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Sample records for haptophyte chrysotila lamellosa

  1. Social organization of Platythyrea lamellosa (Roger) (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonies of Platythyrea lamellosa contained 18-276 workers, but no queens were found. Dissected workers had five to nine ovarioles per ovary, the two ovaries of an individual often differing. In each of the colonies examined, only one worker was inseminated, and it was the only individual that laid diploid reproductive eggs ...

  2. Keratolysis exfoliativa (dyshidrosis lamellosa sicca): a distinct peeling entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Y.Y.; Velden, J. van der; van der Wier, G.; Kramer, D.; Diercks, G.F.; van Geel, M.; Coenraads, P.J.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Jonkman, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Keratolysis exfoliativa (KE), also known as dyshidrosis lamellosa sicca, is a palmoplantar dermatosis characterized by air-filled blisters and collarette desquamation. It has been regarded as a subtype of dyshidrotic eczema, a fungal infection or a dermatophytid reaction. KE may also

  3. Keratolysis exfoliativa (dyshidrosis lamellosa sicca) : a distinct peeling entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, J.; van der Wier, G.; Kramer, D.; Diercks, G.F.; van Geel, M.; Coenraads, P.J.; Zeeuwen, P.L.; Jonkman, M.F.; Chang, Y.Y.

    Background Keratolysis exfoliativa (KE), also known as dyshidrosis lamellosa sicca, is a palmoplantar dermatosis characterized by air-filled blisters and collarette desquamation. It has been regarded as a subtype of dyshidrotic eczema, a fungal infection or a dermatophytid reaction. KE may also

  4. Salinity dependent hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by coastal and open ocean haptophyte algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'boule, D.; Chivall, D.; Sinke-Schoen, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by haptophyte algae is a promising new proxy for paleosalinity reconstructions. To constrain and further develop this proxy the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana and the open ocean haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi were cultured at

  5. Phylogenomic analysis of Emiliania huxleyi provides evidence for haptophyte-stramenopile association and a chimeric haptophyte nuclear genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J; Delwiche, Charles F

    2015-06-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a haptophyte alga of uncertain phylogenetic affinity containing a secondarily derived, chlorophyll c containing plastid. We sought to characterize its relationships with other taxa by quantifying the bipartitions in which it was included from a group of single protein phylogenetic trees in a way that allowed for variation in taxonomic content and accounted for paralogous sequences. The largest number of sequences supported a phylogenetic relationship of E. huxleyi with the stramenopiles, in particular Aureococcus anophagefferens. Far fewer nuclear sequences gave strong support to the placement of this coccolithophorid with the cryptophyte, Guillardia theta. The majority of the sequences that did support this relationship did not have plastid related functions. These results suggest that the haptophytes may be more closely allied with the heterokonts than with the cryptophytes. Another small set of genes associated E. huxleyi with the Viridiplantae with high support. While these genes could have been acquired with a plastid, the lack of plastid related functions among the proteins for which they code and the lack of other organisms with chlorophyll c containing plastids within these bipartitions suggests other explanations may be possible. This study also identified several genes that may have been transferred from the haptophyte lineage to the dinoflagellates Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum as a result of their haptophyte derived plastid, including some with non-photosynthetic functions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Transformation techniques for metabolic engineering of diatoms and haptophytes: current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Natarajan; Deka, Deepi

    2018-05-01

    Diatoms and haptophytes represent a key segment of the dominant phytoplankton communities that frequently form massive blooms in the photic zone of the ocean and are considered indicators of global climate changes. Diatoms and haptophytes also play a vital role in the biological carbon fixation in the carbon cycles. Carbon partitioning within diatoms and haptophytes possesses a wide range of chemical compounds and storage materials, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and chlorophyll. Among the marine microorganisms, diatoms and haptophytes have been recognized as promising sources of long- and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). So far, a variety of approaches have been employed for genetic modification in the nuclei of diatoms and haptophytes. Studies on transformation and metabolic engineering in various intracellular genomes, such as chloroplast and mitochondria, are scarce. Particle bombardment, Agrobacterium and PEG-mediated gene transfer, and electroporation have been reported for foreign gene transformation into the diatoms and haptophytes. Antibiotics (G418 and chloramphenicol) and herbicides (zeocin, hygromycin, and norflurazon) have been successfully demonstrated as the best selection markers. Despite the availability of a wide range of molecular tools for foreign gene expression in microalgae, very few promoters (lhcf1, nr, h4, ef2, fcp, and pds) have been reported for diatoms and haptophytes. Therefore, in this review, we first summarize the significant progress that has been achieved in transgene expression in diatoms and haptophytes and highlight the importance and availability of recently developed novel tools that are suitable for transgenic expression in diatoms and haptophytes.

  7. Rapid detection and quantification of haptophyte alkenones by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelusi, A.; Hanawa, Y.; Araie, H.; Suzuki, I.; Giordano, Mario; Shiraiwa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, NOVEMBER 2016 (2016), s. 48-56 ISSN 2211-9264 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Rapid detection * haptophyte alkenones * Fourier spectroscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016

  8. Genetic Diversity of Globally Dispersed Lacustrine Group I Haptophytes: Implications for Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, N.; Longo, W. M.; Amaral-Zettler, L. A.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    There are significant uncertainties surrounding the forcings that drive terrestrial temperature changes on local and regional scales. Quantitative temperature reconstructions from terrestrial sites, such as lakes, help to unravel the fundamental processes that drive changes in temperature on different temporal and spatial scales. Recent studies at Brown University show that distinct alkenones, long chain ketones produced by haptophytes, are found in many freshwater, alkaline lakes in the Northern Hemisphere, highlighting these systems as targets for quantitative continental temperature reconstructions. These freshwater alkenones are produced by the Group I haptophyte phylotype and are characterized by a distinct signature: the presence of isomeric tri-unsaturated ketones and absence of alkenoates. There are currently no cultured representatives of the "Group I" haptophytes, hence they are only known based on their rRNA gene signatures. Here we present robust evidence that Northern Hemispheric freshwater, alkaline lakes with the characteristic "Group I" alkenone signature all host the same clade of Isochrysidales haptophytes. We employed next generation DNA amplicon sequencing to target haptophyte specific hypervariable regions of the large and small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from 13 different lakes from three continents (i.e., North America, Europe, and Asia). Combined with previously published sequences, our genetic data show that the Group I haptophyte is genetically diverse on a regional and global scale, and even within the same lake. We present two case studies from a suite of five lakes in Alaska and three in Iceland to assess the impact of various environmental factors affecting Group I diversity and alkenone production. Despite the genetic diversity in this group, the overall ketone signature is conserved. Based on global surface sediment samples and in situ Alaskan lake calibrations, alkenones produced by different operational taxonomic units of the Group

  9. Seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in the Skagerrak, Norway, explored by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egge, Elianne Sirnæs; Johannessen, Torill Vik; Andersen, Tom; Eikrem, Wenche; Bittner, Lucie; Larsen, Aud; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Edvardsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae in the division Haptophyta play key roles in the marine ecosystem and in global biogeochemical processes. Despite their ecological importance, knowledge on seasonal dynamics, community composition and abundance at the species level is limited due to their small cell size and few morphological features visible under the light microscope. Here, we present unique data on haptophyte seasonal diversity and dynamics from two annual cycles, with the taxonomic resolution and sampling depth obtained with high-throughput sequencing. From outer Oslofjorden, S Norway, nano- and picoplanktonic samples were collected monthly for 2 years, and the haptophytes targeted by amplification of RNA/cDNA with Haptophyta-specific 18S rDNA V4 primers. We obtained 156 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), from c. 400.000 454 pyrosequencing reads, after rigorous bioinformatic filtering and clustering at 99.5%. Most OTUs represented uncultured and/or not yet 18S rDNA-sequenced species. Haptophyte OTU richness and community composition exhibited high temporal variation and significant yearly periodicity. Richness was highest in September–October (autumn) and lowest in April–May (spring). Some taxa were detected all year, such as Chrysochromulina simplex, Emiliania huxleyi and Phaeocystis cordata, whereas most calcifying coccolithophores only appeared from summer to early winter. We also revealed the seasonal dynamics of OTUs representing putative novel classes (clades HAP-3–5) or orders (clades D, E, F). Season, light and temperature accounted for 29% of the variation in OTU composition. Residual variation may be related to biotic factors, such as competition and viral infection. This study provides new, in-depth knowledge on seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in North Atlantic coastal waters. PMID:25893259

  10. Seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in the Skagerrak, Norway, explored by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egge, Elianne Sirnaes; Johannessen, Torill Vik; Andersen, Tom; Eikrem, Wenche; Bittner, Lucie; Larsen, Aud; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Edvardsen, Bente

    2015-06-01

    Microalgae in the division Haptophyta play key roles in the marine ecosystem and in global biogeochemical processes. Despite their ecological importance, knowledge on seasonal dynamics, community composition and abundance at the species level is limited due to their small cell size and few morphological features visible under the light microscope. Here, we present unique data on haptophyte seasonal diversity and dynamics from two annual cycles, with the taxonomic resolution and sampling depth obtained with high-throughput sequencing. From outer Oslofjorden, S Norway, nano- and picoplanktonic samples were collected monthly for 2 years, and the haptophytes targeted by amplification of RNA/cDNA with Haptophyta-specific 18S rDNA V4 primers. We obtained 156 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), from c. 400.000 454 pyrosequencing reads, after rigorous bioinformatic filtering and clustering at 99.5%. Most OTUs represented uncultured and/or not yet 18S rDNA-sequenced species. Haptophyte OTU richness and community composition exhibited high temporal variation and significant yearly periodicity. Richness was highest in September-October (autumn) and lowest in April-May (spring). Some taxa were detected all year, such as Chrysochromulina simplex, Emiliania huxleyi and Phaeocystis cordata, whereas most calcifying coccolithophores only appeared from summer to early winter. We also revealed the seasonal dynamics of OTUs representing putative novel classes (clades HAP-3-5) or orders (clades D, E, F). Season, light and temperature accounted for 29% of the variation in OTU composition. Residual variation may be related to biotic factors, such as competition and viral infection. This study provides new, in-depth knowledge on seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in North Atlantic coastal waters. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Extreme diversity in noncalcifying haptophytes explains a major pigment paradox in open oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Probert, Ian; Uitz, Julia; Claustre, Hervé; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Frada, Miguel; Not, Fabrice; de Vargas, Colomban

    2009-01-01

    The current paradigm holds that cyanobacteria, which evolved oxygenic photosynthesis more than 2 billion years ago, are still the major light harvesters driving primary productivity in open oceans. Here we show that tiny unicellular eukaryotes belonging to the photosynthetic lineage of the Haptophyta are dramatically diverse and ecologically dominant in the planktonic photic realm. The use of Haptophyta-specific primers and PCR conditions adapted for GC-rich genomes circumvented biases inherent in classical genetic approaches to exploring environmental eukaryotic biodiversity and led to the discovery of hundreds of unique haptophyte taxa in 5 clone libraries from subpolar and subtropical oceanic waters. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this diversity emerged in Paleozoic oceans, thrived and diversified in the permanently oxygenated Mesozoic Panthalassa, and currently comprises thousands of ribotypic species, belonging primarily to low-abundance and ancient lineages of the “rare biosphere.” This extreme biodiversity coincides with the pervasive presence in the photic zone of the world ocean of 19′-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (19-Hex), an accessory photosynthetic pigment found exclusively in chloroplasts of haptophyte origin. Our new estimates of depth-integrated relative abundance of 19-Hex indicate that haptophytes dominate the chlorophyll a-normalized phytoplankton standing stock in modern oceans. Their ecologic and evolutionary success, arguably based on mixotrophy, may have significantly impacted the oceanic carbon pump. These results add to the growing evidence that the evolution of complex microbial eukaryotic cells is a critical force in the functioning of the biosphere. PMID:19622724

  12. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J Y; Klute, Mary J; Herman, Emily K; Read, Betsy; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Haptophyta (Diaphoratickes) contains marine algae that perform biomineralization, extruding large, distinctive calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) that completely cover the cell. Coccolith production is an important part of global carbon cycling; however, the membrane trafficking pathway by which they are secreted has not yet been elucidated. In most eukaryotes, post-Golgi membrane trafficking involves five heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which impart cargo selection specificity. To better understand coccolith secretion, we performed comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and transcriptomic analyses of the AP complexes in Emiliania huxleyi strains 92A, Van556, EH2, and CCMP1516, and related haptophytes Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana; the latter has lost the ability to biomineralize. We show that haptophytes have a modified membrane trafficking system (MTS), as we found both AP subunit losses and duplications. Additionally, we identified a single conserved subunit of the AP-related TSET complex, whose expression suggests a functional role in membrane trafficking. Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts. These novel ear proteins and the sculpting of the MTS may support the capacity for biomineralization in haptophytes, enhancing their ability to perform this highly specialized form of secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal Dynamics of Haptophytes and dsDNA Algal Viruses Suggest Complex Virus-Host Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Torill Vik; Larsen, Aud; Bratbak, Gunnar; Pagarete, António; Edvardsen, Bente; Egge, Elianne D; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

    2017-04-20

    Viruses influence the ecology and diversity of phytoplankton in the ocean. Most studies of phytoplankton host-virus interactions have focused on bloom-forming species like Emiliania huxleyi or Phaeocystis spp. The role of viruses infecting phytoplankton that do not form conspicuous blooms have received less attention. Here we explore the dynamics of phytoplankton and algal viruses over several sequential seasons, with a focus on the ubiquitous and diverse phytoplankton division Haptophyta, and their double-stranded DNA viruses, potentially with the capacity to infect the haptophytes. Viral and phytoplankton abundance and diversity showed recurrent seasonal changes, mainly explained by hydrographic conditions. By 454 tag-sequencing we revealed 93 unique haptophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with seasonal changes in abundance. Sixty-one unique viral OTUs, representing Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae , showed only distant relationship with currently isolated algal viruses. Haptophyte and virus community composition and diversity varied substantially throughout the year, but in an uncoordinated manner. A minority of the viral OTUs were highly abundant at specific time-points, indicating a boom-bust relationship with their host. Most of the viral OTUs were very persistent, which may represent viruses that coexist with their hosts, or able to exploit several host species.

