, 2009, pp. 109-138; William D. Casebeer and James A Russell, “ Storytelling and Terrorism: Towards a

  14. Global Insurgency to Reestablish the Caliphate; Identifying and Understanding the Enemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    article&id=729: qwe -have-returned- from-the-lesser-jihad-to-the-greater-jihad-jihad-un-nafs-jihad-ul-akbarq&catid=129&Itemid=63 (accessed 31...article&id=729: qwe -have- returned-from-the-lesser-jihad-to-the-greater-jihad-jihad-un-nafs-jihad-ul- akbarq&catid=129&Itemid=63 (accessed February 18, 2009

  15. Pengembangan Model Bimbingan Kelompok Berbasis Islami untuk Meningkatkan Kecerdasan Emosional Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ningsih fadhilah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the model of group guidance development that is effective in improving the emotional intelligence of senior high school students. This research used educational research and development method. The sample was chosen by purposive sampling to one group of 10 students. The result of this research is Islamic-based group guidance model. The Islamic group-based guidance model developed is a process of providing assistance by counselors to individual through a group atmosphere based on Islamic values in al-qur'an and hadith, enabling each member to learn to participate actively by utilizing the thought and experience of group members. The result of model implementation shows that the guidance of Islamic-based group proved effective in improving students' emotional intelligence. This increase occurs in all aspects of emotional intelligence. Wilcoxon statistical test result shows probability value below 0.05 (0.0025 <0.05, means that the guidance of Islamic-based group effective to improve students' emotional intelligence.

  16. Ibn Tufail : tema aeg, elu ja koht islami-araabia filosoofia ajaloos / Haljand Udam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Udam, Haljand, 1936-2005

    2001-01-01

    Varem ilmunud järelsõnana raamatus: Elav Ärganu poeg. Tallinn : Olion, 1992. 12. sajandil Araabia Hispaanias elanud filosoof Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail. Tema põhiteosest, filosoofilisest jutustusest "Elav Ärganu poeg"

  17. Al-Salaf wa al-Salafiyah fi al-Fikr al-Islamy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathullah Zarkasyi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The principles of salafiah approach can be summarized into three distinguished characteristics: first is comprehension, second is authenticity or originality and not imitation (taqlid, while the last is improvement or progress and not conservatism. Salafiah is in fact not inconsistent with the progress and improvement, while their calling for returning to the original and main sources is approved by the religion and not in contradiction with the reality of Muslim. Moreover, it is a valid approach in achieving a better life in this world and hereafter. The objectives of salafiah are to purify the faith from the heresies (bid’ah, to educate Islamic personality, to open human mind to accept all the new in the fields of the experimental sciences, and to establish the faith from its sources which is far from the emerging narrow-minded religion sects recently. Finally, the salafist open widely to the experimental sciences, to the uses of scientific results, to the great invention in industrial sector and to the modern technology as they are very useful to support and sustain the Islamic teachings in the context of a more beautiful life with a less difficulties.

  18. KONTRIBUSI GURU PAI DALAM PEMBINAAN ETIKA BERPAKAIAN ISLAMI SISWA SMAN KOTA SABANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiburrahman Mujiburrahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Coaching Islamic dress is one of the tasks that must be implemented by Islamic education knowledge (Pendidikan Agama Islam/PAI teachers, both in school and out of school. Contribution PAI teachers are expected to have relevance to the role of educators in Islam, so that the teacher's role in fostering ethical PAI Islamic dress can give a good change to students. This research was conducted at SMAN Sabang, which is considered representative for the study, because students and teachers are very homogeneous, tribes, nations and religions. This research is a qualitative research with method of collecting data through interviews, observation and document study. The researcher found that 1 Ethics dress that is set the school has met the criteria of Islamic dress code; but students’ practicing islamic dress both in school and out of school is less than perfect. 2 the contribution of PAI teachers in coaching dress code is good. 3 In coaching, PAI teachers have enabling and inhibiting factors, so that there are students who still dress out of school environment do not meet the criteria of Islamic dress.

  19. KONTRIBUSI GURU PAI DALAM PEMBINAAN ETIKA BERPAKAIAN ISLAMI SISWA SMAN KOTA SABANG

    OpenAIRE

    Mujiburrahman Mujiburrahman

    2015-01-01

    Coaching Islamic dress is one of the tasks that must be implemented by Islamic education knowledge (Pendidikan Agama Islam/PAI) teachers, both in school and out of school. Contribution PAI teachers are expected to have relevance to the role of educators in Islam, so that the teacher's role in fostering ethical PAI Islamic dress can give a good change to students. This research was conducted at SMAN Sabang, which is considered representative for the study, because students and teachers are ver...

  20. Peran Public Relations melalui Kegiatan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Islami Berbasis Pemberdayaan Masyarakat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Ayu Rizqi Mahanani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Image (good image is a valuable asset to a company for participating into the carrying capacity in the face of increasingly fierce competition in this era of globalization. So it becomes a moral obligation and operations to build a good image of the company that is one of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. This requires a strategic role of public relations in order to carry out CSR activities are on target and provide the benefit that aims to empower the community or the community at large. The strategic role of public relations is expected to be a strategic tool for management to achieve its goals. This paper attempts to analyze the descriptive CSR activities that have been carried out by two national companies / multinational in Indonesia and one government-owned enterprises are not just mere charity but aims to empower the people of Indonesia. With the intention of reviewing the CSR program that truly provide benefit to the independence of program beneficiaries, not become dependent, and not merely interpreted deeds alone company. So that later people perceive right to CSR which is a form of actualization of corporate responsibility and communication between the company and the public. Among prorgam CSR conducted by Telkomsel, Sinar Mas, and the Bank by making strategic empowerment activities with a primary focus on education and training, sports, health, agriculture, infrastructure, social, cultural, environmental maintenance, local business development, partnerships and small businesses. All the CSR program aimed at the development of human resources and better adapted to the real needs (real need community. Keywords: Public Relations, CSR, Empowerment

  1. PENERAPAN MODEL KELOMPOK USAHA KREATIF ISLAMI (KUKIS DALAM PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN BERBASIS PONDOK PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Widiastuti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pondok pesantren Ulul Albab Cabang Sangkanhurip Kabupaten Bandung terletak di tengah persawahan sehingga masyarakat masih kesulitan dalam mengakses program yang diselenggarakan di pondok pesantren tersebut. Kondisi masyarakat yang sangat heterogen menyebabkan sering terjadi konflik diantara masyarakat itu sendiri bahkan dengan pihak pondok pesantren. Konflik yang terjadi pada masyarakat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor diantaranya yaitu rendahnya pendidikan, kesulitan ekonomi dan rendahnya pemahaman agama pada masyarakat. Hadirnya pondok pesantren diharapkan mampu menjadi solusi dalam mengatasi permsalahan tersebut. Selain itu, budaya rentenir masih sangat merajalela sehingga bukan hanya menambah maslaah dalam ekonomi, melainkan masyarakat terus menanggung beban dosa yang berlipat dari memakan harta riba. Melihat permasalahan tersebut, maka kami tim peneliti dan pengurus pondok pesantren merancang sebuah model pemberdayaan perempuan berbasis pondok pesantren dalam upaya meningkatkan tiga aspek kehidupan yaitu Agama, Pendidikan, dan Ekonomi (APE. Model pemberdayaan perempuan yang kami namai model Kukis ini akan diujicobakan dalam penelitian dengan tujuan untuk melihat 1 kondisi sebelum dan sesudah penerapan model kukis, 2 Hambatan yang dihadapi, serta 3 Solusi permasalahan yang muncul pada penerapan model tersebut. Penelitian ini akan menggunakan metode pra eksperimen dengan membandingkan kondisi sebelum dan sesudah penerapan model kukis dengan sasaran penelitian yaitu perempuan usia produktif di lingkungan pondok pesantren. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi Peningkatan penghasilan rata-rata sebesar 18% yaitu Rp. 255.000 per warga belajar selama 1 bulan memulai usaha menunjukkan adanya keberhasilan penerapan model Kukis meskipun belum optimal. Pemahaman warga belajar juga mengalami peningkatan rata-rata sebesar 33%.Hambatan yang ditemukan dalam ujicoba model kukis adalah (1 Menurunnya motivasi warga belajar (2 rendahnya rasa percaya diri, (3 mental karyawan. Upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengatasi hambatan dalam ujicoba model kukis yaitu : (1 Mengidentifikasi warga belajar yang siap untuk membangun usaha, (2 menjalin kerjasama dalam pemasaran.

  2. Komodifikasi Pariwisata Halal NTB dalam Promosi Destinasi Wisata Islami di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizah Awalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Halal tourism destination becomes the new brand for West Nusa Tenggara. Strong local ethnic and religious plurality obtain halal tourism label. It is important to assess if the government saw the domination of the discourse object of power through the economic and tourism sectors. Therefore, this discourse halal tourism can be evaluated using the perspective of post-modern social theory Michael Foucault discourse and power: the power elite that is capable of creating a new discourse (halal tourism to strengthen its political dominance. Then, using the perspective of Baudrillard's theory of the emergence of consumerist society in NTB as a result of capital commodification and domination of the capitalists.   Keywords: Commodification, Discourse, Tourism, Halal

  3. Peran Public Relations melalui Kegiatan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Islami Berbasis Pemberdayaan Masyarakat

    OpenAIRE

    Prima Ayu Rizqi Mahanani

    2015-01-01

    Image (good image) is a valuable asset to a company for participating into the carrying capacity in the face of increasingly fierce competition in this era of globalization. So it becomes a moral obligation and operations to build a good image of the company that is one of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This requires a strategic role of public relations in order to carry out CSR activities are on target and provide the benefit that aims to empower the community or the community at...

  4. Peran Public Relations Melalui Kegiatan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Islami Berbasis Pemberdayaan Masyarakat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Ayu Rizqi Mahanani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Image (good image is a valuable asset to a company for participating into the carrying capacity in the face of increasingly fierce competition in this era of globalization. So it becomes a moral obligation and operations to build a good image of the company that is one of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. This requires a strategic role of public relations in order to carry out CSR activities are on target and provide the benefit that aims to empower the community or the community at large. The strategic role of public relations is expected to be a strategic tool for management to achieve its goals. This paper attempts to analyze the descriptive CSR activities that have been carried out by two national companies / multinational in Indonesia and one government-owned enterprises are not just mere charity but aims to empower the people of Indonesia. With the intention of reviewing the CSR program that truly provide benefit to the independence of program beneficiaries, not become dependent, and not merely interpreted deeds alone company. So that later people perceive right to CSR which is a form of actualization of corporate responsibility and communication between the company and the public. Among prorgam CSR conducted by Telkomsel, Sinar Mas, and the Bank by making strategic empowerment activities with a primary focus on education and training, sports, health, agriculture, infrastructure, social, cultural, environmental maintenance, local business development, partnerships and small businesses. All the CSR program aimed at the development of human resources and better adapted to the real needs (real need community.

  5. BER-EUKA KERJA ISLAMI: IBADAH DAN DAKWAH DI TEMPAT KERJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Nurohman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Islamic work ethic is an Islamic ethic that has been pradiced among the staff base on Islamideaching. islamic work ethic is very important applied in the workplace as a guide staff in performing work in accordance with the values of religious teachings, because the Islamic religion is not only seen as the work of worshipthatwill getthe reward forthe perpetrators, butalso can affedtheformation of a good culture work environment. In this case the ethical work has implications for the effort dakwah bil hal to others in the work environment.

  6. PENANAMAN NILAI-NILAI DASAR ISLAMI ANAK USIA DINI PADA MASYARAKAT PERKOTAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isyatul Mardiyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative Social phenomena in urban society due to changes in lifestyle, social interaction, and changes in social systems have led to problems in many aspects of life. The social problems indicate that urban community is going through a phase of ‘demoralization’ as a result of social changes that are not in line with the Islamic basic values and other norms. The increasing cases of crime in urban areas in terms of quality and quantity, such as corruption, fraud, theft, assault, murder, etc. indicate that the quality of the character and behavior of individuals or groups are still low, resulting from insufficient religious education and norms they receive from an early age. In this light, the Kindergarten or Early Childhood Education plays a very important role in instilling basic Islamic values in children from an early age. The efforts can be made through a series of activities of ‘play and learn’ to actualize Islamic values in everyday life. These activities are expected to achieve a better generation in terms of mental and intellectual capacities, having noble character and strong faith as well as piety to Allah. In addition, through instillation of basic Islamic values from an early age, we will have a new generation of Muslims who act as agents of change that bring about the glory of Islam in the modern era.

  7. Islamiäärmuslased õhutavad Liibanoni ja Iisraeli vahel sõda / Olli Vesla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vesla, Olli

    2006-01-01

    Liibanoni shiiidi-moslemite äärmusrühmitus Hezbollah seadis Iisraeli fakti ette: viimane kas vabastab oma vanglatest araablastest kinnipeetavad või riskib pantvangi võetud Iisraeli sõdurite elu ja sõja puhkemisega. Kaart: Võitlus Liibanoni piiril

  8. Taassündinud selleks, et tappa / Olivier Roy ; tõlk. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Islami radikaliseerumisest, fundamentalismist. Autori väitel annavad kristlik ja islamiäärmuslus tunnistust üleilmastumise ajastu kultuurikriisist, islamiäärmusluse kasvulava on eeskätt noorte Euroopa muslimite teine põlvkond

  9. Islamizarea generației a doua.De la Europa all-inclusive la jihad (The second-generation islamization. From all-inclusive Europe to jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CONDUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the summer of 2015, the massive arrival of asylum seekers in Europe opened a debate about the political, economical and security consequences of immigration in European Union. A hidden ideological conflict was transformed into a linguistic controversy: should the new-comers be named migrants or refugees? During time and development of the crisis, more and more journalists and political leaders switched from ‘refugees’ to ‘migrants’, as it became clear that many asylum seekers weren’t even from war zones. However, the main concern of the most people was related to potential security risks. An investigation into the November 13 attacks in Paris has already found that at least two of the terrorists used the Balkan route to arrive in France. But massive immigration could have further repercussions in not many years, if the hypothesis of a “second-generation islamization phenomenon”, somehow similar to Dole’s “second-generation indigenization”, is true. Having lower level needs in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs already satisfied, the children of the present Muslim migrants could seek to satisfy higher needs, as self-actualization, through religious identity of their parents and radicalization. Due to denial of the separation of religion and state in Islam, this could seriously threaten the Western secular state and cultural model. Being din wa dawla (religion and state, Islam is more than a religion; it is a hybrid we can call ‘relideology’, which seems to be quite attractive for young Muslims seeking self-actualization.

  10. Policing Toward a De-Clawed Jihad: Antiterrorism Intelligence Techniques for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    intelligence that has been analyzed and interpreted halal (Arabic) n., Islamic dietary strictures; adj., of or relating to halal HUMINT n., acronym...tax markets; production and distribution of counterfeit goods or bootlegged music and videos; resale of expired food products at small grocery or...to 113 Halal constitutes Islamic dietary strictures, similar to Kosher in Judaism. 44 an ethnic

  11. Video games, terrorism, and ISIS’s Jihad 3.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study discusses different media strategies followed by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). In particular, the study attempts to understand the way ISIS’s video game that is called “Salil al-Sawarem” (The Clanging of the Swords) has been received by the online Arab public.

  12. The GSPC: Newest Franchise in al-Qa'ida's Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudali, Lianne K

    2007-01-01

    .... Some observers have speculated that North Africa may be the next safe haven for al Qa ida, and that European countries may face a greater risk of attack if Algerian terrorist groups expand their base...

  13. Salafi Jihadism: A 1,400-Year-Old Idea Rises Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Salafi-Jihadist groups ISIS and al-Qaeda, are part of a long tradition of using armed conflict to achieve political aims. Second, as Sun Tzu stated...the United States to 8 Sun Tzu , The Art of War (Minneapolis, MN: Filiquarian Publishing, 2007), chapter 3. 9 Jeevan Deol and Zaheer Kazmi, Introduction...54 Bibliography

  14. The 'Ottoman-German Jihad': Lessons for the Contemporary 'Area Studies' Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The 'Arab Spring' added new fuel to the ongoing controversy over the validity of regional or area studies. None of the Middle East 'area experts' predicted the revolutionary events that led to the fall of a number of authoritarian rulers in the Arab world. As a result, scholars, the media and pol....... The article would argue that this historical dispute already reflected some of the core issues of the contemporary controversy of 'area studies' and contained some lessons for us to learn regarding the analysis of Middle Eastern economy, society and politics....

  15. Encrypted Jihad: Investigating the Role of Telegram App in Lone Wolf Attacks in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shehabat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to capture links between the use of encrypted communication channel -Telegram and lone wolf attacks occurred in Europe between 2015-2016. To understand threads of ISIS communication on Telegram we used digital ethnography approach which consists of the self-observation of information flows on four of ISIS’s most celebrated telegram Channels. We draw on public sphere theory and coined the term terror socio-sphere 3.0 as the theoretical background of this study. The collected data is presented as screenshots to capture a visual evidence of ISIS communication threads. This study shows that ISIS Telegram channels play critical role in personal communication between potential recruits and dissemination of propaganda that encourage ‘lone wolves’ to carry attacks in the world at large. This study was limited to the number of the channels that have been widely celebrated.

  16. Would the U.S. Benefit from a Unified National Strategy to Combat Violent Salafi Jihadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    button, and you honk the horn. You touch another button, and the windscreen wiper works. This mechanical model is the West’s terrorism model: pyramidal ...conflict with some Islamic scholars. According to Ayoob, theologians like Muhammad Abduh of Egypt around the turn of the twentieth century advocated...Wiktorowicz’s framework, is the Salafist al Nour Party in Egypt . According to Khalil as- Anani, the al Nour Party is in a power struggle with the Muslim

  17. Rural development scheme of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited - A study on its growth, effectiveness and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people of Bangladesh are living under poverty line. To alleviate poverty, thousands of NGOs and GOs have been working since the inception of the Bangladesh. But the success rate of these programs appears to be insignificant. Rural Development Scheme (RDS being a shariah and teaching of Islam based technique has been introduced in order to graduate the rural poor from poverty trap by bringing them in the main stream of economy by providing micro-credit and teaching for value creation. The present study has been undertaken aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of the program and its prospect. It has collected both primary and secondary data, and analyzed these with the help of both financial and statistical techniques. The findings of the study are: the growth performance of RDS in important parameters are robust across study period, and RDS influence the income and income generating activities of borrowing members significantly. Finally the study has put forward some logical suggestions for enhancing the sustainability as well as robustness of the program.

  18. Dirasah Fiqhiyyah Lihadits “Bai’atain fi Bai’ah” fi Manzur al-Iqtisad al-Islami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Rasyid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hadits is one source of Islamic Law. There are contracts which are forbidden is Islamic Law. One of that forbidden contracts is two sales in one contract (bay’atayn fi bay’ahor s}afqatayn fi s}afqah. There are narrations of the Ahadith which forbids this type of contract. The paper discusses the authenticity of these narrations and its legal meaning. According to the science of Hadits that daif (weak Hadith could not be considered as valid source of law. There are three narrations related to this topic i.e. through Abu Hurayrah, Amru ibn Shuaib and Ibn Mas’ud. The Prophet (pbh has forbidden two sales in one contract. This Hadits is generally considered as Sahih hence some transactions which come under this type are deemed as void. Muslim scholars have different opinion with regard to the meaning of this Hadits. There are some forms of contract which are forbidden is Islamic Law such as 1.  Bay’ al-ienah, 2.Bay’ al-Kali’ bil Kali’ and Bay’ al-Taqsit or Ta’jil (on deferred payment. This paper is an effort to shed the light on these types of contract referring to the opinions of Muslim intellectuals from different school of thought (Hanafite, Shafiite, Malikite and Hanbalite with some conclusion et the end.

  19. Urgensi Pemahaman Etika Komunikasi Islami pada Mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Agama Islam dalam Mengurangi Dampak Negatif Penggunaan Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Ayu Rizqi Mahanani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to see the urgency of understanding the ethics of Islamic communication in an effort to reduce the negative impact that hit Facebook where students of the State Islamic Institute (STAIN Kediri. Because this situation is contrary to the vision STAIN Kediri who has committed a stabilization center aqidah, good morality, the development of science and a profession that is able to produce graduates who excel intellectually and morally, master of science and technology in order to create a good society. This study used a survey method. The result found that first, many students STAIN Kediri who has not shown good character when a user of Facebook. And secondly, Facebook is used by students STAIN Kediri to argue, in contempt, and a means of contention. An understanding of Islamic ethics of communication required by the students, in order to become the foundation for the user to access Facebook.

  20. ERDOĞAN VERSUS GÜLEN: Perebutan Pengaruh antara Islam Politik Post-Islamis dengan Islam Kultural Apolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Rizqon Khamami

    2016-11-01

    ملخص: يتناول هذا البحث النزاع المحتدم حول محاولة الانقلاب العسكري الذي حدث في تركيا 15 يوليو 2016. ويحاول هذا البحث الإجابة على سؤال واحد مفاده : لماذا تشير أصابع الاتهام إلى فتح الله كولن ويلقى اللوم عليه؟ من الملحوظ جليا أن الانقلاب العسكري في هذه المرة تعكس نزاعا فرديا بين رجب طيب إردوغان وفتح الله كولن. وتجلية للصورة الحقيقية  من هذا النزاع، يتناول الباحث ثلاث فئات لكلٍّ منها دورها في هذه المحاولة الانقلابية: فئة علمانية تتمثل في العسكرية التركية، وفئة إسلامية سياسية تتمثل في حزب رجب طيب إردوغان، وفئة إسلامية ثقافية تحت قيادة فتح الله كولن. فالنزاع المحتدم بين كولن وإردوغان في الحقيقة هو من جرّاء تنافسهما في استجلاب الهيمنة على المسرح السياسي في الدولة. ويرى الباحث أن هذا النزاع الفردي يعود إلى نزاع بين مسلمين يمثلان تيارين إسلاميين مختلفين في منهجية النظر، مع أنهما ينتميان إلى دين واحد (الإسلام وينبثقان من مذهب واحد (المذهب السني. فكولن يختار المسار الثقافي اللاسياسي، بينما يفضّل إردوغان المسلك السياسي على منوال ما بعد الإسلاموية.   Abstrak: Artikel ini mengupas konflik di seputar kudeta militer di Turki yang terjadi pada tanggal 15 Juli 2016. Pertanyaan riset yang dibahas dalam artikel ini adalah mengapa dalam kudeta militer tersebut justru Fethullah Gülen yang disalahkan? Terbaca dengan jelas bahwa kudeta militer kali ini bercerita tentang perseteruan personal antara Recep Tayyip Erdoğan dengan Fethullah Gülen. Untuk memperoleh gambaran utuh mengenai perseteruan ini penulis menghadirkan tiga kelompok yang berkonflik dalam drama kudeta tersebut: kelompok sekuler, Islam politik dan Islam kultural. Militer mewakili kelompok sekuler. Erdoğan mewakili Islam politik, sedangkan Gülen mewakili Islam kultural. Konflik antara Gülen dengan Erdoğan sesungguhnya dipicu oleh perebutan pengaruh di panggung nasional Turki. Penulis melihat bahwa konflik personal ini tidak lain adalah perseteruan antara dua sosok Muslim dan sekaligus dua kelompok Islam yang berbeda dalam cara pandang meskipun sama-sama berasal dari satu agama (Islam dan satu aliran (Sunni. Gülen berjuang lewat jalur kultural apolitis, sedangkan Erdoğan berjuang melalui jalur politik post-Islamisme.

  1. Kas Euroopa suudab panna vastu islamiseerumisele? / Daniel Pipes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Islami levikust Lääne-Euroopas ja põliseurooplaste vastuseisust islamiseerumisele. Moslem Magdi Allami katoliiklusse vastuvõtmisest ja Geert Wildersi filmist "Fitna", mis näitab islami "sisemist kurjust"

  2. United States Counterterrorism Strategy In the Trans-Sahara and the Rise of Salafi-Jihadism In the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Michael E. Brown, 28-56. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010. 7 William F.S. Miles, “Deploying Development to Counter Terrorism: Post-9/11 Transformation of...sc10642.doc.htm; Cullen S. Hendrix and Joseph K. Young, State Capacity and Terrorism: A Two- Dimensional Approach, Security Studies, 23:2, 329-363, doi...the near enemy during the initial years, the 2012 coup d’état 94 Haim Malka and William Lawrence

  3. Filling the Gap Between NIMS/ICS and the Law Enforcement Initial Response in the Age of the Urban Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    the “crisis typology ” and thus the effectiveness of a given crisis response (p. 250). The intensity of a crisis is increased when multiple problems...alley and opened fire on several police officers who had rushed to the scene; police unit “ Tourist 1 Mobile” reported by radio that “police driver...2009, p. 6; Pradhan & Balachandran, 2009, p. 36). Within seconds, 10 people were killed and 20 injured. Officers in nearby police unit, “ Tourist 1

  4. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 4, March 2008. Jihad After Iraq: Lessons from the Arab Afghans Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ideological circles, particularly mosques and organizations, such as Tablighi Jama`at (JaT) of the 11-M and Barcelona ‘08 typology . Authority Figures and...the kidnappings of two Austrian tourists who disappeared from Tunisia in February. According to the statement, the tourists were abducted on...announce its conditions for the release of the two tourists at a later stage.” – BBC News, March 10 March 11, 2008 (UNITED KINGDOM): A British court

  5. Sharia as ‘Desert Business’: Understanding the Links between Criminal Networks and Jihadism in Northern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    How can we understand the social and economic dynamics that enable the operative space of the militant networks in northern Mali? This article argues that jihadist militant groups are actors in local power struggles rather than ‘fighters’ or ‘terrorists’ with extremist ideological motivations. I ...

  6. JIHAD AKADEMIK KALANGAN PERGURUAN TINGGI ISLAM MELAWAN KORUPSI (PEMAKNAAN AKADEMISI ATAS KERANCUAN FIQIH DAN BUDAYA TERHADAP KORUPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Khamdan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ACADEMIC  JIHAD  OF  ISLAMIC  COLLEGE CIVITAS ACADEMICA TO AGAINST CORRUPTION: ACADEMICS THOUGHT ON ‘FIQH’ AND CULTURAL CONFUSION TOWARD CORRUPTION. Paradox reality in Indonesia shows the rise of  social diversity, but the achievements of corruption also increased. It shows that the diversity of  social patterns is still in the theoretical-formalistic stage. This paper intends to conduct discourse criticism studies toward doctrin with thinking “jihad” to shift the thinking sacret ‘fiqh’ which is formalized. In promoting the eradication of corruption, Islam can play a role in various forms. Moral values taught at least provide answers about the spread of  corruption with interpretation radicalization toward Islamic moral values. This new social ethic can encourage people to prevent, monitor, report and fix a number of social sanctions mechanisms in the community in the form of anti-corruption ‘fiqh’. This anti-corruption ‘fiqh’ becomes a kind of corruption prevention efforts in the form of Islamic study. keywords: Paradox, The Criticism Of  Discourse, Social Ethics, Anti-Corruption ‘Fiqh’ Realitas paradoks dalam kehidupan bangsa Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa keberagamaan masyarakat meningkat, namun prestasi korupsi juga meningkat. Hal ini menunjukkan pola keberagamaan masyarakat masih dalam tahap teoritik-formalistik. Tulisan ini bermaksud melakukan kajian kritik wacana terhadap doktrin dengan “jihad” pemikiran untuk menggeser sakralitas doktrin dalam fiqih yang terformalkan. Dalam menggalakkan pemberantasan korupsi, Islam dapat berperan dalam beragam bentuk. Nilai-nilai moralitas yang diajarkan setidaknya memberikan jawaban semakin menyebarnya praktik korupsi dengan radikalisasi interpretasi terhadap nilai moralitas Islam. Etika social baru ini dapat mendorong masyarakat untuk senantiasa mencegah, mengawasi, melaporkan dan memperbaiki sejumlah mekanisme sanksi sosial yang hidup di masyarakat dalam wujud fiqih anti korupsi. Fiqih anti-korupsi menjadi semacam upaya pencegahan korupsi dalam melalui kajian keagamaan. kata kunci: Paradoks, Kritik Wacana, Etika Sosial, Fiqih Anti-Korupsi.

  7. Strategic Culture and Strategic Studies: An Alternative Framework for Assessing al-Qaeda and the Global Jihad Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    encom- passed North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal), India, and Indonesia. Marc Sageman, 43. Understanding Terror Networks...geog- raphy, climate and resources; history and experience; political structure; the nature of organizations involved in defense; myths and symbols...moving in on Muslim lands such as the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. It was the ‘head of the snake’ that had to be killed … [T]he priority had to

  8. Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda’s Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    are ample, and include its loss of Osama bin Laden and important operational leaders; defeat or near defeat of various Al-Qaeda franchises outside of...August 2006 plot to blow up transatlantic airliners using liquid explosives—an attack most likely timed to coincide with the fifth anniversary of 9

  9. Ettekujutusi islami paradiisist ja paradiisineitsitest ning nende seos džihaadi ja märterlusega / Elo Süld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süld, Elo, 1979-

    2012-01-01

    Ajaloolis-kriitiline pilt usklike ja märtrite tasuna oodatavast paradiisist, paradiisineitsite tõlgendamisest. Paradiisimotiivide aluseks olevatest religioossetest ettekujutustest (Koraan, judaistlik, kristlik ja zoroastrismi kontekst, sufismi allegooria, araabia luule, kreeka antiikmütoloogia)

  10. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Ayagh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992 [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992. Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and chooses 255 employees for this study. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire and different tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson correlation test are used to examine different hypotheses of this survey. The results indicate there is positive and meaningful relationship between thinking style and emotional intelligence. We can also confirm that four thinking style’s components including functions, levels, scope and learning have meaningful impact on emotional intelligence when the level of significance is five or even one percent. However, forms did not have any meaningful impact on emotional intelligence.

