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Sample records for haptic feedback device

  1. Haptic force-feedback devices for the office computer: performance and musculoskeletal loading issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, J T; Yang, M C

    2001-01-01

    Pointing devices, essential input tools for the graphical user interface (GUI) of desktop computers, require precise motor control and dexterity to use. Haptic force-feedback devices provide the human operator with tactile cues, adding the sense of touch to existing visual and auditory interfaces. However, the performance enhancements, comfort, and possible musculoskeletal loading of using a force-feedback device in an office environment are unknown. Hypothesizing that the time to perform a task and the self-reported pain and discomfort of the task improve with the addition of force feedback, 26 people ranging in age from 22 to 44 years performed a point-and-click task 540 times with and without an attractive force field surrounding the desired target. The point-and-click movements were approximately 25% faster with the addition of force feedback (paired t-tests, p user discomfort and pain, as measured through a questionnaire, were also smaller with the addition of force feedback (p device improves performance, and potentially reduces musculoskeletal loading during mouse use. Actual or potential applications of this research include human-computer interface design, specifically that of the pointing device extensively used for the graphical user interface.

  2. Interacting with the biomolecular solvent accessible surface via a haptic feedback device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Steven

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the 1950s computer based renderings of molecules have been produced to aid researchers in their understanding of biomolecular structure and function. A major consideration for any molecular graphics software is the ability to visualise the three dimensional structure of the molecule. Traditionally, this was accomplished via stereoscopic pairs of images and later realised with three dimensional display technologies. Using a haptic feedback device in combination with molecular graphics has the potential to enhance three dimensional visualisation. Although haptic feedback devices have been used to feel the interaction forces during molecular docking they have not been used explicitly as an aid to visualisation. Results A haptic rendering application for biomolecular visualisation has been developed that allows the user to gain three-dimensional awareness of the shape of a biomolecule. By using a water molecule as the probe, modelled as an oxygen atom having hard-sphere interactions with the biomolecule, the process of exploration has the further benefit of being able to determine regions on the molecular surface that are accessible to the solvent. This gives insight into how awkward it is for a water molecule to gain access to or escape from channels and cavities, indicating possible entropic bottlenecks. In the case of liver alcohol dehydrogenase bound to the inhibitor SAD, it was found that there is a channel just wide enough for a single water molecule to pass through. Placing the probe coincident with crystallographic water molecules suggests that they are sometimes located within small pockets that provide a sterically stable environment irrespective of hydrogen bonding considerations. Conclusion By using the software, named HaptiMol ISAS (available from http://www.haptimol.co.uk, one can explore the accessible surface of biomolecules using a three-dimensional input device to gain insights into the shape and water

  3. Conceptual Design of Haptic-Feedback Navigation Device for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Me, Rosalam; Biamonti, Alessandro; Mohd Saad, Mohd Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Wayfinding ability in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressively impaired due to ageing and deterioration of cognitive domains. Usually, the sense of direction is deteriorated as visuospatial and spatial cognition are associated with the sensory acuity. Therefore, navigation systems that support only visual interactions may not be appropriate in case of AD. This paper presents a concept of wearable navigation device that integrates the haptic-feedback technology to facilitate the wayfinding of individuals with AD. The system provides the simplest instructions; left/right using haptic signals, as to avoid users' distraction during navigation. The advantages of haptic/tactile modality for wayfinding purpose based on several significant studies are presented. As preliminary assessment, a survey is conducted to understand the potential of this design concept in terms of (1) acceptability, (2) practicality, (3) wearability, and (4) environmental settings. Results indicate that the concept is highly acceptable and commercially implementable. A working prototype will be developed based on the results of the preliminary assessment. Introducing a new method of navigation should be followed by continuous practices for familiarization purpose. Improved navigability allows the good performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) hence maintain the good quality of life in older adults with AD.

  4. Safe Local Navigation for Visually Impaired Users With a Time-of-Flight and Haptic Feedback Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzschmann, Robert K; Araki, Brandon; Rus, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents ALVU (Array of Lidars and Vibrotactile Units), a contactless, intuitive, hands-free, and discreet wearable device that allows visually impaired users to detect low- and high-hanging obstacles, as well as physical boundaries in their immediate environment. The solution allows for safe local navigation in both confined and open spaces by enabling the user to distinguish free space from obstacles. The device presented is composed of two parts: a sensor belt and a haptic strap. The sensor belt is an array of time-of-flight distance sensors worn around the front of a user's waist, and the pulses of infrared light provide reliable and accurate measurements of the distances between the user and surrounding obstacles or surfaces. The haptic strap communicates the measured distances through an array of vibratory motors worn around the user's upper abdomen, providing haptic feedback. The linear vibration motors are combined with a point-loaded pretensioned applicator to transmit isolated vibrations to the user. We validated the device's capability in an extensive user study entailing 162 trials with 12 blind users. Users wearing the device successfully walked through hallways, avoided obstacles, and detected staircases.

  5. Video Game Device Haptic Interface for Robotic Arc Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrie I. Nichol; Milos Manic

    2009-05-01

    Recent advances in technology for video games have made a broad array of haptic feedback devices available at low cost. This paper presents a bi-manual haptic system to enable an operator to weld remotely using the a commercially available haptic feedback video game device for the user interface. The system showed good performance in initial tests, demonstrating the utility of low cost input devices for remote haptic operations.

  6. Perceiving haptic feedback in virtual reality simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Mårvik, Ronald; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina

    2013-07-01

    To improve patient safety, training of psychomotor laparoscopic skills is often done on virtual reality (VR) simulators outside the operating room. Haptic sensations have been found to influence psychomotor performance in laparoscopy. The emulation of haptic feedback is thus an important aspect of VR simulation. Some VR simulators try to simulate these sensations with handles equipped with haptic feedback. We conducted a survey on how laparoscopic surgeons perceive handles with and without haptic feedback. Surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopy were asked to test two handles: Xitact IHP with haptic feedback and Xitact ITP without haptic feedback (Mentice AB, Gothenburg, Sweden), connected to the LapSim (Surgical Science AB, Sweden) VR simulator. They performed two tasks on the simulator before answering 12 questions regarding the two handles. The surgeons were not informed about the differences in the handles. A total of 85 % of the 20 surgeons who participated in the survey claimed that it is important that handles with haptic feedback feel realistic. Ninety percent of the surgeons preferred the handles without haptic feedback. The friction in the handles with haptic feedback was perceived to be as in reality (5 %) or too high (95 %). Regarding the handles without haptic feedback, the friction was perceived as in reality (45 %), too low (50 %), or too high (5 %). A total of 85 % of the surgeons thought that the handle with haptic feedback attempts to simulate the resistance offered by tissue to deformation. Ten percent thought that the handle succeeds in doing so. The surveyed surgeons believe that haptic feedback is an important feature on VR simulators; however, they preferred the handles without haptic feedback because they perceived the handles with haptic feedback to add additional friction, making them unrealistic and not mechanically transparent.

  7. Haptic feedback designs in teleoperation systems for minimal invasive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font, I.; Weiland, S.; Franken, M.; Steinbuch, M.; Rovers, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major shortcomings of state-of-the-art robotic systems for minimal invasive surgery is the lack of haptic feedback for the surgeon. In order to provide haptic information, sensors and actuators have to be added to the master and slave device. A control system should process the data and

  8. Pseudo-Haptic Feedback in Teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Carsten; Matich, Sebastian; Scherping, Nick; Kupnik, Mario; Werthschutzky, Roland; Hatzfeld, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop possible realizations of pseudo-haptic feedback in teleoperation systems based on existing works for pseudo-haptic feedback in virtual reality and the intended applications. We derive four potential factors affecting the performance of haptic feedback (calculation operator, maximum displacement, offset force, and scaling factor), which are analyzed in three compliance identification experiments. First, we analyze the principle usability of pseudo-haptic feedback by comparing information transfer measures for teleoperation and direct interaction. Pseudo-haptic interaction yields well above-chance performance, while direct interaction performs almost perfectly. In order to optimize pseudo-haptic feedback, in the second study we perform a full-factorial experimental design with 36 subjects performing 6,480 trials with 36 different treatments. Information transfer ranges from 0.68 bit to 1.72 bit in a task with a theoretical maximum of 2.6 bit, with a predominant effect of the calculation operator and a minor effect of the maximum displacement. In a third study, short- and long-term learning effects are analyzed. Learning effects regarding the performance of pseudo-haptic feedback cannot be observed for single-day experiments. Tests over 10 days show a maximum increase in information transfer of 0.8 bit. The results show the feasibility of pseudo-haptic feedback for teleoperation and can be used as design basis for task-specific systems.