  14. n-Nonacosadienes from the marine haptophytes Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideto; Sawada, Ken; Araie, Hiroya; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons in cultures of marine haptophytes Emiliania huxleyi NIES837 and Gephyrocapsa oceanica NIES1315 were analyzed, and nonacosadienes and hentriacontadienes were detected as the major compounds in both strains. C29 and C31 monoenes and di-, tri- and tetra-unsaturated C33 alkenes were also detected as minor compounds but not C37 and C38 alkenes. The positions of the double bonds in the C29 and C31 alkenes were determined by mass spectrometry of their dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adducts. Among the four C29 alkenes identified, the most abundant isomer was 2,20-nonacosadiene, and the other three compounds were 1,20-nonacosadiene, 3,20-nonacosadiene and 9-nonacosene, respectively. Hitherto, 2,20-nonacosadiene and 3,20-nonacosadiene were unknown to be natural products. The double bond at the n-9 (ω9) position in these C29 alkenes is hypothesized to be derived from precursors of unsaturated fatty acids possessing an n-9 double bond, such as (9Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. Nonacosadienes have the potential for being used as distinct haptophyte biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient DNA derived from alkenone-biosynthesizing haptophytes and other algae in Holocene sediments from the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, M.J.L.; Boere, A.; Abbas, M.; Wakeham, S.G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Holocene sea surface temperatures (SST) of the Black Sea have been reconstructed using sedimentary C37 unsaturated alkenones assumed to be derived from the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, whose fossil coccoliths are an important constituent of the unit I sediments. However,

  16. Advances in Alkenone Paleotemperature Proxies: Analytical Methods, Novel Structures and Haptophyte Species, Biosynthesis, New indices and Ecological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Longo, W. M.; Zheng, Y.; Richter, N.; Dillon, J. T.; Theroux, S.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Toney, J. L.; Wang, L.; Amaral-Zettler, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alkenones are mature, well-established paleo-sea surface temperature proxies that have been widely applied for more than three decades. However, recent advances across a broad range of alkenone-related topics at Brown University are inviting new paleoclimate and paleo-environmental applications for these classic biomarkers. In this presentation, I will summarize our progress in the following areas: (1) Discovery of a freshwater alkenone-producing haptophyte species and structural elucidation of novel alkenone structures unique to the species, performing in-situ temperature calibrations, and classifying alkenone-producing haptophytes into three groups based on molecular ecological approaches (with the new species belonging to Group I Isochrysidales); (2) A global survey of Group I haptophyte distributions and environmental conditions favoring the presence of this alga, as well as examples of using Group I alkenones for paleotemperature reconstructions; (3) New gas chromatographic columns that allow unprecedented resolution of alkenones and alkenoates and associated structural isomers, and development of a new suite of paleotemperature and paleoenvironmental proxies; (4) A new liquid chromatographic separation technique that allows efficient cleanup of alkenones and alkenoates (without the need for saponification) for subsequent coelution-free gas chromatographic analysis; (5) Novel structural features revealed by new analytical methods that now allow a comprehensive re-assessment of taxonomic features of various haptophyte species, with principal component analysis capable of fully resolving species biomarker distributions; (6) Development of UK37 double prime (UK37'') for Group II haptophytes (e.g., those occurring in saline lakes and estuaries), that differs from the traditional unsaturation indices used for SST reconstructions; (7) New assessment of how mixed inputs from different alkenone groups may affect SST reconstructions in marginal ocean environments and

  17. Isolation and Characterization of a Double Stranded DNA Megavirus Infecting the Toxin-Producing Haptophyte Prymnesium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A. Wagstaff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing haptophyte that causes harmful algal blooms globally, leading to large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. For the model haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, it has been shown that large dsDNA viruses play an important role in regulating blooms and therefore biogeochemical cycling, but much less work has been done looking at viruses that infect P. parvum, or the role that these viruses may play in regulating harmful algal blooms. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a lytic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV collected from the site of a harmful P. parvum bloom. In subsequent experiments, this virus was shown to infect cultures of Prymnesium sp. and showed phylogenetic similarity to the extended Megaviridae family of algal viruses.

  18. Growth phase dependent hydrogen isotopic fractionation in alkenone-producing haptophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Wolhowe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent works have investigated use of the hydrogen isotopic composition of C37 alkenones (δDK37s, lipid biomarkers of certain haptophyte microalgae, as an independent paleosalinity proxy. We discuss herein the factors impeding the success of such an application and identify the potential alternative use of δDK37s measurements as a proxy for non-thermal, physiological stress impacts on the U37K' paleotemperature index. Batch-culture experiments with the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP 1742 were conducted to determine the magnitude and variability of the isotopic contrasts between individual C37 alkenones. Further experiments were conducted with Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP 1742 andGephyrocapsa oceanica (PZ3-1 to determine whether, and to what extent, δDK37s varies between the physiological extremes of nutrient-replete exponential growth and nutrient-depleted senescence. Emiliania huxleyi was observed to exhibit an isotopic contrast between di- and tri-unsaturated C37 alkenones (αK37:3-K37:2≈0.97 that is nearly identical to that reported recently by others for environmental samples. Furthermore, this contrast appears to be constant with growth stage. The consistency of the offset across different growth stages suggests that a single, well-defined value for αK37:3-K37:2 may exist and that its use in an isotope mass-balance will allow accurate determination of δD values for individual alkenones without having to rely on time- and labor-intensive chemical separations. The isotopic fractionation between growth medium and C37 alkenones was observed to increase dramatically upon the onset of nutrient-depletion-induced senescence, suggesting that δDK37s may serve as an objective tool for recognizing and potentially correcting, at least semi-quantitatively, for the effects

  19. 454 pyrosequencing to describe microbial eukaryotic community composition, diversity and relative abundance: a test for marine haptophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elianne Egge

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing of ribosomal DNA is increasingly used to assess the diversity and structure of microbial communities. Here we test the ability of 454 pyrosequencing to detect the number of species present, and assess the relative abundance in terms of cell numbers and biomass of protists in the phylum Haptophyta. We used a mock community consisting of equal number of cells of 11 haptophyte species and compared targeting DNA and RNA/cDNA, and two different V4 SSU rDNA haptophyte-biased primer pairs. Further, we tested four different bioinformatic filtering methods to reduce errors in the resulting sequence dataset. With sequencing depth of 11000-20000 reads and targeting cDNA with Haptophyta specific primers Hap454 we detected all 11 species. A rarefaction analysis of expected number of species recovered as a function of sampling depth suggested that minimum 1400 reads were required here to recover all species in the mock community. Relative read abundance did not correlate to relative cell numbers. Although the species represented with the largest biomass was also proportionally most abundant among the reads, there was generally a weak correlation between proportional read abundance and proportional biomass of the different species, both with DNA and cDNA as template. The 454 sequencing generated considerable spurious diversity, and more with cDNA than DNA as template. With initial filtering based only on match with barcode and primer we observed 100-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 99% similarity than the number of species present in the mock community. Filtering based on quality scores, or denoising with PyroNoise resulted in ten times more OTU99% than the number of species. Denoising with AmpliconNoise reduced the number of OTU99% to match the number of species present in the mock community. Based on our analyses, we propose a strategy to more accurately depict haptophyte diversity using 454 pyrosequencing.

  20. Effect of salinity on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of five haptophyte algae from the genera Coccolithophora, Isochrysis and Prymnesium determined by LC-MS/APCI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbalová, L.; Střížek, A.; Sigler, Karel; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 130, October (2016), s. 64-76 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Haptophyte algae * Coccolithophyceae * Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.205, year: 2016

  1. Widespread occurrence of distinct alkenones from Group I haptophytes in freshwater lakes: Implications for paleotemperature and paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, William M.; Huang, Yongsong; Yao, Yuan; Zhao, Jiaju; Giblin, Anne E.; Wang, Xian; Zech, Roland; Haberzettl, Torsten; Jardillier, Ludwig; Toney, Jaime; Liu, Zhonghui; Krivonogov, Sergey; Kolpakova, Marina; Chu, Guoqiang; D'Andrea, William J.; Harada, Naomi; Nagashima, Kana; Sato, Miyako; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Gotanda, Katsuya; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu

    2018-06-01

    Alkenones are C35-C42 polyunsaturated ketone lipids that are commonly employed to reconstruct changes in sea surface temperature. However, their use in coastal seas and saline lakes can be hindered by species-mixing effects. We recently hypothesized that freshwater lakes are immune to species-mixing effects because they appear to exclusively host Group I haptophyte algae, which produce a distinct distribution of alkenones with a relatively consistent response of alkenone unsaturation to temperature. To evaluate this hypothesis and explore the geographic extent of Group I haptophytes, we analyzed alkenones in sediment and suspended particulate matter samples from lakes distributed throughout the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (n = 30). Our results indicate that Group I-type alkenone distributions are widespread in freshwater lakes from a range of different climates (mean annual air temperature range: -17.3-10.9 °C; mean annual precipitation range: 125-1657 mm yr-1; latitude range: 40-81°N), and are commonly found in neutral to basic lakes (pH > 7.0), including volcanic lakes and lakes with mafic bedrock. We show that these freshwater lakes do not feature alkenone distributions characteristic of Group II lacustrine haptophytes, providing support for the hypothesis that freshwater lakes are immune to species-mixing effects. In lakes that underwent temporal shifts in salinity, we observed mixed Group I/II alkenone distributions and the alkenone contributions from each group could be quantified with the RIK37 index. Additionally, we observed significant correlations of alkenone unsaturation (U37K) with seasonal and mean annual air temperature with this expanded freshwater lakes dataset, with the strongest correlation occurring during the spring transitional season (U37K = 0.029 * T - 0.49; r2 = 0.60; p < 0.0001). We present new sediment trap data from two lakes in northern Alaska (Toolik Lake, 68.632°N, 149.602°W; Lake E5, 68.643°N, 149.458

  2. Contrasting Photo-physiological Responses of the Haptophyte Phaeocystis Antarctica and the Diatom Pseudonitzschia sp. in the Ross Sea (Antarctica

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    Sasha Tozzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic is a unique environment in which substantial variations in irradiance occur over a number of time scales, and as a result phytoplankton need to acclimate and adapt to these changes. We conducted field and laboratory manipulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica to examine photophysiological differences between Phaeocystis antarctica and Pseudonitzschia sp. a diatom that commonly occurrs in the Ross Sea, since these are the two functional groups that dominate abundance and productivity. Both exhibited reduced quantum yields due to high irradiances. P. antarctica, a haptophyte, displays a distinct photophysiological response to irradiance when compared to diatoms. P. antarctica showed a rapid recovery from high light exposure, as indicated by the rapid return to initial, high quantum yields, in contrast to diatoms, which responded more slowly. Absorption cross sections were high in both forms, but those in P. antarctica were significantly higher. Both organisms recovered within 24 h to initial quantum yields, suggesting that high irradiance exposure does not have a permanent effect on these organisms. Among all micronutrient additions (iron, cobalt, zinc and vitamin B12, only iron additions resulted in rapid impacts on quantum yields. Iron limitation also can result in reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Understanding these photophysiologial responses and the impact of oceanographic conditions provides constraints on modeling efforts of photosynthesis and primary productivity in the Antarctic.

  3. Interacting effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and DMS-production in the haptophyte coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Hayley E; Kerrison, Philip; Steinke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The production of the marine trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) provides 90% of the marine biogenic sulfur in the atmosphere where it affects cloud formation and climate. The effects of increasing anthropogenic CO2 and the resulting warming and ocean acidification on trace gas production in the oceans are poorly understood. Here we report the first measurements of DMS-production and data on growth, DMSP and DMS concentrations in pH-stated cultures of the phytoplankton haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Four different environmental conditions were tested: ambient, elevated CO2 (+CO2 ), elevated temperature (+T) and elevated temperature and CO2 (+TCO2 ). In comparison to the ambient treatment, average DMS production was about 50% lower in the +CO2 treatment. Importantly, temperature had a strong effect on DMS production and the impacts outweighed the effects of a decrease in pH. As a result, the +T and +TCO2 treatments showed significantly higher DMS production of 36.2 ± 2.58 and 31.5 ± 4.66 μmol L(-1) cell volume (CV) h(-1) in comparison with the +CO2 treatment (14.9 ± 4.20 μmol L(-1) CV h(-1) ). As the cultures were aerated with an air/CO2 mixture, DMS was effectively removed from the incubation bottles so that concentration remained relatively low (3.6-6.1 mmol L(-1) CV). Intracellular DMSP has been shown to increase in E. huxleyi as a result of elevated temperature and/or elevated CO2 and our results are in agreement with this finding: the ambient and +CO2 treatments showed 125 ± 20.4 and 162 ± 27.7 mmol L(-1) CV, whereas +T and +TCO2 showed significantly increased intracellular DMSP concentrations of 195 ± 15.8 and 211 ± 28.2 mmol L(-1) CV respectively. Growth was unaffected by the treatments, but cell diameter decreased significantly under elevated temperature. These results indicate that DMS production is sensitive to CO2 and temperature in E. huxleyi. Hence, global environmental change that manifests in ocean acidification and warming may not result in

  4. Social organization of Platythyrea lamellosa (Roger) (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-05-15

    May 15, 1990 ... role of reproduction has been assumed by inseminated workers (peeters ... prevented disturbances caused by air movements such as human breathing. ... micrometer. The effects of removing the mated worker from a colony.

  5. Enzymological evidence for the function of a plastid-located pyruvate carboxylase in the Haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi: a novel pathway for the production of C4 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) catalyzes the β-carboxylation of pyruvate to yield oxaloacetate (OAA). We previously isolated a cDNA encoding a putative PYC (EhPYC1) from the haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi and then proposed that EhPYC1 contributes to active anaplerotic β-carboxylation during photosynthesis although PYC activity was not detected in the cell extracts. Involvement of PYC in photosynthetic carbon metabolism is unique, since PYC generally functions in non-photosynthetic organisms. In the present study, we demonstrate that EhPYC1 is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases and therefore is easily degraded in cell extracts. By avoiding proteolytic degradation, PYC activity can be detected in the cell extracts of E. huxleyi. The activity of a recombinant His-tagged EhPYC1 expressed in Streptomyces lividans was inhibited by l-malate in a mixed non-competitive manner. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that EhPYC1 is located in the plastid. This result agrees with the prediction that a bipartite plastid-targeting signal is present that functions to deliver proteins into the four-membrane plastid of haptophyte algae. This is the first finding of a plastid-located PYC. These results indicate that E. huxleyi possesses a unique pathway to produce OAA catalyzed by PYC, and the pathway may provide carbon skeletons for amino acid biosynthesis in the plastid. A database search indicates that PYC genes are widespread in green algae, diatoms and brown algae, suggesting the crucial role of PYC in various aquatic phototrophs.