  11. Islamic Concept of Just War and Laws of Armed Conflict (LoAC): A Contemplative Perspective towards Better Understanding of Jihad and Humanistic Dimensions of Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    critics failed to realize that violence is an intrinsic part of all great religions in an attempt to ensure their own survival and prevent extinction ... extinction . It was an endeavor to create space for freedom of practicing social and religious ideals by its followers. This struggle created a natural...not attack from back. Thou shall not mutilate the dead; Thou shall not kill babies, or elderly men, or women. Thou shall not kill bees or burn them

  12. Euroopa tulevikuvisiooni näeme Ceutas ja Melillas / Daniel Pipes ; intervjueerinud Taavi Minnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Intervjuu Lähis-Ida Foorumi presidendi Daniel Pipesiga Euroopa migratsioonikriisist ja vigadest migratsioonipoliitikas. Probleemidest, mida massiimmigratsioon Kolmandast Maailmast Euroopale kaasa toob ning radikaalse islami ohtudest

  13. Islam ja terror samas lauses? / Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masso, Iivi Anna, 1967-

    2011-01-01

    Seostest islami ja islamistlike terroristide vahel. Araabia maailma raputavatest rahutustest. Terrosimiaktidest Venemaal. Autori hinnangul aitaks suhtumine islamisse terve kriitikaga paremini mõista muslimitest libaraale

  14. Islam arvustab, laieneb, mõjutab / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2003-01-01

    Malaisia peaministri Mohamad Mahathiri kõnest islamiriikide tippkonverentsil, kus ta kritiseeris juute. Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini osalemisest vaatlejana Islami Konverentsi Organisatsiooni Putrajaya konverentsil

  15. SIMPUL-SIMPUL PENDIDIKAN DALAM SURAH AL ANFÂL DAN AL TAUBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorazmah Hidayati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, concept of jihad disposed wrong to be understood. Jihad mean as a war, even must destroyed some people and creatures with in the name of Islam. As a consequence Islam refer to a terorist religion. This opinion must be corrected, because Islam is “rahmatan lil ‘alamiin”. In fact, in independent time jihad should be manifested to protect equitable and moral of humanbeing. This article describes some essences of education of jihad in surah al Anfâl and al Taubah with the result that every action will valued as jihad and humanbeing values will protected.

  16. Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol for Defense Applications in Military Operations Using Virtual Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    With the advent into the 20th century whole world has been facing the common dilemma of Terrorism. The suicide attacks on US twin towers 11 Sept. 2001, Train bombings in Madrid Spain 11 Mar. 2004, London bombings 7 Jul. 2005 and Mumbai attack 26 Nov. 2008 were some of the most disturbing, destructive and evil acts by terrorists in the last decade which has clearly shown their evil intent that they can go to any extent to accomplish their goals. Many terrorist organizations such as al Quaida, Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Hezbollah, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Toiba, etc. are carrying out training camps and terrorist operations which are accompanied with latest technology and high tech arsenal. To counter such terrorism our military is in need of advanced defense technology. One of the major issues of concern is secure communication. It has to be made sure that communication between different military forces is secure so that critical information is not leaked to the adversary. Military forces need secure communication to shield their confidential data from terrorist forces. Leakage of concerned data can prove hazardous, thus preservation and security is of prime importance. There may be a need to perform computations that require data from many military forces, but in some cases the associated forces would not want to reveal their data to other forces. In such situations Secure Multi-party Computations find their application. In this paper, we propose a new highly scalable Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC) protocol and algorithm for Defense applications which can be used to perform computation on encrypted data. Every party encrypts their data in accordance with a particular scheme. This encrypted data is distributed among some created virtual parties. These Virtual parties send their data to the TTP through an Anonymizer layer. TTP performs computation on encrypted data and announces the result. As the data sent was encrypted its actual value can’t be known by TTP

  17. La yihad en Francia, la presencia del terrorismo islamista y la lucha contra esta amenaza en territorio francés/Jihad in France, the presence of islamist terrorism and the fight against this menace in french territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Rodrigo Luelmo (Francia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El terrorismo islamista de carácter yihadista y salafista, liderado por la red Al-Qaeda, y que pretende imponer una interpretación ultrarrigorista y fundamentalista del Islam y que ya ha perpetrado multitud de ataques en el mundo musulmán y en Occidente, supone el mayor desafío para la seguridad nacional francesa. Para luchar contra esta amenaza, Francia pretende utilizar únicamente los medios que proporciona el Estado de Derecho y para ello dispone de una serie de instrumentos policiales y jurídico-legales que describiremos en nuestro artículo. La República Francesa también considera que es necesario defender la democracia y la libertad utilizando la transparencia, manteniendo informados a los ciudadanos para contar con su colaboración y apoyo y, sobre todo, dar la “batalla de las ideas” para vencer a los terroristas a largo plazo. Islamist Jihadist and Salafist terrorism, leaded by the network Al-Qaeda, which pretends to impose a very conservative and fundamentalist viewpoint of Islam, and which has committed a lot of terrorist attacks against Muslim and West countries, is actually the most important challenge for French national security. In order to fight against this threat, France only wants to use all the options provided by the rule of law; for this, French Government has some means such as police forces and justice and laws that we will describe in this article. French Republic considers that the openness is necessary to defend freedom and democracy, that is it, to have public opinion informed to get their support and collaboration, and above all, to do the “battle of ideas” to defeat terrorists as a long-term objective.

  18. Norra moslemite juht soovitab Läänel paremat nõu otsida / Mohammad Hamdad ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hamdad, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Norra Islaminõukogu esimees Mohammad Hamdan vastab intervjuus prohvet Muhamedi karikatuuri skandaali, lääne-islami suhteid ning Norras elavate moslemite probleeme puudatavatele küsimustele. Lisa: Pilditüli

  19. America : It's not always about you / Gwynne Dyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dyer, Gwynne

    2004-01-01

    Autor kritiseerib ameeriklaste ekslikku arusaama, mille kohaselt on islami terroristide tegevus suunatud eelkõige Ameerika Ühendriikide demokraatia ja heaoluühiskonna vastu ning selgitab islamiterrorismi reaalseid eesmärke

  20. Meie universaalne tsivilisatsioon : [New Yorgis Manhattani Instituudis peetud loeng] / V. S. Naipaul ; tõlk. Triinu Pakk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naipaul, V. S., 1932-

    2003-01-01

    Islami maailma negatiivselt suhtuva India päritolu Trinidadi kirjaniku maailmavaade. Ka enda kujunemisest kirjanikuks. Tõlke allikas: The New York Review of Books. 31.01.1991. Orig.: V. S. Naipaul, Our Universal Civilization

  1. RELIGIOUSITY COMMITMENT DALAM MEMODERASI HUBUNGAN BRAND AWARENESS TERHADAP NIAT PEMBELIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fakhruddin Mudzakkir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui 1. Pengaruh brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami, 2. Pengaruh religousity commitment terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami, 3. Peranan religousity commitment sebagai variabel moderator yang dapat memperkuat pengaruh brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami. Jenis penelitian adalah survey. Populasinya adalah konsumen yang melakukan  pembelian pada 3 toko roti Merk Islami di Kota/Kabupaten Malang, yaitu Toko Roti Amanah, Toko Roti As Sunnah, dan Toko Roti Madinah. Teknik pengambilan sampelnya adalah accidental sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis Moderated Regression Analysis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan variabel brand awareness  dan religousity commitment berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap niat pembelian. Religousity commitment tidak dapat berperan sebagai variabel moderasi terhadap hubungan brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian merk produk Islam

  2. Identiteet ja migratsioon / Francis Fukuyama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Autor peab islamiäärmuslust immigrantide identiteedikriisi ilminguks ning arutleb identiteedipoliitika olemuse ja tuleviku üle Euroopa ja Ameerika postmodernses multikultuurilises ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Jeffrey Goldstein: Euroopa ja USA - konkurendid või partnerid

  3. Moskva gotova k peregovoram s HAMAS / Marianna Belenkaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belenkaja, Marianna

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini kavatsusest kutsuda läbirääkimistele hiljutised Palestiina parlamendivalimised võitnud islami vastupanuliikumise Hamas juhid. Põhjused, mis sunnivad Venemaad dialoogile Hamas'iga

  4. Vägivallalaine uputas Palestiina ühisvalitsuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Radikaalne islami vastupanuliikumise Hamas ja palestiinlaste mõõdukamat osa esindava Fatah'i võitlejad pidasid Gaza linnaosades veriseid lahingud. Autonoomia presidendi Mahmoud Abbasi ja Iisraeli peaministri Ehud Olmerti hukkamõistvast suhtumisest

  5. Meediaterrorist Chris Morris / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Briti raadio- ja telesatiirik Christopher Morris ja tema (tele)tegemised seoses kinos Sõprus linastuva islamiäärmuslastest kõneleva komöödiafilmiga "Neli lõvi" (Suurbritannia 2010). Lisaks M. T. "Napid detailid eraelust"

  6. Nietzsche l'islam et la globalisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 déc. 2013 ... Obscurantism, Islam, jihad, theocracy dominate . The century in fact expresses a new concept of postmodern revolutions or the society is in intersection between philosophy, politics and religion. The three pillars of all social facts. Keywords: revolution, Islam, globalisation, democracy, jihad, will for power.

  7. Risks of radicalization among Turkish-Dutch young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch

  8. Daniel Pipes: saabuvad kriisid näitavad Euroopa arengusuunda / Daniel Pipes ; interv. Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lähis-Ida uurija vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Iisraeli mainet, Hamasi ja Fatahi konflikti, Iisraeli ja palestiinlaste konflikti, islami ja islamismi erinevust, islamofoobia mõistet, tema ennustust islami ja Euroopa suhete kohta, sõnavabadust, vaenlast terrorismivastases sõjas, uuskonservatiivsuse mõistet, Euroopa Liitu, USA tulevaste presidendivalimiste tulemuse mõju maailmale. Uurija on seisukohal, et Euroopa ja seal elavate muslimite vahelistes suhetes kriisi ärahoidmiseks peaks Euroopa muslimid tõeliselt integreerima

  9. A Hundred Osamas: Islamist Threats and the Future of Counterinsurgency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhur, Sherifa

    2005-01-01

    .... The author of this monograph, Dr. Sherifa Zuhur, examines the intensity and diversification of extremist efforts and outlines their "new jihad" and its relationship to the regeneration of extremist leadership...

  10. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  11. Radical Islam in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Initiative EIJ Egyptian Islamic Jihad EIJM Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement EPLF Eritrean People’s Liberation Front FPENS Formal Private Education Network in...ceremonies, the siyaaro or pilgrimages to the tombs of saints (practiced in particular by Sufis), and the celebration of Mawliid (the Prophet... tombs become pil- grimage centers.17 An important Sufi-linked organization is Ahlu Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ), which seeks to unify the Sufi community

  12. Terror: Social Media and Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    lists the 39 principles of jihad. One of the principles is, " performing electronic jihad.ř The principle describes cybercrime and cyber vandalism...attack on the Boston Marathon . A lesser-known case study of self-radicalization from YouTube is Roshanara Choudhry, a British woman who stabbed a Member...done in social media to counter the extremists. A recreation of USIA with a modern spin for the technology of today could vastly improve the US

  13. Jihād and Islamic arms and armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, David

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the islamic concept of Jihad or Holy war and its differents implications on the decoration of arms and armour.

    Este artículo trata el concepto islámico de Jihad o Guerra Santa y sus diversos implicaciones trasladadas a la decoración de las armas y armaduras.

  14. Islam ja Tallinn - kontaktid minevikust tänaseni / Toomas Abiline

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abiline, Toomas

    2007-01-01

    Eesti tõsisem kokkupuude islamiga toimus Liivi sõja päevil, kui vabanemaks alandavast alluvussuhtest Ivan IV-ga, tulid paljud tatarlased sõja käigus Rootsi poole üle ja osa neist jäi Eestisse elama. Esimene suurem islami kogukond tekkis Eestis pärast Eesti- ja Liivimaa liitmist Vene tsaaririigiga 1721. aastal. Esimese maailmasõja ja Vabadussõja aastatel lahkusid Eestist paljud tatarlased. Eesti Islami Kogudus taasregistreeriti 1989. aastal

  15. Karikatuurid vallandasid kultuuride kokkupõrke / Dan Bilefsky ; tõlk. Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bilefsky, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Autori sõnul on Taani kujunenud väheusutavaks tulipunktiks kultuuridesõjas islami ja lääne vahel. Taani muslimikogukonna väitel väljendavad karikatuurid võimenduvat immigrantidevaenulikku õhkkonda. Üha enam noori Taani muslimeid liitub radikaalse rühmitusega Hizb ut-Tahrir

  16. Protestibiennaal kunsti suukorvistamise vastu / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Tšetšeenia toetuseks organiseeritud rahvusvahelisest rändnäitusest "Emergency Biennale" Tallinna Kunstihoones, kuraator Evelyne Jouanno. Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse korraldatud ettekandepäevast "Kunstniku moraalsed valikud liberaalse demokraatia ja islami kokkupõrgetes", kus esinevad Margit Sutrop, Johannes Saar, Marek Järvik, Ene-Liis Semper, Eero Epner

  17. Sõnavabaduse dogma Hollandi moodi / Kaspar Näf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näf, Kaspar

    2008-01-01

    Šveitsi ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik leiab Hollandi parlamendisaadiku Geert Wildersi islami-vastase filmi ja ENPA endise presidendi Rene van der Lindeni arvamusavaldustega seoses, et kui sõnavabadus ja arvamuse väljendamine on eesmärk iseenesest, siis on see eriti neil juhtudel absurdne, kui seab teisi inimesi ohtu

  18. Radikaalsed palestiinlased tõid Liibanoni taas kodusõja äärele / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Lahingutest äärmusliku palestiinlaste rühmituse Fatah al-Islami ja Liibanoni armee vahel põgenikelaagris Tripoli linna lähedal Liibanoni põhjaosas. Kaart: Lahing põgenikelaagris. Vt. samas: Iisrael võttis sihikule Hamasi kõrgeimad juhid

  19. Milleks meile Afganistan? / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2007-01-01

    Afganistani sõdade ajaloost ja riigi allakäigust alates 1973. aastast, kui Daud Khan korraldas riigipöörde ja kuningas pages riigist, Nõukogude okupatsioonist 1979-1989. Afganistanis toimuvatest islami terroristide koolitustest, Talibani võimust, narko- ja relvakaubandusest, Eesti kaitseväelaste hukkumisest Afganistanis. Kaart

  20. Londoni terror sundis inglasi heitma pilgu endasse / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Aasta pärast Londonis toimunud enesetaputerroristide rünnakut, tunnevad Suurbritannias elavad moslemikogukonnad end valitsuse poolt hüljatuna ning on asunud üha enam toetama islamiäärmuslust. Kaart: Aastatagune terroripäev

  1. Islam vajab reformatsiooni / Salman Rushdie ; tõlk. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rushdie, Salman

    2005-01-01

    "Saatanlike värsside" autori arvates on vaja reformiliikumist, mis tooks islami põhialused moodsasse aega. Sellise liikumise loomiseks ja käigushoidmiseks on vaja uut hariduslikku tõuget. Autor ütleb, et kõiki, ka pühasid ideid tuleb kohandada vastavalt muutunud reaalsusele

  2. Itaalia kohus mõistis 23 CIA agenti vangi islamisti röövi eest / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2009-01-01

    Itaalia kohtu süüdimõistvast otsusest USA Luure Keskagentuuri (CIA) töötajate kohta islami äärmuslase Abu Omari ebaseadusliku vahistamise kohtuasjas, mis on esimene kohtuprotsess maailmas CIA töömeetodite üle

  3. Pakistanis käib võitlus islamiriigi nimel / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Pakistani pealinna Islamabadi Punase mošee ümber kestva, vähemalt 16 ohvrit nõudnud vastasseisu taga on islamiäärmuslaste soov kangutada ametist Ameerika-meelne president Pervez Musharraf. Vt. samas: Sündmused; Pakistan: kaart

  4. Saddam poodi muslimite mõnitamiseks / Ravil Khair Al-Din

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Al-Din, Ravil Khair

    2007-01-01

    Autor avaldab arvamust, et Saddam Husseini kohtuotsuse eesmärk ei olnud mitte karistada kurjategijat, vaid näidata radikaalsete shiiitide võimu kogu islami kogukonna üle, Saddami hukkamisega rikuti usupüha tahtlikult, et provotseerida muslimeid

  5. THE IMPACT OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION ON THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Umaru Zubairu

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of financial scandals have seriously damaged the credibility of accountants as guardians of financial information. To repair this credibility, the Malaysian government released a blueprint that mandated Malaysian educational institutions to produce morally competent professionals. This study assessed the progress of Malaysian universities in meeting this important mandate by evaluating the moral development of accounting students enrolled at the International Islami...

  6. Islamifilosoof : Euroopat ähvardab "kokkupõrge tsivilisatsiooni sees" / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Tariq Ramadani esinemisest Brüsselis islamiteemalisel konverentsil, mille korraldasid Euroopa Parlamendi rohelised. T. Ramadan on seisukohal, et nähes muslimistes esmalt islamiusulisi ja alles siis kodanikke, riskib Euroopa tsivilisatsioonisisese kokkupõrke võimalusega. Lisa: Oponent näeb islamis takistust

  7. The Pattern of Soviet Conduct in the Third World. Review and Preview. Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-07

    shoe is now on the olner foot. H recent study by Jan Navous and Michael Marrese arrives at tne conclusion that, in 1980 dollars, the U.S. suosicizec...particularly Abdulhafiz Abdurabbuh for his article in Akhbar al- Alam-i Islami, "Communist Terror against Islam". -- MSE, 3/1977, pp. 18-20, "A biased

  8. Boko Haram in northern Nigeria: a Maududian legacy | Dikki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes this by showing that “Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) of Egypt, the Jama'at-i-Islami of Pakistan, the Wahabbi views in Saudi Arabia and Islamic revolution of Iran are all indirect propagators of Maududian ideology. This fundamentalist ideological influence in northern Nigeria began with ...

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigation of benzyl-N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental and theoretical investigation of benzyl-N-pyrrolylketene, one- step procedure for preparing of new β-lactams by [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. MASOUMEH BEHZADI, KAZEM SAIDI. ∗. , MOHAMMAD REZA ISLAMI and. HOJATOLLAH KHABAZZADEH. Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of ...

  10. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of benzyl--pyrrolylketene, one- step procedure for preparing of new -lactams by [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Masoumeh Behzadi Kazem Saidi Mohammad Reza Islami Hojatollah Khabazzadeh. Regular ...

  11. Aplikasi Hermeneutika Nashr Hāmid Abū Zaid Terhadap Hadis Nabi (Studi Pada Hadis “Perintah Memerangi Manusia Sampai mereka Mengucapkan tiada tuhan selain Allah”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nuryansah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to understand the meaning of jihad in the present context by re-reading the hadith about “the command to fight against human until they say there is no god but Allah." The re-reading to this hadith need to do continuously, because in present context, there are a lot of violences on behalf of religious texts both derived from Qur'an and hadith. Theory used to understand the hadith is hermeneutical theory by Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid. The hermeneutic of Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid consists of three main pillars, namely finding the dalalah (meaning, magza (significance and maskut anhu (unspoken dimensions of the text. Based on the application of the hermeneutic, it is obtained the results that dalalah of jihad implied in Hadith is that jihad in peace way is more emphasized; while magza (significance of the hadith is instructing that Jihad in Islamic view is only in decent way and maskut anhu (unspoken dimensions of the Hadith is that violent jihad is prohibited.

  12. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AS THE BLACK BOX TO CONNECT THE ISLAMIC WORK ETHICS AND EMPLOYEES BEHAVIOR TOWARD ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wartini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the direct and indirect influences of Islamic work ethics on employees behavior toward organization change with organizational commitment as mediation. The population of the study was Public Civil Servants of the general inspectors of finance ministry. The samples were taken by Solvin method. It was a purposive sampling with 87 respondents. The results of the study showed that there was a direct influence of Islamic work ethics on organizational commitment, there was not any direct influence of organizational commitment on employees behavior toward organizational change, there was an indirect influence of Islamic work ethics on employees behavior toward organization change with organizational commitment as the mediation. It is concluded that there were a direct and an indirect influences of Islamic work ethics on employees behavior toward organizational commitmen as the mediation. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung etika kerja Islami pada perilaku karyawan terhadap perubahan organisasi dengan komitmen organisasional sebagai mediasi. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah karyawan Pegawai Negeri Sipil di Itjen Kementerian Keuangan RI sebanyak 87 responden, menggunakan metode Slovin dengan teknik Purposive Sampling. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa terdapat pengaruh langsung etika kerja Islami pada komitmen organisasional, tidak terdapat pengaruh langsung komitmen organisasional pada perilaku karyawan terhadap perubahan organisasi, terdapat pengaruh langsung etika kerja Islami pada perilaku karyawan terhadap perubahan organisasi dan terdapat pengaruh etika kerja Islami pada perilaku karyawan terhadap perubahan organisasi dengan komitmen organisasional sebagai mediasi. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan, bahwa ada pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung etika kerja Islami pada perilaku karyawan terhadap perubahan organisasi dengan komitmen organisasional sebagai

  13. War without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Proctor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of war, the United States has failed to eradicate the threat of salafist jihadism. No matter how hard it tries, the United States cannot kill its way to victory in the war on terrorism. Sweeping changes across the Middle East—dubbed the "Arab Spring" by the media—have presented the West with a unique opportunity to pursue an alternative approach. Rather than engaging in war (politics through violence, the United States should engage in mass politics (war without violence to compel the Arab world to reject the salafist jihadism idea. This article proposes a strategy calibrated to defeat international terrorism without unnecessarily antagonizing non-jihadist salafists and political salafists who enjoy broad-based support in the Arab world. The article goes on to identify key political figures already espousing elements of this counternarrative, and it describes the methods the United States should use to empower these and other anti–salafist jihadism activists.

  14. The Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership: Strategy and Institutional Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    unauthorized commitments‖ (e.g., making a verbal contract to set up a banquet at an Iranian restaurant for $2,000) because they are illegal under...East Report N°29, 30 July 2004, 14 25 13 Ibid. 14 Lianne Kennedy-Boudali, ―The GSPC: Newest Franchise in al-Qa‘ida‘s Global Jihad,‖ The... Franchise in al-Qa‘ida‘s Global Jihad,‖ and Hanson and Vriens for estimates of GIA, GSPC and AQIM numbers. 25 Ibid. 26 Dario Cristiani, ―Algeria‘s

  15. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Jessica Stern, “Pakistan’s Jihad Culture ,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 6 (November–December 2000): 115‒126, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20049971; see also...Pakistan’s Jihad Culture ,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 6 (November‒December 2000): 115‒126, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20049971; Religions and Development...after the JUD was implicated in the Mumbai attack in 2008, protesting that the organization was a charity that helped them by providing food and water

  16. To be or not to be Violent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2012-01-01

    June 19, 2012: the Palestinian skies lit up again with an exchange of rockets and air strikes between Israel and Hamas in Gaza, breaking the uneasy calm that had prevailed since March when Islamic Jihad had engaged in hostilities with Israel following the assassination of Zuhir al-Qaisi, the Secr......June 19, 2012: the Palestinian skies lit up again with an exchange of rockets and air strikes between Israel and Hamas in Gaza, breaking the uneasy calm that had prevailed since March when Islamic Jihad had engaged in hostilities with Israel following the assassination of Zuhir al...

  17. PEMBELAHAN IDEOLOGI, KONTESTASI PEMILU, DAN PERSEPSI ANCAMAN KEAMANAN NASIONAL: SPEKTRUM POLITIK INDONESIA PASCA 2014?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Ganjar Herdiansah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Keamanan geopolitik dan sentimen keagamaan menjadi isu politik yang mencuat di Indonesia pasca 2014. Semenjak Joko Widodo menjadi presiden, isu kedekatannya dengan China seringkali dikemas sebagai citra yang negatif terhadap pemerintahannya. Di sisi lain, menguatnya pengaruh China di Asia Tenggara turut mempengaruhi perubahan peta ekonomi politik di Indonesia. Investasi dan dana pinjaman dari China meningkat tajam yang diiringi kompensasi proyek infrastruktur yang diberikan kepada China. Akan tetapi, memori kolektif masyarakat Indonesia terkait identiknya China dan komunisme menyulut kekhawatiran bangkitnya Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI di Indonesia. Secara kebetulan, persaingan Gubernur Jakarta 2017 yang diikuti oleh Basuki Tjahaya Purnama, petahana kuat berlatar etnik China yang diusung oleh partai pemerintah (PDIP, menjadi momentum yang membangkitkan komponen Islamis yang sudah menaruh curiga terhadap kebangkitan PKI. Artikel ini menelaah bagaimana faktor menguatnya pengaruh China dan kedigdayaan politik PDIP membentuk pusaran konflik aliran antara nasionalis kiri dengan kanan Islamis yang membawa kerawanan keamanan di Indonesia pada level lebih tinggi.

  18. Popular Religiosity in Indonesia Today: The Next Step after ‘Islam Kultural’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farish A. Noor

    2015-12-01

    [Fenomena Islam popular terlihat di mana-mana di dunia Islam saat ini, dan itu diekspresikan lewat berbagai media seperti tata busana sampai arsitektur, juga termasuk aturan-aturan yang dianggap Islami. Pada kasus Indonesia, perkembangan trend halal-haram yang dimotori oleh dunia tata busana dan kosmetik menyebabkan munculnya kelas menengah baru yang membawa aspirasi itu ke atas sebagai modal. Makalah ini menempatkan Islam popular di Indonesia pada jangka panjang dan luas sebagai fenomena yang layak dijadikan bahan studi; begitu juga arah perkembangan di negara itu. Namun tidak semua di bawah kategori ini masuk dalam wilayah Islamis, namun tetap saja menunjukkan kesadaran keagamaan baru di perkotaan pada kelas menengah yang menganggap dirinya sebagai agen perubahan dan juga penggiat ekonomi agamis].

  19. Jihadist Cells and IED Capabilities in Europe: Assessing the Present and Future Threat to the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Miller, “A Prelimi- nary Typology of Organizational Learning: Synthesizing the Lit- erature,” Journal of Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1996, pp. 485- 505 ...Alison Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad: Radical Islam in Europe, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylva- nia Press, 2008, chap. 10. 50. It

  20. The Military Application of Narrative: Solving Army Warfighting Challenge #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    coalition be out to destroy Islam and spread Christianity if they just aided these men on the most sacred Islamic journey a Muslim could make...recruited and deployed against us. The only requirement is that they subscribe to the religious ideology that is global jihad. — Dr. Sebastian Gorka...

  1. Evaluating U.S. and EU Trans Sahel Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    elected leaders as well as young Africans who are leaders in civil society and entrepreneurship . Protecting Human Rights, Civil Society, and...GSPC: Newest Franchise in al-Qa‘ida‘s Global Jihad,‖ The Combating Terrorism Center, United States Military Academy, West Point, April 2007, 2. 40

  2. DAKWAH ISLAM DAN RADIKALISME AGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isfironi M. Bisri Djalil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A thing closely related to bustle the life of the religious contemporary is radicalism phenomenon. The question is: Does Islam teach radicalism? The answer of this question always problematic. It is caused by every religion (either Islam or the other viewed as an acceptance that granted as a divinity instrument that teaches everything in goodness. Islam is a religion that provide of security, comfort, calmness as more strengthening for all its adherents. In Indonesia, radical Islamic groups often associated with groups like company of Salafy (Bandung, Islamic Youth Front (FPIS, Islamic Defender Front (FPI, Jihad’s Troop of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah, The Tribunal of Indonesian Mujahidin, Hizbut Tahrir of Indonesia. The movement of Islam in Indonesia cannot be viewed as a monolithic movement or uniform in the same of political interest. That moment, political global movement has variation in the perspective, motive, strategy and action. One thing that same as the source of radicalism is the definition of the concept of jihad. Eventually, the construction of jihad affects the Islamic propaganda (dakwah ideology and movement. Ideally the realization of the concept of Jihad is not led to radicalism. If indeed reflect to the era of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh, then it must be conceived with the conditions encountered at that time.   Key Words: Islamic Propaganda, Jihad, Radicalism

  3. Genealogies of Islamic radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of violent Muslim vigilante groups employing a jihadist discourse and mobilizing followers for jihad in regions where there have been inter-religious conflicts, such as the Moluccas or the Poso district in Central Sulawesi, is one of the most conspicuous new phenomena

  4. Problems and prospects of preservation and conservation of Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Arabic and Ajami manuscripts are one of the Nigeria's literary and cultural heritage. The manuscripts certainly facilitate greater understanding on the past, present and future of Nigeria's literary and scholarly tradition. The manuscripts, particularly, those written by Sokoto Jihad triumvirate i.e. Sheikh Usman bin ...

  5. The Indian Jihadist Movement: Evolution and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    and friendship ties.78 In some instances, a person is exposed to the proper “mood music ,” decides he wants to “do” jihad, and looks for assistance...Brigade RDX smuggled from Bangladesh Diwali Festival , Delhi October 29, 2005 IM–Northern Brigade RDX smuggled from Bangladesh; Lashkar-e-Taiba

  6. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  7. The Role of Religion in Human Development | Ugorie | UJAH: Unizik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion has been destructively criticized and is still passing through criticisms. This is due largely to the sufferings and devastated situations humanity has passed through over the centuries as a result of many wars caused or justified by religion. The Islamic Jihads, the Crusades, the European Religious Wars, are some of ...