  9. The role of haptic feedback in laparoscopic simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panait, Lucian; Akkary, Ehab; Bell, Robert L; Roberts, Kurt E; Dudrick, Stanley J; Duffy, Andrew J

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic virtual reality simulators are becoming a ubiquitous tool in resident training and assessment. These devices provide the operator with various levels of realism, including haptic (or force) feedback. However, this feature adds significantly to the cost of the devices, and limited data exist assessing the value of haptics in skill acquisition and development. Utilizing the Laparoscopy VR (Immersion Medical, Gaithersburg, MD), we hypothesized that the incorporation of force feedback in the simulated operative environment would allow superior trainee performance compared with performance of the same basic skills tasks in a non-haptic model. Ten medical students with minimal laparoscopic experience and similar baseline skill levels as proven by performance of two fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) tasks (peg transfer and cutting drills) voluntarily participated in the study. Each performed two tasks, analogous to the FLS drills, on the Laparoscopy VR at 3 levels of difficulty, based on the established settings of the manufacturer. After achieving familiarity with the device and tasks, the students completed the drills both with and without force feedback. Data on completion time, instrument path length, right and left hand errors, and grasping tension were analyzed. The scores in the haptic-enhanced simulation environment were compared with the scores in the non-haptic model and analyzed utilizing Student's t-test. The peg transfer drill showed no difference in performance between the haptic and non-haptic simulations for all metrics at all three levels of difficulty. For the more complex cutting exercise, the time to complete the tasks was significantly shorter when force feedback was provided, at all levels of difficulty (158+/-56 versus 187+/-51 s, 176+/-49 versus 222+/-68 s, and 275+/-76 versus 422+/-220 s, at levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, Psimulation did not demonstrate an appreciable performance improvement among our trainees. These data

  10. Engineering haptic devices a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hatzfeld, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this greatly reworked second edition of Engineering Haptic Devices the psychophysic content has been thoroughly revised and updated. Chapters on haptic interaction, system structures and design methodology were rewritten from scratch to include further basic principles and recent findings. New chapters on the evaluation of haptic systems and the design of three exemplary haptic systems from science and industry have been added. This book was written for students and engineers that are faced with the development of a task-specific haptic system. It is a reference book for the basics of hap

  11. Precise Haptic Device Co-Location for Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Ulrich; Pankratz, Frieder; Sandor, Christian; Klinker, Gudrun; Laga, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Visuo-haptic augmented reality systems enable users to see and touch digital information that is embedded in the real world. PHANToM haptic devices are often employed to provide haptic feedback. Precise co-location of computer-generated graphics and the haptic stylus is necessary to provide a realistic user experience. Previous work has focused on calibration procedures that compensate the non-linear position error caused by inaccuracies in the joint angle sensors. In this article we present a more complete procedure that additionally compensates for errors in the gimbal sensors and improves position calibration. The proposed procedure further includes software-based temporal alignment of sensor data and a method for the estimation of a reference for position calibration, resulting in increased robustness against haptic device initialization and external tracker noise. We designed our procedure to require minimal user input to maximize usability. We conducted an extensive evaluation with two different PHANToMs, two different optical trackers, and a mechanical tracker. Compared to state-of-the-art calibration procedures, our approach significantly improves the co-location of the haptic stylus. This results in higher fidelity visual and haptic augmentations, which are crucial for fine-motor tasks in areas such as medical training simulators, assembly planning tools, or rapid prototyping applications.

  12. Haptic Feedback in Motor Hand Virtual Therapy Increases Precision and Generates Less Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramírez-Fernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show that haptic feedback in upper limb motor therapy improves performance and generates a lower mental workload. To demonstrate this, two groups of participants (healthy adults and elders with hand motor problems used a low-cost haptic device (Novint Falcon and a non-robotic device (Leap Motion Controller. Participants conducted the same rehabilitation task by using a non-immersive virtual environment. Results show significant differences for all participants regarding precision on the use of the haptic feedback device. Additionally, participants in the older adult group demonstrated a lower mental workload while using the haptic device (Novint Falcon. Finally, qualitative results show that participants preferred to conduct their therapy exercises by using the haptic device, as they found it more useful, easier to use and easier to learn

  13. Haptic seat for fuel economy feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, III, John Thomas

    2016-08-30

    A process of providing driver fuel economy feedback is disclosed in which vehicle sensors provide for haptic feedback on fuel usage. Such sensors may include one or more of a speed sensors, global position satellite units, vehicle pitch/roll angle sensors, suspension displacement sensors, longitudinal accelerometer sensors, throttle position in sensors, steering angle sensors, break pressure sensors, and lateral accelerometer sensors. Sensors used singlely or collectively can provide enhanced feedback as to various environmental conditions and operating conditions such that a more accurate assessment of fuel economy information can be provided to the driver.

  14. Haptic device for telerobotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt; Salisbury, Jr., J. Kenneth

    2014-12-30

    A haptic device for telerobotic surgery, including a base; a linkage system having first and second linkage members coupled to the base; a motor that provides a motor force; a transmission including first and second driving pulleys arranged such that their faces form an angle and their axes form a plane, first and second idler pulleys offset from the plane and arranged between the first and second driving pulleys such that their axes divide the angle between the first and second driving pulleys, and a cable that traverses the first and second driving pulleys and the set of idler pulleys and transfers the motor force to the linkage system; an end effector coupled to distal ends of the first and second linkage members and maneuverable relative to the base; and a controller that modulates the motor force to simulate a body part at a point portion of the end effector.

  15. Haptic Feedback for the GPU-based Surgical Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The GPU has proven to be a powerful processor to compute spring-mass based surgical simulations. It has not previously been shown however, how to effectively implement haptic interaction with a simulation running entirely on the GPU. This paper describes a method to calculate haptic feedback...... with limited performance cost. It allows easy balancing of the GPU workload between calculations of simulation, visualisation, and the haptic feedback....

  16. A new visual feedback-based magnetorheological haptic master for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Soomin; Kim, Pyunghwa; Park, Jinhyuk; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed a novel four-degrees-of-freedom haptic master using controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid. We also integrated the haptic master with a vision device with image processing for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). The proposed master can be used in RMIS as a haptic interface to provide the surgeon with a sense of touch by using both kinetic and kinesthetic information. The slave robot, which is manipulated with a proportional-integrative-derivative controller, uses a force sensor to obtain the desired forces from tissue contact, and these desired repulsive forces are then embodied through the MR haptic master. To verify the effectiveness of the haptic master, the desired force and actual force are compared in the time domain. In addition, a visual feedback system is implemented in the RMIS experiment to distinguish between the tumor and organ more clearly and provide better visibility to the operator. The hue-saturation-value color space is adopted for the image processing since it is often more intuitive than other color spaces. The image processing and haptic feedback are realized on surgery performance. In this work, tumor-cutting experiments are conducted under four different operating conditions: haptic feedback on, haptic feedback off, image processing on, and image processing off. The experimental realization shows that the performance index, which is a function of pixels, is different in the four operating conditions.

  17. A new visual feedback-based magnetorheological haptic master for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Soomin; Kim, Pyunghwa; Park, Jinhyuk; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel four-degrees-of-freedom haptic master using controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid. We also integrated the haptic master with a vision device with image processing for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). The proposed master can be used in RMIS as a haptic interface to provide the surgeon with a sense of touch by using both kinetic and kinesthetic information. The slave robot, which is manipulated with a proportional-integrative-derivative controller, uses a force sensor to obtain the desired forces from tissue contact, and these desired repulsive forces are then embodied through the MR haptic master. To verify the effectiveness of the haptic master, the desired force and actual force are compared in the time domain. In addition, a visual feedback system is implemented in the RMIS experiment to distinguish between the tumor and organ more clearly and provide better visibility to the operator. The hue-saturation-value color space is adopted for the image processing since it is often more intuitive than other color spaces. The image processing and haptic feedback are realized on surgery performance. In this work, tumor-cutting experiments are conducted under four different operating conditions: haptic feedback on, haptic feedback off, image processing on, and image processing off. The experimental realization shows that the performance index, which is a function of pixels, is different in the four operating conditions. (paper)

  18. Pantomime-grasping: Advance knowledge of haptic feedback availability supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eDavarpanah Jazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping. In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials and without (i.e., PH- trials terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration – a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model. The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule. In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and stimulated (i.e., pantomime-grasping grasping.

  19. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  20. Effect on High versus Low Fidelity Haptic Feedback in a Virtual Reality Baseball Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryge, Andreas Nicolaj; Thomsen, Lui Albæk; Berthelsen, Theis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a within-subjects study (n=26) comparing participants' experience of three kinds of haptic feedback (no haptic feedback, low fidelity haptic feedback and high fidelity haptic feedback) simulating the impact between a virtual baseball bat and ball. We noticed some minor ef...