  6. An exceptional horizontal gene transfer in plastids: gene replacement by a distant bacterial paralog and evidence that haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids are sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Jeffrey D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. Results Although several genes gave strongly supported conflicting trees under certain conditions, we are confident of HGT in only a single case beyond the rubisco HGT already reported. Most of the conflicts involved near neighbors connected by long branches (e.g. red algae and their secondary hosts, where phylogenetic methods are prone to mislead. However, three genes – clpP, ycf2, and rpl36 – provided strong support for taxa moving far from their organismal position. Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid genome sequence of Oenothera elata, respectively. A single new case, a bacterial rpl36 gene transferred into the ancestor of the cryptophyte and haptophyte plastids, appears to be a true HGT event. Interestingly, this rpl36 gene is a distantly related paralog of the rpl36 type found in other plastids and most eubacteria. Moreover, the transferred gene has physically replaced the native rpl36 gene, yet flanking genes and intergenic regions show no sign of HGT. This suggests that gene replacement somehow occurred by recombination at the very ends of rpl36, without the level and length of similarity normally expected to support recombination. Conclusion The rpl36 HGT discovered in this study is of considerable interest in terms of both molecular mechanism and phylogeny. The plastid acquisition of a bacterial rpl36 gene via HGT provides the first strong evidence for a sister-group relationship between haptophyte and

  7. An exceptional horizontal gene transfer in plastids: gene replacement by a distant bacterial paralog and evidence that haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids are sisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2006-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. Results Although several genes gave strongly supported conflicting trees under certain conditions, we are confident of HGT in only a single case beyond the rubisco HGT already reported. Most of the conflicts involved near neighbors connected by long branches (e.g. red algae and their secondary hosts), where phylogenetic methods are prone to mislead. However, three genes – clpP, ycf2, and rpl36 – provided strong support for taxa moving far from their organismal position. Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid genome sequence of Oenothera elata, respectively. A single new case, a bacterial rpl36 gene transferred into the ancestor of the cryptophyte and haptophyte plastids, appears to be a true HGT event. Interestingly, this rpl36 gene is a distantly related paralog of the rpl36 type found in other plastids and most eubacteria. Moreover, the transferred gene has physically replaced the native rpl36 gene, yet flanking genes and intergenic regions show no sign of HGT. This suggests that gene replacement somehow occurred by recombination at the very ends of rpl36, without the level and length of similarity normally expected to support recombination. Conclusion The rpl36 HGT discovered in this study is of considerable interest in terms of both molecular mechanism and phylogeny. The plastid acquisition of a bacterial rpl36 gene via HGT provides the first strong evidence for a sister-group relationship between haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids to the

  8. Bacteria associated with the coral Echinopora lamellosa (Esper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2007-12-10

    Dec 10, 2007 ... with diseased corals in the Indian Ocean. However ... Indian Ocean, mucus samples were collected from healthy and apparently diseased Echinopora ..... The rising tide of ocean diseases: unsolved problems and research priorities. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2: 375-382. Harvell D, Jordan-Dahlgren E, Merkel S, ...

  9. The stereochemistry of chlorophyll-c₃ from the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi: the (13²R)-enantiomers of chlorophylls-c are exclusively selected as the photosynthetically active pigments in chromophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Kimura, Yuki; Yoshitomi, Taichi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Chlorophyll(Chl)-c pigments in algae, diatoms and some prokaryotes are characterized by the fully conjugated porphyrin π-system as well as the acrylate residue at the 17-position. The precise structural characterization of Chl-c(3) from the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi was performed. The conformations of the π-conjugated peripheral substituents, the 3-/8-vinyl, 7-methoxycarbonyl and 17-acrylate moieties were evaluated, in a solution, using nuclear Overhauser enhancement correlations and molecular modeling calculations. The rotation of the 17-acrylate residue was considerably restricted, whereas the other three substituents readily rotated at ambient temperature. Moreover, the stereochemistry at the 13²-position was determined by combination of chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Compared with the CD spectra of the structurally related, synthetic (13²R)- and (13²S)-protochlorophyllide(PChlide)-a, naturally occurring Chl-c₃ had exclusively the (13²R)-configuration. To elucidate this natural selection of a single enantiomer, we analyzed the three major Chl-c pigments (Chl-c₁, c₂ and c₃) in four phylogenetically distinct classes of Chl-c containing algae, i.e., heterokontophyta, dinophyta, cryptophyta and haptophyta using chiral HPLC. All the photosynthetic organisms contained only the (13²R)-enantiomerically pure Chls-c, and lacked the corresponding enantiomeric (13²S)-forms. Additionally, Chl-c₂ was found in all the organisms as the common Chl-c. These results throw a light on the biosynthesis as well as photosynthetic function of Chl-c pigments: Chl-c₂ is derived from 8-vinyl-PChlide-a by dehydrogenation of the 17-propionate to acrylate residues as generally proposed, and the (13²R)-enantiomers of Chls-c function as photosynthetically active, light-harvesting pigments together with the principal Chl-a and carotenoids. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytoplankton composition and biomass across the southern Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Louise; Henriksen, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2011-01-01

    prochlorophytes dominated at these two stations, but also pelagophytes, haptophytes and cyanobacteria were abundant. Haptophytes Type 6 (sensu Zapata et al., 2004), most likely Emiliania huxleyi, and pelagophytes were the dominating eucaryotes in the southern Indian Ocean. Prochlorophytes dominated...

  11. Responses of a Rocky Shore Gastropod to the Effluents of Predatory and Non-predatory Crabs: Avoidance and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, P B; Palmer, A R

    1991-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that the rocky shore gastropod, Nucella lamellosa (Gmelin), could discriminate between the effluents of predatory and non-predatory crabs. N. lamellosa turned away from seawater that had passed over the large predatory crab, Cancer productus Randall. This avoidance behavior was observed in snails from two localities that, based on differences in shell form, presumably experienced different levels of predation intensity. The scent of the non-predatory crabs Pugettia producta (Randall) and Lopholithodes mandtii Brandt had no effect on the turning behavior of snails from either site. Surprisingly, snails from both sites were attracted to the scent of a small shore crab, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), but moved at random in response to a common prey item Balanus glandula Darwin. These results suggest that N. lamellosa can assess from a distance the relative risks posed by different species of crabs, and respond appropriately. The unexpected attraction to H. nudus suggests that N. lamellosa may use this effluent to home in from a distance on potential refugia, because H. nudus are often associated with crevices and the undersides of boulders where N. lamellosa would be less vulnerable to larger predators.

  12. Marine and terrigenous lipids in southeast atlantic sediments (leg 175) as paleoenvironmental indicators: initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schefuss, E.; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Jansen, J.H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Lipid compositions of sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 175 in the eastern South Atlantic reflect a variety of oceanographic and climatological environments. Most of the identified lipids can be ascribed to marine sources, notably haptophytes,

  13. Observations on the morphological diversity and distribution of two siliceous nannoplankton genera, Hyalolithus and Petasaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Richard W.; Abe, Kent; Cruz, Jarret

    2016-01-01

    Scale-bearing siliceous nannoplankton are occasionally encountered in surface seawater samples, but are rarely identified or illustrated. In this study, the morphological diversity of the haptophyte Hyalolithus neolepis and the enigmatic Petasaria heterolepis are investigated in scanning...

  14. It’s good to be big--- Phaeocystis antarctica colony size under the influence of zooplankton grazers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica forms extremely dense accumulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and accounts for over 60% of the seasonal primary production. Similar to the Phaeocystis species in the northern hemisphere, P. antarctica exists as solitary cells and mucilagin...

  15. IT’S GOOD TO BE BIG—PHAEOCYSTIS ANTARCTICA COLONY SIZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ZOOPLANKTON GRAZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica forms extremely dense accumulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and accounts for over 60% of the seasonal primary production. Similar to the Phaeocystis species in the northern hemisphere, P. antarctica exists as solitary cells and mucilagin...

  16. Lipid and DNA biomarker analyses of Narragansett Bay Sediments: Evaluating the UK'37 proxy in an Estuarine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S. E.; Herbert, T.; Amaral-Zettler, L. A.; Richter, N.

    2017-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated alkenone (LCA) lipid biomarkers produced by haptophyte phytoplankton species within the Order Isochrysidales (Phylum Haptophyta) have proven exceptionally useful in paleotemperature studies by means of the Uk'37 and Uk37 indices. Two closely-related Group III haptophytes, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica are the primary alkenone synthesizers in the modern ocean, while freshwater systems host the distinct Group I phylotype, sometimes called the Greenland phylotype, in reference to the location of its original discovery. Group I haptophytes produce large quantities of the distinct C37:4 ketone, which acts as a chemical `fingerprint' in sediments. The utility of alkenones as a paleotemperature proxy in estuarine environments has remained largely untested, representing an under-utilized opportunity to construct high-resolution paleotemperature records from environments at the intersection of fluvial and marine systems. This uncertainty is due, in part, to the presence of multiple haptophyte groups in estuaries, resulting in a mixed alkenone signature. To determine the community composition of alkenone-producing haptophytes within Narragansett Bay, four geographically separated cores from within the Bay were analyzed for alkenones as well as haptophyte rRNA biomarker gene presence. Haptophyte rRNA genes (small and large subunit) were recovered from surface and near-subsurface samples, and in conjunction with alkenone profiles, reveal recent haptophyte community structure and alkenone production regimes throughout the Bay. A surprising result is the recovery of rRNA biomarker genes with a 100% match to the open-ocean alkenone producer E. huxleyi in locations away from large fresh water inputs to the Bay. Results of these analyses elucidate the effect of salinity and nutrient dynamics on alkenone-producing haptophyte communities and enhance applicability of long chain polyunsaturated alkenones as lipid biomarkers in estuarine

  17. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analyses of Chrysochromulina tobin: Metabolic Tools for Enhanced Algal Fitness in the Prominent Order Prymnesiales (Haptophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake T Hovde

    Full Text Available Haptophytes are recognized as seminal players in aquatic ecosystem function. These algae are important in global carbon sequestration, form destructive harmful blooms, and given their rich fatty acid content, serve as a highly nutritive food source to a broad range of eco-cohorts. Haptophyte dominance in both fresh and marine waters is supported by the mixotrophic nature of many taxa. Despite their importance the nuclear genome sequence of only one haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi (Isochrysidales, is available. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales, and transcriptome data collected at seven time points over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. The nuclear genome of C. tobin is small (59 Mb, compact (∼ 40% of the genome is protein coding and encodes approximately 16,777 genes. Genes important to fatty acid synthesis, modification, and catabolism show distinct patterns of expression when monitored over the circadian photoperiod. The C. tobin genome harbors the first hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene complex reported for an algal species, and encodes potential anti-microbial peptides and proteins involved in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion. A new haptophyte xanthorhodopsin was also identified, together with two "red" RuBisCO activases that are shared across many algal lineages. The Chrysochromulina tobin genome sequence provides new information on the evolutionary history, ecology and economic importance of haptophytes.

  18. Phytoplankton chemotaxonomy in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during late summer 2009

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, M-J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available chlorophyll-a (chl-a) was 41.5 mg l(sup-1) and diatoms comprised 480% of biomass. Pigment signatures representative of haptophytes-8, indicative of Phaeocystis antarctica, were dominant near the ice shelf. Chl-a concentrations were 0.2–0.6 mg l(sup-1) between...

  19. Global marine plankton functional type biomass distributions : Phaeocystis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.; O'Brien, C.; Peloquin, J.; Schoemann, V.; Breton, E.; Estrada, M.; Gibson, J.; Karentz, D.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Stefels, J.; Widdicombe, C.; Peperzak, L.

    2012-01-01

    The planktonic haptophyte Phaeocystis has been suggested to play a fundamental role in the global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulphur, but little is known about its global biomass distribution. We have collected global microscopy data of the genus Phaeocystis and converted abundance data to

  20. Colony Size of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) as Influenced by Zooplankton Grazers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is a dominant phytoplankton species in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and exists as solitary cells and mucilaginous colonies that differ by several orders of magnitude in size. Recent studies with P. globosa suggested that colony formation and enl...

  1. Survival and Recovery of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) from Prolonged Darkness and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblage...

  2. Long-chain alkenones in Baltic Sea surface sediments: New insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Arz, H.W.

    2017-01-01

    C37 alkenones produced by certain haptophytes of the Isochrysidales are valuable sedimentary biomarkers used to estimate sea surface temperature (SST) in the open ocean. However, in coastal seas the role of salinity gradients on alkenone producing species and SST estimates is poorly known. Alkenones

  3. A new species of Rullierinereis and new records of Nereididae from sublittoral sandy bottoms off Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Núñez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rullierinereis ancornunezi n. sp., collected from sandy and maërl bottoms from 19-55 m depth around Lanzarote island, is described. The new taxon is characterized by having a reduced or absent upper notopodial ligule in biramous parapodia of chaetigers 3-9 and in the middle region from chaetiger 26 onwards, and also by the shape of the homogomph notopodial falciger blade, which is short and serrated. A comparison with morphologically similar species is made. Other nereidid species collected were: Nereis lamellosa Ehlers, 1864, Nereis rava Ehlers, 1864, Neanthes caudata (Delle Chiaje, 1827 and Neanthes rubicunda (Ehlers, 1864. A map of the distribution of these species is presented.

  4. Large effect of irradiance on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Benthien, Albert; French, Katherine L.; Epping, Eric; Zondervan, Ingrid; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bijma, Jelle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogen isotopic (δD) composition of long-chain alkenones produced by certain haptophyte algae has been suggested as a potential proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity. However, environmental parameters other than salinity may also affect the δD of alkenones. We investigated the impact of the level of irradiance on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of alkenones versus growth water by cultivating two strains of the cosmopolitan haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi at different light intensities. The hydrogen isotope fractionation decreased by approximately 40‰ when irradiance was increased from 15 to 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 above which it was relatively constant. The response is likely a direct effect of photosystem I and II activity as the relationship of the fractionation factor α versus light intensity can be described by an Eilers-Peeters photosynthesis model. This irradiance effect is in agreement with published δD data of alkenones derived from suspended particulate matter collected from different depths in the photic zone of the Gulf of California and the eastern tropical North Pacific. However, haptophyte algae tend to bloom at relatively high light intensities (>500 μmol photons m-2 s-1) occurring at the sea surface, at which hydrogen isotope fractionation is relatively constant and not affected by changes in light intensity. Alkenones accumulating in the sediment are likely mostly derived from these surface water haptophyte blooms, when the largest amount of biomass is produced. Therefore, the observed irradiance effect is unlikely to affect the applicability of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary long chain alkenones as a proxy for paleosalinity.

  5. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  6. The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Bell, J.G.; Sargent, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    : the cryptophyte Rhodomonas baltica, the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana clone T- iso, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. Further, the effect of cold storage of eggs on the lipid composition of the newly hatched nauplii was examined. During development, the fatty acid...... composition changes from a tendency towards high levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the early developmental stages towards a tendency to accumulate more saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the later developmental stages. However, the content and composition of polyunsaturated fatty...

  7. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Ahrens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China, N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos, N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand, N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar, N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam, N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China, N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China. One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included.