  8. An Overview of Selected Nigerian Northern and Southern Poets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    A modern African culture, whatever else it might be, must be a continuation of old African ... the Nigerian literature start from the legendary period known largely as the ... poetry record Jihad, slavery and foreign trade. The oral tradition, which ...

  9. Teaching about Islam and Women: On Pedagogy and the Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Asma

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the challenges she faced as a teacher who teaches "Understanding Islam: Religion and Politics." She shares that most of the strains she had experienced began to surface when her class came to the segments on jihad and Muslim women. She also relates that some of the tensions experienced by her students result from…

  10. A Network Design Approach to Countering Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2003). More and more scale-free networks have been discovered. How can such diverse systems have the same architecture and properties? Part of the...Rabei Ousmane Sayed Ahmed (a.k.a. the Egyptian ) convinced the group to pursuit jihad at home, where they had the material resources to act (Atran, 2010

  11. Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    the growing unemployment rate that Algeria experienced especially after the oil prices crash.  The mobilization of Muslims by Saudi Arabia and...group-algeria-islamists/p9154, December 17, 2010, 19 Lianne Kennedy Boudali, “The GSPC: Newest Franchise in al Qa’ida’s Global Jihad,” United States

  12. ISLAM DAN RADIKALISME: Telaah atas Ayat-ayat “Kekerasan” dalam al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rodin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The discouse of radicalism in all religions always presenting the name of God. This is understandable because religion has a strong authority over various other strength. Including Islam, which since the beginning has declared itself as a peace religion, his teachings by some people often used as justification for violent acts. One of the reasons is the missunderstanding of the verses of Qur’an and the traditions of the Prophets of jihad and war (qital. This article aims to review these verses with regard to the meaning and historical context that result the correct and comprehensive understanding. This article concludes that jihad and war (qital in the Qur’an is different from the act of radicalism. The main purpose of jihad is human welfare and not warfare. So, jihad is the duty of every muslim throughout his life, while war (qital is conditional, temporal, and as a last attempt after no other way except the physical resistance. Besides the implementation of the war also must meet various requirements are very stringent.

  13. CTC Sentinel. Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    to cottage in the summertime, I loved to fish, I wanted to go hunting, I liked outdoors, I liked sports …life in Canada was good. I had money, I...Almani. 34 Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, “‘Jihad Tourism ’: From Ger- many to the Syrian Battlefield,” National Public Radio, December 22, 2013. Assessing

  14. A Tool for Monitoring of YouTube Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashari, Intzar Ali; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2014-01-01

    in abundance from social media is difficult. This paper describes a new tool that can collect, monitor, and mine data from YouTube. The tool is part of a larger framework aimed at monitoring various social media including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A specific case focusing on “Islamic Jihad Holy War...

  15. Journal for Islamic Studies - Vol 32 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sufism, Education and Politics in Contemporary Morocco · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Chih, 24-46. Islamic Reform in Colonial Space: The Jihad of Shaykh Boubacar Sawadogo and French Islamic Policies in Burkina Faso, 1920-1946. EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  16. Containing Revolutionary Islam: Reassessing the Problem and the Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    1997), 152-155. Giap studied not only Mao, but Clausewitz, Napoleon, Sun Tzu , and T.E. Lawrence. While he amalgamated many of the ideas and concepts...Thoughts ........................................................................................................................... 52 Bibliography ...54 Bibliography Aaron, David. In Their Own Words: Voices of Jihad--compilation and Commentary. Santa Monica

  17. Aptitude for Destruction. Volume 1: Organizational Learning in Terrorist Groups and Its Implications for Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    jihad in Af- ghanistan. Over its history, the group has had active cells in several different coun- tries, including Indonesia, Malaysia , the...and South Armagh, London, UK: Coronet Books, LIR, 2000. Hedberg, Bo, "How Organizations Learn and Unlearn?" in Paul C. Nystrim and William H. Starbuck

  18. Al-Zarqawi - terrorist või kangelane? / Kalev Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalev

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 29. juuni lk. 5. Jordaanias sündinud palestiinlane Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, õige nimega Ahmed Fadel al-Khalaylah, on rühmituse Jama'at al-Tawhid wal Jihad juht ja hetkel kuulsaim sõjapealik Iraagis, kes on pühendanud oma elu võitlusele USA vastu

  19. The agrarian roots of contemporary violent conflict in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Borras Jr, S.M.; Lare Jr, F.

    2011-01-01

    The decades-old conflict in Mindanao, southern Philippines, is often framed as a Muslim–Christian conflict and reinterpreted as such within the US-led global war on terror, with the Muslim secessionist movement standing accused of providing a hub for international jihad. In the meantime, global

  20. The Muslim Brotherhood and the Perception of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    encompasses several genres of literature, such as autobiography, poetry, literary criticism, religiously inspired analytical work and, last but not least...to do with Christians is quickly turned into a cause for jihad.”274 Recent protests over a independent movie filmed in the United States that

  1. Problems and prospects of preservation and conservation of Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JEDO INVESTMENT

    Abstract. The Arabic and Ajami manuscripts are one of the. Nigeria's literary and cultural heritage. The manuscripts certainly facilitate greater understanding on the past, present and future of Nigeria's literary and scholarly tradition. The manuscripts, particularly, those written by Sokoto Jihad triumvirate i.e. Sheikh. Usman bin ...

  2. Banlieue Chronicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    , not least juvenile delinquency, ever since the 1960s. While the paper does not go much into the already widely discussed banlieue cinema from the 1980s on, it does take a look at two recent films that address radicalisation, Islamist jihadism as well as violent far-right nationalism, linking both...

  3. Diagnosing the Boko Haram Conflict: Grievances, Motivations, and Institutional Resilience in Northeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    delinquency , and extreme economic inequality. The emergence of Boko Haram is a symptom of the maturation of historical extremist and rejectionist impulses...11  History of fundamentalism, rejectionist tendencies, and jihad ................................ 12... History of secessionist tendencies and challenges to national government authority

  4. Radicalization: An Overview and Annotated Bibliography of Open-Source Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    particularly with liberal, democratic, and humanistic Muslims Phares points to Jihadism as the main root cause of terrorism and suggests that defending...An Overview and Annotated Bibliography of Open-Source Literature 155 of ambiguity), epistemic and existential needs theory (need for closure...This book presents Terror Management Theory, which addresses behavioral and psychological responses to terrorist events. An existential

  5. What Does it Take to Be a True Muslim? Implications for Efforts to Counter al-Qa’ida’s Violent Extremist Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    4 Evolution of the AQ Narrative: The Salafist-Jihadist Movement ............................................ 5 Salafism ...extremists with whom AQAA shares its underlying ideology: Salafism . The Salafi movement offers Salafi-Jihadists like AQAA fertile ground planted with...violent extremism (in this case, from non-violent Salafism to Salafi-Jihadism). This paper addresses this issue and surrounding dynamics within the

  6. Democratic Values and Support for Militant Politics: Evidence from a National Survey of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    Swami, Praveen . 2007. India, Pakistan and the Secret Jihad: The Covert War in Kashmir 1947–2004. London: Routledge. Terror Free Tomorrow and the...Collapse in the International System, Second Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press. 12   Swami, Praveen . 2007. India, Pakistan and the

  7. Pre-Deployment Handbook: Afghanistan (post 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    rainfalls. MAJOR CITIES Northern Plains 107 Mazar-e-Sharif (pop. 300,000+). Mazar-e-Sharif ( Tomb of the Chosen One) is named for its...League (Rabitat al-Alam al-Islami) and Egyptian -based Muslim Brotherhood (Jamaat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin). TAXATION AND STATE-BUILDING...Shia practice of venerating saints and constructing tombs over prophet’s graves are seen as heretical ‘polytheistic’ innovations by Salafists. In

  8. Ottomani pärijad Euroopasse? / Immanuel Wallerstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wallerstein, Immanuel

    2004-01-01

    Türgi ajaloost, läänestumisest ning seostest Euroopaga. Autori hinnangul saab otsuse langetamisel Türgi liitumise kohta Euroopa Liiduga määravaks, kas Euroopa näeb oma tulevikku sekulaarse või kristlikuna; Türgi väljajätmine võib põhjustada aga tasakaalunihke Lähis-Idas ja suurendada Türgis radikaalse islami mõju

  9. Psühholoogiline pingpong / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi filme - islamiäärmuslase poolt mõrvatud hollandi režissööri Theo van Goghi mälestuseks tema 2003.a. linastunud filmi põhjal loodud mängufilm "Intervjuu" ("Interview") : režissöör ja peaosatäitja Steve Buscemi : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Holland 2007. Lisatud selgitav tekst Theo van Goghi kohta

  10. Otto Jastrow: islam ja demokraatia ei sobi kokku / intervjueerinud Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jastrow, Otto

    2011-01-01

    TLÜ Eesti humanitaarinstituudi araabia keele professor on seisukohal, et kui Egiptuse president Hosni Mubarak langeb, võib Egiptuses järgneda kaos ja radikaalse Muslimi Vennaskonna võimule pääsemine. Ta loodab, et Egiptuses võtab lähipäevil võimu sõjavägi. Islami muutumisest tagurlikumaks, islamist ja vägivallast

  11. Iraan Suurbritannia vastu : kes paindus? / Francis Fukuyama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 17. apr. lk. 7. Iraani sisepoliitikast seoses 15 Briti mereväejalaväelase arreteerimise ja vabastamisega, Iraani probleemist Islami Revolutsioonilise Kaardiväe (IRGC või Pasradan) ja sellega liidusuhetes olevate institutsioonidega nagu Basj sõjaväeline rühmitus. Autori arvates tahtsid mõned Iraani rühmitused teravdada vastasseisu Suurbritannia ja USA-ga

  12. Inimõiguste kaitseks Tšetšeenias / Andres Herkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Herkel, Andres, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Moskva Carnegie Keskuse teaduri Aleksei Malashenko sõnul muutuvad Kaukaasia ühiskonnad traditsioonilisemaks, taaselustub veritasu ja kasvab islamiäärmusluse mõju. Tšetšeenia juhist Ramzan Kadõrovist, kelle autoriteediks on Venemaa president Vladimir Putin, ning iseseisvuslaste juhist Doku Umarovist. Tšetšeenia küsimuse poliitilise tõstatamise raskustest ja inimõiguste probleemidest

  13. Muhamed on Taani tulnud, et jääda / Arvo Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Arvo, 1943-2007

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 7. märts lk. 11. Taani poliitikud, majandusringkonnad, ühiskonnategelased ja ka vaimulikud otsivad väljapääsu pildiskandaali kriisist. Ühiskondlike vahenditega tahetakse Kopenhaagenis ja Arhusis mosheed rajada, ülikoolides kaalutakse võimalusi teoreetilise islami osakondade tekitamiseks ning Taani islamiusulised poliitikategelased on loonud uue ühingu Demokraatlikud Moslemid. Lisa: Pilapildisaaga

  14. The Nature of Insurgency in Afghanistan and the Regional Power Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    www.thebulletin.org/web- edition/ columnists /gordon-adams/afghanistan-and-pakistan-the-graveyard-us-foreign-policy-plannin (accessed January 20, 2010). 84 Anotnio...comprising an “insurgent syndicate .”152 This syndicate includes the Afghan Taliban under Mullah Muhammad Omar, who is allegedly operating from... syndicate , Hizb-i-Islami (HiG), is another old Afghan Mujahedeen organization led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. HiG received maximum support from the CIA

  15. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad MH; Shahar S; Teng NIMF; Manaf ZA; Sakian NIM; Omar B

    2014-01-01

    Mohamad Hasnan Ahmad,1 Suzana Shahar,2 Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng,2 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Noor Ibrahim Mohd Sakian,3 Baharudin Omar41Centre of Nutrition Epidemiology Research, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dietetics Program, 3Occupational Therapy Program, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise beh...

  16. Radical Islamism and Failed Developmentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnema, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The rise of radical Islamism in recent years does not limit the applicability of the concept of cultural nationalism. Rather the two are intertwined in ways which this article will attempt to highlight. Islam took specific national forms as modern nation-states arose and the contemporary resurgence of radical Islamism also follows that modern pattern. I examine the emergence of the three most important movements in the Islamic world, namely, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Jama'at-e Islami i...

  17. Jordaania plahvatuste juhtniidid viivad Iraaki / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Jordaania plahvatuste uurimisel tuvastati enesetapurünnaku toimepanijad ning vahistati ühe enesetaputerroristi naine, kes rünnakus oli ellu jäänud. Jordaania kuningas Abdullah II kutsus üles koostööle terroristide vastu võitlemiseks. Samal ajal on al-Qaida juhid ja Iraagi terroristide liider al-Zarqawi omavahel tülis. Lisa: Iraagi terroristidel uus eeskuju; Briti kuninganna kuulutati islami vaenlaseks

  18. Usama bin Ladin’s Father Sheikh: Yunus Khalis and the Return of al-Qaida’s Leadership to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    development was  initially called Najm al‐Jihad  in  reference  to  its proximity  to  the  tomb   of  the  famed  Mullah  of  Hadda,  Najm  al‐Din...al‐Zawahiri: The  former head of  Egyptian   Islamic  Jihad  and  a key  al‐Qa`ida  member  and  propagandist,  al‐Zawahiri  has  served  as  the

  19. Terorisme sebagai Cabaran Ideologi Muslim Masa Kini: Satu Analisis dari Perspektif Falsafah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUL`AZMI YAAKOB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is currently becoming an ideological challenge for Muslims in contemporary world. The rise of terrorist groups such as the Islamic State (IS and others who claimed themselves as jihadist and propagates Islamic jihad similar to the idea of the medieval ‘Holy War’ not only target non-Muslims or kuffar, but also their Muslim brothers respectively. This act of terrorism raised dilemma among Muslim societies in general whether to support the extreme groups or to defy them as they portrayed themselves as representing the whole Muslims whereas in fact they only represent a group of disillusioned Muslims. This paper aims at analysing their ideological challenge from the philosophical point of view and Islamic ethics. Generally, this analysis emphasizes on the importance of Islamic ethics and law in order to achieve true understanding of jihad.

  20. Ku Klux Rising: Toward an Understanding of American Right Wing Terrorist Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    leadership of Adolf Hitler and his paramilitary Sturm Abteilung (SA); even Japanese succumbed to the ideas of the Society for the Preservation of the...Jihad (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2008). 634 Tony Kaye, “American History X,” (United States: New Line Cinema , 1998). 241 and respected...Summer 1997). 262 Kaye, Tony. “American History X.” United States: New Line Cinema , 1998. Keefer, Philip, and Norman Loayza. Terrorism, Economic

  1. CTC Sentinel. Volume 7, Issue 6, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The f ighters were very animated and emotional when answering this question. J ihad, for them, is an ult imate, purifying expression of faith...aspects of life… it gives meaning to the human life. I have devoted my entire life for jihad. All my bodily parts are wounded. I am only looking up to...of Colombia – People’s Army,” Mapping Militant Organizations, Stanford Uni- versity, August 13, 2012. unclear whether the central command of the

  2. The Army War College Review. Volume 1, Number 3, August 2015. Student Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    particular reading of select sacred texts. In this manner, IS assumes characteristics common to “cultic” religious militant movements throughout the...essentially has a choice between either absolute anarchy or religious militancy, contemporaneously embracing the form of jihad.15 IS appeals to and...historic fundamental values, many people welcome the order, clarity, and discipline afforded by militant religious groups.19 Such an attraction

  3. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    century mausoleums and shrines, including the tombs of Sidi Mahmoud, Sidi Moctar, and Alpha Moya in Timbuktu. The shrines are part of the UNESCO...them: Makhtab-al-Khidamat, the al-Haramain Foundation, the Armed Islamic Group, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Jemaah Islamiya, al-Gama`a al-Islamiyya...religion. Yet during Maumoon Abdul Gayoom’s three- decade autocratic rule, the Egyptian - trained religious scholar enacted a number of measures that

  4. Security from Within: Independent Review of the Washington Navy Yard Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    operations such as 9/11, al Qaeda has increasingly turned to franchise operations, leveraging the individual jihad and encouraging HVEs. 199 As...the “Actuarial Versus Clinical” Assessment Debate, Psychiatric Services; 59 (2008):184-190) a relatively high number which would naturally herald...contracting personnel; assesses the suitability of foreign ownership in covered industries; tracks suspicious activity reports that may lead to

  5. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Verfassungsschutzbericht 2011,” Bundesamt für Ver- fassungsschutz, June 2012. The report distinguishes be- tween Salafists, al-Qa`ida and franchises , and regional jihadist...Unity and Jihad in West Africa. – AP, November 3 November 3, 2012 (SOMALIA): Two suicide bombers targeted the Vil lage restaurant and café near...Mogadishu’s Soobe intersection, ki l l ing at least one person. The restaurant is frequented by government off icials and members of the

  6. Countering Threat Finance as a Critical Subset of Irregular Warfare: An Interpretive Case Study of Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    It also includes monitoring the marketplace , craftsmanship, and manufacturing concerns to make sure that the laws of Islam are upheld by these... Yoruba Empire and infringement into the land of the Igbo in the middle and southern regions of modern day Nigeria respectively.88 The bulk of Nigeria’s...involving Muslim and non-Muslim groups; Hausa- Fulani 29 percent, Yoruba 21 percent, and Igbo 18 percent.89 The outcome of the Fulani Jihad was the

  7. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2007. West Point Releases First Issue of CTC Sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    ideologues themselves. A common categorization of Salafism is Quintan Wiktorowicz’s typology that divides Salafism into three currents: purists...implemented.4 While a useful starting point, the typology provides 2 For his biography, see Brynjar Lia, Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of...Sayyid Imam, in judging whether or not to employ violence, particularly against an Islamic government or foreign tourists , one must always consider

  8. Kazakhstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    Coalition to back him. Many oppositionists supported a Movement for a Just Kazakhstan, which backed Zharmakhan Tuyakbay, the head of the Social Democratic...members of the obscure Islamic Jihad Group/Union of Uzbekistan (reportedly an offshoot of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan). It alleged that the...against women and discrimination against non- ethnic Kazakhs in government, persons with disabilities, and those in the LGBT community were problems

  9. The Grand Strategy of the Islamic State: What Can the Coalition Do About It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    the Yazidis into slavery (allowed by their strict and narrow interpretation of the Koran and the Hadith20), holds hostages for ransom, and assumes...borders of Iraq and Syria. In this regard, the more aggressive diplomacy should start with Saudi Arabia and Iran since they are waging proxy wars in...Affairs, Subcommittee on the Middle East and North Africa , United States House of Representatives, April 30, 2015 Kepel, Giles. Jihad: The Trail

  10. The Caliphates Global Workforce: An Inside Look at the Islamic States Foreign Fighter Paper Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    this older group had fought in Mali. Just outside this group is an Egyptian born in 1960 who stated that he had participated in the anti-Soviet jihad in...A supervisor of a computer division at an Egyptian chemical company, and; • One ambitious individual who listed all the following areas of... architecture for an accessible and editable per- sonnel database, but based on the information in this cache, it does not appear that their vision was ever

  11. Shift Focus on the Al Qaeda Network: A More Comprehensive Approach to Defeating Al Qaeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Declaration of jihad against the United States,” Al-Islah ( Internet ), September 2, 1996. As analyzed in Michael Scheuer, Osama bin Laden (New York...He enhanced his charismatic persona by deliberately modeling his life after that of Mohammed, the Islamic prophet.25 The irony of bin Laden is that...with the sensitive topic of a political ideology linked with a religion whose population is overwhelmingly distrustful of the U.S. Much has been made

  12. Veiled Bombshells: Women’s Participation in Islamist Extremist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    sphere. Women routinely marched alongside and in front of the men, often physically protecting them from British authorities who were hesitant to... Women Seek Bigger Political Role,” Washington Post, 24 November 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/24...an-imperative-for- women -too-1.110997. 79 Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens, “The Female Jihad,” Gatestone Institute, 10 March 2010, https

  13. An Assessment of the Global War on Terrorism, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    60 Lianne Boudali, “The GSPC: Newest Franchise in Al-Qa’ida’s Global Jihad,” West Point: Combating Terrorism Center, 2007, 8, http...Zaitouni, liquidated the group. At their internal front, in July 1995 the LIFG had to prematurely leave the underground preparation phase and declare...their disputes with the liquidation of their rivals and rose to leadership positions through oppression, betrayal, and murder. Al-mukadam argues

  14. A Balancing Act: Anti-Terror Financing Guidelines and Their Effects on Islamic Charities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    wayfarers; those in bondage or in debt ; newcomers to Islam; and, to facilitate and enhance Jihad. Zakat has become an important component of the... reason for this is that terrorist financing is not only an indicator but also the source and means of enabling those who carry out violent acts. As... reasons or for “preserving family wealth.”31 The long history of the waqf, fourteen centuries after the death of the Prophet, and the permanent

  15. Acciones de grupos terroristas de Próximo Oriente en España, 1975-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Jiménez Martín

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este informe es analizar las actividades de organizaciones terroristas de Próximo Oriente en España desde 1975 a 1985. Hoy la Jihad Global supone un nuevo capítulo en la historia del terrorismo. Los ataques terroristas a EE.UU., Reino Unido o España representan golpes contra su «enemigo lejano». Sin embargo, mucho tiempo antes de los atentados del 11-S, el terrorismo internacional había sido considerado como una de las amenazas más importantes a la seguridad. Se estudia el ataque terrorista contra el restaurante El Descanso (abril, 1985, reivindicado por la Jihad islámica. Aquel atentado, cerca de la Base Aérea de Torrejón (Madrid, fue un aumento importante en la escalada de violencia. El artículo temiina con el fin de aquellas actividades.The objective of this repon is to analyse the activities of Middie East terrorist organizations in Spain from 1975 to 1985. Today, the Global Jihad is a new chapter in the history of terrorism. Terrorist attacks upon USA, United Kingdom and Spain represent hits against their «far enemy». However, long before the 9-11 attacks, International terrorism had been considered as one of the most important threats to the security. The terrorist attack against El Descanso restaurant (April, 1985 is discussed. That bomb attack, near a US Air Forcé Base in Torrejón (Madrid, was an important raise in violence escalation (responsibility was claimed by Islamic Jihad. The article concludes with the end of those activities.

  16. Re-integration of Former Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Combatants into Civilian Society in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    to national and local requirements.35 In Burundi, the peace efforts were also characterized by an approach "in stages,” said Isaiah Nibizi, head...Guantanamo Returnees, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point,” CTC Sentinel 1, Issue 1, 10–11. 80 Thomas W. Lippman W (2012), Saudi Arabia on the Edge...CRS Report for Congress, 29–30. 84 Thomas Hegghammer (2010), Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979, London: Cambridge

  17. Hezbollah’s Passport: Religion, Culture, and the Lebanese Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    the physical needs of its Shi’ a constituency. 26 Hezbollah evolved into more than a terrorist outfit when it began building hospitals and schools in...present. The practice ofzakat­ charity -and jihad-struggle-are deeply rooted in the traditions and practices of Islam. These 48 Mul)ammad I:Iusayn...with them characteristics that encouraged communal involvement based around Islamic concepts of charity and identity. The diaspora communities in

  18. Beyond al-Qaeda. Part 1. The Global Jihadist Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    the Tokyo subway in March 1995, was able to fashion a crude chemical weapon, but failed to fabricate a biological device, despite substantial...in Morocco, terrorist lead- ers with al-Qaeda connections who trained in Afghanistan were the organizers. One major change in these “ franchised ...from Eurasia. Hamas and its offshoot, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), provided shelter, food , and training. From Saudi Arabia and Yemen, Saudi

  19. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    this research effort was to evaluate the column technique for determining sorption coefficients of organic compounds onto soils. It was intended to... SORPTION COEFFICIENTS DETERMINED BY PULSE DISPLACEMENT Compound Flow Rate (mL/min) K,,q(mL/g) Trichioroethylene 0.2 0.054 0.2 0.057 Naphthalene 1.5...Vernon R. Allen Perfluorinated Polyalkylene Linked Polyimide 4 Quantifying Experience in the Cost Dr. Jihad A. Alsadek of Human Capital 5 The Effects

  20. Religious Rhetoric in National Security Strategy Since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    what is embodied within and among human persons or political entities; it is for them quite literally a struggle among cosmic and supernatural ...of legitimate Muslim communities world-wide.97 Yet Ganor, in his Jerusalem Post article , If Global Jihad Isn’t the Enemy, What Is? argued that it...language. In her article , No Such Thing As Islamic Terrorism? Weiss argued that this softening is counterproductive to the promotion of NSS because it is

  1. NATO’s Small States: Albania as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    2016-11- eng.pdf#page=2. 2-5. 38 experienced a major domestic crisis in 1997 as a result of financial mismanagement and corruption through pyramid ...schemes that involved elected leaders across the country. The pyramid schemes reached all economic levels within Albania. Life savings were lost as...of several hundred individuals from Algeria, Egypt , Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia and elsewhere, including veterans of Afghan jihad, into the western

  2. Dakwah Islam Dan Radikalisme Agama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bisri Djalil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A thing closely related to bustle the life of the religious contemporary is radicalism phenomenon. The question is: Does Islam teach radicalism? The answer of this question always problematic. It is caused by every religion (either Islam or the other viewed as an acceptance that granted as a divinity instrument that teaches everything in goodness. Islam is a religion that provide of security, comfort, calmness as more strengthening for all its adherents. In Indonesia, radical Islamic groups often associated with groups like company of Salafy (Bandung, Islamic Youth Front (FPIS, Islamic Defender Front (FPI, Jihad’s Troop of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah, The Tribunal of Indonesian Mujahidin, Hizbut Tahrir of Indonesia. The movement of Islam in Indonesia cannot be viewed as a monolithic movement or uniform in the same of political interest. That moment, political global movement has variation in the perspective, motive, strategy and action. One thing that same as the source of radicalism is the definition of the concept of jihad. Eventually, the construction of jihad affects the Islamic propaganda (dakwah ideology and movement. Ideally the realization of the concept of Jihad is not led to radicalism. If indeed reflect to the era of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh, then it must be conceived with the conditions encountered at that time.

  3. RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY, OBJECTIVES, AND STRATEGY OF THE “CAUCASUS EMIRATE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Хубяр Фейзи оглы Агаев

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the penetration of the Jihad religious ideology into the Northern Caucasus and the factors that have caused radicalization of Chechen/Caucasus militants. The review of mutual penetration of the global Jihad movement of religious extremism and terrorism in the Northern Caucasus is presented; the major religious extremism and terrorism masterminds and figures in theNorthern Caucasusare characterized. The main attention is paid to the activity of Islamic organization “Caucasus Emirate” in the Russian NorthernCaucasusand its serious effects on the region.Since the overwhelming majority of foreign researchers try to avoid mentioning the role of the global jihadist movement in the region, as well as the appeal of Jihadism for a significant number of young people or the effect of these factors on the ideology, objectives, strategy, and tactics of the “Caucasus Emirate, this paper focuses on the religious ideology, objectives, strategy, tactics, and the potential of the “Caucasus Emirate” in using violence on the territory of Russia.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-48

  4. Vägivald ja propaganda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    8. IV-28. V Tallinna Kunstihoones Elin Kardi, Marco Laimre, Marko Mäetamme ja Andres Tali näitus "Vägivald ja propaganda". 26. IV-7. V näituse raames emergency biennale, rahvusvaheline rändnäitus Tšetšeenia toetuseks. 27. IV Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse IV ettekannete päev "Kunstniku moraalsed valikud liberaalse demokraatia ja islami kokkupõrgetes". Esinevad Margit Sutrop, Johannes Saar, Marek Järvik, Ene-Liis Semper & Eero Epner ning näitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" osalevad kunstnikud

  5. Õhtu kahele / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    Islamiäärmuslase poolt mõrvatud hollandi režissööri Theo van Goghi mälestuseks tema 2003.a. linastunud filmi põhjal loodud mängufilm "Intervjuu" ("Interview") : režissöör ja peaosatäitja Steve Buscemi : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Holland 2007. Theo van Goghi "Pimekohtingu" (1996) uusversiooni "Blind Date" (2007) tegi Stanley Tucci ning John Turturrol valmib "1-900" 1994.a. filmi "06" põhjal

  6. Engaging Afghans KLE Keys to Success

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article was published in Culture and Conflict Review (Fall 2009), v.3 no.3 "A pillar of Coalition Force/United States Government (USG) efforts in Afghanistan is to separate the people of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan from insurgent groups such as the Taliban, Haqqani Network and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin (HiG) and unite the same populace with their fledgling government. In order to do this, the men and women undertaking this effort have access to the latest in information, trainin...

  7. Sharea Issues in the Application of Takaful: Review on Islamic Law Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suharto Suharto; Muhammad Iqbal Fasa

    2018-01-01

    Insurance is still debated between scholars when viewed in the light of Islamic law. Contemporary Muslim jurists are fully aware that the legal status of Insurance not been determined by Islamic law thinkers in advance (jurists). The application of Takāful today is the result of a struggle between the understanding of Islami law with the reality of what happened. Thus, the problem needs to be reviewed in the light of Islamic law in depth. This paper attempts to offer Shariah Issues in the App...

  8. Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornament in Urban Mosque

    OpenAIRE

    N. Utaberta; S. D. M. Sojak; M. Surat; A. I. Che-Ani; M.M. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Since the admission of Islam onto the Malay World in 16th century, the Malay culture began to grow in line with the teachings of Islam as a guide of life. Mosque become a symbol of Muslim communities, as well as the cultural values that have been adapted represent the maturity and readiness of Malay Muslim in manifest a lifestyle tradition into the community. Refinement of ornament that used to take from Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before were adopted and refined to the Islami...