  1. Prevailing Trends in Haptic Feedback Simulation for Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, David; Byrns, Simon; Zheng, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Background The amount of direct hand-tool-tissue interaction and feedback in minimally invasive surgery varies from being attenuated in laparoscopy to being completely absent in robotic minimally invasive surgery. The role of haptic feedback during surgical skill acquisition and its emphasis in training have been a constant source of controversy. This review discusses the major developments in haptic simulation as they relate to surgical performance and the current research questions that remain unanswered. Search Strategy An in-depth review of the literature was performed using PubMed. Results A total of 198 abstracts were returned based on our search criteria. Three major areas of research were identified, including advancements in 1 of the 4 components of haptic systems, evaluating the effectiveness of haptic integration in simulators, and improvements to haptic feedback in robotic surgery. Conclusions Force feedback is the best method for tissue identification in minimally invasive surgery and haptic feedback provides the greatest benefit to surgical novices in the early stages of their training. New technology has improved our ability to capture, playback and enhance to utility of haptic cues in simulated surgery. Future research should focus on deciphering how haptic training in surgical education can increase performance, safety, and improve training efficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Haptic and Visual feedback in 3D Audio Mixing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Overholt, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and informal evaluation of a user interface that explores haptic feedback for 3D audio mixing. The implementation compares different approaches using either the LEAP Motion for mid-air hand gesture control, or the Novint Falcon for active haptic feed- back...

  3. Haptic Feedback for Enhancing Realism of Walking Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Burelli, Paolo; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    system. While during the use of the interactive system subjects physically walked, during the use of the non-interactive system the locomotion was simulated while subjects were sitting on a chair. In both the configurations subjects were exposed to auditory and audio-visual stimuli presented...... with and without the haptic feedback. Results of the experiments provide a clear preference towards the simulations enhanced with haptic feedback showing that the haptic channel can lead to more realistic experiences in both interactive and non-interactive configurations. The majority of subjects clearly...... appreciated the added feedback. However, some subjects found the added feedback disturbing and annoying. This might be due on one hand to the limits of the haptic simulation and on the other hand to the different individual desire to be involved in the simulations. Our findings can be applied to the context...

  4. Effects of kinesthetic haptic feedback on standing stability of young healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Byun, Ha-Young; Oh, Min-Kyun; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-03-13

    Haptic control is a useful therapeutic option in rehabilitation featuring virtual reality interaction. As with visual and vibrotactile biofeedback, kinesthetic haptic feedback may assist in postural control, and can achieve balance control. Kinesthetic haptic feedback in terms of body sway can be delivered via a commercially available haptic device and can enhance the balance stability of both young healthy subjects and stroke patients. Our system features a waist-attached smartphone, software running on a computer (PC), and a dedicated Phantom Omni® device. Young healthy participants performed balance tasks after assumption of each of four distinct postures for 30 s (one foot on the ground; the Tandem Romberg stance; one foot on foam; and the Tandem Romberg stance on foam) with eyes closed. Patient eyes were not closed and assumption of the Romberg stance (only) was tested during a balance task 25 s in duration. An Android application running continuously on the smartphone sent mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) tilt angles to a PC, which generated kinesthetic haptic feedback via Phantom Omni®. A total of 16 subjects, 8 of whom were young healthy and 8 of whom had suffered stroke, participated in the study. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB®. Mean Velocity Displacement (MVD), Planar Deviation (PD), Mediolateral Trajectory (MLT) and Anteroposterior Trajectory (APT) parameters were analyzed to measure reduction in body sway. Our kinesthetic haptic feedback system was effective to reduce postural sway in young healthy subjects regardless of posture and the condition of the substrate (the ground) and to improve MVD and PD in stroke patients who assumed the Romberg stance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that kinesthetic haptic feedback significantly reduced body sway in both categories of subjects. Kinesthetic haptic feedback can be implemented using a commercial haptic device and a smartphone. Intuitive balance cues were

  5. Enhancing audiovisual experience with haptic feedback: a survey on HAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieau, F; Lecuyer, A; Guillotel, P; Fleureau, J; Mollet, N; Christie, M

    2013-01-01

    Haptic technology has been widely employed in applications ranging from teleoperation and medical simulation to art and design, including entertainment, flight simulation, and virtual reality. Today there is a growing interest among researchers in integrating haptic feedback into audiovisual systems. A new medium emerges from this effort: haptic-audiovisual (HAV) content. This paper presents the techniques, formalisms, and key results pertinent to this medium. We first review the three main stages of the HAV workflow: the production, distribution, and rendering of haptic effects. We then highlight the pressing necessity for evaluation techniques in this context and discuss the key challenges in the field. By building on existing technologies and tackling the specific challenges of the enhancement of audiovisual experience with haptics, we believe the field presents exciting research perspectives whose financial and societal stakes are significant.

  6. Faster simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy with haptic feedback technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiasemidou M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marina Yiasemidou, Daniel Glassman, Peter Vasas, Sarit Badiani, Bijendra Patel Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Upper GI Surgery, Barts and The Royal London Hospital, London, UK Background: Virtual reality simulators have been gradually introduced into surgical training. One of the enhanced features of the latest virtual simulators is haptic feedback. The usefulness of haptic feedback technology has been a matter of controversy in recent years. Previous studies have assessed the importance of haptic feedback in executing parts of a procedure or basic tasks, such as tissue grasping. The aim of this study was to assess the role of haptic feedback within a structured educational environment, based on the performance of junior surgical trainees after undergoing substantial simulation training. Methods: Novices, whose performance was assessed after several repetitions of a task, were recruited for this study. The performance of senior house officers at the last stage of a validated laparoscopic cholecystectomy curriculum was assessed. Nine senior house officers completed a validated laparoscopic cholecystectomy curriculum on a haptic simulator and nine on a nonhaptic simulator. Performance in terms of mean total time, mean total number of movements, and mean total path length at the last level of the validated curriculum (full procedure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was compared between the two groups. Results: Haptic feedback significantly reduced the time required to complete the full procedure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (mean total time for nonhaptic machine 608.83 seconds, mean total time for haptic machine 553.27 seconds; P = 0.019 while maintaining safety standards similar to those of the nonhaptic machine (mean total number of movements: nonhaptic machine 583.74, haptic machine 603.93, P = 0.145, mean total path length: for nonhaptic machine 1207.37 cm, for haptic machine 1262.36 cm, P = 0

  7. Design and Calibration of a New 6 DOF Haptic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Qin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For many applications such as tele-operational robots and interactions with virtual environments, it is better to have performance with force feedback than without. Haptic devices are force reflecting interfaces. They can also track human hand positions simultaneously. A new 6 DOF (degree-of-freedom haptic device was designed and calibrated in this study. It mainly contains a double parallel linkage, a rhombus linkage, a rotating mechanical structure and a grasping interface. Benefited from the unique design, it is a hybrid structure device with a large workspace and high output capability. Therefore, it is capable of multi-finger interactions. Moreover, with an adjustable base, operators can change different postures without interrupting haptic tasks. To investigate the performance regarding position tracking accuracy and static output forces, we conducted experiments on a three-dimensional electric sliding platform and a digital force gauge, respectively. Displacement errors and force errors are calculated and analyzed. To identify the capability and potential of the device, four application examples were programmed.

  8. Design and Calibration of a New 6 DOF Haptic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanhuan; Song, Aiguo; Liu, Yuqing; Jiang, Guohua; Zhou, Bohe

    2015-01-01

    For many applications such as tele-operational robots and interactions with virtual environments, it is better to have performance with force feedback than without. Haptic devices are force reflecting interfaces. They can also track human hand positions simultaneously. A new 6 DOF (degree-of-freedom) haptic device was designed and calibrated in this study. It mainly contains a double parallel linkage, a rhombus linkage, a rotating mechanical structure and a grasping interface. Benefited from the unique design, it is a hybrid structure device with a large workspace and high output capability. Therefore, it is capable of multi-finger interactions. Moreover, with an adjustable base, operators can change different postures without interrupting haptic tasks. To investigate the performance regarding position tracking accuracy and static output forces, we conducted experiments on a three-dimensional electric sliding platform and a digital force gauge, respectively. Displacement errors and force errors are calculated and analyzed. To identify the capability and potential of the device, four application examples were programmed. PMID:26690449

  9. Enhanced operator perception through 3D vision and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Light, Kenneth; Bodenhamer, Andrew; Bosscher, Paul; Wilkinson, Loren

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies (PST) has developed a stereo vision upgrade kit for TALON® robot systems comprised of a replacement gripper camera and a replacement mast zoom camera on the robot, and a replacement display in the Operator Control Unit (OCU). Harris Corporation has developed a haptic manipulation upgrade for TALON® robot systems comprised of a replacement arm and gripper and an OCU that provides haptic (force) feedback. PST and Harris have recently collaborated to integrate the 3D vision system with the haptic manipulation system. In multiple studies done at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri it has been shown that 3D vision and haptics provide more intuitive perception of complicated scenery and improved robot arm control, allowing for improved mission performance and the potential for reduced time on target. This paper discusses the potential benefits of these enhancements to robotic systems used for the domestic homeland security mission.