  8. The Presence of Biomarker Enzymes of Selected Scleractinian Corals of Palk Bay, Southeast Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anithajothi, R.; Duraikannu, K.; Umagowsalya, G.; Ramakritinan, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    The health and existence of coral reefs are in danger by an increasing range of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. The causes of coral reef decline include worldwide climate change, shoreline development, habitat destruction, pollution, sedimentation and overexploitation. These disasters have contributed to an estimated loss of 27% of the reefs. If the current pressure continues unabated, the estimated loss of coral reef will be about 60% by the year 2030. Therefore, the present study was aimed to analyze the enzymes involved in stress induced by coral pathogen and its resistance. We focused on the enzymes involved in melanin synthesis pathway (phenoloxidase (PO) and peroxidases (POD)) and free radical scavenging enzymes (super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in selected scleractinian corals such as Acropora formosa, Echinopora lamellosa, Favia favus, Favites halicora, Porites sp., and Anacropora forbesi. Overall, PO activity of coral was significantly lower than that of zooxanthellae except for Favia favus. Coral colonies with lower PO and POD activities are prone to disease. Maximum antioxidant defensive enzymes were observed in Favia favus followed by Echinopora lamellose. It is concluded that assay of these enzymes can be used as biomarkers for identifying the susceptibility of corals towards coral bleaching induced by pathogen. PMID:25215288

  9. The Presence of Biomarker Enzymes of Selected Scleractinian Corals of Palk Bay, Southeast Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anithajothi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The health and existence of coral reefs are in danger by an increasing range of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. The causes of coral reef decline include worldwide climate change, shoreline development, habitat destruction, pollution, sedimentation and overexploitation. These disasters have contributed to an estimated loss of 27% of the reefs. If the current pressure continues unabated, the estimated loss of coral reef will be about 60% by the year 2030. Therefore, the present study was aimed to analyze the enzymes involved in stress induced by coral pathogen and its resistance. We focused on the enzymes involved in melanin synthesis pathway (phenoloxidase (PO and peroxidases (POD and free radical scavenging enzymes (super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx in selected scleractinian corals such as Acropora formosa, Echinopora lamellosa, Favia favus, Favites halicora, Porites sp., and Anacropora forbesi. Overall, PO activity of coral was significantly lower than that of zooxanthellae except for Favia favus. Coral colonies with lower PO and POD activities are prone to disease. Maximum antioxidant defensive enzymes were observed in Favia favus followed by Echinopora lamellose. It is concluded that assay of these enzymes can be used as biomarkers for identifying the susceptibility of corals towards coral bleaching induced by pathogen.

  10. The presence of biomarker enzymes of selected Scleractinian corals of Palk Bay, southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anithajothi, R; Duraikannu, K; Umagowsalya, G; Ramakritinan, C M

    2014-01-01

    The health and existence of coral reefs are in danger by an increasing range of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. The causes of coral reef decline include worldwide climate change, shoreline development, habitat destruction, pollution, sedimentation and overexploitation. These disasters have contributed to an estimated loss of 27% of the reefs. If the current pressure continues unabated, the estimated loss of coral reef will be about 60% by the year 2030. Therefore, the present study was aimed to analyze the enzymes involved in stress induced by coral pathogen and its resistance. We focused on the enzymes involved in melanin synthesis pathway (phenoloxidase (PO) and peroxidases (POD)) and free radical scavenging enzymes (super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in selected scleractinian corals such as Acropora formosa, Echinopora lamellosa, Favia favus, Favites halicora, Porites sp., and Anacropora forbesi. Overall, PO activity of coral was significantly lower than that of zooxanthellae except for Favia favus. Coral colonies with lower PO and POD activities are prone to disease. Maximum antioxidant defensive enzymes were observed in Favia favus followed by Echinopora lamellose. It is concluded that assay of these enzymes can be used as biomarkers for identifying the susceptibility of corals towards coral bleaching induced by pathogen.

  11. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Weiss

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  12. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gabriella M.; Pfannerstill, Eva Y.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  13. Mesoscale distribution and functional diversity of picoeukaryotes in the first-year sea ice of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwosz, Kasia; Wiktor, Józef Maria; Niemi, Andrea; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Michel, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Sea ice, a characteristic feature of polar waters, is home to diverse microbial communities. Sea-ice picoeukaryotes (unicellular eukaryotes with cell size Arctic first-year sea ice. Here, we investigated the abundance of all picoeukaryotes, and of 11 groups (chlorophytes, cryptophytes, bolidophytes, haptophytes, Pavlovaphyceae, Phaeocystis spp., pedinellales, stramenopiles groups MAST-1, MAST-2 and MAST-6 and Syndiniales Group II) at 13 first-year sea-ice stations localized in Barrow Strait and in the vicinity of Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We applied Catalyzed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization to identify selected groups at a single cell level. Pavlovaphyceae and stramenopiles from groups MAST-2 and MAST-6 were for the first time reported from sea ice. Total numbers of picoeukaryotes were significantly higher in the vicinity of Cornwallis Island than in Barrow Strait. Similar trend was observed for all the groups except for haptophytes. Chlorophytes and cryptophytes were the dominant plastidic, and MAST-2 most numerous aplastidic of all the groups investigated. Numbers of total picoeukaryotes, chlorophytes and MAST-2 stramenopiles were positively correlated with the thickness of snow cover. All studied algal and MAST groups fed on bacteria. Presence of picoeukaryotes from various trophic groups (mixotrophs, phagotrophic and parasitic heterotrophs) indicates the diverse ecological roles picoeukaryotes have in sea ice. Yet, >50% of total sea-ice picoeukaryote cells remained unidentified, highlighting the need for further study of functional and phylogenetic sea-ice diversity, to elucidate the risks posed by ongoing Arctic changes.

  14. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  15. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  16. Distribution of lipid biomarkers and carbon isotope fractionation in contrasting trophic environments of the South East Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tolosa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of lipid biomarkers and their stable carbon isotope composition was investigated on suspended particles from different contrasting trophic environments at six sites in the South East Pacific. High algal biomass with diatom-related lipids (24-methylcholesta-5,24(28-dien-3β-ol, C25 HBI alkenes, C16:4 FA, C20:5 FA was characteristic in the upwelling zone, whereas haptophyte lipids (long-chain (C37-C39 unsaturated ketones were proportionally most abundant in the nutrient-poor settings of the centre of the South Pacific Gyre and on its easter edge. The dinoflagellate–sterol, 4α-23,24-trimethylcholest-22(E-en-3β-ol, was a minor contributor in all of the studied area and the cyanobacteria-hydrocarbon, C17n-alkane, was at maximum in the high nutrient low chlorophyll regime of the subequatorial waters near the Marquesas archipelago.

    The taxonomic and spatial variability of the relationships between carbon photosynthetic fractionation and environmental conditions for four specific algal taxa (diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria was also investigated. The carbon isotope fractionation factor (εp of the 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28-dien-3β-ol diatom marker, varied over a range of 16% along the different trophic systems. In contrast, εp of dinoflagellate, cyanobacteria and alkenone markers varied only by 7–10‰. The low fractionation factors and small variations between the different phytoplankton markers measured in the upwelling area likely reveals uniformly high specific growth rates within the four phytoplankton taxa, and/or that transport of inorganic carbon into phytoplankton cells may not only occur by diffusion but also by other carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM. In contrast, in the oligotrophic zone, i.e. gyre and eastgyre, relatively high εp values, especially for the diatom marker

  17. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide.

  18. An experimental analysis of harmful algae-zooplankton interactions and the ultimate defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmel, E.J.; Kohmescher, N.; Larson, J.H.; Hambright, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined effects of the invasive, toxigenic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum on grazing rates, feeding behaviors, and life-history characteristics of clonal lineages of three daphniid zooplankton species. Grazing experiments revealed similar clearance rates for P. parvum and a common green alga. Behavioral observations revealed no significant effects of P. parvum on daphniid feeding behaviors after 30 min, but major declines in appendage beat rates after 1 h. Chronic exposure (10 d) to P. parvum resulted in severe reductions in daphniid growth rates, age at first reproduction, fecundity, and survivorship at densities as low as 7750 cells mL-1. Thus, in addition to direct fish mortality during P. parvum blooms of 50,000-200,000 cells mL-1, the entire food web of an invaded system may be subjected to potentially severe negative consequences even at nonbloom densities of P. parvum. ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. Biomarker Evidence of Relatively Stable Community Structure in the Northern South China Sea during the Last Glacial and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution molecular abundance records for several marine biomarkers during the last glacial and Holocene have been generated for core MD05-2904 (19 _ 116 _ 2066 mwater depth from the northern South China Sea. The UK' 37 SST record indicates a 4.4 C cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum for this site, consistent with previous reconstructions. The contents of C37 alkenones, dinosterol, brassicasterol, and C30 alkyl diols are used as productivity proxies for haptophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms, and eustigmatophytes, respectively. These records reveal that both individual phytoplankton group and total productivity increased by several factors during the LGM compared with those for the Holocene, in response to increased nutrient supply. However, the community structure based on biomarker percentages remained relatively stable during the last glacial-Holocene transition, although there were short-term oscillations.

  20. 7000 years of Emiliania huxleyi viruses in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J L

    2011-07-22

    A 7000-year record of Coccolithovirus and its host, the calcifying haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, was reconstructed on the basis of genetic signatures preserved in sediments underlying the Black Sea. The data show that the same virus and host populations can persist for centuries. Major changes in virus and host populations occurred during early sapropel deposition, ~5600 years ago, and throughout the formation of the coccolith-bearing sediments of Unit I during the past 2500 years, when the Black Sea experienced dramatic changes in hydrologic and nutrient regimes. Unit I saw a reoccurrence of the same host genotype thousands of years later in the presence of a different subset of viruses. Historical plankton virus populations can thus be included in paleoecological and paleoenvironmental studies.

  1. Prymnesium parvum exotoxins affect the grazing and viability of the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopanen, S.; Koski, Marja; Uronen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis from the northern Baltic Sea was exposed to cell-free filtrates of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum as well as to cell mixtures of P. parvum and Rhodomonas salina. To test the effects of P. parvum exudates and allelopathy on selective grazers, copepods...... cultures were grown in nutrient-balanced (+NP) or limited (-N or -P) media to obtain different levels of toxicity. Survival, ingestion, faecal pellet production rates and egg production were measured over 3 d, together with measurements of P. parvum toxicity (hemolytic activity) (HA). Most of the copepods...... on grazers, and these effects are stronger under nutrient-depleted conditions; however, the presence of good-quality food lowers harmful effects for copepods. The negative effects caused either by direct intoxication or by food limitation following from strong allelopathic effects of P. parvum on other...

  2. Community composition of picoeukaryotes in the South China Sea during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Chi; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Kang, Lee-Kuo

    2017-07-01

    Picoeukaryotes, the smallest protists, are highly diverse and abundant in the ocean. However, little information is available about their community composition in the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. This study collected surface and deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) waters from the South China Sea (SCS) to study the picoeukaryotic composition by constructing clone libraries of the 18S rRNA gene. The libraries were dominated by the heterotrophic organisms, alveolates and Rhizaria, which accounted for 46% and 16% of total clones, respectively. MALV-I was the most abundant group in alveolates, and Rhizaria appears to be a key organism in the SCS, particularly within DCM layers. These results indicate that parasitism is significant in the oligotrophic and tropical SCS. Apart from core-dinoflagellates, chlorophytes, haptophytes, cryptophytes and pelagophytes were other important contributors to primary production in pico-sized fraction based on quantitative and qualitative data.

  3. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Is Produced by Emiliania huxleyi Coccolith-Bearing Cells and Triggers a Physiological Response in Bald Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeeuw, Leen; Khey, Joleen; Bramucci, Anna R; Atwal, Harjot; de la Mata, A Paulina; Harynuk, James; Case, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an auxin produced by terrestrial plants which influences development through a variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altering cell orientation, organ development, fertility, and cell elongation. IAA is also produced by bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and algae, allowing them to manipulate growth and development of their host. They do so by either producing excess exogenous IAA or hijacking the IAA biosynthesis pathway of their host. The endogenous production of IAA by algae remains contentious. Using Emiliania huxleyi, a globally abundant marine haptophyte, we investigated the presence and potential role of IAA in algae. Homologs of genes involved in several tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways were identified in E. huxleyi. This suggests that this haptophyte can synthesize IAA using various precursors derived from tryptophan. Addition of L-tryptophan to E. huxleyi stimulated IAA production, which could be detected using Salkowski's reagent and GC × GC-TOFMS in the C cell type (coccolith bearing), but not in the N cell type (bald). Various concentrations of IAA were exogenously added to these two cell types to identify a physiological response in E. huxleyi. The N cell type, which did not produce IAA, was more sensitive to it, showing an increased variation in cell size, membrane permeability, and a corresponding increase in the photosynthetic potential quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII). A roseobacter (bacteria commonly associated with E. huxleyi) Ruegeria sp. R11, previously shown to produce IAA, was co-cultured with E. huxleyi C and N cells. IAA could not be detected from these co-cultures, and even when stimulated by addition of L-tryptophan, they produced less IAA than axenic C type culture similarly induced. This suggests that IAA plays a novel role signaling between different E. huxleyi cell types, rather than between a bacteria and its algal host.

  4. Potential impact of increased temperature and CO2 on particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of elevated sea surface temperature (SST and pCO2 on algal community structure and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp concentrations in the southeastern Bering Sea was examined using a shipboard “Ecostat” continuous culture system. The ecostat system was used to mimic the conditions projected to exist in the world's oceans by the end of this century (i.e. elevated pCO2 (750 ppm and elevated SST (ambient + 4°C. Two experiments were conducted using natural phytoplankton assemblages from the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC central basin and from the middle domain of the southeastern continental shelf. At the HNLC site, the relative abundances of haptophytes and pelagophytes were higher and the relative abundance of diatoms lower under “greenhouse” conditions (i.e. combined 750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature than control conditions (380 ppm CO2 and ambient temperature. This shift in algal community structure was accompanied by increases in DMSPp (2–3 fold, DMSPp:Chl a (2–3 fold and DMSP:PON (2 fold. At the continental shelf site, the changes in the relative abundances of haptophytes, pelagophytes and diatoms under “greenhouse” conditions were similar to those observed at the HNLC site, with 2.5 fold increases in DMSPp, 50–100% increases in DMSPp:Chl a and 1.8 fold increases in DMSP:PON. At both locations, changes in community structure and the DMSPp parameters were largely driven by increasing temperature. The observed changes were also consistent with the phytoplankton-DMS-albedo climate feedback mechanism proposed in the Charlson-Lovelock-Andreae-Warren (CLAW hypothesis.