  9. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    as peculiar, but it is a visible manifestation of the depth of divide between the Sunni and Shi`a jihads.” 3 Since 2003, al-Qa`ida’s franchise in...Kampala, on July 11, 2010.1 The attacks— targeting a rugby club and an Ethiopian restaurant in a neighborhood popular with expatriates as people watched... franchises ” such as the Ghazi Force only if they prove worthy of attention. Thus, newly emerging groups have to prove themselves to the TTP high

  10. Jihadhybriden: Fra hellig oprørskamp til toneangivende al-Qaeda-filial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2015-01-01

    I Jihadhybriden: Fra hellig oprørskamp til toneangivende al-Qaeda- filial sporres oprindelsen tilbage til den sovjetiske intervention i Afghanistan og udviklingen mellem direkte -og indirekte jihad personificeret ved henholdsvis ISIS’s idegrundlægger Abu Musab al-Zarqawi og den tidligere al-Qaeda......-Qaeda-leder Osama Bin Laden. Kapitlet beskriver, hvorledes den nuværende bevægelse og organisation har udviklet sig til en såkaldt jihadhybrid på baggrund af dels den mujahedinske frihedskamp i 1980ernes Afghanistan, dels al-Qaedas internationale og antivestlige strategi....

  11. Al Sahawa - The Awakening: An Education and Training Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    by US personnel at Abu Ghraib prison. These and related is- sues, festering since 2003, gained traction in the spring of 2004 and provided recruitment...Iraqi people to fight the occupiers, the ex- tremists, led by the Jordanian Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, demanded to lead the jihad with the intent of first...the Apr 2004 fight for Fallujah,” Abu Nour, insurgent and kidnapper of Jill Carroll; “The Jill Carroll Story, ”Christian Science Monitor (18 Aug

  12. The Theory and Practice of Islamism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Петрухина

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of a general characteristic of political Islam which has got now the big popularity as Islamism. In Islamism the concept jihad as the political slogan and the military-political practice is widely used by the Islamic extremist organizations in Islamic regions. In the article is considered the theoretical heritage of Islamic extremism in the history of political thought. Three waves of Islamism are analyzed: their reasons of occurrence, motive forces and methods of achievement of the purposes. The phenomenon of Islamism is considered as the practical activities which are carried out at local, national, regional, global levels.

  13. Intellectual Reviews of Fundamentalist Islamic Groups’ Leaders and their Impact on the Jihadi Action, the Muslim World, and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    wrestling and karate , and pushed the members of the university students from the group for conversion to military colleges to use them for a military coup...district of Cairo. The Prime Minister was unhurt, but some passersby suffered various injuries . The Islamic Jihad Group assassinated the first witness...side invites Allah’s curse on the party that is lying.” Dr. Fadl adds insult to injury when he stated that “some people pay money for fame, or to

  14. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    recruits and [to] defeat homegrown extremism.”9 Dissatisfaction with certain U.S. policies does not necessarily equate to support for a global jihad...emotional force. This was also true of McCarthy’s more secular brand of inquisition. That Hitler, Stalin, and Mao used force in their ideological struggles...successful advertising campaigns in the United States include: Nike , “Just Do It” (1988); Miller Lite, “Tastes great, less filling” (1974); Avis, “We try

  15. Nietzsche l'islam et la globalisation | Monia | African Sociological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    le printemps arabe », ou les révolutions du siècle, se sont déclenchées avec une aspiration d'un monde sous développé a la liberté, la modernité et la démocratie. Les faits nous mènent vers un total détournement des buts de ce « printemps arabe ». Obscurantisme, islamisme, jihad, théocratie s'installent. Le siècle exprime ...

  16. Basic Science of the Fundamentals and Dynamics of Social-Fringe Group Formation and Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    USTIFY! G BELIEFS: WHAT MOTIVATES THE TERRORISTS •:• A 1-’ltmdry l.ist of 1\\lotivations: llonor, Trauma, Religion, llumtli:uion, Sugma, Feminism ...Group Grievance and Humiliation: A Tool in AI-Qaeda Propaganda •Jihad in Algeria today is YOUR hope with permission from Allah in redemption from...relational) and Morality ! 54! "Hear, Israel, the decrees and laws I declare in your hearing today . Learn them and be sure to foLlow them. The

  17. Khattab (1969-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    of a great cause that will leave you immortal in Paradise . And be aware not to die for the cause of an unknown matter which might end in a bad way... side of Panj River.30 Although the “river was [like] a wild beast and crossing it was jihad in itself,”31...and his group chose to station themselves on the Afghan side of the river and to cross the river back and forth each time they wanted to carry out an

  18. Melacak Gerakan Radikal Islam dari Wahabisme ke Global Salafisme

    OpenAIRE

    Rofhani Rofhani

    2016-01-01

    The movement of Salafism constitutes part of the Islamic history of fundamentalism. They call their self as Salafis, who etymologically means “what had passed through and gone before” or “the outdistancing group”. The appearance of Global-Salafism apparently starts from the will of coming back to the past, which is the period of as-Salaf ash-S{âlih}. In the next development, it had to deal with the shifting perspective from theological nuance into political movement (Jihad-Salafism) which wel...

  19. IMPLEMENTASI ISLAMIC CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN IMPLIKASINYA TERHADAP KINERJA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrori -

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji implementasi Islamic corporate governance dan pengaruhnya terhadap kinerja bank syariah yang diukur menggunakan rasio-rasio keuangan Islami syari’ah conformity dan rasio-rasio keuangan konvensional  profitability. Populasi penelitian mencakup bank umum syariah (BUS dan unit usaha syariah (UUS. Pengumpulan data digunakan metode dokumentasi dengan unit analisis laporan keuangan dan self assesment good corporate governance BUS dan UUS yang terpilih sebagai sampel. Analisis data untuk menguji hipotesis digunakan regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menyatakan implementasi Islamic corporate governance pelaksanaan tugas dan tanggung jawab Dewan Pengawas Syariah (DPS berpengaruh positif terhadap kinerja bank syariah yang diukur menggunakan rasio-rasio keuangan syari’ah conformity  pembiayaan bagi hasil dan zakat, akan tetapi tidak berpengaruh positif  jika diukur menggunakan rasio pendapatan Islami. Implementasi Islamic corporate governance kepatuhan syariah berpengaruh positif terhadap kinerja bank syariah yang diukur menggunakan rasio-rasio keuangan syari’ah conformity  pembiayaan bagi hasil, pendapatan Islami dan zakat. Sedangkan implementasi Isamic corporate governance pelaksanaan tugas dan tanggung jawab DPS dan kepatuhan syariah tidak berpengaruh posisitf terhadap kinerja bank syariah yang diukur menggunakan rasio-rasio keuangan profitability  return on invesment,return on equity dan profit margin.This study aims to assess the implementation of Islamic corporate governance and its effect on the performance of Islamic banks as measured by Islamic financial ratios shari’ah conformity and konventional fiancial ratios profitability. The study population includes Islamic banks (Bank Umum Syariah/BUS and shari’a business units (Unit Usaha Syariah/UUS. The data collection methods used by documentation with unit analysis of financial statements and good corporate governance self-asessment BUS and UUS selected

  20. The Divine Deviance, Towards a sociological theory of Radical Islamism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    and experts, and through methodological triangulation, awareness of the guidelines of the methodology of phenomenological theory (by development of codes, concepts, categories and finally theory and cross examination of widespread hypotheses) this study attempts: (a). To provide a conceptual clarification......Radical Islamism is widely appreciated as the very cognitive and ideological framework and denominator for the creation of a worldview that is hostile to the principles of pluralism and peaceful co-existence. Empirically tested knowledge of the phenomenon, as well as efforts to develop...... of the concept ‘Radical Islamis', (b) To introduce a falsifiable theoretical proposition to the question of the attributes of the phenomenon ‘Radical Islamism', and (c) To outline some empirical research implications of the proposed theoretical framework....

  1. Expanding the Indonesian Tarbiyah Movement through Ta‘āruf and Marriage

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    Suaidi Asyari

    2016-12-01

    [Tulisan ini mengkaji fenomena kontemporer tentang bagaimana sebuah kelompok (Gerakan Tarbiyah membentuk dan meluaskan pengaruh serta keanggotaannya. Kelompok Islam tersebut melihat bahwa Islamisasi masyarakat dan Negara merupakan tujuan utama yang harus dicapai termasuk yang terpenting adalah keluarga. Mereka menganggap bahwa jika unit keluarga sudah menjadi ‘Islam’ maka masyarakat dan Negara secara otomatis akan mengikutinya. Oleh karena itu keluarga perlu disiapkan sebagai pondasi menuju masyarakat dan Negara yang Islamis. Salah satu cara paling awal adalah dengan memperkenalkan konsep Taʻāruf bagi muda mudi yang ingin menikah, sekaligus sebagai tandingan terhadap konsep ‘pacaran’ yang saat ini populer. Untuk mempromosikan konsep tersebut ke khalayak yang lebih luas, mereka pun menggunakan media yang paling modern dan masif. Sehingga gerakan mereka tampak kuat implikasinya dalam peta perpolitikan di Indonesia. 

  2. Hizb ut-Tahrir in the press II: Exploring differences between academic discourses and editorial choices in Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Volf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes academic discourses on Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (HT in various disciplines, provides an overview of media frames applied to HT in German, British and Kyrgyz quality newspapers, and examines the differences between the conclusions of scholars and mass media representations of HT. The introductory section of the paper briefly presents a group of selected authors and texts, illustrates the importance of drawing parallels between academic and journalistic discourses on HT, and explains the choice of the countries used in the study. The methodological section specifies the questions, sources and methods of research. Finally, there is a detailed presentation and discussion of the findings, followed by a summary of the conclusions.

  3. توحيد القلوب في رسائل النور - Dr. Umid Najm al-Din Jamil al-Mufti: The Union of Hearts in the Risale-i Nur (According to the Principles of Fiqh)

    OpenAIRE

    المفتي, د. أميد نجم الدين جميل

    2015-01-01

    توحيد القلوب في رسائل النور – رؤ توحيد القلوب في رسائل النور– رؤية أصولية فقهية – –ABSTRACT– The Union of Hearts in the Risale-i Nur (According to the Principles of Fiqh) Dr. Umid Najm al-Din Jamil al-Mufti Oftentimes, contemporary Muslims feel that it is important to find methods that can help achieve unity between them, especially given that Muslims have different methods of thinking. Although Muslim scholars and thinkers throughout Islami...

  4. Penerapan Pendidikan Akhlak di Sekolah Menengah Pertama Islam Terpadu Darut Taqwa Jenangan Ponorogo Tahun Ajaran 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam ajaran Islam, akhlak menempati kedudukan yang amat penting, dimana akhlak yang diajarkan oleh nabi Muhammad SAW meliputi akhlak terhadap Allah SWT, akhlak sesama manusia, dan akhlak manusia terhadap lingkungannya. Dengan ketiga akhlak tersebut, diharapkan manusia memiliki keimanan dan ketakwaan yang kuat sehingga terciptalah kebahagiaan dan kesejahteraan di dunia dan di akhirat. Untuk pendidikan akhlak harus diajarkan sejak usia dini, terutama pada masa usia sekolah. Namun kenyataan yang ada sekarang, banyak anak yang perilakunya belum mencerminkan akhlak Islami. Sekolah sebagai salah satu dari tri pusat pendidikan memiliki peranan yang sangat penting dalam menanamkan pendidikan akhlak bagi anak didik. Sekolah Menengah Pertama Islam Terpadu Darut Taqwa merupakan salah satu lembaga pendidikan di Jenangan Ponorogo yang sangat memperhatikan pembinaan akhlak para anak didiknya. Hal ini terlihat dari banyaknya program pembinaan akhlak yang diterapkan di sekolah ini.

  5. The Taliban in 2024

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Semple

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reacting to corruption and oppression in the Kandahar of 1994, the Taliban is seen as working with Sunni clerics to foster a shariat movement for advancing economic justice and (corporal punishment. Before long, the organization began substantially rewarding joiners, arming for jihad, and resisting international forces in Afghanistan. Now, with less foreign resources to fight the Taliban, the Kabul central government has unfinished business with its still-robust challengers. In the face of recent modernization in sectors such as education and media, the author details three plausible scenarios for the Taliban to maintain its core shariat mission. One scenario is for the Taliban to re-secure (through continued force its initial goal, viz., overall state power to promote and enforce shariat across urban as well as rural areas. Another possibility projects Afghanistan as operating a dualist system of separate zones, one for the Taliban's ‘liberated territory,’ the other for the rest of Afghanistan as governed by Kabul. Achieving scenario three would be formidable: it posits that Taliban leaders may be persuaded that their armed jihad has run its course and can profitably be disconnected from the Middle East's broader Islamic conflict. Conceivably, then, through accommodations with a shariat-accepting Kabul government, Taliban might be able to win buy-in for peace from its own military and its own fighting priests with their strong ties to Afghan communities in Pakistan.

  6. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

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    Mordechai Kedar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  7. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

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    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  8. The convenient enemy – neocons, global jihadists and the road to Iraq

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    Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixeira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideologically, the Iraq War was a product of the encounter of global jihadism and neoconservatism. Prior to September 11, 2001, both were facing enormous difficulties in keeping their appeal as compelling discourses within their respective societies. Nevertheless, 9-11 revived neoconservatism by giving them the ideological enemy neoconservatives were longing calling for, leading to the invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003 which, in turn, reenergized global jihadism.   Em termos ideológicos, a Guerra do Iraque foi resultado do encontro entre jihadismo global e neoconservadorismo. Antes de 11 de setembro de 2001, ambos passavam por enormes dificuldades no sentido de manter seu apelo enquanto discursos legítimos no contexto de suas respectivas sociedades.Entretanto, os ataques de 11 de setembro reavivaram o neoconservadorismo na medida em que forneceu aos neoconservadores o necessário inimigo ideológico clamado pelos mesmos, levando à invasão do Iraque em 20 de março de 2003 que, por sua vez, revitalizou o jihadismo global.

  9. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

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    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  10. Islam and Political Violence

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    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  11. FINDING ISLAM IN CINEMA: Islamic Films and the Identity of Indonesian Muslim Youths

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    H Hariyadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Islamic films in Indonesia that have been a phenomenon since a decade. It is reported that Islamic films have been consciously produced to propagate Islamic lessons to the Muslim youths. The paper challenges the notion that young adults are passive recipients as proposed by some popular culture theorists. They did not merely become object of ideologies injected by filmmakers, and their responses were not an unquestioning acceptance. The research found that some Muslim youths have been ambiguous toward the emergence of Islamic films. Watching movie for Indonesian youths is an important way to construct identity, and they feel that there is a sense of religious ritual involved in film viewing, especially with Islamic messages. I argue that Islamic films help Indonesian young people to develop their own distinctive identity, being new sources of authority apart from parents, formal education, and friends.[Tulisan ini membahas film islami di Indonesia yang menjadi fenomena sejak satu dekade terakhir. Film-film islami sengaja dibuat untuk menyebarkan ajaran Islam dengan sasaran kalangan muda. Makalah ini menolak gagasan bahwa remaja adalah penerima pasif seperti yang diajukan oleh teori budaya popular. Mereka tidak hanya menjadi objek desakan ideologi pembuat film dan mereka juga tidak bisa menerimanya secara bulat. Sebagian pemuda muslim merasa ambigu menghadapi munculnya film-film Islam. Di sisi lain, menonton film menjadi media untuk membangun identitas diri dan dapat dirasakan sebagai bagian dari ritual agama, khususnya ketika menonton film yang mengandung pesan-pesan Islam. Dengan demikian, film Islam membantu pemuda Indonesia untuk mengembangkan identitas mereka sendiri dan menjadi sumber otoritas baru di luar orang tua, pendidikan formal, dan lingkungan pergaulan.]Keywords: religious film, youth identity, Islamic cinema

  12. Reaktualisasi Strategi Pendidikan Islam: Ikhtiar Mengimbangi Pendidikan Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sobry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Globalization is inevitable phenomenon that may cause anxiety amongst countries, such as Indonesia, that still preserve their culture, ethics and religious values because it always introduces new things that are not easily adjusted to regional or local contexts. Globalization as it is reflected in rapid change and transformation in technology has affected most of human’s life, including education. Globalized education is the one that is characterized by global and transnational elements in its basic structure, for example, the use of information technologies and digital media that have both positive and negative impacts. However, for Indonesia, whose majority population is Islam, globalization is not a threat, which should be evaded. What needs to do is to integrate Islamic concepts and values in it. Globalization and its type of education that looks contrary to religious norms will no longer become a menace if it is strengthened with religious values.    Abstrak: Globalisasi merupakan fenomena kekinian yang terkadang dipandang sebagai momok dalam konteks bangsa, seperti Indonesia, yang berhasrat kuat melestarikan nilai adat, budaya, moral, dan nilai agama. Tulisan ini mencermati globalisasi yang memengaruhi dunia pendidikan sebagaimana terlihat pada semakin luasnya penggunaan media digital dengan semua manfaat dan mudarat yang menyertainya. Penulis berpendapat bahwa fenomena itu semestinya dipandang wajar dan dihadapi dengan lapang dada. Namun ia harus diimbangi dengan konsep-konsep islami dan diperkuat dengan strategi islami pula. Islam memiliki konsep moralitas dan etika yang komprehensif untuk diaktualisasikan dalam konteks arus globalisasi. Oleh karena itu, tidak ada jalan lain untuk mengimbangi pendidikan global saat ini kecuali dengan kembali kepangkuan konsep-konsep pendidikan Islam. 

  13. The strategic year 2015 - international issues analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, Pascal; Alex, Bastien; Baccarini, Luca; Bauer, Alain; Bertho, Alain; Bessis, Sophie; Billion, Didier; Brisset, Jean-Vincent; Carlotti, Jean-Etienne; Chaouad, Robert; Delcour, Laure; Dubien, Arnaud; Gobillard, Julie; Hugon, Philippe; Huissoud, Jean-Marc; Jacquemot, Pierre; Kourliandsky, Jean-Jacques; Le Corre, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Georges; Matelly, Sylvie; Maulny, Jean-Pierre; Mazzucchi, Nicolas; Migault, Philippe; Quere, Stephane; Snegaroff, Thomas; Soullez, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Russian-Ukrainian crisis, assertion of China's power in Asia, jihad threat in Iraq, continued conflict in Syria, withdraw temptation in the US, violence in Central African Republic and Southern Soudan, democracy fatigue in Europe, violent transition in Venezuela and downturn of Latin American giants, the world geopolitical order seems to be undergoing major change. The Strategic year 2015 book aims at understanding and deepening the issues of this change thanks to 197 country fact-sheets, 7 regional sheets, many regional and thematic maps, a chronological recall of the highlights of the year, some bibliographic references and a world statistical yearbook with the essential data. A specific chapter is devoted to climatic change and its consequences on energy and environmental issues

  14. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  15. Locating Cyberterrorism: How Terrorism Researchers Use and View the Cyber Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jarvis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on findings from a survey on the concept of cyberterrorism from researchers working in twenty-four countries across six continents. Our aim is to contribute to the definitional debate in this area by exploring the boundaries between cyberterrorism and potentially related terms. Focusing on two questions from our survey in particular, we ask: First, how does cyberterrorism relate to adjacent concepts such as hacktivism, cybercrime and cyberwar? And, second, how familiar, frequently used, and useful are these concepts amongst the global research community? Our findings include: First, high levels of familiarity with the terms cyberwarfare, information warfare and cybercrime. And, second, concerns over, and widespread avoidance of, other terms including cyber jihad and pure cyberterrorism. The article concludes by exploring the importance of these findings for definitional debates around cyberterrorism and terrorism more broadly, before outlining a number of suggestions for future research.

  16. Dysfunction and Decline: Lessons Learned from Inside Al-Qa’ida in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    jihadists that became AQI—offering little more than its reputation and  brand  name.   The lessons of AQI’s failure are only partially applicable elsewhere...dear brother and hero mujahid who  engaged  in battle fields. I am happy  because he will be rewarded for the good deeds he has done… we have no...story to the rest of the world. This was critical in the 1980s jihad in  Afghanistan. In lieu of local  storytellers , jihadists such as Usama bin Ladin

  17. Sufis’ Actions Against the Dutch in Aceh in The Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

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    Fakhriati Fakhriati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufis in Aceh, historically, had shown its real action in their daily life in relation to both vertical and horizontal. For vertical relations, the followers performed any Sufi practice leading them to their God. For horizontal relationship, they protected and defended their society and state by performing jihad against the Dutch as colonizers and infidels for them. There are at Ieast three factors influenced Sufis actions to be more attractive. First, the condition of Acehnese sultanate became weak. Second, the Dutch seemed eagerly to expand their colonial territory to Aceh. Third, the Acehnese had already kept in touch with other Muslims in Arabia since the Islam coming to this area. This article elaborates in detail on this matter by using primary sources from manuscripts and archives. Besides, secondary sources are also referred for comperation.

  18. Radicalization as a Vector: Exploring Non-Violent and Benevolent Processes of Radicalization.

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    Ken Reidy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful radicalization posits three outcomes: extremism, terrorism or both. As these are undesirable, radicalization is understood as wholly malevolent and governments work to prevent and/or stop it. Nonetheless, a handful of scholars have recognized that the same radicalization process which results in either outcome may, theoretically at least, also have beneficial outcomes such as environmental awareness or human rights. This article explores one such outcome. Based on interviews with British Muslim aid workers (n=6 operating in Jihadist conflict zones post Arab spring and using constructivist grounded theory, it illustrates how the research participants radicalized to humanitarianism which resulted in them assisting the most plighted of Muslims by deploying to the most wanton of areas: ones commonly referred to as Jihadist conflict zones. Evidently, these destinations are shared with Jihadists and given the array of other observable similarities (socio-demographics and [pre-]mobilization behaviours, these morally opposed groups become conflated by the security services. This is further compounded by the fact that Jihadists manipulate and/or impersonate aid workers so as to funnel people and funds. To distinguish both, this article documents the benevolent pathway of the research participants and juxtaposes it to scholarly knowledge on Jihadist pathways. Socialization was revealed to be the key distinguishing feature rather than descriptive risk factors (such as ideology or moral outrage because the process of radicalization was not found to be the start of the radicalized pathway. It concludes that benevolently radicalized Islamic groups constitute an effective means of pathway divergence for particular typologies by offering an attractive and prosocial alternative to Jihadism. This strengths-based preventative approach (“what’s right” takes the form of a community-centric market competitor to Jihadism rather than a problem

  19. To the Issue of the Influence of Islam in Chechen Uprising in 1825 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors analyze the causes, course and results of the rebellion of the highland plains of Chechnya and Dagestan in 1825. The special attention is given to the Muslim religion, which acted as an ideological factor in the formation of military-political confrontation of mountain peoples of the Caucasus and the Russian Empire. Analyzing the role of the leaders of the movement, such as Bay-Bulat Taimiev, the authors come to the conclusion that at this stage of confrontation with Russia, the mountaineers were able to rally not only the strong hand of military leader, but also islam. The relatively recent adoption of islam Vainakh tapes, and therefore low religiosity has led to the fact that the Muslim clergy were in a subordinate position in relation to the military-political leadership. The authors also share the concept of «Jihad» and «Gazavat» and conclude that for the highlanders Chechnya this movement had the character for «Gazavat» or struggle under religious banners in defense of its own territory, while Jihad must be understood as a struggle for the spread of Islam. The important issue is the formation of the foundations of statehood of the Chechens in the military-political events, the organization of institutions of local administrative authorities. These measures have helped Bay-Bulat to consolidate disparate and often warring highland society a common goal, and islam helped to overcome the intergeneric and intertribal tensions and marked the beginning of the folding of the Chechen nation. All this the authors parse based on the extensive material, including unpublished archival sources.

  20. MELACAK PERAN ELIT NU DALAM PERTEMUAN ISLAM DAN TRADISI LOKAL DI PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam attends not in the centre of culture vacuous society, but attends to find local traditions which expands and goes in the middle of plural society. that Local traditions remain to be defended, come up with next process coloured by Islami values. Among local traditions which still expand in society is “pelet kandung and sarwah”, representing circular ceremony of life and death.This research leaves from two elementary problems that is; society perception about local tradition and role of NU elite in Islam meeting with local tradition. NU Elite meant in this article is figure – Kiai and Nyai Langgar or Kiai and Nyai Pesantren- owning influence at society, they are merged into NU, either through cultural or structural. Research result indicate that the society comprehends local tradition as a syariat which must be done, in consequence represents bengatoh lalampan ( ancestors sunnah, even if they do not comprehend the synbolic meaning of the tradition. Whereas NU elites (Kiai and Nyai play its role by the way: first, giving the understanding about tradition meaning to society. second, giving set an example in executing tradition. Third, Preserving the tradition which is still thought well by straightening and changing the tradition assumed digress from Islamic dogma. Method is performed within that tradition change is al muhafadah ala al qodim al shaleh wa al ahdu bi al jadid al ashlah.

  1. HOW SHOULD SHARI’AH PRINCIPLES BE APPLIED IN MODERN COMPANY?

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    Burhanuddin Susamto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show why the modern business institution (company should be Islamized, and to suggest ways in which shari’ah principles can be applied in the company. To achieve this purpose, we should understand how company be islamized in comprehensive and integrated  manner through the Islamic law perspective, with the contemporary issues like underlying contract of company,  legal entity, and the concept of liability. The resolution of these issues is important to assert that shari’ah principles could be applied in the modern company by integrating approach. An integrating approach in the treating of these issues has, however, been lacking, nor has it been subjected to a thorough legal analysis through the principles of Islamic business law.   Tujuan dari pembahasan ini adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa institusi bisnis modern (perusahaan harus diislamisasi, dan member masukan cara-cara bagimana prinsip- prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan dalam perusahaan. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, kita perlu memahami bagaimana perusahaan diislamisasi secara menyeluruh dan terintegrasi melalui perspektif hukum Islam terhadap persoalan kontemporer, seperti landasan kontrak perusahaan, badan hukum, dan konsep liabilitas. Solusi dari persoalan ini sangat penting untuk   menegaskan bahwa prinsip-prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan pada perusahaan modern melalui pendekatan integrasi. Bagaimanapun, pendekatan integrasi dalam menyikapi persoalan ini jarang dilakukan, disamping tidak menjadi tema analisis melalui prinsip-prinsip hukum bisnis Islami.

  2. Multi-tiered S-SOA, Parameter-Driven New Islamic Syariah Products of Holistic Islamic Banking System (HiCORE): Virtual Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimah, B. Z.; Azlina, A.; Sembok, T. M.; Sufian, I.; Sharul Azman, M. N.; Azuraliza, A. B.; Zulaiha, A. O.; Nazlia, O.; Salwani, A.; Sanep, A.; Hailani, M. T.; Zaher, M. Z.; Azizah, J.; Nor Faezah, M. Y.; Choo, W. O.; Abdullah, Chew; Sopian, B.

    The Holistic Islamic Banking System (HiCORE), a banking system suitable for virtual banking environment, created based on universityindustry collaboration initiative between Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Fuziq Software Sdn Bhd. HiCORE was modeled on a multitiered Simple - Services Oriented Architecture (S-SOA), using the parameterbased semantic approach. HiCORE's existence is timely as the financial world is looking for a new approach to creating banking and financial products that are interest free or based on the Islamic Syariah principles and jurisprudence. An interest free banking system has currently caught the interest of bankers and financiers all over the world. HiCORE's Parameter-based module houses the Customer-information file (CIF), Deposit and Financing components. The Parameter based module represents the third tier of the multi-tiered Simple SOA approach. This paper highlights the multi-tiered parameter- driven approach to the creation of new Islamiic products based on the 'dalil' (Quran), 'syarat' (rules) and 'rukun' (procedures) as required by the syariah principles and jurisprudence reflected by the semantic ontology embedded in the parameter module of the system.