  10. Haptic feedback for enhancing realism of walking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchet, Luca; Burelli, Paolo; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe several experiments whose goal is to evaluate the role of plantar vibrotactile feedback in enhancing the realism of walking experiences in multimodal virtual environments. To achieve this goal we built an interactive and a noninteractive multimodal feedback system. While during the use of the interactive system subjects physically walked, during the use of the noninteractive system the locomotion was simulated while subjects were sitting on a chair. In both the configurations subjects were exposed to auditory and audio-visual stimuli presented with and without the haptic feedback. Results of the experiments provide a clear preference toward the simulations enhanced with haptic feedback showing that the haptic channel can lead to more realistic experiences in both interactive and noninteractive configurations. The majority of subjects clearly appreciated the added feedback. However, some subjects found the added feedback unpleasant. This might be due, on one hand, to the limits of the haptic simulation and, on the other hand, to the different individual desire to be involved in the simulations. Our findings can be applied to the context of physical navigation in multimodal virtual environments as well as to enhance the user experience of watching a movie or playing a video game.

  11. Development of a Virtual Guitar using Haptic Device

    OpenAIRE

    田村,真晴; 山下,英生

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a haptic device that output power as one of the computer output devices has been developed. We can get the feeling that we really touch the material through a sensor of haptic device when we touch a material simulated in a computer. In this research, a virtual guitar in which the feeling playing guitar and the sound volume are changed by adjusting power to input with a haptic device was developed. With the haptic device we feel as if we play a genuine guitar. Moreover, it see...

  12. Wearable Vibrotactile Haptic Device for Stiffness Discrimination during Virtual Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andualem Tadesse Maereg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the development of cost effective, wireless, and wearable vibrotactile haptic device for stiffness perception during an interaction with virtual objects. Our experimental setup consists of haptic device with five vibrotactile actuators, virtual reality environment tailored in Unity 3D integrating the Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display (HMD and the Leap Motion controller. The virtual environment is able to capture touch inputs from users. Interaction forces are then rendered at 500 Hz and fed back to the wearable setup stimulating fingertips with ERM vibrotactile actuators. Amplitude and frequency of vibrations are modulated proportionally to the interaction force to simulate the stiffness of a virtual object. A quantitative and qualitative study is done to compare the discrimination of stiffness on virtual linear spring in three sensory modalities: visual only feedback, tactile only feedback, and their combination. A common psychophysics method called the Two Alternative Forced Choice (2AFC approach is used for quantitative analysis using Just Noticeable Difference (JND and Weber Fractions (WF. According to the psychometric experiment result, average Weber fraction values of 0.39 for visual only feedback was improved to 0.25 by adding the tactile feedback.

  13. Haptic feedback in OP:Sense - augmented reality in telemanipulated robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyl, T; Nicolai, P; Mönnich, H; Raczkowksy, J; Wörn, H

    2012-01-01

    In current research, haptic feedback in robot assisted interventions plays an important role. However most approaches to haptic feedback only regard the mapping of the current forces at the surgical instrument to the haptic input devices, whereas surgeons demand a combination of medical imaging and telemanipulated robotic setups. In this paper we describe how this feature is integrated in our robotic research platform OP:Sense. The proposed method allows the automatic transfer of segmented imaging data to the haptic renderer and therefore allows enriching the haptic feedback with virtual fixtures based on imaging data. Anatomical structures are extracted from pre-operative generated medical images or virtual walls are defined by the surgeon inside the imaging data. Combining real forces with virtual fixtures can guide the surgeon to the regions of interest as well as helps to prevent the risk of damage to critical structures inside the patient. We believe that the combination of medical imaging and telemanipulation is a crucial step for the next generation of MIRS-systems.

  14. Human-Multi-Robot Teleoperation for Cooperative Manipulation Tasks using Wearable Haptic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . Control inputs for both subtasks are provided by the human. The inputs are projected onto the space of subtasks using a forward mapping strategy. Measured wrenches are projected onto the feedback signals provided to the human via wearable fingertip haptic devices through a feedback mapping strategy...

  15. A Haptic Feedback Scheme to Accurately Position a Virtual Wrist Prosthesis Using a Three-Node Tactor Array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Erwin

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel haptic feedback scheme, used for accurately positioning a 1DOF virtual wrist prosthesis through sensory substitution, is presented. The scheme employs a three-node tactor array and discretely and selectively modulates the stimulation frequency of each tactor to relay 11 discrete haptic stimuli to the user. Able-bodied participants were able to move the virtual wrist prosthesis via a surface electromyography based controller. The participants evaluated the feedback scheme without visual or audio feedback and relied solely on the haptic feedback alone to correctly position the hand. The scheme was evaluated through both normal (perpendicular and shear (lateral stimulations applied on the forearm. Normal stimulations were applied through a prototype device previously developed by the authors while shear stimulations were generated using an ubiquitous coin motor vibrotactor. Trials with no feedback served as a baseline to compare results within the study and to the literature. The results indicated that using normal and shear stimulations resulted in accurately positioning the virtual wrist, but were not significantly different. Using haptic feedback was substantially better than no feedback. The results found in this study are significant since the feedback scheme allows for using relatively few tactors to relay rich haptic information to the user and can be learned easily despite a relatively short amount of training. Additionally, the results are important for the haptic community since they contradict the common conception in the literature that normal stimulation is inferior to shear. From an ergonomic perspective normal stimulation has the potential to benefit upper limb amputees since it can operate at lower frequencies than shear-based vibrotactors while also generating less noise. Through further tuning of the novel haptic feedback scheme and normal stimulation device, a compact and comfortable sensory substitution

  16. Object discrimination using optimized multi-frequency auditory cross-modal haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Alison; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    As the field of brain-machine interfaces and neuro-prosthetics continues to grow, there is a high need for sensor and actuation mechanisms that can provide haptic feedback to the user. Current technologies employ expensive, invasive and often inefficient force feedback methods, resulting in an unrealistic solution for individuals who rely on these devices. This paper responds through the development, integration and analysis of a novel feedback architecture where haptic information during the neural control of a prosthetic hand is perceived through multi-frequency auditory signals. Through representing force magnitude with volume and force location with frequency, the feedback architecture can translate the haptic experiences of a robotic end effector into the alternative sensory modality of sound. Previous research with the proposed cross-modal feedback method confirmed its learnability, so the current work aimed to investigate which frequency map (i.e. frequency-specific locations on the hand) is optimal in helping users distinguish between hand-held objects and tasks associated with them. After short use with the cross-modal feedback during the electromyographic (EMG) control of a prosthetic hand, testing results show that users are able to use audial feedback alone to discriminate between everyday objects. While users showed adaptation to three different frequency maps, the simplest map containing only two frequencies was found to be the most useful in discriminating between objects. This outcome provides support for the feasibility and practicality of the cross-modal feedback method during the neural control of prosthetics.

  17. Development of a Robotic Colonoscopic Manipulation System, Using Haptic Feedback Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jaehong; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Seo, Jong Tae; Kim, Tae Il; Yi, Byung Ju

    2017-01-01

    Colonoscopy is one of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools for colorectal diseases. We aim to propose a master-slave robotic colonoscopy that is controllable in remote site using conventional colonoscopy. The master and slave robot were developed to use conventional flexible colonoscopy. The robotic colonoscopic procedure was performed using a colonoscope training model by one expert endoscopist and two unexperienced engineers. To provide the haptic sensation, the insertion force and the rotating torque were measured and sent to the master robot. A slave robot was developed to hold the colonoscopy and its knob, and perform insertion, rotation, and two tilting motions of colonoscope. A master robot was designed to teach motions of the slave robot. These measured force and torque were scaled down by one tenth to provide the operator with some reflection force and torque at the haptic device. The haptic sensation and feedback system was successful and helpful to feel the constrained force or torque in colon. The insertion time using robotic system decreased with repeated procedures. This work proposed a robotic approach for colonoscopy using haptic feedback algorithm, and this robotic device would effectively perform colonoscopy with reduced burden and comparable safety for patients in remote site.