  5. New perspectives on the functioning and evolution of photosymbiosis in plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decelle, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Photosymbiosis is common and widely distributed in plankton and is considered to be beneficial for both partners (mutualism). Such intimate associations involving heterotrophic hosts and microalgal symbionts have been extensively studied in coral reefs, but in the planktonic realm, the ecology and evolution of photosymbioses remain poorly understood. Acantharia (Radiolaria) are ubiquitous and abundant heterotrophic marine protists, many of which host endosymbiotic microalgae. Two types of photosymbiosis involving acantharians have recently been described using molecular techniques: one found in a single acantharian species involving multiple microalgal partners (dinoflagellates and haptophytes), and the other observed in more than 25 acantharian species exclusively living with the haptophyte Phaeocystis. Contrary to most benthic and terrestrial mutualistic symbioses, these symbiotic associations share the common feature of involving symbionts that are abundant in their free-living stage. We propose a hypothetical framework that may explain this original mode of symbiosis, and discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications. We suggest that photosymbiosis in Acantharia, and probably in other planktonic hosts, may not be a mutualistic relationship but rather an “inverted parasitism,” from which only hosts seem to benefit by sequestrating and exploiting microalgal cells. The relatively small population size of microalgae in hospite would prevent reciprocal evolution that can select uncooperative symbionts, therefore making this horizontally-transmitted association stable over evolutionary time. The more we learn about the diversity of life and the structure of genomes, the more it appears that much of the evolution of biodiversity is about the manipulation of other species—to gain resources and, in turn, to avoid being manipulated (John Thompson, 1999). PMID:23986805

  6. New perspectives on the functioning and evolution of photosymbiosis in plankton: Mutualism or parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decelle, Johan

    2013-07-01

    Photosymbiosis is common and widely distributed in plankton and is considered to be beneficial for both partners (mutualism). Such intimate associations involving heterotrophic hosts and microalgal symbionts have been extensively studied in coral reefs, but in the planktonic realm, the ecology and evolution of photosymbioses remain poorly understood. Acantharia (Radiolaria) are ubiquitous and abundant heterotrophic marine protists, many of which host endosymbiotic microalgae. Two types of photosymbiosis involving acantharians have recently been described using molecular techniques: one found in a single acantharian species involving multiple microalgal partners (dinoflagellates and haptophytes), and the other observed in more than 25 acantharian species exclusively living with the haptophyte Phaeocystis. Contrary to most benthic and terrestrial mutualistic symbioses, these symbiotic associations share the common feature of involving symbionts that are abundant in their free-living stage. We propose a hypothetical framework that may explain this original mode of symbiosis, and discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications. We suggest that photosymbiosis in Acantharia, and probably in other planktonic hosts, may not be a mutualistic relationship but rather an "inverted parasitism," from which only hosts seem to benefit by sequestrating and exploiting microalgal cells. The relatively small population size of microalgae in hospite would prevent reciprocal evolution that can select uncooperative symbionts, therefore making this horizontally-transmitted association stable over evolutionary time. The more we learn about the diversity of life and the structure of genomes, the more it appears that much of the evolution of biodiversity is about the manipulation of other species-to gain resources and, in turn, to avoid being manipulated (John Thompson, 1999).

  7. Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noguchi-Aita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Error-quantified, synoptic-scale relationships between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and phytoplankton pigment groups at the sea surface are presented. A total of ten pigment groups were considered to represent three Phytoplankton Size Classes (PSCs, micro-, nano- and picoplankton and seven Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs, i.e. diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, prymnesiophytes (haptophytes, pico-eukaryotes, prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp.. The observed relationships between Chl-a and PSCs/PFTs were well-defined at the global scale to show that a community shift of phytoplankton at the basin and global scales is reflected by a change in Chl-a of the total community. Thus, Chl-a of the total community can be used as an index of not only phytoplankton biomass but also of their community structure. Within these relationships, we also found non-monotonic variations with Chl-a for certain pico-sized phytoplankton (pico-eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp. and nano-sized phytoplankton (Green algae, prymnesiophytes. The relationships were quantified with a least-square fitting approach in order to enable an estimation of the PFTs from Chl-a where PFTs are expressed as a percentage of the total Chl-a. The estimated uncertainty of the relationships depends on both PFT and Chl-a concentration. Maximum uncertainty of 31.8% was found for diatoms at Chl-a = 0.49 mg m−3. However, the mean uncertainty of the relationships over all PFTs was 5.9% over the entire Chl-a range observed in situ (0.02 < Chl-a < 4.26 mg m−3. The relationships were applied to SeaWiFS satellite Chl-a data from 1998 to 2009 to show the global climatological fields of the surface distribution of PFTs. Results show that microplankton are present in the mid and high latitudes, constituting only ~10.9% of the entire phytoplankton community in the mean field for 1998–2009, in which diatoms explain ~7.5%. Nanoplankton are ubiquitous throughout the global surface oceans

  8. Pelagic community production and carbon-nutrient stoichiometry under variable ocean acidification in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silyakova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Net community production (NCP and carbon to nutrient uptake ratios were studied during a large-scale mesocosm experiment on ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, during June–July 2010. Nutrient depleted fjord water with natural plankton assemblages, enclosed in nine mesocosms of ~ 50 m3 in volume, was exposed to pCO2 levels ranging initially from 185 to 1420 μatm. NCP estimations are the cumulative change in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations after accounting for gas exchange and total alkalinity variations. Stoichiometric coupling between inorganic carbon and nutrient net uptake is shown as a ratio of NCP to a cumulative change in inorganic nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by nutrient addition half way through the experiment and three distinct peaks in chlorophyll a concentration were observed during the experiment. Accordingly, the experiment was divided in three phases. Cumulative NCP was similar in all mesocosms over the duration of the experiment. However, in phases I and II, NCP was higher and in phase III lower at elevated pCO2. Due to relatively low inorganic nutrient concentration in phase I, C : N and C : P uptake ratios were calculated only for the period after nutrient addition (phase II and phase III. For the total post-nutrient period (phase II + phase III ratios were close to Redfield, however they were lower in phase II and higher in phase III. Variability of NCP, C : N and C : P uptake ratios in different phases reflects the effect of increasing CO2 on phytoplankton community composition and succession. The phytoplankton community was composed predominantly of haptophytes in phase I, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes in phase II, and haptophytes, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in phase III (Schulz et al., 2013. Increasing ambient inorganic carbon concentrations have also been shown to promote primary production and carbon assimilation. For this study, it is

  9. Ribosomal RNA analysis indicates a benthic pennate diatom ancestry for the endosymbionts of the dinoflagellates Peridinium foliaceum and Peridinium balticum (Pyrrhophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnick, J M; Kooistra, W H; Wellbrock, U; Medlin, L K

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of chloroplasts as cellular organelles in the dinoflagellate, heterokont (stramenopile), haptophyte, and cryptophyte algae is widely accepted to have been the result of secondary endosymbiotic events, that is, the uptake of a photosynthetic eukaryote by a phagotrophic eukaryote. However, the circumstances that promote such associations between two phylogenetically distinct organisms and result in the integration of their genomes to form a single functional photosynthetic cell is unclear. The dinoflagellates Peridinium foliaceum and Peridinium balticum are unusual in that each contains a membrane-bound eukaryotic heterokont endosymbiont. These symbioses have been interpreted, through data derived from ultrastructural and biochemical investigations, to represent an intermediate stage of secondary endosymbiotic chloroplast acquisition. In this study we have examined the phylogenetic origin of the P. foliaceum and P. balticum heterokont endosymbionts through analysis of their nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate both endosymbionts are pennate diatoms belonging to the family Bacillariaceae. Since members of the Bacillariaceae are usually benthic, living on shallow marine sediments, the manner in which establishment of a symbiosis between a planktonic flagellated dinoflagellate and a bottom-dwelling diatom is discussed. In particular, specific environmentally-associated life strategy stages of the host and symbiont, coupled with diatom food preferences by the dinoflagellate, may have been vital to the formation of this association.

  10. Metabarcoding and metabolome analyses of copepod grazing reveal feeding preference and linkage to metabolite classes in dynamic microbial plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jessica L; Althammer, Julia; Skaar, Katrine S; Simonelli, Paolo; Larsen, Aud; Stoecker, Diane; Sazhin, Andrey; Ijaz, Umer Z; Quince, Christopher; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Frischer, Marc; Pohnert, Georg; Troedsson, Christofer

    2016-11-01

    In order to characterize copepod feeding in relation to microbial plankton community dynamics, we combined metabarcoding and metabolome analyses during a 22-day seawater mesocosm experiment. Nutrient amendment of mesocosms promoted the development of haptophyte (Phaeocystis pouchetii)- and diatom (Skeletonema marinoi)-dominated plankton communities in mesocosms, in which Calanus sp. copepods were incubated for 24 h in flow-through chambers to allow access to prey particles (<500 μm). Copepods and mesocosm water sampled six times spanning the experiment were analysed using metabarcoding, while intracellular metabolite profiles of mesocosm plankton communities were generated for all experimental days. Taxon-specific metabarcoding ratios (ratio of consumed prey to available prey in the surrounding seawater) revealed diverse and dynamic copepod feeding selection, with positive selection on large diatoms, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and fungi, while smaller phytoplankton, including P. pouchetii, were passively consumed or even negatively selected according to our indicator. Our analysis of the relationship between Calanus grazing ratios and intracellular metabolite profiles indicates the importance of carbohydrates and lipids in plankton succession and copepod-prey interactions. This molecular characterization of Calanus sp. grazing therefore provides new evidence for selective feeding in mixed plankton assemblages and corroborates previous findings that copepod grazing may be coupled to the developmental and metabolic stage of the entire prey community rather than to individual prey abundances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, S.F.; Staniewski, M.A.; Short, C.M.; Long, A.M.; Chaban, Y.V.; Short, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145 nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485 kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva's abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1's abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history. - Highlights: • A virus infecting the algae C. parva was isolated from Lake Ontario. • Virus characteristics demonstrated that this novel virus is an NCLDV. • The virus's polB sequence suggests taxonomic affiliation with the Phycodnaviridae. • The virus's capsid protein sequences also suggest Mimiviridae ancestry. • Surveys of host and virus natural abundances revealed complex host–virus dynamics.

  12. Proton-pumping rhodopsins are abundantly expressed by microbial eukaryotes in a high-Arctic fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Anna; Laughinghouse, Haywood D; Griffiths, Colin; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Gabrielsen, Tove M

    2018-02-01

    Proton-pumping rhodopsins provide an alternative pathway to photosynthesis by which solar energy can enter the marine food web. Rhodopsin genes are widely found in marine bacteria, also in the Arctic, and were recently reported from several eukaryotic lineages. So far, little is known about rhodopsin expression in Arctic eukaryotes. In this study, we used metatranscriptomics and 18S rDNA tag sequencing to examine the mid-summer function and composition of marine protists (size 0.45-10 µm) in the high-Arctic Billefjorden (Spitsbergen), especially focussing on the expression of microbial proton-pumping rhodopsins. Rhodopsin transcripts were highly abundant, at a level similar to that of genes involved in photosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses placed the environmental rhodopsins within disparate eukaryotic lineages, including dinoflagellates, stramenopiles, haptophytes and cryptophytes. Sequence comparison indicated the presence of several functional types, including xanthorhodopsins and a eukaryotic clade of proteorhodopsin. Transcripts belonging to the proteorhodopsin clade were also abundant in published metatranscriptomes from other oceanic regions, suggesting a global distribution. The diversity and abundance of rhodopsins show that these light-driven proton pumps play an important role in Arctic microbial eukaryotes. Understanding this role is imperative to predicting the future of the Arctic marine ecosystem faced by a changing light climate due to diminishing sea-ice. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Unusual Δ7,12,19 C35:3 Alkenone Produced by the Mutant Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP2758 in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Dillon, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Alkenones with chain length ranging from C37 to C40 are highly specific biomarkers for certain haptophyte algae in ocean and lake sediments and have been widely used for paleoclimate studies. Short chain alkenones (e.g., C35 and C36) have been found in environmental and culture samples but the origin and structures of these compounds are not fully understood. The benchmark marine alkenone producer, Emiliania huxleyi CCMP2758 strain (the mutant of strain CCMP1742, NEPCC55a) was reported to make 35:2 alkenone when cultured at 15 °C (Prahl et al., 2006). Here we show, when this strain is cultured at lower temperatures (e.g., 4°C), CCMP2758 produces large amount of 35:3 alkenone with unusual double bond positions of Δ7,12,19. We determined the double bond positions of the C35:3 methyl ketonee based on GC-MS analysis of cyclobutylimine derivatives and dimethyl disulfide derivatives respectively, and provide the first temperature calibrations based on the unsaturation ratios of C35 alkenones. Previous studies have found 35:2 alkenone with three methylene interruption in the Black Sea sediment, but it is the first time that an alkenone with a mixed three and five methylene interruption is found. The discovery of short chain alkenones with unusual double bond positions may shed new light to alkenone biosynthesis.

  14. The effect of temperature, salinity and growth rate on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schouten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two haptophyte algae, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, were cultured at different temperatures and salinities to investigate the impact of these factors on the hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones synthesized by these algae. Results showed that alkenones synthesized by G. oceanica were on average depleted in D by 30 compared to those of E. huxleyi when grown under similar temperature and salinity conditions. The fractionation factor, αalkenones-H2O, ranged from 0.760 to 0.815 for E. huxleyi and from 0.741 to 0.788 for G. oceanica. There was no significant correlation of αalkenones-H2O with temperature but a positive linear correlation was observed between αalkenones-H2O and salinity with ~3 change in fractionation per salinity unit and a negative correlation between αalkenones-H2O and growth rate. This suggests that both salinity and growth rate can have a substantial impact on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones in natural environments.

  15. Response of marine viral populations to a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at different pCO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-A. Sandaa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During the PeECE III mesocosm experiment in 2005 we investigated how the virioplankton community responded to increased levels of nutrients (N and P and CO2. We applied a combination of flow cytometry, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and degenerate PCR primers to categorize and quantify individual viral populations, and to investigate their temporal dynamics. Species specific and degenerate primers enabled us to identify two specific large dsDNA viruses, EhV and CeV, infecting the haptophytes Emiliania huxleyi and Crysochromulina ericina, respectively. Some of the viral populations detected and enumerated by flow cytometry did not respond to altered CO2-levels, but the abundance of EhV and an unidentified dsDNA virus decreased with increasing CO2 levels. Our results thus indicate that CO2 conditions, or the related change in pH, may affect the marine pelagic food web at the viral level. Our results also demonstrate that in order to unravel ecological problems as how CO2 and nutrient levels affect the relationship between marine algal viruses and their hosts, we need to continue the effort to develop molecular markers used to identify both hosts and viruses.