  3. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI PEMBELAJARAN AGAMA ISLAM UNTUK ANAK-ANAK BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA INTERAKTIF DAN WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idhawati Hestiningsih

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini pembelajaran agama Islam untuk anak-anak semakin diutamakan. Orang tua dituntut untuk mengenalkan sejak dini pada anak tentang ajaran Islam. Dengan perkembangan internet yang telah memasuki aspek kehidupan manusia di berbagai sektor, anak-anak kini sudah tidak asing dengan internet. Situs web di internet memiliki konten yang jauh lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan buku cetak biasa sehingga situs web dapat menjadi media pembelajaran interaktif yang disukai oleh anak-anak. Tujuan dibuatnya media pembelajaran agama Islam untuk anak-anak berbasis multimedia interaktif dan web diantaranya adalah memberikan kemudahan bagi anak-anak dalam mendapatkan dan pengaksesan suatu informasi tentang agama Islam yang disampaikan secara terstruktur dan konsisten dalam format teks, gambar, grafik, video animasi dan suara yang dikemas dalam satu paket situs web multimedia. Aplikasi yang diberi nama Anak Sholeh ini dibangun menggunakan Adobe Flex dan Zend Frameworks dengan database MySQL dan PHP sebagai bahasa pemrogramannya. Aplikasi diuji untuk mengetahui stabilitas, aksesibilitas, dan koneksitas sistem serta tingkat kepuasan pengguna. Dari hasil pengujian aplikasi ini dapat diakses dengan peramban web Mozilla, Opera, Safari, IE, dan Chrome dan layak diterapkan sebagai panduan dalam media pembelajaran Islami untuk anak-anak

  4. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI PEMBELAJARAN AGAMA ISLAM UNTUK ANAK-ANAK BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA INTERAKTIF DAN WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idhawati Hestiningsih

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini pembelajaran agama Islam untuk anak-anak semakin diutamakan. Orang tua dituntut untuk mengenalkan sejak dini pada anak tentang ajaran Islam. Dengan perkembangan internet yang telah memasuki aspek kehidupan manusia di berbagai sektor, anak-anak kini sudah tidak asing dengan internet. Situs web di internet memiliki konten yang jauh lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan buku cetak biasa sehingga situs web dapat menjadi media pembelajaran interaktif yang disukai oleh anak-anak. Tujuan dibuatnya media pembelajaran agama Islam untuk anak-anak berbasis multimedia interaktif dan web diantaranya adalah memberikan kemudahan bagi anak-anak dalam mendapatkan dan pengaksesan suatu informasi tentang agama Islam yang disampaikan secara terstruktur dan konsisten dalam format teks, gambar, grafik, video animasi dan suara yang dikemas dalam satu paket situs web multimedia. Aplikasi yang diberi nama Anak Sholeh ini dibangun menggunakan Adobe Flex dan Zend Frameworks dengan database MySQL dan PHP sebagai bahasa pemrogramannya. Aplikasi diuji untuk mengetahui stabilitas, aksesibilitas, dan koneksitas sistem serta tingkat kepuasan pengguna. Dari hasil pengujian aplikasi ini dapat diakses dengan peramban web Mozilla, Opera, Safari, IE, dan Chrome dan layak diterapkan sebagai panduan dalam media pembelajaran Islami untuk anak-anak

  5. Psikoanalisa Islam, Menggali Struktur Psikis Manusia dalam Perspektif Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Heri Afrizal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Teori Psikoanalisa Sigmund Freud dalam kajian psikologi modern cukup dominan mewarnai ilmu pengetahuan secara umum yang berbicara tentang manusia, seperti kedokteran, filsafat, agama, seni, sastra, antropologi, maupun politik. Padahal teori-teori Freud tentang konsep manusia, yang menjadi basis utama dalam mengkaji prilaku dan kejiwaan manusia, sangat dipengaruhi oleh doktrin ateisme yang dianutnya. Kondisi ini tentu sangat memprihatinkan. Sebab, ketika psikologi semacam ini diajarkan dan diyakini oleh umat Islam yang belum sadar terhadap paradigma psikologi modern, maka akan menjadi masalah. Padahal doktrin-doktrin di dalamnya sangat bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam. Sementara itu, kajian-kajian ilmuwan Muslim kontemporer mengenai hal ini belum banyak mewarnai. Oleh karena itu,sangat diperlukan kajian mendalam mengenai ilmu psikologi yang berbasis pandangan hidup Islam, sehingga ditemukan konsep manusia yang utuh dan islami. Tulisan ini mencoba mengkaji permasalahan psikologi melalui kajian tematis-analitis terhadap teks-teks al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits. Sebagai perbandingan, kajian dimulai dengan mengungkap konsep manusia menurut Psikoanalisa Sigmund Freud, kemudian disusul pembahasan tentang struktur psikis manusia menurut Islam.

  6. An Investigation of the Performance of Islamic and Interest Based Banking Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Tauseef

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main difference between Islamic and conventional banking is that Islamic banking works on profit and loss while conventional banking work is interest based. The aim of this research study is to measure and compare the financial performance of Islamic and conventional banking in Pakistan during 2006 to 2015. This study is to examine and to evaluate the performance of 5 Islamic banks (Meezan Islamic Bank, Bank Islami Limited, Al Baraka Islamic Bank, Dubai Islamic Bank Limited and Burj Bank Limited and 5 conventional banks (Muslim Commercial Bank Limited, United Bank Limited, Askari Bank Limited, Allied Bank Limited, Habib Bank Limited in terms of profitability, liquidity, risk, capital and efficiency. We used quantitative and qualitative data for comparison of Islamic and conventional banks. Collection of data consists on both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data has been gathered from interviews and Secondary data has been gathered from the balance sheets and income statements of the sampled banks for the period of 2006 to 2015.Financial ratios such as profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, solvency ratios, capital ratios and efficiency ratios are used for measure of the financial performance of both banking sector. The results indicate that Islamic banks are less profitable, more liquid, less risky and less efficient. There is no significant difference in terms of capital between Islamic and conventional banks.

  7. AT-TARBIYAH AL-QIYADIYYAH AL-ISLAMIYAH FI AL-MA‘AHID AL-ISLAMIYYAH BI INDONESIA WIFQA MANZHARI THARIQ AS-SUWAIDAN التربية القيادية الإسلامية في المعاهد الإسلامية بإندونيسيا وفق منظور طارق السويدان

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd. Rohim

    2017-12-01

      The conclusion of this research is that the concept of leadership education of Thariq as-Suwaidan is the concept of leadership education that having the characteristic of tarbawi, tadribi, waqi‘iy, uswati and Islami. In the sense of the formation of a leader must be through education, training, reality, model, and Islamic. Thariq as-Suwaidan’s Leadership Concept is to strengthen Warren Blank’s theory by the name of “108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders”, the theory that there is no natural leader. Leadership is a collection of traits and skills that can be learned. Application of Thariq as-Suwaidan Leadership Education Concept in Indonesia is under the name of “Youth Leadership Education & Training Program 30 Hours”. The application of Islamic leadership education of Thariq as-Suwaidan is a leadership and leadership training program provided to the youngest of the most fertile human resources, step by step, in a training institute or course established specifically for this purpose, using various varied learning methods. The kind of education has really happened and will constantly happen in the reality of Indonesian society. The condition strictly shows the importance of the roles of Islamic scholars (ulama in Islamic schools or Islamic institutions to perform and to shape their next generation to become the future leaders.

  8. Strategic Management Process of Islamic Character Development of Early Children in Islamic Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is a field research by using a qualitative research approach. The purpose in this research is to find steps in strategic management process for development character of early children in Islamic kindergarten of al-Irsyad Purwokerto, Central java, Indonesia. The results showed that the process of strategic management to develop Islamic character of early children is done through four processes. First, processing of observation environmental to develop Islamic character in Islamic kindergarten. Second, strategic formulation process for development an Islamic character of early children in Islamic kindergarten. Third, implementating strategic process for develop an Islamic character of early children in Islamic kindergarten. Fourth, strategic assesment process for develop an Islamic character of early children in Islamic kindergarten. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian lapangan menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan langkah-langkah dalam proses manajemen strategik untuk membentuk karakter anak usia dini di Taman Kanak-kanak (TK Islam al-Irsyad Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa proses manajemen strategik untuk membentuk karakter anak usia dini di TK Islam dilakukan melalui empat langkah. Pertama, proses pengamatan lingkungan untuk membentuk karakter Islami anak usia dini di TK Islam. Kedua, proses formulasi strategi untuk membentuk karakter anak usia dini di TK Islam. Ketiga, proses penerapan strategi untuk membentuk karakter anak usia dini di TK Islam. Keempat, proses penilaian strategik untuk membentuk karakter anak usia dini di TK Islam.

  9. Unearthing Nusantara’s Concept of Religious Pluralism: Harmonization and Syncretism in Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic Classical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Makin

    2016-06-01

    [Artikel ini mencoba menemukan rumusan pluralisme dengan membaca ulang teks klasik Jawa dengan memilih bagian tertentu dari sastra Hindu-Buddha yang disebut kakawin dan karya Islami yang disebut serat dan babad. Praktik dinamis sinkretisme dan penyelarasan antara tradisi keagamaan lokal dan asing ditemui dalam Sutasoma, Kertagama, Dewa Ruci, Babad Tanah Jawa, dan Centini. Dari hasil bacaan teks-teks di atas, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa sejak masa kuno Singasari dan Majapahit, penyelarasan dan sinkretisme antara banyak tradisi keagamaan telah dipraktikkan sebagai bagian penting dari konsep pluralisme. Hindu-Buddha datang pertama lalu disusul oleh karya Islam yang menambah nuansa sinkretis. Studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tokoh Hindu-Buddha diceritakan ulang dalam karya Islam dengan berbagai modifikasi. Cerita tentang Sunan Kalijaga mencerminkan sumber yang lebih tua seperti Sutasoma, Ken Arok, Bhima, dan tokoh-tokoh lain. Kisah mereka mengajarkan kepada kita tentang relativitas antara kejahatan dan kebaikan; kejahatan tidak dimusnahkan tetapi diubah menjadi kebaikan. Artikel ini merupakan contoh usaha  untuk merumuskan konsep pluralisme berdasarkan kebijakan lokal dengan membaca kembali teks-teks klasik dengan semangat penafsiran ulang ajaran lokal dengan perspektif baru.

  10. Sharea Issues in the Application of Takaful: Review on Islamic Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Suharto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is still debated between scholars when viewed in the light of Islamic law. Contemporary Muslim jurists are fully aware that the legal status of Insurance not been determined by Islamic law thinkers in advance (jurists. The application of Takāful today is the result of a struggle between the understanding of Islami law with the reality of what happened. Thus, the problem needs to be reviewed in the light of Islamic law in depth. This paper attempts to offer Shariah Issues in the Application of Takāful From Islamic Law Perspective, including The Concepts of Takāful (Sharia Insurance, Legal Basis of Takāful (Sharia Insurance, History of Takāful (Shariah Insurance Development, Scholars' Views on Takāful (Sharia Insurance, The Principles of Takāful (Sharia Insurance, Establishment of Contract in Takāful (Sharia Insurance, and To Compare The Characteristics Between Takāful (Shariah Insurance and  Commercial Insurance.

  11. PRINSIP-PRINSIP DASAR EKONOMI ISLAM DAN PENGARUH TERHADAP PENETAPAN STANDAR AKUNTANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenta Adji Koerniawan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ekonomi islam merupakan suatu hal yang harus diimplementasikan dalam kehidupan bisnis. Tidak ada keraguan sebagai mayoritas pemeluk Islam untuk melaksanakan konsep-konsep yang didasarkan pada Al-Qur’an dan Al-Hadist. Dalam pandangan Islam, hukum berasal dari Tuhan (Allah dan manusia hanya bisa mendaftar dan memperluasnya untuk situasi yang berbeda. In the west, laws are passed to accommodate existing situations while, in the Islamic view, existing situations must be transformed to conform to Divine Law. Di barat, hukum dilewatkan untuk mengakomodasi situasi yang ada sementara, dalam pandangan Islam, situasi yang ada harus berubah menjadi sesuai dengan Hukum Ilahi. Singkatnya, tanpa aplikasi pengaturan Islami'ah Syariat Islam Standar Akuntansi tidak mungkin. Elements which should be considered include: Islamic economy elements the most important of which is social justice through application of prohibition of riba, zakat, and Islamic ethics. Elemen yang harus dipertimbangkan mencakup: elemen-elemen ekonomi Islam yang paling penting yang adalah keadilan sosial melalui penerapan larangan riba, zakat, dan etika Islam. Other factors such as Environmental and International elements which influence Muslims community and adoption of these elements are possible based on Ijtihad through application of "Time" and "Place". Faktor-faktor lain seperti dan Internasional elemen Lingkungan yang mempengaruhi masyarakat Muslim dan adopsi dari unsur-unsur yang mungkin didasarkan pada ijtihad melalui penerapan "Waktu" dan "Tempat".

  12. L’islam populaire kazakh et ouzbek : enracinements locaux et mondialisations Kazakh and Uzbek Popular Islam : Local inheritances and Globalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Vuillemenot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’islam populaire d’Asie centrale vit une conjoncture particulière. Considéré par les pouvoirs autoritaires établis comme un instrument modéré de consensus social et un rempart contre l’islamisme radical, il est investi par des courants d’islamisation multiples. En s’habillant de codes islamiques qui le justifient d’un point de vue moderniste, le chamanisme islamisé connaît une vigueur re­nouvelée. Il ne renonce pas à la juxtaposition et au bricolage qui l’ont toujours caractérisé. Les figures néo-chamanes qui en r��sultent sont teintées de post­mo­dernisme.Though subject to multifarious Islamic influences, Popular Islam in central Asia is construed by local authorities as a consensual counter to radical Islam. In particular an islamized but modernizing form of shamanism has encountered some success. Picking and choosing as they have always seen fit, neo-shamanic figures even take on a post-modern colouring.

  13. FUNGSI TASAWUF TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN AKHLAK (ETIKA KERJA:Studi pada Murid Tarekat Qadiriyah Naqsyabandiyah di Kota Pontianak Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmawati Fatmawati

    2016-03-01

    pembentukan akhlak (etika kerja para pengikutnya. Selanjutnya penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dilengkapi dengan metode deskriptif. Penjaringan data penelitian ini meng¬gunakan teknik snow ball yakni pada informan pengikut perguruan tarekat Qadiriyah Naqsyabandiyah As-Salam dan An-Nuur di kota Pontianak dengan asumsi aliran QN lebih dominan di Pontianak. Tahapan selanjutnya data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis kualitatif. Hasil penelitian mengambarkan tahapan-tahahan pengamalan tasawuf oleh ikhsan/murid yang dibimbing oleh mursyid/guru seperti prosesi bai’at (ikrar dan prosesi zikir yang dilakukan secara konsisten berimplikasi pada akhlak (etika kerja yang mempunyai dimensi spiritual dan nilai-nilai Islami. Akhlak (etika kerja merujuk sifat-sifat Nabi Muhammad Saw seperti sifat ṣiddiq(benar, amanah (tangungjawab, faṭanah (kecerdasan dan tablīgh (promosi yang masih relevan hingga kini. Ketika melakukan aktivitas kerja para pengikut QN merasa mempunyai kekuatan spiritualdi dalam dirinya, yakni merasa selalu ada yang mengawasi. Mereka berhati-hati dalam bekerja dan selalu menjaga perilakunya sesuai akhlak Islami. Keywords: tasawuf, tarekat, akhlak, etika.

  14. Myth-building: The open-quotes Islamicclose quotes bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoodbhoy, P.

    1993-01-01

    The open-quotes Islamic Bombclose quotes is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim ummah or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a jihad willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons

  15. كتاب (( الألمام باخبار من بأرض الحبشة من ملوك الاسلام والمسمى باخبار الحبشة

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    زينب فاضل مرجان

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript entitled to Mqrizi knowledge of the news from the land of the kings of Abyssinia of Islam, a well-known news of Abyssinia, is part of Al Azhar manuscripts library. It was by Maqrizi during his pilgrimage in Mecca in the year 839 AH and was adopted in writing on the news that he had heard or mentioned by those who know him, he recalled telling her where the Muslim Jihad against the infidels indicating its borders and regions that are out there and the number of kingdoms and kings in it. Also touched on the farm and the fruits as well as mention of what the animals did not lose sight of the existing mention of religion. Maqrizi touched on many things and more broad issues, and therefore are important for anyone who wants access to Islam and Muslims in Abyssinia. The manuscript consists of nineteen pages and the Department of Labor to an introduction and two parts: the importance of the statement is submitted manuscript flimsy Abyssinia. The first section is a Maqrizi life and writings, methodology and description of the manuscript The second section is achieved

  16. دور نظام الوقف الإسلامي في تلبية حاجيات المجتمع الأمنية في الأندلس على ضوء كتاب المعيار للونشريسي

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد،زاهي

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available When Islam came, the Waqf began and expanded its circle. It did not limit it to temples and rituals, but extended it to include many types of alms and donations that are monitored for religious, social, scientific and economic purposes. The endowments were on mosques and their maintenance and functions, schools, educational institutions, libraries, angles, scientists and students of science, and the poor and the needy. It has expanded to include hospitals and pharmacies, social welfare homes, the marriage of needy girls and boys, rivers and boreholes, the establishment of laces and fortresses, the creation of weapons and equipment to protect the House of Islam and defend its citizens. Such endowments spread in Andalusia, especially during the period of the Spanish renaissance wars in the northern regions of the Thorour. It was necessary to stay on the holes and fortifications and drilling wells and horses and weapons for the Muslim Mujahedeen. The ligaments were built everywhere in Andalusia and Maghreb. These endowments were a particular good for Jihad and the protection of the gaps by building bridges and centers in the areas of contact with the enemy. In the Miar of the Wancharissi , there were several areas for the Waqf. The owners stood in favor of the thugs and bonds in the north of Andalusia. A great virtue and a benign influence in building Islamic civilization and laying the foundation for integration, cooperation and brotherhood.

  17. Online De-Radicalization? Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ashour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Is “online de-radicalization” possible? Given the two growing phenomena of “online radicalization” and “behavioral/ideological/organizational de-radicalization,” this article outlines a broad strategy for countering the narratives of violent extremists. It argues that an effective counter-narrative should be built on three pillars. The first is an effective comprehensive message that dismantles and counter-argues against every dimension of the extremist narrative, namely the theological, political, historical, instrumental and socio-psychological dimensions. The second pillar is the messengers. The article argues that for the first time in the history of Jihadism a “critical mass” of former militants, who rebelled not only against the current behaviour of their former colleagues but also against the ideology supporting it, has come into existence. This “critical mass” can constitute the core of credible messengers, especially the few de-radicalized individuals and groups that still maintain influence and respect among vulnerable communities. The third pillar is the dissemination and attraction strategy of the counter-narratives(s which focuses on the role of the media. The author of the article outlines a broad framework, which is a part of a UN-sponsored, comprehensive research project on countering the extremists narrative.

  18. Influential third party on water right conflict: A Game Theory approach to achieve the desired equilibrium (case study: Ilam dam, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjanian, Hossein; Abdolabadi, Hamid; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Sarang, Amin

    2018-05-15

    Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts. In this paper, we analyzed the conflict of water allocation in Ilam dam among organizational stakeholders. We defined the strategies based on the background of the game and organizational objectives. The influence power of stakeholders and the numerical weights of strategies were quantified based on the expert judgment method. The relative priorities of strategies were then calculated for each state of the conflict. We used the GMCR + model to study the actions of stakeholders. Results suggest that the Jihad Agriculture Organization and the Water and Wastewater Company withdraw more water; hence, there exists no water to meet the environmental water right. In this case, the participation of the third party, such as the Governorship and the Justice can change the future of the conflict, and result in moving to the optimal state. However, results from Inverse GMCR analysis demonstrate that Justice is the most influential third party that can move the conflict towards a desired equilibrium (optimal case). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in Anti-Fascist and Anarchist Recruitment and Mobilization

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    Ariel Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For many, the discourse on anarchists' violence belongs to the past, to an era that shocked the world but ended a long time ago. However, this assumption is not accurate in the twentieth-first century. It ignores the reality that allows extremists to rise from the dust, gain popularity and use available tools to promote themselves and their ideas, and thus, to pose a new potential threat. While most of the research on radicalization and political violent extremism focuses on jihadism or the contemporary right-wing extremism, it is important not to ignore the reaction that right-wing extremists created and provoked in the past, which is still relevant in our days: left-wing extremism, which is embodied today in violent anarchists and anti-fascists. This article sheds light on the contemporary left-wing extremism and violent mobilization in Europe and North America, its reflections on the Internet and in music, and its violent activity at home against "fascist" representatives (such as right-wing extremist groups and individuals, and even abroad, against other "fascist" representatives, such as the Islamic State organization. The purpose of the article is to examine this under-researched phenomenon while focusing on popular and recent modes of mobilization and recruitment of this "new revolutionary left", which reflect a threat that is developing in Europe, North America and the Middle East – but not from the jihadi or right-wing aspects, but from anti-fascist and anarchists' militancy aspect.

  20. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

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    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  1. KONTEKSTUALITAS DAN HISTORISITAS MATAN HADIS-HADIS PEPERANGAN TERHADAP NON-MUSLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrulloh Nasrulloh

    2017-09-01

    Abstrak: Beberapa hadis tentang perang melawan non-Muslim sering diguna­kan sebagai acuan oleh kelompok-kelompok radikal dalam melakukan tindakan jihad mereka. Mereka tidak membaca hadis secara menyeluruh dan hanya fokus pada teksnya, terlepas dari historisitas dan aspek bahasa. Selain itu, mereka juga tidak membaca hadis tentang toleransi dan sikap Rasulullah saat berinteraksi dengan non-Muslim. Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk menjawab pertanyaan; bagaimana pemahaman kontekstual hadis-hadis tentang per­musuh­an terhadap non-Muslim? Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kepustakaan, yang mengguna­kan hadis tentang  permusuhan terhadap non-Muslim dalam al-kutub al-tis'ah se­bagai sumber utama, dan menggunakan kritik matan hadis sebagai pendekatan penelitian. Dengan menggunakan analisis konten, Penelitian ini menemukan; hadis tentang permusuhan terhadap non-Muslim secara luas memiliki makna bahwa Rasulullah diperintahkan untuk memerangi kaum kafir yang me­musuhi sampai mereka bersedia untuk mengatakan dua kalimat syahadat. Dengan demikian, obyek  hadis tersebut ditujukan hanya untuk non-Muslim yang me­merangi umat Islam, yang mereka telah memilih untuk memulai perkelahian dan tidak menerima jalan damai. Oleh karena itu, tidak semua non-Muslim layak/ tepat untuk dimusuhi, bahkan harus diperlakukan secara baik. Di samping itu, memerangi setiap non-Muslim yang tidak memerangi umat Islam bertentangan dengan teks dan konsensus ilmiah.

  2. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

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    John O. Voll

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to a long jihad tradition in West Africa. Its emergence follows well-established patterns of older militant Muslim groups, but it also departs significantly from those patterns as it shapes itself as a movement in the patterns of contemporary, twenty-first century modes of religious violence. Boko Haram is also identified, in twenty-first century terms, as a religious terrorist organization. As a religious terrorist group, it fits the pattern of what David Rapoport calls the fourth wave—the religious wave—of modern terrorism. However, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, Boko Haram exhibits characteristics of a new style of religious terrorism that is more like the so-called Islamic State than the older type of terrorist organization of al-Qa’idah.

  3. Using culture and psychology to counter the Taliban's violent narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2017-08-01

    Scholars, politicians, and policy-makers have increasingly pointed to the role of narratives in recruiting militants and justifying violence, highlighting the need for counter-narratives that promote peace. However, few have offered concrete guidelines on how to construct counter-narratives. This exploratory study uses prototype theory from social psychology to analyse Taliban narratives written in Arabic on the historical figure Maḥmūd of Ghaznī (971-1030), who is portrayed as a figure worthy of emulation. Key themes emerge from the Taliban's narratives: potential ingroup members are defined as Sunni Muslims who are committed to jihad; deviant Muslims must become Sunnis; non-Muslims must be converted and humiliated; and Taliban leaders should emulate Maḥmūd of Ghaznī's attributes. Contrasting the Taliban's narratives of Maḥmūd of Ghaznī with the historical record reveals themes that are culled empirically around which counter-narratives could be constructed.

  4. Jihadists’ Grievance Narratives against France

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    Laurence Bindner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available France ranks first in the EU as a provider of foreign terrorist fighters in Syria and Iraq, and as the most-targeted European country in the context of the Syrian-Iraqi conflict. France has a longstanding history related to jihadism, correlated with multiple grievances from jihadist groups: it has been depicted as an enemy of Islam because of its foreign policy, its domestic policy towards religion, and, last but not least, its very essence. These grievances have been conveyed, like the baton of a relay race, from the first generations of North-African Islamist networks and the “elder brothers of jihad” to contemporary jihadists. The French jihadist media ecosystem has been instrumental in attracting a particularly large contemporary following. From the French perspective, a range of social, cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic drivers and identity factors converged to create a fertile ground for receptive radicals to emerge and break away from democratic values. Informed by these issues, this Policy Brief aims to identify avenues of further development for the French counter-terrorism strategic communication strategy. It concludes by stressing the need for this communication strategy to strive for positive, alternative messaging to re-create a continuum between individuals in the jihadist milieu and France as a nation state.

  5. New Trends in Islamic Political Parties in the Arab Spring Countries

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    Ibnu Burdah

    2014-12-01

    [Perkembangan mutakhir partai-partai politik Islam di sejumlah negara Arab “Musim Semi” menunjukkan adanya perubahan orientasi dan agenda baru, berupa penegasan kembali komitmen mereka terhadap nilai-nilai demokrasi, penguatan masyarakat sipil, dan adopsi prinsip-prinsip hak asasi manusia. Pada saat yang sama, mereka tampak kurang tertarik kepada agenda-agenda politik Islam lama seperti jihad bagi pendirian negara Islam dan pendirian pemerintahan Islam global di bawah satu khalifah yang tersentralisasi. Hal ini relevan terhadap kasus Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan (Ḥizb al-‘Adālah wa’l-Tanmiyah di Maroko, Partai Kebebasan dan Keadilan (Ḥizb al-Ḥurriyyah wa’l-‘Adālah di Mesir, dan Partai Kebangkitan (Ḥizb al-Nahḍah di Tunisia. Artikel ini berupaya mengeksplorasi dan menjelaskan fakta baru ini. Berdasarkan kajian pustaka dan wawancara dengan sejumlah petinggi Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan di Maroko, penulis berkesimpulan bahwa orientasi baru ini terjadi akibat dari gelombang demokratisasi dunia, “angin kencang musim semi” Arab yang begitu kuat, dan dinamika internal partai.

  6. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  7. Islam and Politics: the Case of the Islamic State

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    Shokri Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the fundamental relation between the Islamic-political movements and establishment of the Islamic law (Shari’a. I argue against the critiques of western foreign policy and show that the Islamic State (Caliphate is both a result of the historical process of the people of a region and the extreme interpretation of the text and Sunna which emphasizes on the traditional Sharia law and the concept of Jihad by fortifying political Islam qua militant Islam. I argue that the Islamic revival aims to a certain political order which threatens the world security and peace. Moreover, I argue that the structural violation of Human Rights is rooted in the traditional concept of Islamic law or Sharia, which obtains its immunity by an illegitimate power. This traditional Islamic law is the inalienable character of authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. This paper is based on the assumption that the extreme ideological/theoretical interpretation implies the empirical objectives of Militant Islamic community with or without any external influential elements. In this sense, we can address the question: how different interpretations and traditions in executing the Islamic Sharia give the social and political grounds a seed for the emergence of violence and terrorism. At the end, this paper ends with a propose which emphasizes on the role of international cooperation to find a resolution and also on the education as a long-term plan to defeat extremism and terrorism.

  8. Of Men, Machines and Apocalypses: Masculine Anxieties in Indian Speculative Fiction

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    Dibyadyuti Roy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploding bombs embedded with catastrophic potential have remained central to our eschatological conceptualizations for more than a century. Future war fiction—a key sub-genre of speculative fiction—in building upon this obsession introduces us to unforeseen apocalyptic settings, which are brought forth through a nexus between gendered bodies and destructive military machinery. In underscoring the decidedly masculine nature of future war fiction, this article explores depictions of anxious postcolonial masculinity within the little-explored terrain of Indian speculative fiction. Apocalyptic settings in these texts, I argue, provide a topos for enacting postcolonial masculine anxieties, which are subsequently countered through making male bodies contingent on the volatile performances of destructive military technology. In utilizing R.W Connell’s conceptualization of “hegemonic masculinity,” I explore the reasons behind the emergence of postcolonial masculine insecurities, which, I argue, results from India’s colonial history and its continued legacy within the subcontinent. Finally, my examination of representative Indian speculative texts, namely Mainak Dhar’s Line of Control (2009 and Sami Ahmad Khan’s Red Jihad (2012 emphasizes that making hegemonic postcolonial masculinity contingent on the destructive capabilities of military technology results in unstable and threatening masculine performances; much like the unpredictable nature of war machinery highlighted in these texts.

  9. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh [Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  10. Explaining the appeal of militant Salafism in a Norwegian context

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    Ida Nord Holmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By drawing upon existing literature on Islamic radicalisation, this article empirically explores why some Norwegian Muslims come to accept the use of violence in the name of Islam. Based on primary internet research and interviews with individuals who either call for violent jihad, or who have travelled to Syria to engage in armed struggle, this study identifies several complaints and grievances which may result in individuals adopting extreme positions. These grievances relate to Norwegian and Western foreign policies, feelings of being alienated and stigmatised in the public debate, a sense of not belonging, actual or perceived discrimination, and socio-economic deprivation. Interestingly, the findings in this study suggest that these factors are not significantly different in Norway than in other European countries facing the general trend of Islamic radicalisation. Rather, the ideological positions and statements identified in the data collection reflect the broader literature on the radicalisation of young Muslims living in Europe. In line with theories of Wiktorowicz (2005 and Roy (2004, this article therefore argues that Norwegian Muslims may become attracted to militant Salafism because it responds to their individual grievances, and provides an alternative worldview that offers meaning, community and justice based on shared religion and ideology. 

  11. Foreign (Terrorist Fighter Estimates: Conceptual and Data Issues

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    Alex P. Schmid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This Policy Brief – a short version of a larger Research Paper to be released by ICCT in late 2015 – focuses on the phenomenon of foreign (terrorist fighters (FTFs as it relates to Syria and Iraq. It concentrates on recruits to jihad and the astonishing growth in numbers from less than 1,000 in 2011 to more than 3,500 in 2012, 8,500+ in 2013, 18,000+ in 2014 to more than 25,000 by fall 2015. By October 2015, nearly 30,000 militants from more than 100 countries had become foreign fighters with the so-called “Islamic State” (IS in Syria and Iraq and other militant groups. This Policy Brief first discusses various definitions of FTFs by disaggregating the “foreign”, “terrorist” and “fighters” elements of FTFs of the UN Security Council definition in resolution 2178 (2014. Subsequently, an attempt is made to bring some structure and order to the widely diverging estimates of the numbers of foreign fighters and their origins, with tables presenting the best available estimates for different sides of the conflict at different moments in time since 2011. UN estimates on foreign fighters are juxtaposed with estimates from other sources. The biggest uncertainty is the ratio of foreign fighters to IS own core manpower. It is likely that at least 40 percent of the fighters of IS are foreigners and many more if Iraqis in Syria are counted as such.