  18. Development of a Robotic Colonoscopic Manipulation System, Using Haptic Feedback Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jaehong; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Seo, Jong Tae

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Colonoscopy is one of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools for colorectal diseases. We aim to propose a master-slave robotic colonoscopy that is controllable in remote site using conventional colonoscopy. Materials and Methods The master and slave robot were developed to use conventional flexible colonoscopy. The robotic colonoscopic procedure was performed using a colonoscope training model by one expert endoscopist and two unexperienced engineers. To provide the haptic sensation, the insertion force and the rotating torque were measured and sent to the master robot. Results A slave robot was developed to hold the colonoscopy and its knob, and perform insertion, rotation, and two tilting motions of colonoscope. A master robot was designed to teach motions of the slave robot. These measured force and torque were scaled down by one tenth to provide the operator with some reflection force and torque at the haptic device. The haptic sensation and feedback system was successful and helpful to feel the constrained force or torque in colon. The insertion time using robotic system decreased with repeated procedures. Conclusion This work proposed a robotic approach for colonoscopy using haptic feedback algorithm, and this robotic device would effectively perform colonoscopy with reduced burden and comparable safety for patients in remote site. PMID:27873506

  19. Robot-assisted microsurgical forceps with haptic feedback for transoral laser microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil; Chauhan, Manish; Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel, motorized, multi-degrees-of-freedom (DoF), microsurgical forceps tool is presented, which is based on a master-slave teleoperation architecture. The slave device is a 7-DoF manipulator with: (i) 6-DoF positioning and orientation, (ii) 1 open/close gripper DoF; and (iii) an integrated force/torque sensor for tissue grip-force measurement. The master device is a 7-DoF haptic interface which teleoperates the slave device, and provides haptic feedback in its gripper interface. The combination of the device and the surgeon interface replaces the manual, hand-held device providing easy-to-use and ergonomic tissue control, simplifying the surgical tasks. This makes the system suitable to real surgical scenarios in the operating room (OR). The performance of the system was analysed through the evaluation of teleoperation control and characterization of gripping force. The new system offers an overall positioning error of less than 400 μm demonstrating its safety and accuracy. Improved system precision, usability, and ergonomics point to the potential suitability of the device for the OR and its ability to advance haptic-feedback-enhanced transoral laser microsurgeries.

  20. On the design of a miniature haptic ring for cutaneous force feedback using shape memory alloy actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a miniature haptic ring that can display touch/pressure and shearing force to the user’s fingerpad. For practical use and wider application of the device, it is developed with the aim of achieving high wearability and mobility/portability as well as cutaneous force feedback functionality. A main body of the device is designed as a ring-shaped lightweight structure with a simple driving mechanism, and thin shape memory alloy (SMA) wires having high energy density are applied as actuating elements. Also, based on a band-type wireless control unit including a wireless data communication module, the whole device could be realized as a wearable mobile haptic device system. These features enable the device to take diverse advantages on functional performances and to provide users with significant usability. In this work, the proposed miniature haptic ring is systematically designed, and its working performances are experimentally evaluated with a fabricated functional prototype. The experimental results obviously demonstrate that the proposed device exhibits higher force-to-weight ratio than conventional finger-wearable haptic devices for cutaneous force feedback. Also, it is investigated that operational performances of the device are strongly influenced by electro-thermomechanical behaviors of the SMA actuator. In addition to the experiments for performance evaluation, we conduct a preliminary user test to assess practical feasibility and usability based on user’s qualitative feedback.

  1. Tactile Feedback for Above-Device Gesture Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Euan; Brewster, Stephen; Lantz, Vuokko

    2014-01-01

    Above-device gesture interfaces let people interact in the space above mobile devices using hand and finger movements. For example, users could gesture over a mobile phone or wearable without having to use the touchscreen. We look at how above-device interfaces can also give feedback in the space over the device. Recent haptic and wearable technologies give new ways to provide tactile feedback while gesturing, letting touchless gesture interfaces give touch feedback. In this paper we take a f...

  2. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  3. Investigating Students' Ideas About Buoyancy and the Influence of Haptic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, James; Borland, David

    2016-04-01

    While haptics (simulated touch) represents a potential breakthrough technology for science teaching and learning, there is relatively little research into its differential impact in the context of teaching and learning. This paper describes the testing of a haptically enhanced simulation (HES) for learning about buoyancy. Despite a lifetime of everyday experiences, a scientifically sound explanation of buoyancy remains difficult to construct for many. It requires the integration of domain-specific knowledge regarding density, fluid, force, gravity, mass, weight, and buoyancy. Prior studies suggest that novices often focus on only one dimension of the sinking and floating phenomenon. Our HES was designed to promote the integration of the subconcepts of density and buoyant forces and stresses the relationship between the object itself and the surrounding fluid. The study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group research design and a suite of measures including an open-ended prompt and objective content questions to provide insights into the influence of haptic feedback on undergraduate students' thinking about buoyancy. A convenience sample (n = 40) was drawn from a university's population of undergraduate elementary education majors. Two groups were formed from haptic feedback (n = 22) and no haptic feedback (n = 18). Through content analysis, discernible differences were seen in the posttest explanations sinking and floating across treatment groups. Learners that experienced the haptic feedback made more frequent use of "haptically grounded" terms (e.g., mass, gravity, buoyant force, pushing), leading us to begin to build a local theory of language-mediated haptic cognition.

  4. Incorporating Haptic Feedback in Simulation for Learning Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Insook; Black, John B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a haptic augmented simulation in learning physics. The results indicate that haptic augmented simulations, both the force and kinesthetic and the purely kinesthetic simulations, were more effective than the equivalent non-haptic simulation in providing perceptual experiences and…

  5. Open Touch/Sound Maps: A system to convey street data through haptic and auditory feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklanis, Nikolaos; Votis, Konstantinos; Tzovaras, Dimitrios

    2013-08-01

    The use of spatial (geographic) information is becoming ever more central and pervasive in today's internet society but the most of it is currently inaccessible to visually impaired users. However, access in visual maps is severely restricted to visually impaired and people with blindness, due to their inability to interpret graphical information. Thus, alternative ways of a map's presentation have to be explored, in order to enforce the accessibility of maps. Multiple types of sensory perception like touch and hearing may work as a substitute of vision for the exploration of maps. The use of multimodal virtual environments seems to be a promising alternative for people with visual impairments. The present paper introduces a tool for automatic multimodal map generation having haptic and audio feedback using OpenStreetMap data. For a desired map area, an elevation map is being automatically generated and can be explored by touch, using a haptic device. A sonification and a text-to-speech (TTS) mechanism provide also audio navigation information during the haptic exploration of the map.

  6. Displaying Sensed Tactile Cues with a Fingertip Haptic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Telerobotic systems enable humans to explore and manipulate remote environments for applications such as surgery and disaster response, but few such systems provide the operator with cutaneous feedback. This article presents a novel approach to remote cutaneous interaction; our method is compatible with any fingertip tactile sensor and any mechanical tactile display device, and it does not require a position/force or skin deformation model. Instead, it directly maps the sensed stimuli to the best possible input commands for the device's motors using a data set recorded with the tactile sensor inside the device. As a proof of concept, we considered a haptic system composed of a BioTac tactile sensor, in charge of measuring contact deformations, and a custom 3-DoF cutaneous device with a flat contact platform, in charge of applying deformations to the user's fingertip. To validate the proposed approach and discover its inherent tradeoffs, we carried out two remote tactile interaction experiments. The first one evaluated the error between the tactile sensations registered by the BioTac in a remote environment and the sensations created by the cutaneous device for six representative tactile interactions and 27 variations of the display algorithm. The normalized average errors in the best condition were 3.0 percent of the BioTac's full 12-bit scale. The second experiment evaluated human subjects' experiences for the same six remote interactions and eight algorithm variations. The average subjective rating for the best algorithm variation was 8.2 out of 10, where 10 is best.

  7. Haptics using a smart material for eyes-free interaction in personal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Lane, William Brian; Pappas, Devin; Duque, Bryam; Leong, John

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a prototype using a dry ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) in interactive personal devices such as bracelet, necklace, pocket key chain or mobile devices for haptic interaction when audio or visual feedback is not possible or practical. This prototype interface is an electro-mechanical system that realizes a shape-changing haptic display for information communication. A dry IPMC will change its dimensions due to the electrostatic effect when an electrical potential is provided to them. The IPMC can operate at a lower voltage (less than 2.5V) which is compatible with requirements for personal electrical devices or mobile devices. The prototype consists of the addressable arrays of the IPMCs with different dimensions which are deformable to different shapes with proper handling or customization. 3D printing technology will be used to form supporting parts. Microcontrollers (about 3cm square) from DigiKey will be imbedded into this personal device. An Android based mobile APP will be developed to talk with microcontrollers to control IPMCs. When personal devices receive information signals, the original shape of the prototype will change to another shape related to the specific sender or types of information sources. This interactive prototype can simultaneously realize multiple methods for conveying haptic information such as dimension, force, and texture due to the flexible array design. We conduct several studies of user experience to explore how users' respond to shape change information.