  16. Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Betsy A; Kegel, Jessica; Klute, Mary J; Kuo, Alan; Lefebvre, Stephane C; Maumus, Florian; Mayer, Christoph; Miller, John; Monier, Adam; Salamov, Asaf; Young, Jeremy; Aguilar, Maria; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Gonzalez, Karina; Herman, Emily K; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Napier, Johnathan; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Sarno, Analissa F; Shmutz, Jeremy; Schroeder, Declan; de Vargas, Colomban; Verret, Frederic; von Dassow, Peter; Valentin, Klaus; Van de Peer, Yves; Wheeler, Glen; Dacks, Joel B; Delwiche, Charles F; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Glöckner, Gernot; John, Uwe; Richards, Thomas; Worden, Alexandra Z; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2013-07-11

    Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  17. Novel molecular determinants of viral susceptibility and resistance in the lipidome of Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, James M; Fredricks, Helen F; Bidle, Kay D; Vardi, Assaf; Kendrick, B Jacob; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S

    2014-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in controlling the population dynamics of algae, including Emiliania huxleyi, a globally distributed haptophyte with calcite coccoliths that comprise ca. 50% of the sinking carbonate flux from the surface ocean. Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhVs) routinely infect and terminate E. huxleyi blooms. EhVs are surrounded by a lipid envelope, which we found to be comprised largely of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with lesser amounts of polar glycerolipids. Infection appears to involve membrane fusion between the virus and host, and we hypothesized that specific polar lipids may facilitate virus attachment. We identified three novel intact polar lipids in E. huxleyi strain CCMP 374 and EhV86, including a GSL with a monosaccharide sialic acid headgroup (sGSL); for all 11 E. huxleyi strains we tested, there was a direct relationship between sGSL content and sensitivity to infection by EhV1, EhV86 and EhV163. In mesocosms, the E. huxleyi population with greatest initial sGSL content had the highest rate of virus-induced mortality. We propose potential physiological roles for sGSL that would be beneficial for growth but leave cells susceptible to infection, thus furthering the discussion of Red Queen-based co-evolution and the cost(s) of sensitivity and resistance in the dynamic E. huxleyi-EhV system. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  19. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  20. Bioaccumulation of technetium by marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    /sup 95m/Tc, in the IV and VII oxidation states, was added in picomolar quantities to monocultures of seven species of marine phytoplankton, including a green algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta), a diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana), a blue-green alga (Oscillatoria woronichinii), a prasinophyte (Testraselmis chuii), two haptophytes (Emiliania huxleyi and Cricosphaera carterae), and a dinoflagellate (Heterocapsa pygmaea). Cultures were incubated for 4 days, and uptake of Tc was periodically determined by ν spectroscopy of filtered and unfiltered samples. All the Tc remained in the water column in all flasks, but none of the species appreciably concentrated the element in either oxidation state. Mean uptake (measured as the fraction retained on filters) for all species was 0.029% for Tc(IV) and 0.023% for Tc(VII), neither of which was significantly different from the uninoculated control cultures. Wet weight concentration factors never exceeded 20 for any species, 3 orders of magnitude lower than previously reported for phytoplankton and Tc. The results indicate that phytoplankton are likely to have negligble influence on the cycling of Tc in marine systems

  1. Pleurochrysome: A Web Database of Pleurochrysis Transcripts and Orthologs Among Heterogeneous Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shoko; Takatsuka, Yukiko; Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Takano, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Suda, Kunihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Yokoyama, Koji; Shibata, Daisuke; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Pleurochrysis is a coccolithophorid genus, which belongs to the Coccolithales in the Haptophyta. The genus has been used extensively for biological research, together with Emiliania in the Isochrysidales, to understand distinctive features between the two coccolithophorid-including orders. However, molecular biological research on Pleurochrysis such as elucidation of the molecular mechanism behind coccolith formation has not made great progress at least in part because of lack of comprehensive gene information. To provide such information to the research community, we built an open web database, the Pleurochrysome (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/phapt/), which currently stores 9,023 unique gene sequences (designated as UNIGENEs) assembled from expressed sequence tag sequences of P. haptonemofera as core information. The UNIGENEs were annotated with gene sequences sharing significant homology, conserved domains, Gene Ontology, KEGG Orthology, predicted subcellular localization, open reading frames and orthologous relationship with genes of 10 other algal species, a cyanobacterium and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sequence and annotation information can be easily accessed via several search functions. Besides fundamental functions such as BLAST and keyword searches, this database also offers search functions to explore orthologous genes in the 12 organisms and to seek novel genes. The Pleurochrysome will promote molecular biological and phylogenetic research on coccolithophorids and other haptophytes by helping scientists mine data from the primary transcriptome of P. haptonemofera. PMID:26746174

  2. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, S.F. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Staniewski, M.A. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada); Short, C.M. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Long, A.M. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada); Chaban, Y.V. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Short, S.M., E-mail: steven.short@utoronto.ca [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145 nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485 kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva's abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1's abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history. - Highlights: • A virus infecting the algae C. parva was isolated from Lake Ontario. • Virus characteristics demonstrated that this novel virus is an NCLDV. • The virus's polB sequence suggests taxonomic affiliation with the Phycodnaviridae. • The virus's capsid protein sequences also suggest Mimiviridae ancestry. • Surveys of host and virus natural abundances revealed complex host–virus dynamics.

  3. Predicting the risk of toxic blooms of golden alga from cell abundance and environmental covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a toxic haptophyte that has caused considerable ecological damage to marine and inland aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Studies focused primarily on laboratory cultures have indicated that toxicity is poorly correlated with the abundance of golden alga cells. This relationship, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in the field where environmental conditions are much different. The ability to predict toxicity using readily measured environmental variables and golden alga abundance would allow managers rapid assessments of ichthyotoxicity potential without laboratory bioassay confirmation, which requires additional resources to accomplish. To assess the potential utility of these relationships, several a priori models relating lethal levels of golden alga ichthyotoxicity to golden alga abundance and environmental covariates were constructed. Model parameters were estimated using archived data from four river basins in Texas and New Mexico (Colorado, Brazos, Red, Pecos). Model predictive ability was quantified using cross-validation, sensitivity, and specificity, and the relative ranking of environmental covariate models was determined by Akaike Information Criterion values and Akaike weights. Overall, abundance was a generally good predictor of ichthyotoxicity as cross validation of golden alga abundance-only models ranged from ∼ 80% to ∼ 90% (leave-one-out cross-validation). Environmental covariates improved predictions, especially the ability to predict lethally toxic events (i.e., increased sensitivity), and top-ranked environmental covariate models differed among the four basins. These associations may be useful for monitoring as well as understanding the abiotic factors that influence toxicity during blooms.

  4. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.; Gornik, Sebastian G.; Koreny, Ludek; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  5. Hypothesis: Gene-rich plastid genomes in red algae may be an outcome of nuclear genome reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan; Lee, Jun Mo; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2017-06-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) putatively diverged from the eukaryote tree of life >1.2 billion years ago and are the source of plastids in the ecologically important diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates. In general, red algae contain the largest plastid gene inventory among all such organelles derived from primary, secondary, or additional rounds of endosymbiosis. In contrast, their nuclear gene inventory is reduced when compared to their putative sister lineage, the Viridiplantae, and other photosynthetic lineages. The latter is thought to have resulted from a phase of genome reduction that occurred in the stem lineage of Rhodophyta. A recent comparative analysis of a taxonomically broad collection of red algal and Viridiplantae plastid genomes demonstrates that the red algal ancestor encoded ~1.5× more plastid genes than Viridiplantae. This difference is primarily explained by more extensive endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) in the stem lineage of Viridiplantae, when compared to red algae. We postulate that limited EGT in Rhodophytes resulted from the countervailing force of ancient, and likely recurrent, nuclear genome reduction. In other words, the propensity for nuclear gene loss led to the retention of red algal plastid genes that would otherwise have undergone intracellular gene transfer to the nucleus. This hypothesis recognizes the primacy of nuclear genome evolution over that of plastids, which have no inherent control of their gene inventory and can change dramatically (e.g., secondarily non-photosynthetic eukaryotes, dinoflagellates) in response to selection acting on the host lineage. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.

    2015-12-08

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  7. Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean: Regional Simulation and Analysis of C-Sequestration in the Ross Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Arrigo

    2012-03-13

    A modified version of the dynamic 3-dimensional mesoscale Coupled Ice, Atmosphere, and Ocean model (CIAO) of the Ross Sea ecosystem has been used to simulate the impact of environmental perturbations upon primary production and biogenic CO2 uptake. The Ross Sea supports two taxonomically, and spatially distinct phytoplankton populations; the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica and diatoms. Nutrient utilization ratios predict that P. antarctica and diatoms will be driven to nitrate and phosphate limitation, respectively. Model and field data have confirmed that the Ross Sea is iron limited with only two-thirds of the macronutrients consumed by the phytoplankton by the end of the growing season. In this study, the CIAO model was improved to simulate a third macronutrient (phosphate), dissolved organic carbon, air-sea gas exchange, and the carbonate system. This enabled us to effectively model pCO2 and subsequently oceanic CO2 uptake via gas exchange, allowing investigations into the affect of alleviating iron limitation on both pCO2 and nutrient drawdown.

  8. Lipids and Fatty Acids in Algae: Extraction, Fractionation into Lipid Classes, and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of biochemical studies exploring algal lipids and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and profiles, analytical methods used by phycologists for this purpose are often diverse and incompletely described. Potential confusion and potential variability of the results between studies can therefore occur due to change of protocols for lipid extraction and fractionation, as well as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) preparation before gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure for the profiling of neutral and polar lipids using techniques such as solid-liquid extraction (SLE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). As an example, in this protocol chapter, analyses of neutral and polar lipids from the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (an EPA/DHA-rich haptophyte) will be outlined to describe the distribution of fatty acid residues within its major lipid classes. This method has been proven to be a reliable technique to assess changes in lipid and fatty acid profiles in several other microalgal species and seaweeds.

  9. Feeding behaviour of the nauplii of the marine calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars: Functional response, prey size spectrum, and effects of the presence of alternative prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Helenius

    Full Text Available Laboratory feeding experiments were conducted to study the functional response and prey size spectrum of the young naupliar stages of the calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars. Experiments were conducted on a range of microalgal prey of varying sizes and motility patterns. Significant feeding was found in all prey of a size range of 4.5-19.8 μm, with Holling type III functional responses observed for most prey types. The highest clearance rates occurred when nauplii fed on the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa sp. and the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (respectively, 0.61 and 0.70 mL ind-1 d-1, suggesting an optimal prey:predator ratio of 0.09. Additional experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the presence of alternative prey (either Heterocapsa sp. or Gymnodinium litoralis on the functional response to the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. In the bialgal mixtures, clearance and ingestion rates of I. galbana along the range of the functional response were significantly reduced as a result of selectivity towards the larger, alternative prey. Paradoxically, relatively large prey trigger a perception response in the nauplii, but most likely such prey cannot be completely ingested and a certain degree of sloppy feeding may occur. Our results are further evidence of the complex prey-specific feeding interactions that are likely to occur in natural assemblages with several available prey types.

  10. Pan Genome of the Phytoplankton Emiliania Underpins its Global Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Betsy A. [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Kegel, Jessica [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Klute, Mary J. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kuo, Alan [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lefebvre, Stephane C. [J. Craig Venter Inst., San Diego, CA (United States); Maumus, Florian [National Institute of Agricultural Research, Versailles (France); Mayer, Christoph [Alexander Koenig Research Museum, Bonn (Germany); Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany); Miller, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Monier, Adam [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Salamov, Asaf [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Young, Jeremy [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Aguilar, Maria [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Claverie, Jean-Michel [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); Frickenhaus, Stephan [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Univ. of Bremerhaven (Germany); Gonzalez, Karina [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Herman, Emily K. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lin, Yao-Cheng [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Napier, Johnathan [Rothamstead Research, Harpenden (United Kingdom); Ogata, Hiroyuki [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); Sarno, Analissa F. [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Schroeder, Declan [Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth (United Kingdom); de Vargas, Columban [CNRS. Univ. Pierre and Marie Curie (France).; Verret, Frederic [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); von Dassow, Peter [Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Valentin, Klaus [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Van de Peer, Yves [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Wheeler, Glen [Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom); Annotation Consortium, Emiliania huxleyi; Dacks, Joel B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Delwiche, Charles F. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dyhrman, Sonya T. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Glockner, Gernot [Univ. of Cologne (Germany); John, Uwe [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Richards, Thomas [National History Museum, London (United Kingdom); Worden, Alexandra Z. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Zhang, Xiaoyu [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-06-18

    Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering themvisible fromspace3.Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate thatE. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  11. Protists in the polar regions: comparing occurrence in the Arctic and Southern oceans using pyrosequencing

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    Christian Wolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing discussion of the distribution of protists, whether they are globally distributed or endemic to one or both of the polar regions is the subject of heated debate. In this study, we compared next-generation sequencing data from the Arctic and the Southern oceans to reveal the extent of similarities and dissimilarities between the protist communities in the polar regions. We found a total overlap of operational taxonomic units (OTUs between the two regions of 11.2%. On closer inspection of different taxonomic groups, the overlap ranged between 5.5% (haptophytes and 14.5% (alveolates. Within the different groups, the proportion of OTUs occurring in both regions greatly differed between the polar regions. On the one hand, the overlap between these two regions is remarkable, given the geographical distance between them. On the other hand, one could expect a greater overlap of OTUs between these regions on account of the similar environmental conditions. The overlap suggests a connection between the polar regions for at least certain species or that the evolutionary divergence has been slow, relative to the timescales of isolation. The different proportions of common OTUs among the groups or regions may be a result of different life cycle strategies or environmental adaptations.

  12. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  13. Improvement to the PhytoDOAS method for identification of coccolithophores using hyper-spectral satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadeghi

    2012-11-01

    seasonal distributions, especially in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea. The seasonal patterns of the PhytoDOAS coccolithophores indicated very good agreement with the coccolithophore modeled data from the NASA Ocean Biochemical Model (NOBM, as well as with the global distributions of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC, provided by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Aqua level-3 products. Moreover, regarding the fact that coccolithophores belong to the group of haptophytes, the PhytoDOAS seasonal coccolithophores showed good agreement with the global distribution of haptophytes, derived from synoptic pigment relationships applied to SeaWiFS chl a. As a case study, the simultaneous mode of PhytoDOAS has been applied to SCIAMACHY data for detecting a coccolithophore bloom which was consistent with the MODIS RGB image and the MODIS PIC map of the bloom, indicating the functionality of the method also in short-term retrievals.