  12. PEACEFUL JIHĀD DAN PENDIDIKAN DERADIKALISASI AGAMA

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    Sulasman Sulasman

    2015-06-01

    *** Pondok Pesantren Miftahul Huda semula identik dengan gerakan “radikal” baik karena pandangan eksklusivismenya dalam beragama, kritisisme terhadap Pemerintah, maupun karena keidentikkan beberapa personalnya dengan gerakan DI/TII dan FPI. Sejalan dengan dinamika internal dan eksternal, pondok pe­santren ini pun mereorientasi gerakannya dari jihād fisik ke jalur pendidikan dan dakwah damai atau dalam perspektif Lukens-Bull dikenal sebagai jihad damai (peaceful jihād. Proses menjinakkan diri dan gerakannya, yang dikenal dengan deradikalisasi, dilalui oleh pondok pesantren ini dengan enam cara, yakni inter­nali­sasi nilai-nilai pesantren, perluasan perspektif keislaman, adopsi sistem sekolah, pendidikan hubb al-waṭan, penggunaan local wisdom, dan pendidikan keterampilan. Upaya deradikalisasi yang dilakukan Pondok Pesantren Miftahul Huda berkisar pada tiga strategi, yakni pencegahan, pemeliharaan budaya damai, dan pemulihan bagi yang terdampak radikal. Hasilnya, para santri, alumni, dan pesantren yang tergabung dalam sistem jaringan Pondok Pesantren Miftahul Huda muncul dalam wajah damai, moderat, dan toleran.

  13. Islam Dan Radikalisme (Diskursus: Perilaku Kekerasan Atas Nama Agama Di Indonesia

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    Mukhamat Saini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Religious Radicalism are happening in Indonesia have been meaningful and double-faced. So, it can be said that Islam ancient (classic with the contemporary (modern are very different and even contrary to what has been taught by the Prophet Muhammad and that has been stated in the Qur'an. Radicalism that emerged in Indonesia are mostly departing from dissatisfaction and their desire to make or implement Islamic law in Indonesia. For them, the injustice, the amount of corruption, prolonged crisis and disharmony between the rich and the poor are the result of failure to apply the Islamic law. Radicalism is not suitable in Islamic teaching, so it is not worth to be addressed in the Islamic religion. Because the real Islam there is not such thing radicalism. In the Qur'an and the Hadith it self ordered his people to respect and love and be gentle to others although the followers of other faiths. Violence in the name of religion that led to this kind of distortion understanding of Islam. Religious legitimacy toward the act of violence has very complex content. In this context, at least there are two important factors that led Islamic religion is seen as "problematic" because of misguided thinking and misinterpretation the meaning and understanding of "jihad".

  14. Study of Mechanisms for Development and Strengthening of Water User Cooperatives (Case Study of Aras River Basin: Application of AHP Method

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    Rohallah maghabl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water user cooperatives were formed due to consideration to people's empowerment and participation in water investment and management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of development and strengthening of water user cooperatives in the Aras River Basin. The study population consisted of the management board members of the water user cooperatives in the Aras Basin in the year 2012. Respondents were selected by purposeful stratified sampling method. Having the data collected by interviews and questionnaires, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (through the software Expert Choice 11 was used to prioritize mechanisms for the development and strengthening of water user cooperatives. Based on the final weights, criterias including supportive strategies, education - extension, policy, communications and legal mechanisms, were prioritized, respectively. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that sub-criterias including reallocation of credit to change the traditional irrigation to drip and sprinkler irrigation, holding extension and educational courses purposed at promoting farmers’knowledge about their responsibilities for the formation and management of water user cooperatives collaborated with the department of Jihad Agricultural Organization (JKO, the department of Cooperatives and Regional Water Organization; credit and investment provision to improve the processing and package industries, modeling appropriate cropping systems based on the area capacity were the most influential sub-criterias in developing and strengthening water user cooperatives.

  15. Melacak Gerakan Radikal Islam dari Wahabisme ke Global Salafisme

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    Rofhani Rofhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement of Salafism constitutes part of the Islamic history of fundamentalism. They call their self as Salafis, who etymologically means “what had passed through and gone before” or “the outdistancing group”. The appearance of Global-Salafism apparently starts from the will of coming back to the past, which is the period of as-Salaf ash-S{âlih}. In the next development, it had to deal with the shifting perspective from theological nuance into political movement (Jihad-Salafism which well issued by the appearance of phenomenon of many radical movements. Discourse about Salafism therefore is actually being pretentious after the tragedy of World Trade Center (WTC, September 11, 2001. Salafism is Islamic radical movement which attempts to modify Islamic traditional legacy. Unlike other group on Islamic movement that use religious reform within their progress, Salafism uses retrograde process as practical method. This article aims to explore at least three issues concerning with Salafism: (1 the basic doctrine of Salafism and its response to politics, (2 its movement and fragmentation, and (3 how it constructs follower’s conviction in different states in the world. This article primarily refers to Roel Meijer’s book, Global Salafism; Islam’s New Religious Movement. In this book, Meijer wrote about intellectual’s concern and care for global Salafism. In addition, this article also refers to other references to enrich its analysis, specifically the social influences of global Salafism. 

  16. Assessing the Sustainability of Farm-land Management in the Eastern Azerbaijan Province (Case of Malekan County

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    Siamak Nabizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess sustainable farmlands management in the Malekan County. The target population consisted of wheat growers among which 162 farmers were selected according to the multistage cluster selection method. The research tool used was a questionnaire whose face validity was confirmed by comments from faculty members and experts in the Malekan Agri- Jihad and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha (average 0.71. Sustainability was measured by establishing composite index for six components of sustainable land management. The results of assessing sustainable land management revealed that 19.1% of the farmers were in an unsustainable situation, 34% of them were in a fairly unsustainable situation, 26.5% of them were in a fairly sustainable situation and 20.4% of them were in a sustainable situation. The results of correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between age and farming experience with “stability and acceptability”, land size and farm income with “stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”, wheat yield and consumed fertilizer with “security”, land plots with “acceptability” and using farm machinery with “productivity, stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”. There is also a negative and significant relationship between non-farm income and “productivity” and consumed fertilizers and “security”.

  17. School History as a Method of Formation of Political Consciousness in Contemporary France

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    Nikolay V. Litvak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the attitude of the ruling elite in modern France to the school teaching of history, as the primary method of formation of political consciousness and outlook of the new generations. To achieve these purposes the complex of scientific and political methods is created. The programs are constantly changing, reflecting the general political struggle in French society, whose protagonists seek the arguments in support of their positions in history. In this context, the school programs are periodically in focus of urgent debates, and each their change is a compromise. The political approach is to form a state point of view of history, recorded in the programs required to study in schools. Those programs include a carefully selected set of topics, facts and personalities to be studied. In addition, the internal political struggle is coming not just about the form but the content too. In particular, for a number of years in the program a separate theme "Islam"is included, but not, for example, the theme "Christianity." However, supporters of the preservation of study of the Christian contribution to the history and the culture of France retain extensive relevant material included in a number of various subjects not directly devoted to Christianity. Informational approach to education is that the resources of the psyche and student's instructional time are very limited. The freedom of school teachers to refer to historical sources and even to interpret them within the broad framework is formally proclaimed. However, a program and a limited time to study it in conjunction with the responsibility of teachers for the results of their work, checked in exams, in fact does not leave them enough time to study an other point of view that goes beyond the official program.

  18. TAX DEDUCTION THROUGH ZAKAT: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION ON MUSLIM IN MALAYSIA

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    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the factors which are affecting Muslim consumer's perception towards tax deduction through zakat in Malaysia. A conceptual framework was drawn based on the literature. Six factors were extracted through principal component analysis and SEM was run to test the hypotheses. This research found that halal-haram aspect of Islamic Shariah has a very positive influence on Muslim consumers’ perception towards the tax rebate system. In addition, legal consciousness and knowledge about tax and zakat have a positive significant impact on Muslim consumers’ perceptions towards this system. Due to the limited literature available on this subject matter, this study offers unique findings that may help in capitalizing the practices in Muslim countries and to understand their consumers’ perception regarding the tax deduction system. In conclusion, zakat institutions in Malaysia will also be better benefitted through this research finding. =========================================== Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi persepsi para konsumen muslim terkait dengan pengurangan pajak melalui zakat di Malaysia. Suatu kerangka konseptual telah digambarkan berdasarkan literatur. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa aspek halal- haram dalam Syariah Islami memiliki pengaruh yang sangat positif terhadap persepsi para konsumen muslim terkait dengan sistem pengurangan pajak. Sebagai tambahan, kesadaran hukum dan pengetahuan tentang pajak dan zakat memiliki pengaruh positif yang signifikan pada persepsi konsumen muslim yang terkait dengan sistem ini. Sehubungan dengan terbatasnya literatur yang tersedia terkait dengan masalah ini, penelitian ini menawarkan temuan- temuan yang menarik yang dapat mendukung pengembangan praktik- praktik di negara- negara muslim dan untuk memahami persepsi para konsumennya terkait dengan sistem pengurangan pajak.

  19. La belleza del mundo es la Belleza de Dios (El núcleo estético del lrtán de Ibn'Arabi IIª parte.

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    José Miguel Puerta Vílchez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We will intend to evaluate, throughout the two consecutive parts of this study, which is to be considered the status at the veiy same time hierophan¡cal and cosmological, ontological and anthropological, that the notion of Beauty invests in te speculative misticism of te andalusian Mubyi al-Din Este artículo es la ponencia presentada en ci Seminario Mu¿iyi al-Din ¡bn `Arabi -Mawldnd falal al-Din al Ram!. Dos frentes clásicaspara el estudio de la mística especulativa en el Islam, que se celebró en la Facultad de Filosofia de la Universidad Complutense, en colaboración que la Consejería Cultural de la República islámica de Irán en Madrid, durante los días ¡9,20 y 21 de enero de 1999. ¡ La primera parte de este artículo se publicó en el número anterior de esta misma Revista. 31 José Miguel Puerta Vílchez La belleza del mundo es la belleza de Dios lbn `Arabí (1165-1240, known as well as "te greatest master" in the realm of islamie spirituality. And this by conftonting the theories of islaxnic aesthetics and philosophy, and both flarthermore by clari~'ing a vocabula¡y plenty of poliedric significances and by presenting the doctrine of a creative imagination of which its noetical and sacred value will be thus explored.

  20. Being Woman in the Land of Shari‘a: Politics of the Female Body, Piety, and Resistance in Langsa, Aceh

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    Muhammad Ansor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the dynamic of institutionalization of Shari’a in Aceh, which focuses on analysis of the patterns of Langsa women’s resistance against religious leaders and state interpretations of the dress standards in the public space. This matter emerged because the implementation of Shari’a has been supported by local people, but the standard of Islamic dress that should be applied is still debatable among various groups in Aceh that have varied understandings and different religious visions. The regulation of dress code has been an issue for religious leaders, intellectuals, and Moslem activists. The resistance of Langsa women against the politics of body discipline could be open and secret. To analyze the forms of women’s resistance, the researcher applied James C. Scott’s hidden transcripts theory. Inspired by this theoretical framework, the researcher found that Langsa women, intellectuals, and religious leaders expressed their resistance over how women should dress in public space. In collecting the data, the researcher used observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Accordingly, the research shows how Langsa women express their resistance towards religious hegemony and state interpretation of Islam.[Tulisan ini membahas dinamika pelembagaan syariat Islam di Aceh dengan fokus resistensi tersembunyi perempuan Langsa terhadap penafsiran elite agama dan pemerintah perihal pembakuan standar pakaian di ruang publik. Meskipun implementasi syariat Islam Aceh mendapat dukungan masyarakat setempat, tetapi ketika sebuah tafsir tertentu tentang pakaian Islami dibakukan dalam regulasi (Qanun, muncul perdebatan dari sebagian muslim yang berpola pemikiran dan visi keagamaan berbeda. Bukan hanya perdebatan di kalangan elite agama, intelektual, maupun aktivis, perempuan di berbagai daerah di Aceh pun mengekspresikan resistensi, baik secara terbuka maupun tersembunyi. Peneliti menggunakan teori hidden transcripts

  1. Assessing the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz NAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nur Adilah Shuhada Abd Aziz, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Mohd Ramadan Abdul Hamid, Nazrul Hadi Ismail Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia Purpose: The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue.Methods: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms “malnutrition”, “hospitalised elderly”, “nutritional assessment”, “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA”, “Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI”, and “Subjective Global Assessment (SGA”.Results: According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients.Conclusion: It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future. Keywords: malnutrition in elderly

  2. Le califat méditerranéen et maritime de Denia

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    Travis Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La désintégration du califat de Cordoue au début du XIe siècle a ouvert la porte à une nouvelle appréhension de l’espace politique et religieux islamique. Mujāhid al-‘Āmirī, souverain de la taifa de Denia sur la côte orientale, s’est lancé dans la création d’un califat ex novo sur la frontière maritime islamique. Rappelant la politique des premiers califes umayyades, Mujāhid a pensé son état en termes de jihād et d’expansion territoriale, et non pas en termes d’appropriation d’un espace déjà islamisé. La singularité de cette ambition fut double. D’une part, la création d’un califat afin de légitimer ce jihād maritime renforce l’idée d’une action de lutte contre le dār al-ḥarb et non pas seulement une piraterie particulièrement agressive. D’autre part, l’espace sacralisé par Mujāhid et le jihād mené sous son autorité comprenait autant les routes maritimes que les côtes et les îles qui le délimitaient. Le califat de Denia se solda en échec, mais la guerre sainte maritime qu’il avait inaugurée se poursuivit ; la taifa de Denia demeura un avant-poste d’Islam sur la frontière maritime, ses navires étaient des extensions réticulaires et mobiles de l’espace islamique.

  3. Primary Drivers of Sustainable Performance: The Case of Corporate Waqf

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    Aliza Ramli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Waqf institutions being perceived as the social mechanism to facilitate equitable economic growth and progress for the ummah, getting its concept accepted and implemented by business organizations remains a challenge. A significant number of waqf institutions are also faced with recurring issues such as underdeveloped waqf properties, unproductive nature of the assets, inability to generate self-income, loose documenting system and mismanagement. Therefore, this paper aims to shed light on the drivers of the successful practice of corporate waqf of a selected waqf institution in Malaysia. Specifically, this paper examines the critical factors that continuously drive the performance of the corporate waqf institution. The framework for the case study was premised upon the tawhidic concept which stemmed from the Quran and Sunnah. In the case study, data were drawn from interviews with key informants, participant observations and reviews of documents. Data collected from multiple sources of evidence enabled the triangulation of data. The situation has enhanced the validity and reliability of the findings. NVivo software was used to code and analyze the data as well as to search for patterns and emerging themes. The results revealed that the case company successfully engaged in waqf practice as well as, sustain its performance. The essential criteria in managing and administering waqf funds at the case company can be linked to the jihad attitude, healthy mindset, an in-depth knowledge of Islamic and waqf fundamentals and strategic leadership. The findings put forth to advance the literature on corporate waqf besides provide insights for policymakers on the drivers for an effective and efficient management of waqf funds and sustainable corporate waqf performance.

  4. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

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    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  5. The Boston Marathon Bombers: the Lethal Cocktail that Turned Troubled Youth to Terrorism

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    Anne Speckhard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tsarnaev brothers came from the war-torn Chechen diaspora and found asylum in the United States. The elder brother,Tamerlan, carried actual memories of fleeing from the 1994-96 Chechen war. He also lived in Dagestan for a year at the time when the Chechen warlord Basayev was engaging in a campaign of more than thirty suicide attacks, including mass hostage takings. When Tamerlan made it to the United States, he tried to assimilate but failed to make it. The family struggled hard to make a living in the U.S.; but in the end the parents divorced and the father returned to Dagestan. Dzhokhar, the younger brother, made it into an American university but Tamerlan did not succeed in higher education, trying to pursue a boxing career instead. When his immigration status precluded a boxing career, he became disillusioned. Meanwhile his mother, concerned about his descent into smoking marijuana and drinking alcohol, arranged an Islamic tutor for him. The ingredients for the lethal cocktail of terrorism came together when Tamerlan's individual vulnerabilities made him seek online contacts via the Internet and brought him in touch with offline mentors, militants and extremists who glorified Al-Qaeda’s global jihad. Through these channels he became receptive to the terrorist ideology, found a jihadist group with global reach to align with, received technical instructions from the Inspire magazine and found enough support for executing the Boston marathon attack, pulling his younger brother along and dying in the process as he had expected.

  6. Research Trends in Islamic Studies on Journal of Research and Development and Training Center Ministry of Religious Affairs: Using Co-Words

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    Hariyah Hariyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since published in 1976, no studies about the development of the theme or subject of the journal articles  published by Research and Development and Training Center Ministry of Religious Affairs, that are useful to see the development of science on  religious social fields. Based on that, the aim of this paper is to find out research trends in Islamic studies on journal articles published by Research and Development and Training Center Ministry of Religious Affairs in 2005 – 2014. This study uses analysis of co-words with exploratory quantitative approach. This approach explores areas that have not been studied previously. The whole issue of the journal article Research and Development and Training Agency Ministry of Religious Affairs, published in 2005 - 2014 are used as the unit of analysis in this study. The article studied consisted of 1,107 articles contained in four journals. The results showed Subject (descriptor most appear on clustering over a span of 10 years (2005-2014 are the Islamic Education and Concord. This suggests that the study of Islamic Education and Concord almost throughout the year. Besides, this subject in accordance with the mission of Ministry of Religious Affairs and strategic plan of Research and Development and Training Agency. The distribution of other subjects such as Islamic Manuscripts, Religion, Inter-Religious Forum, Pornography, Jihad, Islamic Sects, Civil Society, Quran, Conflict, Muslim Scholar, Zakat are popular subjects that became a topic of research over a span of ten years. This subject does not always show up every year and the number of articles are smaller.

  7. Assessing energy efficiencies, economy, and global warming potential (GWP) effects of major crop production systems in Iran: a case study in East Azerbaijan province.

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    Mohammadzadeh, Arash; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Vafabakhsh, Javad; Deihimfard, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Efficient use of energy in farming systems is one of the most important implications for decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigating global warming (GW). This paper describes the energy use patterns, analyze the economics, and report global warming potential effects of major crop production systems in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For this purpose, 110 farmers whose main activity was major crop production in the region, including wheat, barley, carrot, tomato, onion, potato, alfalfa, corn silage, canola, and saffron, were surveyed. Some other data was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad of Iran. Results showed that, in terms of total energy input, onion (87,556 Mj ha -1 ) and potato (80,869 Mj ha -1 ) production systems were more energy-intensive than other crops. Among the studied crops, the highest values of net return (6563.8 $ ha -1 ) and benefit/cost ratio (1.95) were related to carrot and corn silage production systems, respectively. Studies have also shown that onion and saffron production systems emit the highest (5332.6 kg CO2eq ha -1 ) and lowest (646.24 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 ) CO 2 eq. emission, respectively. When it was averaged across crops, diesel fuel accounted for the greatest GHG contribution with 43% of the total, followed by electric power (28%) and nitrogen fertilizer (21%). In the present study, eco-efficiency was calculated as a ratio of the gross production value and global warming potential effect for the studied crops. Out of all the studied crops, the highest values of eco-efficiency were calculated to be 8.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 for the saffron production system followed by the carrot (3.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 ) production. Generally, from the aspect of energy balance and use efficiency, the alfalfa production system was the best; however, from an economical point of view, the carrot production system was better than the other crops.

  8. Jihadi Groups and State-Building: The Case of Boko Haram in Nigeria

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    Sarah Ladbury

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article considers the extent to which the Nigerian jihadi group, Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JAS, also known as Boko Haram, is transforming its model of governance from domination by violence and force to governance through civil administration and public support. Drawing on over four years of research and programming in north-east Nigeria, the authors consider three aspects of such a transformation: the development of institutions, the propagation of an ideology and programmes to win over the hearts and minds of the wider population, and the role assigned to women and girls. The article finds that JAS has established little in the way of a civilian administration in the areas that have come under its control. Likewise, the movement has apparently made no concerted effort to project a vision of a future society or concrete benefits of the envisaged caliphate that would generate a level of public support. Moreover, the brutal treatment of women and girls belies any attempt by the movement to promote a positive vision of the role of women, even as wives and mothers. In this, JAS is seen to differ from a number of other jihadi movements that have relatively sophisticated approaches to generating popular support and recruiting members. The article goes on to suggest a number of reasons for JAS’s failure to move towards a polity that is more consensual and less dependent on violence, as well as its implications for those who would seek to restrain the expansion and ideological reach of jihadist groups. It concludes by offering suggestions of how the government can seize the opportunity presented by this lack of a state-building strategy, in order to show the people of north-east Nigeria that it can offer a better alternative.

  9. Family-oriented psychosocial intervention in children with cancer: A systematic review

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    Leila Ostadhashemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, evidence has shown the growing trend of published studies on family-oriented interventions in children with cancer. Besides shedding light on the current status of knowledge, a review of the existing evidence can serve an effective step toward designing and implementing appropriate interventions in this domain. Methods: This systematic review was carried out to categorize and report the findings of all types of psychosocial interventions on the family caregivers of children with cancer. The English keywords "family career", "family caregiver", “children with cancer", "psychosocial", "intervention”, “educational", and "childhood cancer" were searched in CINAHL, Web of Science (ISI, PsychINFO, Pubmed and Scopus databanks, and equivalent Persian keywords were searched in the SID of Jihad University, IRANDOC, and IranPsych and Magiran databanks. From among 819 papers found between 1994 and 2014, a total of 17 articles were included in the study after qualitative evaluation. Results: Interventions were often performed on mothers and indicated various interventional approaches. The majority of the interventions were cognitive-behavioral which were reported to be effective in improving the measured criteria such as increasing the quality of life, decreasing emotional distress, anxiety and depression, and increasing adaptive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings were generally reported to be hopeful and most of interventions were reported to have positive effects on the participants, among which behavioral-cognitive interventions were found to show the strongest evidence. Supportive interventions must be considered as an indispensable part of care for children with cancer.

  10. Pesantren Responses to Religious Tolerance, Pluralism and Democracy in Indonesia

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    Nurrohman Nurrohman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesantren (Islamic boarding school is the oldest Islamic institution in Indonesia that often affiliated to the largest mass Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama. This organization is well known for its stance to uphold moderate, tolerance Islam and accepting pluralistic state based on Pancasila. Pesantren also often referred as the barometer to understand the way of thinking of Muslims grass root in Indonesia because many Islamic figures in Indonesian village are alumni of pesantren.  There are debates among scholars on whether religious violence has a root in religious doctrine or it is caused by factors outside religion such as poverty or injustice. By assuming that both inside and outside factors have significant contribution to violence or radicalism this study will discuss the doctrine that potentially can be used to justify violence and intolerance by reviewing the opinion of pesantren leaders in West Java on jihad, violence or intolerance and power. This study is aimed to examine whether the commitment of Muslim leaders in national level on democracy and plurality is supported by grass root particularly from pesantren leaders.  Overall the study found that although they agree that democracy is compatible with Islam, this study reveals that their acceptance to pluralism still be questioned as evidenced by almost half of them supported theocratic caliphate carry out by radical group. Although many argued that pesantren promotes tolerance and pluralism, nevertheless this  study shows that some of their teaching tacitly supported violence act in the name of religion that will tarnished the effort of Indonesia to synchronize Islam, democracy and modernity. It means that many of them actually not wholeheartedly accepted democracy and pluralism.

  11. “Dobbiamo diventare la quasi-causa del niente – del nihil”. Un’intervista con Bernard Stiegler

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    Judith Wambacq

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This interview with the philosopher Bernard Stiegler was conducted in Paris on 28 January 2015, and first appeared in Dutch translation in the journal De uil van Minerva. The conversation begins by discussing the fundamental place occupied by the concept of ‘technics’ in Stiegler’s work, and how the ‘constitutivity’ of technics does and does not relate to Kant and Husserl. Stiegler is then asked about his relationship with Deleuze, and he responds by focusing on the concept of quasi-causality, but also by arguing that there is a certain trajectory in Deleuze’s thought, situating his own philosophy in relation to its various moments. Stiegler is then asked to respond to the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks carried out three weeks prior to the interview. After making a couple of precautionary remarks, Stiegler relates such occurrences to the problem of what he calls ‘spiritual poverty’, to the intensification of ‘negative sublimation’ that can occur when there is a disconnection between the generations, and more generally to the growth of nihilism. All of these phenomena relate to the exploitation of technology by a virulent capitalism that irrationally believes that only the market is rational. After consideration of the complex historical relationship between Islam and modernization, and of both of these to Nietzsche’s ‘death of God’, and after recalling the destructive role played by the West in the rise of fundamentalism and jihadism, Stiegler concludes by reflecting on the fact that, ultimately, ‘intellectuals’ have failed to use technologies in ways that produce alternatives to consumerism.

  12. « Nous avons à devenir la quasi-cause du rien – du nihil ». Un entretien avec Bernard Stiegler

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    Judith Wambacq

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This interview with the philosopher Bernard Stiegler was conducted in Paris on 28 January 2015, and first appeared in Dutch translation in the journal De uil van Minerva. The conversation begins by discussing the fundamental place occupied by the concept of ‘technics’ in Stiegler’s work, and how the ‘constitutivity’ of technics does and does not relate to Kant and Husserl. Stiegler is then asked about his relationship with Deleuze, and he responds by focusing on the concept of quasi-causality, but also by arguing that there is a certain trajectory in Deleuze’s thought, situating his own philosophy in relation to its various moments. Stiegler is then asked to respond to the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks carried out three weeks prior to the interview. After making a couple of precautionary remarks, Stiegler relates such occurrences to the problem of what he calls ‘spiritual poverty’, to the intensification of ‘negative sublimation’ that can occur when there is a disconnection between the generations, and more generally to the growth of nihilism. All of these phenomena relate to the exploitation of technology by a virulent capitalism that irrationally believes that only the market is rational. After consideration of the complex historical relationship between Islam and modernization, and of both of these to Nietzsche’s ‘death of God’, and after recalling the destructive role played by the West in the rise of fundamentalism and jihadism, Stiegler concludes by reflecting on the fact that, ultimately, ‘intellectuals’ have failed to use technologies in ways that produce alternatives to consumerism.

  13. Jihâd dalam Pandangan Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salâm Faraj

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    Abdul Muis Naharong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jihâd is one of the Islamic teachings which has been extensively discussed since the last few decades due to the increasing acts of violence perpetrated by some Muslims. This article tries to join this discussion by presenting Muh ammad ‘Abd al-Salâm Faraj’s concept of jihâd and his ideas of Islamic state and Caliphate by referring to his al-Farîd ah al-Ghâ’ibah (the Neglected Duty. We argue that Faraj’s basic perception of the Egyptian politics and society at the time shaped his whole concept of state and Caliphate. We hence contend that his proposal of jihâd is born out of his disappointment of the Egyptian government and even society as far as applying Islamic law is concerned. He uncompromisingly believed that the government and society are hypocrite and apostate for distancing themselves from the divine law of God. This belief prompted four members of Jihâd Organization to which Faraj belongs, to assassinate President Sadat in October 1981. By jihad, Faraj means fighting and confrontation against enemies even through bloodshed. And by enemies he means anyone who is not willing to apply God’s law on earth. The most controversial idea that Faraj has tried to pose is that jihâd is considered to the sixth pillar of Islam, which has to be carried out by each and every member of Muslim ummah.

  14. Autonomous Histories of Muslim Women Cultural Poetics; A Critical Reading of the Personal/Academic Narratives of Leila Ahmed and Amina Wadud

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    Hadeer Abo El Nagah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Louis Montrose's "Professing the Renaissance: the Poetics and Politics of Culture" renewed concern with the historical, social and political conditions of literary productions (1989. He suggested a platform through which autonomous aesthetics and academic issues to be understood as inextricably linked to other discourses. While autobiography is considered as a "writing back," I argue here that it is rather a strategic transitional act that connects the past with the present and remaps the future. Though a very personal opening, autobiography is seen as a documentation of public events from a personal perspective. Academic autobiographies like Arab American history professor Leila Ahmad's A Border Passage from Cairo to America; A Woman’s Journey (2012 and African American theology professor Amina Wadud’s Inside the Gender Jihad (2008 are two examples of the production of interwoven private and public histories. The personal opening in such narratives is an autonomous act that initiates cross-disciplinary dialogues that trigger empowerment and proposes future changes. In that sense, these autobiographies are far from being mere stories of the past. Conversely, they are tools of rereading one's contributions and thus repositioning the poetics and politics of culture as testimonial narratives. Employing post-colonial, Islamic feminism and new historicism, the aim of this study is to critically read the above academic/personal two autobiographies as examples of the private/ public negotiations of culture. It also aims to explore the dialogue between the literary, historical and social elements as they remap the future of women in Muslim societies and the diaspora.