  8. An exploration of grip force regulation with a low-impedance myoelectric prosthesis featuring referred haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy D; Paek, Andrew; Syed, Mashaal; O'Malley, Marcia K; Shewokis, Patricia A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Davis, Alicia J; Gillespie, R Brent

    2015-11-25

    Haptic display technologies are well suited to relay proprioceptive, force, and contact cues from a prosthetic terminal device back to the residual limb and thereby reduce reliance on visual feedback. The ease with which an amputee interprets these haptic cues, however, likely depends on whether their dynamic signal behavior corresponds to expected behaviors-behaviors consonant with a natural limb coupled to the environment. A highly geared motor in a terminal device along with the associated high back-drive impedance influences dynamic interactions with the environment, creating effects not encountered with a natural limb. Here we explore grasp and lift performance with a backdrivable (low backdrive impedance) terminal device placed under proportional myoelectric position control that features referred haptic feedback. We fabricated a back-drivable terminal device that could be used by amputees and non-amputees alike and drove aperture (or grip force, when a stiff object was in its grasp) in proportion to a myoelectric signal drawn from a single muscle site in the forearm. In randomly ordered trials, we assessed the performance of N=10 participants (7 non-amputee, 3 amputee) attempting to grasp and lift an object using the terminal device under three feedback conditions (no feedback, vibrotactile feedback, and joint torque feedback), and two object weights that were indiscernible by vision. Both non-amputee and amputee participants scaled their grip force according to the object weight. Our results showed only minor differences in grip force, grip/load force coordination, and slip as a function of sensory feedback condition, though the grip force at the point of lift-off for the heavier object was significantly greater for amputee participants in the presence of joint torque feedback. An examination of grip/load force phase plots revealed that our amputee participants used larger safety margins and demonstrated less coordination than our non-amputee participants

  9. The effect of haptic guidance and visual feedback on learning a complex tennis task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; van Raai, Mark; Rauter, Georg; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2013-11-01

    While haptic guidance can improve ongoing performance of a motor task, several studies have found that it ultimately impairs motor learning. However, some recent studies suggest that the haptic demonstration of optimal timing, rather than movement magnitude, enhances learning in subjects trained with haptic guidance. Timing of an action plays a crucial role in the proper accomplishment of many motor skills, such as hitting a moving object (discrete timing task) or learning a velocity profile (time-critical tracking task). The aim of the present study is to evaluate which feedback conditions-visual or haptic guidance-optimize learning of the discrete and continuous elements of a timing task. The experiment consisted in performing a fast tennis forehand stroke in a virtual environment. A tendon-based parallel robot connected to the end of a racket was used to apply haptic guidance during training. In two different experiments, we evaluated which feedback condition was more adequate for learning: (1) a time-dependent discrete task-learning to start a tennis stroke and (2) a tracking task-learning to follow a velocity profile. The effect that the task difficulty and subject's initial skill level have on the selection of the optimal training condition was further evaluated. Results showed that the training condition that maximizes learning of the discrete time-dependent motor task depends on the subjects' initial skill level. Haptic guidance was especially suitable for less-skilled subjects and in especially difficult discrete tasks, while visual feedback seems to benefit more skilled subjects. Additionally, haptic guidance seemed to promote learning in a time-critical tracking task, while visual feedback tended to deteriorate the performance independently of the task difficulty and subjects' initial skill level. Haptic guidance outperformed visual feedback, although additional studies are needed to further analyze the effect of other types of feedback visualization on

  10. Input and output for surgical simulation: devices to measure tissue properties in vivo and a haptic interface for laparoscopy simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensmeyer, M P; Ben-Ur, E; Salisbury, J K

    2000-01-01

    Current efforts in surgical simulation very often focus on creating realistic graphical feedback, but neglect some or all tactile and force (haptic) feedback that a surgeon would normally receive. Simulations that do include haptic feedback do not typically use real tissue compliance properties, favoring estimates and user feedback to determine realism. When tissue compliance data are used, there are virtually no in vivo property measurements to draw upon. Together with the Center for Innovative Minimally Invasive Therapy at the Massachusetts General Hospital, the Haptics Group is developing tools to introduce more comprehensive haptic feedback in laparoscopy simulators and to provide biological tissue material property data for our software simulation. The platform for providing haptic feedback is a PHANToM Haptic Interface, produced by SensAble Technologies, Inc. Our devices supplement the PHANToM to provide for grasping and optionally, for the roll axis of the tool. Together with feedback from the PHANToM, which provides the pitch, yaw and thrust axes of a typical laparoscopy tool, we can recreate all of the haptic sensations experienced during laparoscopy. The devices integrate real laparoscopy toolhandles and a compliant torso model to complete the set of visual and tactile sensations. Biological tissues are known to exhibit non-linear mechanical properties, and change their properties dramatically when removed from a living organism. To measure the properties in vivo, two devices are being developed. The first is a small displacement, 1-D indenter. It will measure the linear tissue compliance (stiffness and damping) over a wide range of frequencies. These data will be used as inputs to a finite element or other model. The second device will be able to deflect tissues in 3-D over a larger range, so that the non-linearities due to changes in the tissue geometry will be measured. This will allow us to validate the performance of the model on large tissue

  11. A perspective on the role and utility of haptic feedback in laparoscopic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singapogu, Ravikiran; Burg, Timothy; Burg, Karen J L; Smith, Dane E; Eckenrode, Amanda H

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique with significant potential benefits to the patient, including shorter recovery time, less scarring, and decreased costs. There is a growing need to teach surgical trainees this emerging surgical technique. Simulators, ranging from simple "box" trainers to complex virtual reality (VR) trainers, have emerged as the most promising method for teaching basic laparoscopic surgical skills. Current box trainers require oversight from an expert surgeon for both training and assessing skills. VR trainers decrease the dependence on expert teachers during training by providing objective, real-time feedback and automatic skills evaluation. However, current VR trainers generally have limited credibility as a means to prepare new surgeons and have often fallen short of educators' expectations. Several researchers have speculated that the missing component in modern VR trainers is haptic feedback, which refers to the range of touch sensations encountered during surgery. These force types and ranges need to be adequately rendered by simulators for a more complete training experience. This article presents a perspective of the role and utility of haptic feedback during laparoscopic surgery and laparoscopic skills training by detailing the ranges and types of haptic sensations felt by the operating surgeon, along with quantitative studies of how this feedback is used. Further, a number of research studies that have documented human performance effects as a result of the presence of haptic feedback are critically reviewed. Finally, key research directions in using haptic feedback for laparoscopy training simulators are identified.

  12. Stable haptic feedback based on a Dynamic Vision Sensor for Microrobotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolopion , Aude; Ni , Zhenjiang; Agnus , Joël; Benosman , Ryad; Régnier , Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This work presents a stable vision based haptic feedback for micromanipulation using both an asynchronous Address Event Representation (AER) silicon retina and a conventional frame-based camera. At this scale, most of the grippers used to manipulate objects lack of force sensing. High frequency vision detection thus provides a sound solution to get information about the position of the object and the tool to provide virtual haptic guides. Artificial retinas present hig...

  13. Augmented communication with haptic I/O in mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Haverinen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is a very important part of face to face communication. Both explicit and implicit additions to verbal communication augment the information content of communication. Before telephones did not provide any means for adding nonverbal information to the communication, but now, as the technology has advanced, it is possible to start augmenting also the communication on the phone. Adding a haptic I/O device to a regular mobile phone opens possibilities to add value to commu...

  14. Design of a Haptic Feedback System for Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baelen, D.; Ellerbroek, J.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2018-01-01

    Current Airbus aircraft use a fly-by-wire control device: a passive spring-damper system which generates, without any force feedback, an electrical signal to the flight control computer. Additionally, a hard flight envelope protection system is used which can limit the inputs of the pilot when

  15. Vision-Based Haptic Feedback for Remote Micromanipulation in-SEM Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolopion, Aude; Dahmen, Christian; Stolle, Christian; Haliyo, Sinan; Régnier, Stéphane; Fatikow, Sergej

    2012-07-01

    This article presents an intuitive environment for remote micromanipulation composed of both haptic feedback and virtual reconstruction of the scene. To enable nonexpert users to perform complex teleoperated micromanipulation tasks, it is of utmost importance to provide them with information about the 3-D relative positions of the objects and the tools. Haptic feedback is an intuitive way to transmit such information. Since position sensors are not available at this scale, visual feedback is used to derive information about the scene. In this work, three different techniques are implemented, evaluated, and compared to derive the object positions from scanning electron microscope images. The modified correlation matching with generated template algorithm is accurate and provides reliable detection of objects. To track the tool, a marker-based approach is chosen since fast detection is required for stable haptic feedback. Information derived from these algorithms is used to propose an intuitive remote manipulation system that enables users situated in geographically distant sites to benefit from specific equipments, such as SEMs. Stability of the haptic feedback is ensured by the minimization of the delays, the computational efficiency of vision algorithms, and the proper tuning of the haptic coupling. Virtual guides are proposed to avoid any involuntary collisions between the tool and the objects. This approach is validated by a teleoperation involving melamine microspheres with a diameter of less than 2 μ m between Paris, France and Oldenburg, Germany.