  14. Evolution of the protists and protistan parasites from the perspective of molecular systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogin, M L; Silberman, J D

    1998-01-01

    Unlike prokaryotes, the Protista are rich in morphological and ultrastructure information. Their amazing phenotypic diversity permits assignment of many protists to cohesive phyletic assemblages but sometimes blurs relationships between major lineages. With the advent of molecular techniques, it became possible to test evolutionary hypotheses that were originally formulated according to shared phenotypic traits. More than any other gene family, studies of rRNAs changed our understanding of protist evolution. Stramenopiles (oomycetes, chrysophytes, phaeophytes, synurophytes, diatoms, xanthophytes, bicosoecids, slime nets) and alveolates (dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates) are two novel, complex evolutionary assemblages which diverged nearly simultaneously with animals, fungi, plants, rhodophytes, haptophytes and a myriad of independent amoeboid lineages. Their separation may have occurred one billion years ago and collectively these lineages make up the "crown" of the eukaryotic tree. Deeper branches in the eukaryotic tree show 16S-like rRNA sequence variation that is much greater than that observed within the Archaea and the Bacteria. A progression of independent protist branches, some as ancient as the divergence between the two prokaryotic domains, preceded the sudden radiation of "crown" groups. Trichomonads, diplomonads and Microsporidia are basal to all other eukaryotes included in rRNA studies. Together with pelobionts, oxymonads, retortamonads and hypermastigids, these amitochondriate taxa comprise the Archaezoa. This skeletal phylogeny suggested that early branching eukaryotes lacked mitochondria, peroxisomes and typical stacked Golgi dictyosomes. However, recent studies of heat shock proteins indicate that the first eukaryotes may have had mitochondria. When evaluated in terms of evolution of ultrastructure, lifestyles and other phenotypic traits, the rRNA phylogenies provide the most consistent of molecular trees. They permit identification of the

  15. Evaluation of growth, cell size and biomass of Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO with two LED regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Victor Cordoba-Matson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to crops, there are fewer studies using LED-based light with green microalgae and none cultivating the microalga Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO even though of its importance in marine aquaculture. The objective was to evaluate of white and red LEDs as an alternative source of light to cultivate I. aff. galbana (T-ISO. In order to carry this out white and red LEDs were used with a laboratory built Erlenmeyer-type photobioreactor to determine productivity, cell number and size and biomass composition. Results were compared with standard fluorescent lights of the same light intensity. The culture system consisted of 3 flasks for applying red LEDs and three for white LEDs and 3 control group flasks illuminated with the normal fluorescent lighting at the similar light intensity of ~60 mM m–2 s–1. It was found that the population cell density did not significantly increase with either red LEDs or white LEDs (p > 0.05, if at all. Standard fluorescent lighting (control group showed significant increases in population cell number (p < 0.05. Through microscopic observation cell size was found to be smaller for white LEDS and even smaller for red LEDs compared to fluorescent lighting. Biochemical composition of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids was similar for all light regimes. The authors suggest that the unexpected non-growth I. aff. galbana (T-ISO, a haptophyte microalga, with white and red LEDs is possibly due to fact that to initiate cell growth this microalgae requires other wavelengths (possibly green besides red and blue, to allow other pigments, probably fucoxanthin, to capture light

  16. Early Spring Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Erickson, Zachary K.; Lewis, Kate M.; Lowry, Kate E.; Joy-Warren, Hannah L.; Middag, Rob; Nash-Arrigo, Janice E.; Selz, Virginia; van de Poll, Willem

    2017-12-01

    The Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research program has sampled waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP) annually each summer since 1990. However, information about the wAP prior to the peak of the phytoplankton bloom in January is sparse. Here we present results from a spring process cruise that sampled the wAP in the early stages of phytoplankton bloom development in 2014. Sea ice concentrations were high on the shelf relative to nonshelf waters, especially toward the south. Macronutrients were high and nonlimiting to phytoplankton growth in both shelf and nonshelf waters, while dissolved iron concentrations were high only on the shelf. Phytoplankton were in good physiological condition throughout the wAP, although biomass on the shelf was uniformly low, presumably because of heavy sea ice cover. In contrast, an early stage phytoplankton bloom was observed beneath variable sea ice cover just seaward of the shelf break. Chlorophyll a concentrations in the bloom reached 2 mg m-3 within a 100-150 km band between the SBACC and SACCF. The location of the bloom appeared to be controlled by a balance between enhanced vertical mixing at the position of the two fronts and increased stratification due to melting sea ice between them. Unlike summer, when diatoms overwhelmingly dominate the phytoplankton population of the wAP, the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica dominated in spring, although diatoms were common. These results suggest that factors controlling phytoplankton abundance and composition change seasonally and may differentially affect phytoplankton populations as environmental conditions within the wAP region continue to change.

  17. Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Sebastien; Jeudy, Sandra; Bartoli, Julia; Poirot, Olivier; Lescot, Magali; Abergel, Chantal; Barbe, Valérie; Wommack, K. Eric; Noordeloos, Anna A. M.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T–predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya. PMID:23754393

  18. Transcriptome analysis of functional differentiation between haploid and diploid cells of Emiliania huxleyi, a globally significant photosynthetic calcifying cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotes are classified as either haplontic, diplontic, or haplo-diplontic, depending on which ploidy levels undergo mitotic cell division in the life cycle. Emiliania huxleyi is one of the most abundant phytoplankton species in the ocean, playing an important role in global carbon fluxes, and represents haptophytes, an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms that diverged early in eukaryotic evolution. This species is haplo-diplontic. Little is known about the haploid cells, but they have been hypothesized to allow persistence of the species between the yearly blooms of diploid cells. We sequenced over 38,000 expressed sequence tags from haploid and diploid E. huxleyi normalized cDNA libraries to identify genes involved in important processes specific to each life phase (2N calcification or 1N motility), and to better understand the haploid phase of this prominent haplo-diplontic organism. Results The haploid and diploid transcriptomes showed a dramatic differentiation, with approximately 20% greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells than in haploid cells and only ≤ 50% of transcripts estimated to be common between the two phases. The major functional category of transcripts differentiating haploids included signal transduction and motility genes. Diploid-specific transcripts included Ca2+, H+, and HCO3- pumps. Potential factors differentiating the transcriptomes included haploid-specific Myb transcription factor homologs and an unusual diploid-specific histone H4 homolog. Conclusions This study permitted the identification of genes likely involved in diploid-specific biomineralization, haploid-specific motility, and transcriptional control. Greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells suggests they may be more versatile for exploiting a diversity of rich environments whereas haploid cells are intrinsically more streamlined. PMID:19832986

  19. Phytoplankton communities and acclimation in a cyclonic eddy in the southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R.; Lamont, T.; Gibberd, M.-J.; Airs, R.; Jacobs, L.; Britz, K.

    2017-06-01

    A study of phytoplankton in a cyclonic eddy was undertaken in the Mozambique Basin between Madagascar and southern Africa during austral winter. CHEMTAX analysis of pigment data indicated that the community comprised mainly haptophytes and diatoms, with Prochlorococcus, prasinophytes and pelagophytes also being prominent to the east and west of the eddy. There was little difference in community structure, chlorophyll-specific absorption [a*ph(440)] and pigment:TChla ratios between the surface and the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), reflecting acclimation to fluctuating light conditions in a well mixed upper layer. Values for a*ph(440) were low for diatom dominance, high where prokaryote proportion was high, and intermediate for flagellate dominated communities. Chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin:TChla ratios were elevated over most of the eddy, while 19‧-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin ratios increased in the eastern and western sectors. In a community comprising mainly flagellates and Prochlorococcus to the west of the eddy, there was high a*ph(440) at the surface and elevated ratios for divinyl chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and 19‧-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin at the SCM. An increase in diadinoxanthin:TChla ratios and a decline in the quantum efficiency of photochemistry in PSII under high light conditions, indicated some photoprotection and photoinhibition at the surface even in a well mixed environment. Diadinoxanthin was the main photoprotective carotenoid within the eddy, while zeaxanthin was the dominant photoprotective pigment outside the eddy. The results of this study will be useful inputs into appropriate remote sensing models for estimating primary production and the size class distribution of phytoplankton in eddies in the southwest Indian Ocean.

  20. Formation of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter by Bacterial Degradation of Phytoplankton-Derived Aggregates

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    Joanna D. Kinsey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter produced and released by phytoplankton during growth is processed by heterotrophic bacterial communities that transform dissolved organic matter into biomass and recycle inorganic nutrients, fueling microbial food web interactions. Bacterial transformation of phytoplankton-derived organic matter also plays a poorly known role in the formation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM which is ubiquitous in the ocean. Despite the importance of organic matter cycling, growth of phytoplankton and activities of heterotrophic bacterial communities are rarely measured in concert. To investigate CDOM formation mediated by microbial processing of phytoplankton-derived aggregates, we conducted growth experiments with non-axenic monocultures of three diatoms (Skeletonema grethae, Leptocylindrus hargravesii, Coscinodiscus sp. and one haptophyte (Phaeocystis globosa. Phytoplankton biomass, carbon concentrations, CDOM and base-extracted particulate organic matter (BEPOM fluorescence, along with bacterial abundance and hydrolytic enzyme activities (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, leucine-aminopeptidase were measured during exponential growth and stationary phase (~3–6 weeks and following 6 weeks of degradation. Incubations were performed in rotating glass bottles to keep cells suspended, promoting cell coagulation and, thus, formation of macroscopic aggregates (marine snow, more similar to surface ocean processes. Maximum carbon concentrations, enzyme activities, and BEPOM fluorescence occurred during stationary phase. Net DOC concentrations (0.19–0.46 mg C L−1 increased on the same order as open ocean concentrations. CDOM fluorescence was dominated by protein-like signals that increased throughout growth and degradation becoming increasingly humic-like, implying the production of more complex molecules from planktonic-precursors mediated by microbial processing. Our experimental results suggest that at least a portion of open

  1. Oxygenated volatile organic carbon in the western Pacific convective center: ocean cycling, air-sea gas exchange and atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlundt, Cathleen; Tegtmeier, Susann; Lennartz, Sinikka T.; Bracher, Astrid; Cheah, Wee; Krüger, Kirstin; Quack, Birgit; Marandino, Christa A.

    2017-09-01

    A suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs - acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal and butanone) were measured concurrently in the surface water and atmosphere of the South China Sea and Sulu Sea in November 2011. A strong correlation was observed between all OVOC concentrations in the surface seawater along the entire cruise track, except for acetaldehyde, suggesting similar sources and sinks in the surface ocean. Additionally, several phytoplankton groups, such as haptophytes or pelagophytes, were also correlated to all OVOCs, indicating that phytoplankton may be an important source of marine OVOCs in the South China and Sulu seas. Humic- and protein-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) components seemed to be additional precursors for butanone and acetaldehyde. The measurement-inferred OVOC fluxes generally showed an uptake of atmospheric OVOCs by the ocean for all gases, except for butanal. A few important exceptions were found along the Borneo coast, where OVOC fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere were inferred. The atmospheric OVOC mixing ratios over the northern coast of Borneo were relatively high compared with literature values, suggesting that this coastal region is a local hotspot for atmospheric OVOCs. The calculated amount of OVOCs entrained into the ocean seemed to be an important source of OVOCs to the surface ocean. When the fluxes were out of the ocean, marine OVOCs were found to be enough to control the locally measured OVOC distribution in the atmosphere. Based on our model calculations, at least 0.4 ppb of marine-derived acetone and butanone can reach the upper troposphere, where they may have an important influence on hydrogen oxide radical formation over the western Pacific Ocean.

  2. Microplanktonic community structure in a coastal system relative to a Phaeocystis bloom inferred from morphological and tag pyrosequencing methods.

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    Sébastien Monchy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive phytoplankton blooms, like the recurrent Phaeocystis proliferation observed every year in the Eastern English Channel (EEC, have a significant influence on the overall planktonic community structure and their food web dynamics. As well as being an important area for local fisheries, the EEC is an ideal ecosystem for work on microbial diversity. This is because, although its environmental context is relatively complex, it is reasonably well understood due to several years of monitoring and morphological observations of its planktonic organisms. The objective of our study was to better understand the under-explored microbial eukaryotic diversity relative to the Phaeocystis bloom. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The community structure of microplankton (diatoms, haptophytes, ciliates and dinoflagellates was studied through morphological observations and tag pyrosequencing. During the annual Phaeocystis spring bloom, the phytoplankton biomass increased by 34-fold, while the microzooplankton biomass showed a 4-fold increase, representing on average about 4.6% of the biomass of their phytoplankton prey. Tag pyrosequencing unveiled an extensive diversity of Gymnodiniaceae, with G. spirale and G. fusiformis representing the most abundant reads. An extended diversity of Phaeocystales, with partial 18S rDNA genes sequence identity as low as 85% was found, with taxa corresponding to P. globosa, but also to unknown Phaeocystaceae. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological analyses and pyrosequencing were generally in accordance with capturing frequency shifts of abundant taxa. Tag pyrosequencing allowed highlighting the maintenance of microplankton diversity during the Phaeocystis bloom and the increase of the taxa presenting low number of reads (minor taxa along with the dominant ones in response to biotic and/or abiotic changing conditions. Although molecular approaches have enhanced our perception on diversity, it has come to light that the

  3. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

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    Cheong Xin Chan

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters (MTs facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT. Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%. Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely

  4. The effects of chemical additives on the production of disinfection byproducts and ecotoxicity in simulated ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Cha, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Tae Seop; Lee, Jungsuk; Kim, Young-Hee; Bae, Minjung; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-11-01

    The management of ship ballast water is essential to stemming the introduction of non-indigenous species. Approval for onboard installation of a system to treat ballast water requires rigorous land-based testing as dictated in the G8 guideline by the International Maritime Organization. However, this testing lacks standardization-most notably augmentation of organic carbon for influent water by adding chemical additives. Electrochlorination is a popular treatment method for ballast water, in which chlorinated oxidants react with organisms and organic matter in water. The additives could thus affect the treatment efficacy of the ballast water. Here, we examined the effects of several candidates of organic carbon additives on the consumption of total residual oxidant (TRO), the production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), plankton survival, and ecotoxicity. The TRO consumption over five days of storage was higher in electrochlorinated seawater amended with lignin and Metamucil when compared with seawaters with other organic carbon compounds. DBP production varied by almost two orders of magnitude as a function of the various additives. This was largely attributed to the production of tribromomethane and dibromoacetic acid. The survival of Artemia franciscana was significantly different across waters of different organic carbon additives. Algal toxicity testing with the marine haptophyte Isochrysis galbana significantly reduced growth in lignin- and Metamucil-treated seawaters, but not with other organic carbon compounds. Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri sharply declined in electrochlorinated seawaters with all types of organic carbon compounds, but no toxicity was manifested once the electrochlorinated seawaters were neutralized with sodium thiosulfate. The varying degrees of outcome suggest that it might be better to eliminate the requirements of adding organic carbon to test water as long as natural water was used for land-based testing of BWMS. If needed, the

  5. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm, yielding pH values (on the total scale from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1 prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2 first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3 second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs: 44–60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  6. Phosphorus physiological ecology and molecular mechanisms in marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senjie; Litaker, Richard Wayne; Sunda, William G

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and indeed all life forms. Current data show that P availability is growth-limiting in certain marine systems and can impact algal species composition. Available P occurs in marine waters as dissolved inorganic phosphate (primarily orthophosphate [Pi]) or as a myriad of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds. Despite numerous studies on P physiology and ecology and increasing research on genomics in marine phytoplankton, there have been few attempts to synthesize information from these different disciplines. This paper is aimed to integrate the physiological and molecular information on the acquisition, utilization, and storage of P in marine phytoplankton and the strategies used by these organisms to acclimate and adapt to variations in P availability. Where applicable, we attempt to identify gaps in our current knowledge that warrant further research and examine possible metabolic pathways that might occur in phytoplankton from well-studied bacterial models. Physical and chemical limitations governing cellular P uptake are explored along with physiological and molecular mechanisms to adapt and acclimate to temporally and spatially varying P nutrient regimes. Topics covered include cellular Pi uptake and feedback regulation of uptake systems, enzymatic utilization of DOP, P acquisition by phagotrophy, P-limitation of phytoplankton growth in oceanic and coastal waters, and the role of P-limitation in regulating cell size and toxin levels in phytoplankton. Finally, we examine the role of P and other nutrients in the transition of phytoplankton communities from early succession species (diatoms) to late succession ones (e.g., dinoflagellates and haptophytes). © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  7. DMSP and DMS dynamics and microzooplankton grazing in the Labrador Sea: application of the dilution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Levasseur, Maurice; Cantin, Guy; Michaud, Sonia

    2000-12-01

    We adapted the dilution technique to study microzooplankton grazing of algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) vs. Chl a, and to estimate the impact of microzooplankton grazing on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Labrador Sea. Phytoplankton numbers were dominated by autotrophic nanoflagellates in the Labrador basin, but diatoms and colonial Phaeocystis pouchetii contributed significantly to phytomass at several high chlorophyll stations and on the Newfoundland and Greenland shelfs. Throughout the region, growth of algal Chl a and DMSP was generally high (0.2-1 d -1), but grazing rates were lower and more variable, characteristic of the early spring bloom period. Production and consumption of Chl a vs. DMSP followed no clear pattern, and sometimes diverged greatly, likely because of their differing distributions among algal prey taxa and size class. In several experiments where Phaeocystis was abundant, we observed DMS production proportional to grazing rate, and we found clear evidence of DMS production by this haptophyte following physical stress such as sparging or filtration. It is possible that grazing-activated DMSP cleavage by Phaeocystis contributes to grazer deterrence: protozoa and copepods apparently avoided healthy colonies (as judged by relative growth and grazing rates of Chl a and DMSP), and grazing of Phaeocystis was significant only at one station where cells were in poor condition. Although we hoped to examine selective grazing on or against DMSP-containing algal prey, the dilution technique cannot differentiate selective ingestion and varying digestion rates of Chl a and DMSP. We also found that the dilution method alone was poorly suited for assessing the impact of grazing on dissolved sulfur pools, because of rapid microbial consumption and the artifactual release of DMSP and DMS during filtration. Measuring and understanding the many processes affecting organosulfur cycling by the microbial food web in natural populations remain a

  8. On the Relationship Between Hydrogen Saturation in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean and Nitrogen Fixation by the Symbiotic Diazotroph UCYN-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. M.; Grefe, I.; Zorz, J.; Shan, S.; Thompson, K.; Ratten, J.; LaRoche, J.