  15. Study on the Problem of Islamic Banking Supervision:In the view the IFSB Regulatory Framework%关于对伊斯兰银行监管问题的分析--基于伊斯兰金融服务委员会监管框架的视角

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    杨为程

    2014-01-01

    伊斯兰金融业在全球范围内的高速增长,伊斯兰银行特有的产业结构和宗教基础,使得对其监管成为一个重要问题。伊斯兰金融服务委员会倡导的最低资本要求、监管审查、市场约束、风险管理和公司治理等五方面的监管标准和技术要求,对于防范伊斯兰金融风险,促进伊斯兰金融业的稳定性和可靠性具有重要意义。当前,伊斯兰银行业在监管标准和制度、多重身份混同等方面面临着诸种挑战,伊斯兰金融服务委员会及其他组织正致力于普通金融有益补充的伊斯兰金融监管体系的构建。%With the rapid grow th of the Islamic financial industry on a global scale ,the supervision to the Islamic banking has been became an important problem for its industry structure and religious foundation . Based on the summary of characteristics and principle of business on the basis of the Islamic Banks ,advo-cated by Islamis financial services commission from five aspects ,such as ,the minimum capital ratio super-visory review and market discipline regulatory standards and governance of company ,w hich has importomt meaning for preventing the financial risk and improving the stability and reliabity of the Islamic financial industry .The IFSB and other organization are keen on build the Islamic financial supervision system as the supplement of the ordinary financial industry .

  16. Manajemen Partisipatif Warga Sekolah Dalam Pengembangan Budaya Religius Peserta Didik

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    Rubiati Rubiati

    2016-11-01

    maksimal dalam pengelolaan program-program pengembangan budaya religius. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan, menganalisis dan menjelaskan tentang penerapan manajemen partisipatif warga sekolah dalam pengembangan budaya religius peserta didik di SMAN I Kwadungan. Penelitian ini menghasilkan tiga temuan: pertama, program pengembangan budaya religius peserta didik dirumuskan berdasar pada visi dan misi sekolah, yang selanjutnya diwujudkan dalam enam kegiatan, yaitu: busana (seragam Islami, memberi senyum, menyapa, sholat fardhu berjamaah, sholat jumat, membaca Al-Qur’an dan infaq.  Kedua, penerapan manajemen partisipatif warga sekolah dalam pengembangan budaya religius dilakukan dengan melibatkan warga sekolah mulai dari proses pengambilan keputusan, pelaksanaan, memperoleh manfaat sampai dengan evaluasi. Ketiga, Dengan menerapkan manajemen partisipatif,  warga sekolah memberikan respon yang baik yang berupa sikap dan tindakan positif, serta berkontribusi dalam mendukung pelakasnaan pengembangan budaya religius peserta didik.

  17. TINJAUAN EKONOMI ISLAM TERHADAP PENERAPAN AKAD IJARAH PADA BISNIS JASALAUNDRY (Studi Kasus di Desa Kedungrejo Kecamatan Muncar

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    Laili Nur Amalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laundry services business is a business in services sector laundering which managed to fullfill community needs. Kedungrejo Village Subdistrict Muncar is city fishing industry that most of the population works in factory so they don’t have time to wash their clothes by themselves. This research aims to determine the ijarah contract practice in laundry services business, the procedures of ijarah contract practice in laundry services business and the aplication of islamic economics in the ijarah contract in laundry services business. This research is qualitative research, where to collect the data by using some methods such as interview, questionnaires, observation and also literature study. After collecting the data, the next step is analyze data and then make the conclusion based on the data collected, that is by using descriptive analytical method. The result of this research showed that practice of ijarah contract in laundry services business is a’mal ijarah contract where laundry parties provide washing clothes services to the laundry customers with ujrah or laundry cost which have been agreed by both of them. Laundry Tia and Jaya use laundry kilogram system where the price of each kilogram is IDR 3,000 in Tia laundry and IDR 4,000 in Jaya laundry, while in Laundry Gama uses packet system where the price of each packet is IDR 10,000 which maximum weight of each packet is 3 kilogram. Ijarah contract laundry procedures in general has five steps, those are : acceptance of dirty things, washing, drying, ironing, and packing. But in washing process and rinsing process less than meets the islami shari’a in terms of sanctity such us washing without sorting by unclean, does not eliminate the odious first attached to the laundry and no difference where to put the dirty laundry,washed laundry  or dried laundry. The aplication of ijarah contract in laundry services business reviewed in islamic economics are appropriate, it can be seen from

  18. PENGEMBANGAN JURUSAN/PROGRAM STUDI DALAM PERSPEKTIF UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI (UIN

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    Muhaimin Muhaimin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education is an effort to develop an Islamic view of life, to be manifested in life and life skills (manual and mental-social in harmony with their interests, talents, abilities and areas of expertise. the development of STAIN towards UIN seeks to capture ibrah, values, attitudes and ways of thinking and behaving scholars (scientists in the classical period mentioned above, because it is considered capable of facing increasing and complicated challenges, caused by the rapid progress of science and technology . As an implication, the Islamic education system built and developed through UIN is expected to produce a rational and professional cleric; broad-minded; virtuous noble character; his knowledge is not limited to "religious science" alone, but also includes "general science"; and able to stand alone (independent. Challenges to be anticipated by future UIN leaders, as well as the managers and developers of departments /courses in it, not to get caught up in the "ka 'adamihi" (presence as absence in the midst of the struggles and competitions among the various the surrounding college.   Pendidikan Islam adalah suatu upaya pengembangan pandangan hidup yang Islami, untuk dimanifestasikan dalam sikap hidup dan keterampilan hidupnya (manual maupun mental-sosial selaras dengan minat, bakat, kemampuan dan bidang keahliannya masing-masing. pengembangan STAIN menuju ke UIN berusaha menangkap ibrah, nilai-nilai, sikap dan cara berfikir dan berperilaku ulama (ilmuwan pada periode klasik tersebut di atas, karena hal itu dianggap mampu menghadapi tantangan yang makin banyak dan ruwet, yang ditimbulkan oleh kemajuan iptek yang pesat. Sebagai implikasinya, sistem pendidikan Islam yang dibangun dan dikembangkan lewat UIN diharapkan mampu menghasilkan ulama yang bersikap rasional dan profesional; berpandangan luas; berbudi pekerti luhur; pengetahuannya tidak terbatas pada "ilmu keagamaan" saja, tetapi juga mencakup "ilmu pengetahuan umum"; serta

  19. PIETY, POLITICS, AND POST-ISLAMISM: Dhikr Akbar in Indonesia

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    Noorhaidi Hasan

    2012-07-01

    berbeda dengan fundamentalisme, yang berorientasi pada aktifisme dimensi luar dengan tujuan merubah masyarakat atau sistem yang berlaku dengan sistem yang dianggap Islami. Dhikr akbar yang biasanya diselenggarakan di ruang budaya menarik perhatian masyarakat. Kegiatan ini menjadi aktifitas yang mampu menyatukan komunalitas dan ekspresi agama, dan pada saat yang sama, mempertemukan jaringan politik, sosial, dan ekonomi.

  20. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I: prevalence, risk factors and consequences

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    Montgomery Edith

    2009-11-01

    member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for Bangladesh Nationalist Party supporters; and 3.97 for Jamaat-e-Islami Party supporters compared with families with no political involvement. Conclusion The level of violence and human rights violations is high. The affected population suffers from violence-related injuries and traumas, which could be a factor contributing to poverty. Victimisation is not random.

  1. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly

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    Ahmad MH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Hasnan Ahmad,1 Suzana Shahar,2 Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng,2 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Noor Ibrahim Mohd Sakian,3 Baharudin Omar41Centre of Nutrition Epidemiology Research, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dietetics Program, 3Occupational Therapy Program, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala ­Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men and 66.1±5.1 (women years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1 exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women; and 2 the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women. Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude (ß=0.60 and perceived behavioral control (ß=0.24 were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (ß=0.82 was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, ß=0.68; women’s, ß=0.24 and subjective norm (men’s, ß=0.12; women’s, ß=0.87 were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (ß=0.36 and women (ß=0.49. “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and

  2. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Modvig, Jens; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-11-21

    Bangladesh Nationalist Party supporters; and 3.97 for Jamaat-e-Islami Party supporters compared with families with no political involvement. The level of violence and human rights violations is high. The affected population suffers from violence-related injuries and traumas, which could be a factor contributing to poverty. Victimisation is not random.

  3. Transformasi Sinkretisma Indonesia dan Karya Seni Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Arya Sucitra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini membahas aspek sosio-historis dan pencapaian kebudayaan pada masa peradaban seni (rupa Hindu dan Islam di Indonesia, perkembangan terkini seni rupa kontemporer Islami, dan karya seni KH. M. Fuad Riyadi, seniman dan Kyai Kontemporer yang aktif sebagai pelaku kesenian dalam seni sastra, musik dan seni rupa. Karya seni selalu merupakan cerminan pengamatan serta perasaan dan pikiran pembuatnya. Karya seni terlahir dari proses pergulatan panjang yang kompleks atas berbagai unsur kebudayaan yang saling mempengaruhi. Pada tahapan ini terjadilah transformasi budaya melalui proses sinkretisasi yang membentuk tradisi seni di Indonesia sesuai dengan peranan unsur budaya terutama persentuhan dengan agama yang datang dari luar. Tulisan ini dikaji melalui studi sejarah, transformasi budaya dan estetika. Berdasarkan penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa karya seni yang diciptakan seniman tidak berdiri sendiri atas nafas tunggal konsep dan dogtrin agama namun sudah dielaborasi dengan kebutuhan budaya setempat serta local genius masyarakat yang ditempati.   This paper is intended to discuss the socio-historical aspect and the cultural achievement of the civilization of Hinduism and Islamic fine art in Indonesia, the updated development of Islamic contemporary fine art, and the artwork of KH. M. Fuad Riyadi, artists and contemporary mufti who are active as art doers of literary art, music, and fine art. The artwork is always a reflection of the observations and feelings and thoughts of the author. The artwork was born by the long struggle of complex processes on various cultural elements which influenced to each other. At this stage there was a cultural transformation through the process of syncretization which formed a tradition of art in Indonesia in accordance with the role of cultural elements, especially the contiguity with the religion coming from the outside. This paper was analyzed through the historical study, cultural and aesthetics

  4. KONTRIBUSI POSDAYA MASJID “MIFTAHUL HIDAYAH” DI DESA BULAY KECAMATAN GALIS KABUPATEN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashar Nashar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of poverty alleviation is not solely a matter for government but has become the responsibility of the congregation. Action against poverty is jihad in the path of Allah Swt. It seems Empowerment Center has changed the pattern of relations between officials at the village level or the district, employers, the profession with the congregation in the mosque which was originally a pattern of relationships out sider in-sider, different interests,' patterns of kinship, common interest to transform the society into a prosperous self-sufficient. Through Empowerment Center of the mosque, it is expected that a number of poor families successfully assisted to the strengthening of entrepreneurship and access to capital through the funds of the mosque, funds Lakzis, BMT, and the bank of SMES with a system of joint responsibility. Another positive thing happens with the optimal the Mosque based Empowerment Center  is increasing the confidence of isoleted society. They have friends from diverse elements of the good academics, the professions, local officials and local leaders are easily accessible and are invited to the discussion. Based on that, then there are three problems that become the basic study in this study, namely: first, how is the strategy of Empowerment Center in conducting empowerment in the community?, second what are the contributions of Empowerment Center of the mosque and the third, what became the Empowerment Center of the mosque “Miftahul Hidayah” selected to be Posdaya National referral 2016 ?The theory of Empowerment that is worn according to the meaning in language is a process, a way, the deeds make the helpless, namely the ability to do something or ability to act in the form of common sense, endeavor or effort, community is the unity of human life that interact according to a system of certain mores that are continuous, and which is bound by a sense of shared identity, in some of the studies regarding the

  5. Modeling of Yield Estimation for The Main Crops in Iran Based on Mechanization Index (hp ha-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abbasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural mechanization is a method for transiting from traditional agriculture towards industrial and sustainable one. Due to the limitation of natural resources and increasing population we need to have economical production of agricultural crops. For reaching this destination; agricultural mechanization has a remarkable role. So it is necessary to have an extensive view for mechanization, because with the help of mechanization the agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizer and even water and soil can effectively be managed for an economical and sustainable production. This study has been carried out in many provinces of Iran. The data of agricultural tractors and cereal combine harvesters were firstly gathered by means of questionnaire. The tractors were categorized in four power levels of less than 45, 45 to 80, 80 to 110, and more than 110 hp. In addition, it was also carried out for cereal combine harvesters; it was in three power levels, i.e. between 100 to 110, 110 to 155 and 155 to 210 horse-power in 3 ages, i.e. less than 13, between 13 to 20, and more than 20 years. Information regarding to cultivation areas, production volume, and yield of main crops gathered from statistics of Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture. Then agriculture mechanization level index (hp ha-1 in each province was calculated. Four main crops including irrigated and rain-fed wheat and irrigated and rain-fed barley, which met the required criteria to be used in the model, were statistically analyzed. Correlation analysis was carried out in order to get an effective model between yield of the four main crops in Iran and agriculture mechanization level index. Pearson correlation index showed that there is a direct and significant correlation between these variables. Subsequently, outliers were identified in order to get a model with necessary efficiency to predict the yield through mechanization level index, by scatter diagram and estimating regression lines in 1

  6. Hijrat and Transnational Terrorism:the Origin, Evolution and Trend of the Internationalization of Religious Extremism%“伊吉拉特”与跨国恐怖主义--论宗教极端主义国际化的起源、发展及其动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博

    2016-01-01

    “伊吉拉特”源于公元622年的圣迁,包含地理迁移和精神上向真主靠近两重含义。极端组织通过歪曲裁剪伊斯兰教教义,利用穆斯林的“伊吉拉特”情结为所谓的“圣战”进行组织动员。美国“9·11”事件之后,该动员策略由鼓励“迁徙圣战”进一步发展为鼓励“就地圣战”,并呈现组织结构扁平化、人员招募本土化、动员形式网络化等新特征。对于中国而言,对内掌握去极端化斗争的主动权,对外营造合作反恐的国际环境,则是当前形势下防止极端主义扩散、巩固反恐成效的可能路径。%Hijrat originated from the migration of Prophet Muhammad in 622,including the geographic migration and mental inclination toward Allah.Extremist groups use Muslims’Hijrat complex for “jihad”by tailoring and distorting the teachings of Islam.Since the 9 /11 incident,there has been some changes in the mobilization strategy of transnational terrorism;for example,the structure of organization becomes more flat,the recruitment more local,and the tactics more cyber -based,of which the focus is to encourage “local jihad”instead of“migrated jihad ”.For China,taking initiatives in its struggle for de -extremization and building a good cooperation environment against terrorism is the possible pathway to prevent extremism from spreading and therefore to consolidate the achievement of anti-terrorism at present.

  7. Military incursions in Solo Unilateral Foreign and His Legitimacy : The Case of 2013 Libyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempsey Pereira Ramos Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1945, the Truman Proclamation, a government unilateral act of the United Sta- tes, led to the rapid emergence of an international custom that in 1958 turned into a con- vention and in 1969 was recognized by the International Court of Justice as the right of states to economically exploit their continental shelves. This paper examines the effects of the Bush Doctrine, another US unilateral act, under public international law, due to the attacks of 11th September 2001. This research centers on a specific case: the capture of Abu Anas al -Liby, a Libyan citizen who was stopped at the door of his home in October 5th, 2013, in the city of Tripoli, the Libyan territory. It happened in a joint operation, which saw the participation of the CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, the FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Delta Force soldiers, a group of elite US military - United States , on the grounds that the targeted one had links with the terrorist group Al Qaeda. After his capture, al-Liby was taken in for questioning on a warship in the Mediterrane- an sea and then was presented before a Federal Court of New York to stand trial for the attacks that in 1998 killed hundreds of people in US Embassies, in Kenya and Tanzania. The Libyan state denied having granted any authorization and complained of violation of sovereignty. This work has importance in the context of the Iberian Peninsula, due to the fact that Portugal and Spain are now potentially inserted into the terrorist agenda of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS, a group that, in 2014, declared his intent to recover all the territories that belonged to Islam, announcement that has been considered the most significant development of international jihadism since 11th September. From these elements, the paper investigates whether there is any right capable of legitimizing unilateral military raids on foreign soil. As a result, it can be said that there is an ongoing accelerated

  8. Dominant Environmental Kids Diseases In Western Region, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakia, A M Ahmed; Jawaher, Ben Dehaish

    2008-01-01

    The current study was conducted to figure out the relationship between the social structure and the most predominant environmental kids diseases (1-12 years old) in the community of Jihad city through year 1423.A.H. The results revealed that the dominant husband and wives age-groups were 30-40 Y, couples had Bachelor education level and governmental employees. Residences were distributed between down town and its periphery toward north , apart of red sea coast. They had 2-4 child/family of equal gender ratio. Most of couples were non relative. Wives education level was positively correlated with kids skin, respiratory and ocular diseases but negatively correlated with presence of servant and her health certificate. Private hospitals and health care centers were permanently accessed and located far of industrial collections. Majority of teachers and students were Saudis. Schools subjected their students for regular vaccination programs offered by Health Ministry. School services and facilities (regular vaccination, healthy foods and water) significantly affected incidence and kinds of kids diseases. Mixing nationalities may represent risk health for coming exotic infection unless restricted hygienic measures offered by Health Ministry. Husband job was negatively correlated with respiratory diseases. Husband job sector and their work places indoor air quality, their smoking behavior may affect directly or indirectly child diseases. The kids medicinal diseases were within husband age group 20-30 Y. Dominant kids diseases were within age-group 2-4 years mainly respiratory (dyspnea were highest respiratory affection within 1-12 Y children), skin and ocular affections. The dominance of respiratory diseases within infants in winter and the skin diseases in summer Most of kids diseases (skin, respiratory, ocular, medicinal, psychic and non recognized diseases agents were significantly correlated with their homes address. Conclusively, Jeddah community was characterized by

  9. PEMIKIRAN DAN KONTRIBUSI MUḤAMMAD MUṢṬAFĀ AL-A‘ẒAMĪ DALAM STUDI HADIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Farida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: It is interesting to study al-A‘ẓamī’s effort in proving the authenticity of hadiths scientifically through the thoughts in his works and his contribution in the study of hadith. Therefore, this study aimed to examine further al-A‘ẓamī’s thoughts and contributions given in the study of hadith, as well as the defense of the critique of the islamicist and muslim thinkers. This study was a research library with a qualitative approach, whereas the method of data collection used was the method of documentation, then the data was analyzed descriptively and critically. The results of this study found that the contributions made by al-A‘ẓamī in the study of hadith are: (1 to show the evidence that the writing of hadith had been made since the time of the Prophet. It was proven by the existence of at least 52 friends who had the documentation of the hadith texts, as well as to clarify and add at least 21 names of friends who had been the secretaries of the Prophet of Allah and had never been revealed by the previous hadith scholar. (2 to describe the 20 arguments showing that the term samā‘ and taḥdīṡ that were not only used for verbal delivery but also for dictating, receiving, and teaching the hadith in written medium. (3 to proove the validity of the isnād through his study of three hadith narrated by hundreds of people in many different areas, (4 to strengthen and develop the ideas of the muḥaddiṡīn through systematic steps to test the hadith critique, including research on the character of the narrators, cross comparison or mu‘āraḍah, and critique of reason. Abstrak: Studi ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan pemikiran dan kontribusi al-A‘ẓamī dalam studi hadis, serta pertahanan dari kritik yang berasal dari Islamis dan pemikir Muslim. Studi juga merupakan riset kepustakaan dengan pendekatan kualitatif, sedangkan metode koleksi data yang digunakan adalah metode dokumentasi, selanjutnya data tersebut

  10. Mensinergikan Nilai-Nilai Keagamaan dengan Kearifan Lokal sebagai Upaya Mewujudkan Masyarakat Madani (Studi Kasus Komunitas Keagamaan Kejawen di Desa Bajulan Kecamatan Loceret Kabupaten Nganjuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Makhmudah

    2017-02-01

    , nyadran, clean of countryside, ceremony of commemoration of birthday of Prophet of Muhammad Saw., and ceremony of nifsu sya'ban of mid of month sya'ban (ruwah. 2 Method for the menyinergikan of religious value wisely is local culture in Countryside Bajulan is with the mission of bil matter, blaze the way the activity Islamic, Commemoration of Red-Letter Day Islam, Islam education, strategy infiltrate the culture, strategy of ta'lim or education, and sentimental strategy. 3 Method applying for the menyinergikan of religious value wisely local culture in perpective of religion in realizing and creating environment which madani in Countryside Bajulan by applying mission of bil matter, blaze the way the activity Islami, Commemoration of Red-Letter Day Islam, Islam education, forming of dirasah Islamiyah for the parent of, istighosah, and activity practice the shalat. With the the method applying, expected to make Islam as acceptable majority religion by society of Countryside Bajulan

  11. ISLAMIC BUSINESS ETHICS BETWEEN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasyim Nawawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Sesungguhnya sejarah etika bisnis Islam tidak dapat dipisahkan dari sejarah induknya yakni ekonomi Islam, sedangkan ekonomi Islam berusia setua Islam itu sendiri. Sebagaimana kita ketahui, misi mulia Rasulullah SAW. di muka bumi adalah membangun masyarakat yang beradab. Adapun prinsip-prinsip dasar etika bisnis Islam yang ditanamkan oleh Rasulullah adalah sebagai berikut: (1 berlandaskan ketauhidan (keesaan, (2 keadilan (keseimbangan, (3 kebebasan berikhtiyar, (4 amanah (bertanggung jawab, (5 menegakkan kebenaran, kebajikan dan kejujuran. Dalam konteks keindonesiaan, penegakan hukum dalam bisnis sebenarnya sebagian besar sudah dilaksanakan, meskipun pelaksanaannya berbeda dengan bisnis yang dijalankan pada masa awal peradaban Islam. Pada awal peradaban Islam sudah terdapat lembaga pengawasan (al-hisbah yang fungsinya adalah meninjau keberadaan bisnis di pasar, baik dari segi halal dan haramnya produk yang dijual, ukuran timbangan, kejujuran seorang penjual, dan hal-hal lain yang merugikan. Ukuran penegakan  hukum di Indonesia didasarkan atas klausul yang menyangkut hal-hal yang merugikan orang lain, bukan terkait halal dan haramnya produk. Dalam implementasinya diharapkan pelaku bisnis mampu melaksanakan dengan menekankan pada cara yang dikenalkan Islam dalam etika berbisnis yang Islami. Bisnis dalam bidang-bidang yang halal, bermanfaat positif, tidak dengan penipuan, harus disampaikan dengan apa adanya (jujur, serta tidak merusak lingkungan dan  ekosistem yang lainnya. Abstract: Actually, the history of the Islamic business ethics cannot be separated from its parent’s history which is the Islamic economics, whereas the Islamic economics is as old as the religion of Islam itself. As we know, the noble mission of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him in this world is to build a civilized society. The basic principles of Islamic business ethics instilled by Muhammad is follows: (1 based on tawhid (oneness of Allah, (2 justice

  12. Pengaruh Sharia Marketing terhadap Loyalitas Anggota KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudin Nurudin

    2017-06-01

    to other places to get a lot of profit. The development of number of members in KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang experienced an increase in deposit products and decline in financing products in 2016.The formulation of the problem in this research is how the influence of sharia marketing (product, price, place, promotion toward the loyalty of members of KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of sharia marketing (product, price, place, and promotion toward the loyalty of KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang.This research is a field research with quantitative approach. The population of this research is all members of KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang which is amounted 2,469. Sampling technique used in this research is Slovin formula amounted 100 people who will be selected to be respondents with certain criteria. The method used in this research is purposive sampling. The technique of analyzing the data is simple regression.From the simultaneous calculation results obtained t count is equal to (6,558 and p value (sig is equal to 0.000 below 5% which means that there is significant influence between sharia marketing (product, price, place, promotion toward member loyalty. The four dimensions of sharia marketing have a positive and significant influence on member loyalty. But in this study, products have a significant influence on loyalty members. Bisnis Islami pada hakikatnya selalu memegang asas keadilan dan eseimbangan. Mengingat semakin ketatnya persaingan bisnis sekarang ini, banyak lembaga keuangan dalam melakukan kegiatan pemasarannya menyimpang dari prinsip syariah hanya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan, keinginan dan memuaskan pelanggan agar mereka tidak beralih ke tempat lain serta untuk mendapatkan keuntungan yang banyak. Perkembangan jumlah anggota di KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang mengalami peningkatan pada produk simpanan dan mengalami penurunan pada produk pembiayaan pada tahun 2016. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini

  13. Relevansi Sistem Khilafah Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI Dengan Sistem Negara Islam Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammadin Muhammadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hizbut Tahrir adalah organisasi politik Islam yang independen. Organisasinya memiliki kekhasan seperti; berasaskan syari’at Islam, ide dan aksi politiknya bukan politik praktis tetapi politik-ideologis, konseptual, rasionalis dan non-kekerasan. Hizbut Tahrir mengkonsepsikan politik sebagai al-ri’ayah al-syuuni al-ummah; tanggung jawab untuk menguasai kepentingan dan kemaslahatan umat. Sebab itu, pemikiran dan aktivitasnya dimantapkan pada tataran politik sebagai wujud pelaksanaan urusan umat. Dalam konteks gerakan pendirian khilafah menurut Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia ada dua. Pertama, gagasan-gagasan tentang sistem pemerintahan Islam harus berbentuk khilafah artinya bukan berbentuk republik, diktator, kekaisaran, monarkhi, federal atau sistem demokrasi; pilar-pilar pemerintahan Islam harus ditegakkan atas dasar kedaulatan di tangan syara’, kekuasaan hanyalah milik umat, mengangkat satu khalifah hukumnya wajib dan hanya Khalifah yang berhak mengadopsi terhadap hukum-hukum syara’; struktur lembaga negara Khilafah harus ada Khalifah, Muawin at Tafwidh, Mu’awin at Tanfidz, Wali, Amir al Jihad, Al Qadhi, Mashalih Daulah,  dan Majelis Umat; rancangan undang-undang dasar dan sistem Islam memiliki keunggulan-keunggulan di bidang politik, ekonomi, pendidikan, pergaulan dan pidana.  Kedua, strategi Hizbut Tahrir dalam upaya penegakan Khilafah berupa pembinaan intensif melalui halqah-halqah; pembinaan umum melalui pengajian-pengajian umum di masjid-masjid, gedung-gedung dan tempat-tempat umum, melalui media massa, buku-buku dan selebaran-selebaran dan penerbitan majalah bulanan dan bulletin mingguan; pergolakan pemikiran untuk menentang kepercayaan, aturan dan pemikiran-pemikiran kufur; perjuangan politik berbentuk berjuang menghadapi negara kafir imperialis yang menguasai dan mendominasi negara-negara Islam, mengadopsi kemaslahatan umat dan melayani seluruh urusannya sesuai dengan hukum-hukum syara’. Sistem khilafah tetap relevan dengan sistem

  14. Prioritization of Factors Affecting the Delay or Inability to Repay Bank Facilities to Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Maadanian

    2016-03-01

    together. Results and discussion: In the study, factors affecting repayment were divided into the five categories, including farmers, the rules of bank loan payment, banking laws, the government and Jihad agricultural organization . In farmers sector, the farmers primary earned cash had weight of 0.3 out of 1 among five variables. The second stage is the farmers experience which has allocated the weight of 0.23 percent itself. Project failure is located in the third rank. The duration of project restoration and farmers activity volume has less weight than other variables. The results in section of rules of bank loan payment showed that lobbying in bank is in the first place with weight of 0.28. Insurance Fund was also one of the factors that its lack causes lack of immediate repayment of the loans. About bank laws, deep court sentences also were among the factors that its lacking may lead to delay or failure to repay loans. This variable with the weight of 0.2 is among variables affecting on the loan repayment. Long process of enforcements is a factor that in bank experts perspective, it has weight of 0.19 percent compared to other variables. Experts specialties has little weight compared to the other variables. Agriculture-related factors suggested that the accuracy and frequency of visits from project are the most important variables among agents. Preventing the failure of the project is among the factors that had allocated the weight of25% to it. The focus of special funds is among factors that have allocated the weight of 20% to itself that it be considered as an important factor. Jihad agricultural experts specialty and lobbying are the factors that are not of high importance and they are in grades 4 and 5. Agents related to government that effect the loan repayment according to the results also indicated that attention to relations in the macro-level and lobbying have high impacts on non-repayment of the granted facilities. In Agricultural Bank experts views, the

  15. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Use and Productivity in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nassiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction At global level nitrogen (N fertilizers had drastic effects on crop yields increment during the last century. However, high application rates of this input have resulted to environmental pollution all around the world in addition decreased yields per unit of applied N is also reported in some countries. To fulfill increasing demands for agricultural crops with conservative application of N fertilizers, increasing N use efficiencies is recognized as a sustainable management. This calls for systematic studies on N use efficiency and its components at crop, field and regional levels. However, N efficiencies of agricultural crops at national level are not fully analyzed in Iran. In this research, forty years (1960-2010 data on yield and N application rate were analyzed for yield trend, N efficiencies and its related components for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production systems of Iran. Materials and Methods Required data of wheat yield and nitrogen fertilizer application rates during the 40 years study period was obtained from official web sites of national agricultural statistics as well as Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. Using these data partial nitrogen productivity (kg yield kg N-1; nitrogen use efficiency (kg yield kg-1 N, ignoring soil N, nitrogen uptake efficiency (%; nitrogen utilization efficiency (kg yield kg-1 absorbed N; and relative contribution of Nitrogen to grain yield (% was estimated based on previously reported methods. Yield and N fertilizer application rate were subjected to time series analysis and fertilizer rates were predicted for the next decade over the studied period. Results and Discussion The results indicated that during the studied period mean annual growth rate of wheat yield and nitrogen application were 2.9 and 6.9%, respectively leading to 3.4 fold increase in yield and 9.5 fold increase in N fertilizers so that fertilize application rate was changed from 25 to 240 kg ha-1. However, N fertilizer