  16. Design and evaluation of a Flight Envelope Protection haptic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Rodriguez Martin, M.J.M.; Lombaerts, T; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a shared control, haptic feedback system to communicate Flight Envelope Protection System intent. The concept uses a combination of stiffness feedback and vibration to communicate proximity of the aircraft state to flight envelope boundaries. In

  17. A Surgical Robot Teleoperation Framework for Providing Haptic Feedback Incorporating Virtual Envrioment-Based Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Munawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In robot-assisted tele-operated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators that are controlled by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback would enhance the surgical procedures by enabling better coordination between the hand movements that are improved by the tactile sense of the operating environment. This research presents an overall control framework for a haptic feedback on existing robot platforms, and demonstrated on the daVinci Research Kit (dVRK system. The paper discusses the implementation of a flexible framework that incorporates a stiffness control with gravity compensation for the surgeons manipulator and a sensing and collision detection algorithm for calculating the interaction between the patients manipulators and the surgical area.

  18. A 3-DOF haptic master device for minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel 3-DOF haptic master device for minimally invasive surgery featuring magneto-rheological (MR) fluid. It consists of three rotational motions. These motions are constituted by two bi-directional MR (BMR) plus one conventional MR brakes. The BMR brake used in the system possesses a salient advantage that its range of braking torque varies from negative to positive values. Therefore, the device is expected to be able sense in a wide environment from very soft tissues to bones. In this paper, overall of the design of the device is presented from idea, modeling, optimal design, manufacturing to control of the device. Moreover, experimental investigation is undertaken to validate the effectiveness of the device.

  19. Experimental evaluation of magnified haptic feedback for robot-assisted needle insertion and palpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Leonardo; Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Haptic feedback has been proven to play a key role in enhancing the performance of teleoperated medical procedures. However, due to safety issues, commercially-available medical robots do not currently provide the clinician with haptic feedback. This work presents the experimental evaluation of a teleoperation system for robot-assisted medical procedures able to provide magnified haptic feedback to the clinician. Forces registered at the operating table are magnified and provided to the clinician through a 7-DoF haptic interface. The same interface is also used to control the motion of a 6-DoF slave robotic manipulator. The safety of the system is guaranteed by a time-domain passivity-based control algorithm. Two experiments were carried out on stiffness discrimination (during palpation and needle insertion) and one experiment on needle guidance. Our haptic-enabled teleoperation system improved the performance with respect to direct hand interaction of 80%, 306%, and 27% in stiffness discrimination through palpation, stiffness discrimination during needle insertion, and guidance, respectively. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Detection of Membrane Puncture with Haptic Feedback using a Tip-Force Sensing Needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Daniel, Bruce L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents calibration and user test results of a 3-D tip-force sensing needle with haptic feedback. The needle is a modified MRI-compatible biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for strain detection. After calibration, the needle is interrogated at 2 kHz, and dynamic forces are displayed remotely with a voice coil actuator. The needle is tested in a single-axis master/slave system, with the voice coil haptic display at the master, and the needle at the slave end. Tissue phantoms with embedded membranes were used to determine the ability of the tip-force sensors to provide real-time haptic feedback as compared to external sensors at the needle base during needle insertion via the master/slave system. Subjects were able to determine the position of the embedded membranes with significantly better accuracy using FBG tip feedback than with base feedback using a commercial force/torque sensor (p = 0.045) or with no added haptic feedback (p = 0.0024).

  1. Haptic device development based on electro static force of cellulose electro active paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gyu-young; Kim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Sang-Dong; Kim, Dong-Gu; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-04-01

    Haptic is one of well-considered device which is suitable for demanding virtual reality applications such as medical equipment, mobile devices, the online marketing and so on. Nowadays, many of concepts for haptic devices have been suggested to meet the demand of industries. Cellulose has received much attention as an emerging smart material, named as electro-active paper (EAPap). The EAPap is attractive for mobile haptic devices due to its unique characteristics in terms of low actuation power, suitability for thin devices and transparency. In this paper, we suggest a new concept of haptic actuator with the use of cellulose EAPap. Its performance is evaluated depending on various actuation conditions. As a result, cellulose electrostatic force actuator shows a large output displacement and fast response, which is suitable for mobile haptic devices.

  2. Performance evaluation of a robot-assisted catheter operating system with haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Guo, Shuxiang; Yin, Xuanchun; Zhang, Linshuai; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori; Tamiya, Takashi

    2018-06-20

    In this paper, a novel robot-assisted catheter operating system (RCOS) has been proposed as a method to reduce physical stress and X-ray exposure time to physicians during endovascular procedures. The unique design of this system allows the physician to apply conventional bedside catheterization skills (advance, retreat and rotate) to an input catheter, which is placed at the master side to control another patient catheter placed at the slave side. For this purpose, a magnetorheological (MR) fluids-based master haptic interface has been developed to measure the axial and radial motions of an input catheter, as well as to provide the haptic feedback to the physician during the operation. In order to achieve a quick response of the haptic force in the master haptic interface, a hall sensor-based closed-loop control strategy is employed. In slave side, a catheter manipulator is presented to deliver the patient catheter, according to position commands received from the master haptic interface. The contact forces between the patient catheter and blood vessel system can be measured by designed force sensor unit of catheter manipulator. Four levels of haptic force are provided to make the operator aware of the resistance encountered by the patient catheter during the insertion procedure. The catheter manipulator was evaluated for precision positioning. The time lag from the sensed motion to replicated motion is tested. To verify the efficacy of the proposed haptic feedback method, the evaluation experiments in vitro are carried out. The results demonstrate that the proposed system has the ability to enable decreasing the contact forces between the catheter and vasculature.

  3. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement.

  4. Virtual reality cerebral aneurysm clipping simulation with real-time haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraj, Ali; Luciano, Cristian J; Bailey, Daniel P; Elsenousi, Abdussalam; Roitberg, Ben Z; Bernardo, Antonio; Banerjee, P Pat; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-03-01

    With the decrease in the number of cerebral aneurysms treated surgically and the increase of complexity of those treated surgically, there is a need for simulation-based tools to teach future neurosurgeons the operative techniques of aneurysm clipping. To develop and evaluate the usefulness of a new haptic-based virtual reality simulator in the training of neurosurgical residents. A real-time sensory haptic feedback virtual reality aneurysm clipping simulator was developed using the ImmersiveTouch platform. A prototype middle cerebral artery aneurysm simulation was created from a computed tomographic angiogram. Aneurysm and vessel volume deformation and haptic feedback are provided in a 3-dimensional immersive virtual reality environment. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was also simulated. Seventeen neurosurgery residents from 3 residency programs tested the simulator and provided feedback on its usefulness and resemblance to real aneurysm clipping surgery. Residents thought that the simulation would be useful in preparing for real-life surgery. About two-thirds of the residents thought that the 3-dimensional immersive anatomic details provided a close resemblance to real operative anatomy and accurate guidance for deciding surgical approaches. They thought the simulation was useful for preoperative surgical rehearsal and neurosurgical training. A third of the residents thought that the technology in its current form provided realistic haptic feedback for aneurysm surgery. Neurosurgical residents thought that the novel immersive VR simulator is helpful in their training, especially because they do not get a chance to perform aneurysm clippings until late in their residency programs.

  5. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use of service vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot-tested a new application of a technology-based intervention to increase seat belt use. The technology was based on a : contingency in which unbelted drivers experienced sustained haptic feedback to the gas pedal when they exceeded 25...

  6. The Hedonic Haptics Player: A Wearable Device to Experience Vibrotactile Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Laurens; Vallgårda, Anna; Cahill, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The Hedonic Haptics player is a portable wearable device that plays back vibrotactile compositions. It consists of three domes each of which houses a vibration motor providing vibrotactile sensations to the wearer. The domes are connected to a control unit the size of a small Walkman. The Hedonic Haptics player can store up to ten different compositions made up of haptic signals varying in amplitude, waveform and length. We use these different compositions to explore the aesthetic potential o...

  7. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2875] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received an amended complaint entitled Certain Mobile Electronic Devices...