    2018-04-01

    Dissolved hydrogen measurements were made at high resolution in surface waters along a tropical north Atlantic transect between Guadeloupe and Cape Verde in 2015 (Meteor 116). Parallel water samples acquired to assess the relative abundance of the nifH gene from several types of diazotrophs, indicated that Trichodesmium and UCYN-A were dominant in this region. We show that a high degree of correlation exists between the hydrogen saturations and UCYN-A nifH abundance, and a weak correlation with Trichodesmium. The findings suggest that nitrogen fixation by UCYN-A is a major contributor to hydrogen supersaturations in this region of the ocean. The ratio of hydrogen released to nitrogen fixed has not been determined for this symbiont, but the indications are that it may be high in comparison with the small number of diazotrophs for which the ratio has been measured in laboratory cultures. We speculate that this would be consistent with the diazotroph being an exosymbiont on its haptophyte host. Our high resolution measurements of hydrogen concentrations are capable of illustrating the time and space scales of inferred activity of diazotrophs in near real-time in a way that cannot be achieved by biological sampling and rate measurements requiring incubations with 15N2. Direct measurement of high resolution spatial variability would be relatively challenging through collection and analysis of biological samples by qPCR, and extremely challenging by 15N-uptake techniques, neither of which methods yields real-time data. Nonetheless, determination of fixation rates still firmly depends on the established procedure of incubations in the presence of 15N2.

  9. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  10. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC RIVER PLUMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL, JOHN H

    2013-06-21

    nutrient input. The offshore ORP was characterized by haptophyte and in places Prochlorococcus carbon fixation gene expression in surface water, with greater heterokont rbcL RNA at SCM depths. MODIS satellite chlorophyll-a data implied a plume of high chlorophyll water far into the eastern Caribbean, yet field observations did not support this, most likely because of high levels of colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM) in the ORP. The presence of pelagic nitrogen fixers (Trichodesmium and cyanobacterial diatom endosymbionts) most likely provided N for the offshore MRP production. The results underscore the importance of oceanic river plumes as sinks for CO2 and the need for their incorporation in global carbon models as well as estimates of CO2 sequestration.

  11. Global marine plankton functional type biomass distributions: Phaeocystis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Widdicombe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The planktonic haptophyte Phaeocystis has been suggested to play a fundamental role in the global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulphur, but little is known about its global biomass distribution. We have collected global microscopy data of the genus Phaeocystis and converted abundance data to carbon biomass using species-specific carbon conversion factors. Microscopic counts of single-celled and colonial Phaeocystis were obtained both through the mining of online databases and by accepting direct submissions (both published and unpublished from Phaeocystis specialists. We recorded abundance data from a total of 1595 depth-resolved stations sampled between 1955–2009. The quality-controlled dataset includes 5057 counts of individual Phaeocystis cells resolved to species level and information regarding life-stages from 3526 samples. 83% of stations were located in the Northern Hemisphere while 17% were located in the Southern Hemisphere. Most data were located in the latitude range of 50–70° N. While the seasonal distribution of Northern Hemisphere data was well-balanced, Southern Hemisphere data was biased towards summer months. Mean species- and form-specific cell diameters were determined from previously published studies. Cell diameters were used to calculate the cellular biovolume of Phaeocystis cells, assuming spherical geometry. Cell biomass was calculated using a carbon conversion factor for prymnesiophytes. For colonies, the number of cells per colony was derived from the colony volume. Cell numbers were then converted to carbon concentrations. An estimation of colonial mucus carbon was included a posteriori, assuming a mean colony size for each species. Carbon content per cell ranged from 9 pg C cell−1 (single-celled Phaeocystis antarctica to 29 pg C cell−1 (colonial Phaeocystis globosa. Non-zero Phaeocystis cell biomasses (without mucus carbon range from 2.9 × 10−5 to 5.4 × 103 μg C l−1, with a mean of 45.7 μg C

  12. A survey of the summer coccolithophore community in the western Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Jacques; Hulot, Vivien; Hanquiez, Vincent; Devaux, Ludovic; Howa, Hélène; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    The Barents Sea is particularly vulnerable to large-scale hydro-climatic changes associated with the polar amplification of climate change. Key oceanographical variables in this region are the seasonal development of sea-ice and the location and strength of physico-chemical gradients in the surface and subsurface water layers induced by the convergence of Arctic- and Atlantic-derived water masses. Remote sensing imagery have highlighted the increasing success of calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) in the summer phytoplankton production of the Barents Sea over the last 20 years, as a response to an overall larger contribution of Atlantic waters to surface and sub-surface waters, as well as to enhanced sea-ice melt-induced summer stratification of the photic layer. The present study provides a first thorough description of coccolithophore standing stocks and diversity over the shelf and slope of the western Barents Sea from two sets of surface and water column samples collected during August-September 2014 from northern Norway to southern Svalbard. The abundance and composition of coccolithophore cells and skeletal remains (coccoliths) are discussed in view of the physical-chemical-biological status of the surface waters and water column based on in-situ (temperature, salinity, fluorescence) and shore-based (microscope enumerations, chemotaxonomy) measurements, as well as satellite-derived data (Chl a and particulate inorganic carbon contents). The coccolithophore population is characterized by a low species diversity and the overwhelming dominance of Emiliania huxleyi. Coccolithophores are abundant both within the well stratified, Norwegian coastal water - influenced shallow mixed layer off northern Norway, as well as within well-mixed cool Atlantic water in close vicinity of the Polar Front. Bloom concentrations with standing stocks larger than 4 million cells/l are recorded in the latter area north of 75°N. Our limited set of chemotaxonomic data suggests

  13. Application of Alkenone 14C-Based chronostratigraphy in carbonate barren sediments on the Peru Margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, M. J.; Altabet, M. A.; Herbert, T. D.

    2003-04-01

    Despite the availability of high-quality sediment cores in key locations, little paleoclimatic information exists for the Peru margin largely because poor carbonate preservation severely restricts the use of traditional carbonate-based proxies for stratigraphy, dating, and paleo-environmental reconstruction. Many sites also include hiatuses produced by the variable influence of undercurrents on sediment accumulation. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed (in collaboration with T. Eglinton, WHOI) a laboratory facility to successfully extract and purify haptophyte-derived alkenones for compound specific 14C AMS dating (modified from OHKOUCHI et al., 2002). This avoids potential problems with dating bulk organic carbon which we assume, even in an upwelling environment as highly productive as the Peru margin, is not a priori solely of marine origin. In a recently collected, mid-Peru Margin core (ODP Leg 201 Site 1228D), comparison of our alkenone 14C dates with bulk sediment organic carbon dates and known stratigraphic markers produces a very well constrained, curvilinear age-depth relationship for at least the last 14 Kyr. A discrete ash layer at Site 1228D with an adjacent alkenone 14C age of 3890 ± 350 yr, is within error identical to the 14C age of a prominent ash layer (3800 ± 50 yr) found west of the large Peruvian El Misti volcano (16^o18'S, 71^o24'W). In summary, these results show that the Peru margin alkenones are autochthonous (i.e. not from an older, distant source) and provide sufficient dating precision to permit, for the first time, high-resolution paleoceanographic studies in this highly important marine province. Based upon this new chronology, synchronous changes in alkenone-derived SST estimates in two of our independently-dated records are the first to record at high-resolution (a) a large LGM-Holocene SST range in the Tropics (up to 7.8 ^oC during brief events in this upwelling location); and (b) sharp coolings (4 ^oC) consistent with

  14. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  15. A New Biomarker Proxy for Palaeo-pCO2 Reconstruction in Ancient Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, R. D.; Magness, S.; Maxwell, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of marine organic matter has commonly been used in chemostratigraphy or as a proxy for ancient pCO2 levels. Both of these goals require that the source of organic matter be well defined, and in the case of palaeo-pCO2 investigations, the organic matter must be derived ultimately from aquatic photoautotrophs. However, additional sources, including terrestrial biomass, heterotrophs, or bacteria, can also contribute to total organic carbon (TOC). In the past decade, numerous workers have attempted to refine organic carbon isotope records using the isotopic composition of individual compounds (biomarkers) rather than the TOC. The appeal of this approach is that by examining specific biomarkers, a signal diagnostic for photoautotrophic organisms can be obtained. For compound-specific isotope analyses to be most effective, the compounds analysed must have a relatively specific source. Among the most commonly used biomarkers in palaeo-pCO2 investigations are alkenones, long-chain ketones derived exclusively from certain species of haptophyte algae. However, alkenones are absent in rocks older than the Jurassic and either absent or present in low abundances in rocks older than the Miocene. Thus, in older rocks, other biomarkers, including steranes (derived from eukaryotic sterols), phytane (presumably derived from chlorophyll), and n-alkanes (derived from algal macromolecules), are used. Unfortunately, these compounds can have alternative sources and become less reliable as isotopic proxies for photoautotrophs with increasing thermal maturity and complexity of the hydrocarbon distribution. Here we propose the use of a maleimides (1H-pyrrole-2,5-diones) as a new biomarker class for evaluating past changes in photoautotroph carbon isotopic compositions. Maleimides have three key advantages over other biomarkers in ancient rocks. First, they are degradation products of chlorophyll and have no known alternative origins in marine sediments

  16. Assessing Drivers of Coastal Primary Production in Northern Marguerite Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Rozema

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal ocean of the climatically-sensitive west Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing changes in the physical and (photochemical properties that strongly affect the phytoplankton. Consequently, a shift from diatoms, pivotal in the Antarctic food web, to more mobile and smaller flagellates has been observed. We seek to identify the main drivers behind primary production (PP without any assumptions beforehand to obtain the best possible model of PP. We employed a combination of field measurements and modeling to discern and quantify the influences of variability in physical, (photochemical, and biological parameters on PP in northern Marguerite Bay. Field data of high-temporal resolution (November 2013–March 2014 collected at a long-term monitoring site here were combined with estimates of PP derived from photosynthesis-irradiance incubations and modeled using mechanistic and statistical models. Daily PP varied greatly and averaged 1,764 mg C m−2 d−1 with a maximum of 6,908 mg C m−2 d−1 after the melting of sea ice and the likely release of diatoms concentrated therein. A non-assumptive random forest model (RF with all possibly relevant parameters (MRFmax showed that variability in PP was best explained by light availability and chlorophyll a followed by physical (temperature, mixed layer depth, and salinity and chemical (phosphate, total nitrogen, and silicate water column properties. The predictive power from the relative abundances of diatoms, cryptophytes, and haptophytes (as determined by pigment fingerprinting to PP was minimal. However, the variability in PP due to changes in species composition was most likely underestimated due to the contrasting strategies of these phytoplankton groups as we observed significant negative relations between PP and the relative abundance of flagellates groups. Our reduced model (MRFmin showed how light availability, chlorophyll a, and total nitrogen concentrations can be used to obtain the best

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J B; Larsen, A; Bratbak, G; Sandaa, R-A

    2008-05-01

    Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this

  18. Discriminating Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) in the Coastal Ocean Using the Inversion Algorithm Phydotax and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Schafer, Chris; Broughton, Jennifer; Guild, Liane S.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  19. The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: Ecology,evolution, and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrust, E.V.; Berges, J.; Bowler, C.; Green, B.; Martinez, D.; Putnam, N.; Zhou, S.; Allen, A.; Apt, K.; Bechner, M.; Brzezinski, M.; Chaal, B.; Chiovitti, A.; Davis, A.; Goodstein, D.; Hadi, M.; Hellsten,U.; Hildebrand, M.; Jenkins, B.; Jurka, J.; Kapitonov, V.; Kroger, N.; Lau, W.; Lane, T.; Larimer, F.; Lippmeier, J.; Lucas, S.; Medina, M.; Montsant, A.; Obornik, M.; Parker, M. Schnitzler; Palenik, B.; Pazour,G.; Richardson, P.; Rynearson, T.; Saito, M.; Schwartz, D.; Thamatrakoln,K.; Valentin, K.; Vardi, A.; Wilkerson, F.; Rokhsar, D.; Vardi, A.; Wilkerson, F.P.; Rokhsar, D.S.

    2004-09-01

    different evolutionary history from the higher plants that dominate photosynthesis on land. Higher plants and green, red and glaucophyte algae are derived from a primary endosymbiotic event in which a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing (or being invaded by) a prokaryotic cyanobacterium. In contrast, dominant bloom-forming eukaryotic phytoplankton in the ocean, such as diatoms and haptophytes, were derived by secondary endosymbiosis whereby a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing a photosynthetic eukaryote, probably a red algal endosymbiont (Fig. 1). Each endosymbiotic event led to new combinations of genes derived from the hosts and endosymbionts (7). Prior to this project, relatively few diatom genes had been sequenced, few chromosome numbers were known, and genetic maps did not exist (8). The ecological and evolutionary importance of diatoms motivated our sequencing and analysis of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.