  16. Information Communication Technology & Crime: the Future of Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antinori A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Jusqu’à présent, le XXIe siècle peut être considéré comme le siècle de la révolution technologique.L’augmentation des flux de communication a engendré une évolution de l’économie globale et de la diffusion globale d’Internet et de la téléphonie mobile dans lesquels nos vies sont plongées. Tout cela représente le principal facteur des mutations sociales.De nouveaux modèles de déviance et de criminalité voient le jour au sein du cyberspace, de même que les groupes terroristes traditionnels emploient de manière intensive les nouveaux médias. Toutefois, il faudra faire tout particulièrement attention au phénomène qualifié de « Jihad Digitale ». Quel est le rôle des médias dans le terrorisme contemporain ? Que sont l’Infowar, le Netwar et le Mediawar ? Quelles réflexions peut-on faire à propos de la culture du crime et de ses relations avec la technologie ? Qu’est-ce que c’est que l’Open Source INTelligence ?Aujourd’hui, le criminologue doit connaître l’importance de la culture numérique, de même qu’il a besoin d’un savoir-faire lié aux technologies de l’information et de la communication dans le but de prévenir et de contrôler la criminalité. Il utilise également ses connaissances dans l’océan de ‘l’open source’ afin de prévoir les tendances de la criminalité. AbstractToday the 21st century can be considered the century of the technological revolution.The increase in communication flows has brought about an evolution in the global economy and the global spread of Internet and mobile communication, all of which affect our lives significantly and are key factors of social change.New models of deviance and crime can be found in cyberspace as well as in traditional terrorist groups who resort to a massive use of this new media. Therefore special attention should be given to the phenomenon referred to as ‘Digital Jihad’. What is the role of media in contemporary terrorism

  17. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-09-01

    upland Southeast Asia. (Guido Sprenger Guido Sprenger, Die Männer, die den Geldbaum fällten; Konzepte von Austausch und Gesellschaft bei den Rmeet von Takheung, Laos. (Oliver Tappe Review Essay Two books on East Timor. Carolyn Hughes, Dependent communities; Aid and politics in Cambodia and East Timor. David Mearns (ed., Democratic governance in Timor-Leste; Reconciling the local and the national. (Helene van Klinken Review Essay Two books on Islamic terror Zachary Abuza, Political Islam and violence in Indonesia. Noorhaidi Hasan, Laskar jihad; Islam, militancy, and the quest for identity in post-New Order Indonesia. (Gerry van Klinken Korte Signaleringen Janneke van Dijk, Jaap de Jonge en Nico de Klerk, J.C. Lamster, een vroege filmer in Nederlands-Indië. Griselda Molemans en Armando Ello, Zwarte huid, oranje hart; Afrikaanse KNIL-nazaten in de diaspora. Reisgids Indonesië; Oorlogsplekken 1942-1949. Hilde Janssen, Schaamte en onschuld; Het verdrongen oorlogsverleden van troostmeisjes in Indonesië. Jan Banning, Comfort women/Troostmeisjes. (Harry Poeze

  18. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study

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    Saab C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charles Saab,1 Feryal A Al-Saber,2 Jihad Haddad,3 Mahir Khalil Jallo,4 Habib Steitieh,5 Giovanni Bader,6 Mohamed Ibrahim,7 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sacre Coeur University Hospital, Baabda, Lebanon; 2Endocrine Department, Bahrain Defence Force Hospital, Rifaa, Bahrain; 3Division of Endocrinology Department of Internal Medicine, Prince Hamaza Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 5New Mowasat Hospital, Safat, Kuwait; 6Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma Services AG, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic progressive disease that requires treatment intensification with antihyperglycemic agents due to progressive deterioration of β-cell function. A large observational study of 45,868 patients with T2DM across 27 countries (EDGE assessed the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin as add-on to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs versus other comparator OAD combinations. Here, we present results from the Middle East countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy were eligible after the add-on treatment was chosen by the physician based on clinical judgment and patient need. Patients were assigned to either vildagliptin or comparator OADs (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, or metformin, except incretin-based therapies based on the add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c reduction of >0.3% without peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, discontinuation due to a gastrointestinal event, or weight gain ≥5%. One of the secondary endpoints was the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% without hypoglycemia or weight gain. Change in HbA1c from baseline to study endpoint and safety were also

  19. Tujuh Karakter Fundamentalisme Islam

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    Tholkhatul Khoir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article examines fundamentalism and compares it with the concept of extremism, radicalism, and scripturalism. This article discovered that it is possible to carry out study on the phenomenon of fundamentalism in post-positivism paradigm as employed by modern social sciences. As we know that basically all fundamentalism has the same character. However, Islamic fundamentalism are significantly different from the other fundamentalist movements in many substantive things, such as the ability to penetrate the boundaries between countries, the abundance of the activists, the character of the Islam as a "protest movement", the total obedience to the rules of everyday life of the Islam, the failure of separation between state and religion, the high spirit of collectivity, the potential of Islam to legitimize states, the existence of the doctrine of jihad and its immediate reward of the Hereafter. Under the shadows of all the above, Islamic countries tend to be sensitive to the waves of fundamentalism that nevertheless in fact move ups and downs in accordance with social, political, and economic realities.الملخص: تبحث هذه الدراسة عن الأصولية وتقارن بينها وبين مفهوم التطرف والراديكالية، والحرفي وتستخلص بأنه من الممكن لإجراء دراسة حول ظاهرة الأصولية في نموذج ما بعد الوضعية كما تستخدمها العلوم الاجتماعية الحديثة. ونحن نعلم أن كل الأصولية في الأساس لها نفس الطابع. ومع ذلك، الأصولية الإسلامية تختلف اختلافا كبيرا من الحركات الأصولية الأخرى في كثير من الأمور الجوهرية، مثل القدرة على اختراق الحدود بين البلدان، والوفرة من الناشطين، وطابع الإسلام بأنها "حركة احتجاجية"،

  20. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

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    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  1. Éticas teleológicas y terrorismo islamista

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    Sanmartín Esplugues, José

    2012-06-01

    Taymiyya y Abul alla Maududi fija como meta suprema de la vida del hombre la complacencia de Allah y como medio principal para alcanzar esta meta la aplicación plena de la sharía o legislación divina. Se sustenta que esta aplicación, que configura la forma de vida del musulmán auténtico, sólo se realizó de forma adecuada entre el año 622 y el 660, en tiempos del Profeta y los primeros cuatro califas (los llamados «píos antepasados» o «salaf». De modo que la ética del terrorismo islamista prefigura como futuro una utopía regresiva, para la que fijan ahora como enemigos tanto a los infieles (el enemigo lejano como a los apóstatas (el enemigo cercano. La interiorización de los principios de esta ética y, en general, de las ideas vertebradoras de la filosofía que constituye la base del terrorismo islamista (el denominado «qutbismo», del nombre de su principal representante, Sayyid Qutb correlaciona con distorsiones cognitivas, emocionales y comportamentales que presentan los terroristas, en particular: percibirse y sentirse como soldados perte-necientes a una vanguardia de musulmanes auténticos, que cumplen con el deber religioso (el mandato divino de combatir a quienes contribuyen con sus ideas y prácticas a la degradación de los valores del Islam, tal como se fijan en los textos sagrados. Se trata, consideran, de una guerra justa, porque, aun cuando tenga la apariencia de ofensiva, los soldados de la vanguardia la llevan a cabo en defensa del auténtico Islam>, amenazado en su esencia por apóstatas e infieles. A sus aparentes víctimas, concluyen, habría que verlas, pues, como lo que realmente son: los verdugos de una forma de vida tan excelsa como la auténticamente musulmana.

  2. Rekonsiliasi Islam Dan Demokrasi: Narasi Politik Benazir Bhutto

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    Lukman Santoso

    2016-12-01

    الملخص :كانت في باكستان – منذ حرّيتها – خلافات الآراء عند المسلمين بين العلمانيين والمتوسطين والإسلاميين عن كيفية تطبيق السياسة الإسلامية في باكستان حتى أدّت إلى النزاع السياسيّ الطويل إلى الآن. وظهرت في هذه الفترة النزاعية مفكّرة وسياسيّة بينزر بوطو. حاولت هذه المقالة التركيز في دراسة أفكارها عن التصالح الإسلامي والديموقراطية في باكستان. حصلت هذه الدراسة على النتائج : أولا، كانت بينزر بوطو بما لها من أفكار تميل إلى الأصالة وأفكارها متعارضة بأغلبية المسلمين التقاليديين والأصوليين، وكانت أفكارها موافقة بمكانة القيم الإسلامية الأصيلة وتمثيلها وتطبيقها في ضوء الديموقراطية الحديثة. ثانيا إن هذه الأفكار كردّ تجاه الفكرة المؤيّدة ليكون الإسلام أساسا للدولة. كانت هذه الأفكار تواكب بفكرة أن الإسلام لا يضع نظرية معيّنة لبناء الدولة يعتنقها المسلمون إلا الأسس العامة فقط  والقيم فيها.   Abstrak: Pakistan, sejak kemerdekaannya, terdapat perbedaan pendapat dikalangan kaum muslim Pakistan yang terdiri dari kelompok sekular, moderat dan Islamis tentang bagaimana implementasi Islam politik di Pakistan, sehingga menimbulkan kemelut kekuasaan yang berkepanjangan hingga kini. Ditengah kemelut politik Pakistan yang tidak berkesudahan tersebut lahirlah politisi dan pemikir perempuan Pakistan, yakni Benazir Bhutto. Tulisan ini akan memfokuskan kajian pada pemikiran Benazir Bhutto tentang rekonsiliasi Islam dan demokrasi di Pakistan

  3. To Evaluate the Effect of Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics on the Growth Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Corms in Tornbat-e Heydariyeh Area

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    Fariba Zarghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is one of the most economically important plants across Iran and all over the world. The most important cultivated areas of saffron are in Khorasan-e Razavi and Southern Khorasan provinces (Jihad Keshavarzi Khorasan Razavi, 2013. The corm is the reservoir of photosynthetic materials and plays an important role in the saffron life cycle. Corm size and physicochemical characteristics of soil determine the growth and yield of saffron (Aytekin et al., 2008. It has been advised to use corms with diameter more than 2.5 cm (Kafi et al., 2002. Despite the importance of this plant, few studies have been conducted on the effects of soil characteristics on the growth of the plant in natural field conditions. Therefore, the objective which we will try to achieve is: to evaluate the effect of soil physical and chemical characteristics of the growth of saffron corm and determine the most important effect characteristics. Materials and methods In September 2012, 30 samples of 3 to 5 years old saffron corms were taken from the fields with similar management in Torbat Heydariyeh. The surrounding soil corms (depth of 0 to 30 cm were sampled, too. Dry weight of corms was measured in the laboratory. Air dried soil samples were passed through a 2 mm sieve and used for physical-chemical analyses. Soil texture was determined by using pipet method. Total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium, soil organic carbon and calcium carbonate equivalent were measured in bulk soil samples. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, EC and pH were measured in the saturated soil paste. Fe, Cu and Zn were extracted by DTPA and measured by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Correlation, regression and neural network technique were used to analyze the data and to identify the most important soil characteristics on the corms characteristics. Results and discussion Diameter and dry weight of corms with mean values of 34.04 mm and 3.72 g, ranged from 22.8 to 51.7 mm

  4. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran: 1- Comparison of Inputs Level

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    Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural intensification has serious environmental consequences such as depletion of non-renewable resources, emission of greenhouse gases, threatening of biodiversity and pollution of both surface and underground water resources. The life cycle assessment (LCA provides a standard method for assessing environmental impacts from various economic activities, including agriculture, and covers a wide range of impact categories across the entire production chain. Over the past few decades, food production in Iran has been increased drastically due to heavier use of chemical inputs. Since the use of LCA method is overlooked for assesseing the effects of agricultural intensification in Iran and few researches are conducted at local level (such as province, cities, the purpose of this research is evaluation of wheat production systems throughout the country based on the level of intensification using LCA method. Materials and Methods Fourteen provinces covering 80 percent of total cultivated area of wheat production in the country were subjected to a cradle to gate LCA study using the standard method. The selected provinces were classified as low, medium and high input based on the level of intensification and all inputs and emissions were estimated within the system boundaries during inventory stage. Required data for yield, and level of applied inputs for 14 provinces were collected from the official databases of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. The various environmental impacts including, abiotic resource depletion, land use, global warming potential, acidification and eutrophication potential, human, aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential of wheat production systems over the country was studied based on emission coefficients and characterization factors provided by standard literatures. The integrated effects of emission of each impact category were calculated per functional units (hectare cultivated area as well as ton

  5. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

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    Ahmad Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    , the root growth limited during the first year of no tillage. Organic Food Systems (green manure and animal manure provide the mineral food for plants. However, the low rate of mineralization in the early stages of root development can limit the nutrient availability. Nevertheless, these limits are removed over time. Integration of green manure, animal manure, and chemical fertilizer with conventional tillage not only strengthens the initial growth but it also accelerates the mineralization. In general, it can be concluded that application of green, animal, and chemical manures and conventional tillage for corn production can both reduce chemical fertilizer and environmental pollution and play a positive role in increasing the yield of maize. Keywords: Barley, Ear length, 1000- Grain weight, Harvest index, No tillage References Nuralvandy, T., Ardekani, M.R., Kashani, H., Vazan, S., and Sadeghi Shoa, M. 2011. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of sweet corn. Agronomy Journal 7(3: 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary Tajbakhsh, M., Hassanzadeh Ghurttape, H., and Darvishzadeh, B. 2005. Green manures in sustainable agriculture. Printing 1, Publishing Jihad Uromia University 215 pp. (In Persian

  6. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Management of Risk for the Rice Cultivating Women in Sari Town with LISREL Application

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    M. charmchian Langerodi

    2016-03-01

    showed that information sources had an effect on risk management rate which is consistent with the results of Tabatabaeeet al.(30 and Stevenet al.(29. Conclusion: The results indicate that the average age of women was 46.68 years and their average work experience was 26.17 years, which represents a good work experience on paddy land. Women should be encouraged to pursue off-farm income sources and occupations as risk management methods. Collaborative rice farming and consulting agricultural experts are other forms of risk management. Recommended sources of information were the Internet, Jihad-e-Keshavarzi management and service center, participating in agricultural extension classes, educational publications and communicating with agricultural experts. Women farmers should be encouraged to increase their knowledge and awarenessabout the sources of risk and this can improve risk management. This should be regarded as a mission for agriculture extensions. Borrowing sources, the extent of farmer financial difficulties, work experience and educational level should be considered when risk management methods for women rice farmers are advocated.

  7. Estimation of Water Footprint Compartments in National Wheat Production

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    B. Ababaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water use and pollution have raised to a critical level in many compartments of the world. If humankind is to meet the challenges over the coming fifty years, the agricultural share of water use has to be substantially reduced. In this study, a modern yet simple approach has been proposed through the introduction concept ‘Water Footprint’ (WF. This concept can be used to study the connection between each product and the water allocation to produce that product. This research estimates the green, blue and gray WF of wheat in Iran. Also a new WF compartment (white is used that is related about irrigation water loss. Materials and Methods: The national green (Effective precipitation, blue (Net irrigation requirement, gray (For diluting chemical fertilizers and white (Irrigation water losses water footprints (WF of wheat production were estimated for fifteen major wheat producing provinces of Iran. Evapotranspiration, irrigation requirement, gross irrigation requirement and effective rainfall were got using the AGWAT model. Yields of irrigated and rain-fed lands of each province were got from Iran Agricultural-Jihad Ministry. Another compartment of the wheat production WF is related about the volume of water required to assimilate the fertilizers leached in runoff (gray WF. Moreover, a new concept of white water footprint was proposed here and represents irrigation water losses, which was neglected in the original calculation framework. Finally, the national WF compartments of wheat production were estimated by taking the average of each compartment over all the provinces weighted by the share of each province in total wheat production of the selected provinces. Results and Discussion: In 2006-2012, more than 67% of the national wheat production was irrigated and 32.3% were rain-fed, on average, while 37.9% of the total wheat-cultivated lands were irrigated and 62.1% was rain-fed from more than 6,568 -ha. The total national WF of

  8. Application of Multinomial Probit Model in Analyzing Factors Affecting the Occupation of Graduated Students from the University of Agricultural Applied-Science

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    H. Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Scientificand practicaltrainingwith an emphasis onoperation andapplication of what is taught and having an empiricalapproachto education isa more suitable approach for creating jobs. Preparation of educational needs of the agricultural sector by scientificand practicaltraining and providingemploymentin agreement with education and skills is one of the most important programs in order to achieve the objectives of comprehensive development of the country. An imbalance seems to exist between the processes and materials in university courses and the skills and abilities needed by the labor market and this is the most importantreason for the failureof the university graduatesin finding employment. This studyhas beendone for understandingthe type of jobof agricultural graduatesof training center of Jihad-e-Keshavarzi in Mashhad and the factor saffecting their employment. Materials and Methods: This study is an applied research and the statistical population is 167 and includes all the students who had earned a Bachelor’s degree who had come to receive their graduation certificates in 2011. The dependent variable is type of job which includes five categories of employment in the public sector related to education, employ men unrelated to the government, employment related tothe privatesector andthe unemployed who were seeking workin the private sector. Independent variables includegender,quotainuniversityadmissions, the level of interestin thefield of study,satisfaction withthe discipline, evaluationand trainingof graduatesofvocational skillsacquired incollegegraduates'assessmentof thework culturein the societyand evaluation oflack ofcapitalas a factor preventingemployment in the academicfield. Information was collected through questionnaires and the multiple probit mode lwas used. Results and discussion: The results ofthe survey showthatjobsof graduates are divided intofour categoriesincluding:Related to the field of study and

  9. Book reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, Rethinking Raffles; A study of Stamford Raffles’ discourse on religions amongst Malays. (Nathan Porath Walter Angst, Wayang Indonesia; Die phantastische Welt des indonesischen Figurentheaters/The fantastic world of Indonesian puppet theatre. (Dick van der Meij Adrienne Kappler and others, James Cook and the exploration of the Pacific. (H.J.M. Claesen Aurel Croissant, Beate Martin and Sascha Kneip (eds, The politics of death; Political violence in Southeast Asia. (Freek Colombijn Frank Dhont, Kevin W. Fogg and Mason C. Hoadley (eds, Towards an inclusive democratic Indonesian society; Bridging the gap between state uniformity and multicultural identity patterns. (Alexander Claver Bronwen Douglas and Chris Ballard (eds, Foreign bodies; Oceania and the science of race, 1750-1940. (H.J.M. Claesen Ricky Ganang, Jay Crain, and Vicki Pearson-Rounds, Kemaloh Lundayeh-English dictionary and bibliographic list of materials relating to the Lundayeh-Lun Bawang-Kelabit and related groups of Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei and East Kalimantan. (Michael Boutin Jeffrey Hadler, Muslims and matriarchs; Cultural resilience in Indonesia through Jihad and Colonialism. (Franz von Benda-Beckmann Uli Kozok, Kitab undang-undang Tanjung Tanah: Naskah Melayu yang tertua. (Arlo Griffiths Alfonds van der Kraan, Murder and mayhem in seventeenth-century Cambodia; Anthony van Diemen vs. King Ramadhipati I. (Jeroen Rikkerink Jean Michaud, ‘Incidental’ ethnographers; French Catholic missions on the Tonkin-Yunnan frontier, 1880-1930. (Nicholas Tapp M.C. Ricklefs, Polarising Javanese society; Islamic and other visions (c. 1830-1930. (Matthew Isaac Cohen Stuart Robson, Arjunawiwāha; The marriage of Arjuna of Mpu Ka?wa. (Andrea Acri László Székely and István Radnai, Dit altijd alleen zijn; Verhalen over het leven van planters en koelies in Deli (1914-1930. (Adrienne Zuiderweg Patricia Tjiook-Liem (Giok Kiauw

  10. Hz. Ali’nin Menkıbevî Hayatına Dair Bir Destan: Dâstân-ı Ejderhâ A Legend about the life of Ali: The Legend of Dragon

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    Ali KOZAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the conversion of Turks to Islam a new structure ofbelief and culture has appeared for them. They recall the individualsthey consubstantiated with Islam by heroic stories in verbal custom. Inthis praxis especially the son in law of Prophet Muhammed, first fourCaliphs and the friends of Prophet have become indispensable part ofthese legendary stories. In the legendary stories which our workincludes, the heroic, warrior and courageous side of Ali have shown asbeing a son in law of Prophet and father of Hasan and Hussein.Thistradition has written down by the works of Islamic Era of TurkishHistory. One of the “Cenknâmes” which Ali's braveness and courageoushas mention is “Destan-ı Ejderha”, The Legend Of Dragon. The legendhas written in the manner of "masnavi" and also it has some features oftale and legend genre.In this work namely “Destan-ı Ejderha” a dragon which Muslimscame to place of Prophet Muhammed in order to complain of it and awar which was fought between dragon and a group of “sahabe” underthe leadership of Ali by the assignment of Prophet Muhammed and thedefeat of dragon were mentioned. At the work Ali combines fantasticpowers in his heroic personality therefore withstands against dragonwhich was symbolized as an enemy of the religion and Ali has apersonality that is not avoid to struggle. In the legend Muslims wereaimed to encourage to “gaza” by underlining Ali’s face up of the death.Also it is aimed to obtain an idea that the true religion is Islam and alsoto make the ideal of gaza and jihad by the pointing the rebellious oneswill be eradicated in a pathetic way.In our work primarily we have compared the copies by collectedthe exemplars of “The Legend of Dragon” then tried to expose theoriginal text. Epic’s implications are discussed in Anatolia and theBalkans, later on an assessment is made about the value and place ofthe mentioned pamphlet in the history of Turkish Culture in Islamicperiod

  11. تنجيم القرآن الكريم و تدريج في التشريع : دراسة تحليلية و قعية حول التدريج في التشريع بين القرآن الكريم

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    Ali Hamdan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-Qur’ân  al-Karîm  di  turunkan  bertahap,  mulai  dari  satu  hingga  sepuluh  ayat, berfungsi sebagai jawaban terhadap permasalahan yang muncul ke permukaan, sekaligus memenuhi  keinginan  ummat.  Ketika  turun  ayat,  sahabat  segera  menghafal,  memahami sekaligus mengamalkan. Tujuan al-Qur’ân di turunkan bertahap adalah menetapkan hati sekaligus mengawal missi Nabi SAW dan juga sahabatnya, sekaligus mempelajari hukum,mengenal sistem serta bersikap dengan akhlaq al-Qur’ân. Selain itu, tujuan yang paling urgen adalah bertahap dalam penerapan hukum. pengertian at-Tadarruj “melalui suatu tempat  setahap  demi  setahap”,  yang  kemudian  lebih  familiar  dipakai  dalam  kaitannya dengan hukum-hukum Allah SWT, berupa perintah dan larangan serta halal dan haram. Hal itu terangkum dalam beberapa hal, seperti kaitannya dengan Iman yang di haramkan bercengkerama  dengan  orang  yang  belum  beriman,  berkenaan  dengan  ibadah  seperti Shalat dan Puasa, mu’amalat seperti pengharaman riba, jinayat seperti qhishas dan juga hukuman bagi pelaku zina, larangan seperti mengkonsumsi khamar, perintahNya seperti Jihad. at-Tadarruj telah berdampak terhadap kehidupan ummat dari berbagai sisi, seperti edukasi, psikologi dan juga sosial. Hal itu terangkum dalam rahmat Allah terhadap ummat ini yang mengayomi kondisional dan adat istiadat saat itu sehingga mereka tidak lari dari Islam, akan tetapi mencintainya sehingga termasuk dalam keluarga besar Islam. نزل القرآن الكريم آية آية مفرقا حتى عشر آيات على الأكثر إجابة على الوقائع والقضايا والطلب التي تقع على المسلمين. وإذا نزلت الآيات فسارع الصحابة على حفظها وفهم معانيها والعمل على حكمها. والقصد من إنزاله منجما تثبيت فؤاد النبي ( ص وأصحابه، كما كان التعليم

  12. Recent advances in oesophageal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dulaimi, David

    2014-01-01

    -esophageal reflux disease alongside more vigilant recording of new cases. Social class was inversely associated with the ASIR of EC regardless of gender which may be attributed to class differences in risk factor distribution particularly smoking, diet and obesity. An appreciation for the limitations of an epidemiological study is important when interpreting results which should be further evaluated in future studies. Islami F et al.Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- A cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals. PLoS One 2014;9(2):e89256 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a highly prevalent cause of gastrointestinal symptoms worldwide incurring great cost to the primary and secondary healthcare sectors. An improved understanding of the factors which influence GERD symptoms in low- to medium- income countries may inform public health initiatives. This study analysed prospective data from the Golestan cohort study, primarily established to investigate determinants of upper gastrointestinal cancers, toexplore the risk factors influencing GERD symptoms (regurgitation and/or heartburn) in 50,045 individuals aged 40-75 years in Golestan Province, Iran enrolled between 01/2004 and 06/2008.Of note, 39.12% of individuals denied ever experiencing GERD symptoms. A further 19.89% reported at least once weekly GERD symptoms with 11.83% experiencing daily symptoms. Severe symptoms, defined as disturbing daily work or sleep, were recorded by 11.33% of individuals. Separately the occurrence of daily GERD symptoms and severe symptoms were inversely associated with male gender (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.33-0.39 both), level of formal education (p=0.01 and p=0.001 respectively), wealth score (p<0.001 both) and regular nass chewing (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98 and OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99 respectively)and were positively associated with body mass index (p<0.001 both), intensity of physical activity (p=0.04 both), cigarette pack years (p<0

  13. Gerakan Sosial Ekonomi Islam Di Pedesaan: Studi Kasus Peran Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil Di Kabupaten Sragen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thohir Yuli Kusmanto

    2016-06-01

    التمويل المجتمع القروي على الادّخار للتمويل. وكمؤسسة الخدمات المالية الإسلامية، علّم بيت المال والتمويل الناس روح الأسرية والتعاون والتكافل لتنمية الإقتصاد الإسلامي في القرى Abstrak: Sistem ekonomi Islam mengalami pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yang pesat di Indonesia pasca reformasi 1998. Wacana ekonomi Islam telah menjadi kajian intensif, diskusi, seminar, lokakarya dan workshop merumuskan tipe ideal ekonomi Islam. Secara praktis ekonomi Islam mewujud dalam bentuk; perbankan, non bank, asuransi, dan lembaga keuangan. Ekonomi Islam telah meresap ke pedesaan diantara pergulatan sistemik, ekonomi tradisional dengan ekonomi pasar – kapitalistik. Posisi ekonomi Islam menjadi jalan tengah dalam hal; landasan, praktik, pengelolaan dan akses serta aset permodalan. Peresapan ekonomi Islam di pedesaan melalui Baitul Mal Wat Tamwil (BMT. Proses tersebut  sebagai suatu gerakan sosial, sehingga mampu menyentuh masyarakat pedesaan. Gerakannya dilakukan oleh generasi muda aktifis organisasi Islam yang berafiliasi dengan ormas Islam atau aktifis masjid. Inisiasi awal oleh Pusat Inkubasi Bisnis Usaha Kecil (PINBUK, organisasi ekonomi Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Indonesia (ICMI tahun 1996. Pembentukan BMT di Kabupaten Sragen pertama kali digerakkan ICMI cabang Sragen. Kondisi sosial politik menentukan proses pembentukan. Peran utama BMT adalah sebagai lembaga pembiayaan dan simpanan. Peran pembiayaan telah menolong kelompok usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah mengembangkan usahanya, dalam mengakses permodalan. BMT mendorong masyarakat pedesaan menabung untuk investasi. Sebagai koperasi jasa keuangan syariah, BMT mengajarkan semangat kekeluargaan dan kerjasama untuk mengembangkan ekonomi yang Islami di pedesaan.

  14. Protection against Religious Hatred under the UN ICCPR and the European Convention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeem Goolam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Islam emanates from the word ‘salaam’ meaning peace. The paper will examine some of the common misunderstandings regarding Islam today and the Islamophobia flowing from such misunderstandings in many parts of the world. The starting point is thus to understand the fundamental teachings of Islam. In this regard it will be argued, with specific reference to the work of Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, that the true jihad is founded on the concepts or ideas of peace, tolerance and non-violence. Each of these three ideas will be briefly examined. Khan argues that all the teachings of Islam are based on the principle of peace. In the context of human rights discourse, the paper will ask why we have so much human rights, but so few right humans (or humans who are right. Perhaps a greater emphasis needs to be placed on human duties rather than human rights. What about human dignity? With specific reference to the 2006 cartoon controversy, the paper will argue that there needs to be limitations on the right to freedom of expression in secular societies so as not to encroach on the human dignity of people of faith, whatever faith that may be. This is crucial to the maintenance of peace in societies. Inextricably related to the question of human dignity is the question of religious dignity. It will be argued that the right to religious dignity includes the right not to be victimised, intimidated or provoked on grounds of one’s religion or faith. After some 300 years of the dominance of Western secularism and human reason, perhaps it is time for a return to the harmonization of faith and reason, to the harmonization of Revelation and reason. This call was made, in a project headed by Prof McLean, by the Catholic University in Washington in 2008. There is a need to have regard to faith-based values and the need for a human rights discourse founded on faith-based values. The paper will also make reference to the important work and writings of a leading Turkish