  8. Effects of 3D virtual haptics force feedback on brand personality perception: the mediating role of physical presence in advergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-06-01

    This study gauged the effects of force feedback in the Novint Falcon haptics system on the sensory and cognitive dimensions of a virtual test-driving experience. First, in order to explore the effects of tactile stimuli with force feedback on users' sensory experience, feelings of physical presence (the extent to which virtual physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects) were measured after participants used the haptics interface. Second, to evaluate the effects of force feedback on the cognitive dimension of consumers' virtual experience, this study investigated brand personality perception. The experiment utilized the Novint Falcon haptics controller to induce immersive virtual test-driving through tactile stimuli. The author designed a two-group (haptics stimuli with force feedback versus no force feedback) comparison experiment (N = 238) by manipulating the level of force feedback. Users in the force feedback condition were exposed to tactile stimuli involving various force feedback effects (e.g., terrain effects, acceleration, and lateral forces) while test-driving a rally car. In contrast, users in the control condition test-drove the rally car using the Novint Falcon but were not given any force feedback. Results of ANOVAs indicated that (a) users exposed to force feedback felt stronger physical presence than those in the no force feedback condition, and (b) users exposed to haptics stimuli with force feedback perceived the brand personality of the car to be more rugged than those in the control condition. Managerial implications of the study for product trial in the business world are discussed.

  9. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Todd; DeFanti, Thomas A.; Dawe, Greg; Prudhomme, Andrew; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Cutchin, Steve

    2011-03-01

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have created a new, relatively low-cost augmented reality system that enables users to touch the virtual environment they are immersed in. The Heads-Up Virtual Reality device (HUVR) couples a consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user's hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a force-feedback (haptic) device to interact with the 3D image, literally 'touching' the object's angles and contours as if it was a tangible physical object. HUVR can be used for training and education in structural and mechanical engineering, archaeology and medicine as well as other tasks that require hand-eye coordination. One of the most unique characteristics of HUVR is that a user can place their hands inside of the virtual environment without occluding the 3D image. Built using open-source software and consumer level hardware, HUVR offers users a tactile experience in an immersive environment that is functional, affordable and scalable.

  10. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Margolis, Todd

    2011-01-23

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have created a new, relatively low-cost augmented reality system that enables users to touch the virtual environment they are immersed in. The Heads-Up Virtual Reality device (HUVR) couples a consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user\\'s hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a force-feedback (haptic) device to interact with the 3D image, literally \\'touching\\' the object\\'s angles and contours as if it was a tangible physical object. HUVR can be used for training and education in structural and mechanical engineering, archaeology and medicine as well as other tasks that require hand-eye coordination. One of the most unique characteristics of HUVR is that a user can place their hands inside of the virtual environment without occluding the 3D image. Built using open-source software and consumer level hardware, HUVR offers users a tactile experience in an immersive environment that is functional, affordable and scalable.

  11. Learning of Temporal and Spatial Movement Aspects: A Comparison of Four Types of Haptic Control and Concurrent Visual Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effectiveness of haptics for motor learning is controversially discussed. Haptics is believed to be effective for motor learning in general; however, different types of haptic control enhance different movement aspects. Thus, in dependence on the movement aspects of interest, one type of haptic control may be effective whereas another one is not. Therefore, in the current work, it was investigated if and how different types of haptic controllers affect learning of spatial and temporal movement aspects. In particular, haptic controllers that enforce active participation of the participants were expected to improve spatial aspects. Only haptic controllers that provide feedback about the task's velocity profile were expected to improve temporal aspects. In a study on learning a complex trunk-arm rowing task, the effect of training with four different types of haptic control was investigated: position control, path control, adaptive path control, and reactive path control. A fifth group (control) trained with visual concurrent augmented feedback. As hypothesized, the position controller was most effective for learning of temporal movement aspects, while the path controller was most effective in teaching spatial movement aspects of the rowing task. Visual feedback was also effective for learning temporal and spatial movement aspects.

  12. Haptic feedback can provide an objective assessment of arthroscopic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, George; Ward, James W; Phillips, Roger; Sherman, Kevin P

    2008-04-01

    The outcome of arthroscopic procedures is related to the surgeon's skills in arthroscopy. Currently, evaluation of such skills relies on direct observation by a surgeon trainer. This type of assessment, by its nature, is subjective and time-consuming. The aim of our study was to identify whether haptic information generated from arthroscopic tools could distinguish between skilled and less skilled surgeons. A standard arthroscopic probe was fitted with a force/torque sensor. The probe was used by five surgeons with different levels of experience in knee arthroscopy performing 11 different tasks in 10 standard knee arthroscopies. The force/torque data from the hand and tool interface were recorded and synchronized with a video recording of the procedure. The torque magnitude and patterns generated were analyzed and compared. A computerized system was used to analyze the force/torque signature based on general principles for quality of performance using such measures as economy in movement, time efficiency, and consistency in performance. The results showed a considerable correlation between three haptic parameters and the surgeon's experience, which could be used in an automated objective assessment system for arthroscopic surgery. Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Modeling and Control of Collaborative Robot System using Haptic Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekananda Shanmuganatha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When two robot systems can share understanding using any agreed knowledge, within the constraints of the system’s communication protocol, the approach may lead to a common improvement. This has persuaded numerous new research inquiries in human-robot collaboration. We have built up a framework prepared to do independent following and performing table-best protest object manipulation with humans and we have actualized two different activity models to trigger robot activities. The idea here is to explore collaborative systems and to build up a plan for them to work in a collaborative environment which has many benefits to a single more complex system. In the paper, two robots that cooperate among themselves are constructed. The participation linking the two robotic arms, the torque required and parameters are analyzed. Thus the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a modular robot system which can serve as a base on aspects of robotics in collaborative robots using haptics.

  14. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  15. Virtual Reality Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping Simulation With Real-time Haptic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraj, Ali; Luciano, Cristian J.; Bailey, Daniel P.; Elsenousi, Abdussalam; Roitberg, Ben Z.; Bernardo, Antonio; Banerjee, P. Pat; Charbel, Fady T.

    2014-01-01

    Background With the decrease in the number of cerebral aneurysms treated surgically and the increase of complexity of those treated surgically, there is a need for simulation-based tools to teach future neurosurgeons the operative techniques of aneurysm clipping. Objective To develop and evaluate the usefulness of a new haptic-based virtual reality (VR) simulator in the training of neurosurgical residents. Methods A real-time sensory haptic feedback virtual reality aneurysm clipping simulator was developed using the Immersive Touch platform. A prototype middle cerebral artery aneurysm simulation was created from a computed tomography angiogram. Aneurysm and vessel volume deformation and haptic feedback are provided in a 3-D immersive VR environment. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was also simulated. Seventeen neurosurgery residents from three residency programs tested the simulator and provided feedback on its usefulness and resemblance to real aneurysm clipping surgery. Results Residents felt that the simulation would be useful in preparing for real-life surgery. About two thirds of the residents felt that the 3-D immersive anatomical details provided a very close resemblance to real operative anatomy and accurate guidance for deciding surgical approaches. They believed the simulation is useful for preoperative surgical rehearsal and neurosurgical training. One third of the residents felt that the technology in its current form provided very realistic haptic feedback for aneurysm surgery. Conclusion Neurosurgical residents felt that the novel immersive VR simulator is helpful in their training especially since they do not get a chance to perform aneurysm clippings until very late in their residency programs. PMID:25599200

  16. Lack of transfer of skills after virtual reality simulator training with haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Bø, Lars Eirik; Kuhry, Esther; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas; Hernes, Toril Nagelhus

    2017-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators enrich surgical training and offer training possibilities outside of the operating room (OR). In this study, we created a criterion-based training program on a VR simulator with haptic feedback and tested it by comparing the performances of a simulator group against a control group. Medical students with no experience in laparoscopy were randomly assigned to a simulator group or a control group. In the simulator group, the candidates trained until they reached predefined criteria on the LapSim ® VR simulator (Surgical Science AB, Göteborg, Sweden) with haptic feedback (Xitact TM IHP, Mentice AB, Göteborg, Sweden). All candidates performed a cholecystectomy on a porcine organ model in a box trainer (the clinical setting). The performances were video rated by two surgeons blinded to subject training status. In total, 30 students performed the cholecystectomy and had their videos rated (N = 16 simulator group, N = 14 control group). The control group achieved better video rating scores than the simulator group (p training program did not transfer skills to the clinical setting. Poor mechanical performance of the simulated haptic feedback is believed to have resulted in a negative training effect.

  17. Faster acquisition of laparoscopic skills in virtual reality with haptic feedback and 3D vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelsteen, Kristine; Langegård, Anders; Lantz, Adam; Ekelund, Mikael; Anderberg, Magnus; Bergenfelz, Anders

    2017-10-01

    The study investigated whether 3D vision and haptic feedback in combination in a virtual reality environment leads to more efficient learning of laparoscopic skills in novices. Twenty novices were allocated to two groups. All completed a training course in the LapSim ® virtual reality trainer consisting of four tasks: 'instrument navigation', 'grasping', 'fine dissection' and 'suturing'. The study group performed with haptic feedback and 3D vision and the control group without. Before and after the LapSim ® course, the participants' metrics were recorded when tying a laparoscopic knot in the 2D video box trainer Simball ® Box. The study group completed the training course in 146 (100-291) minutes compared to 215 (175-489) minutes in the control group (p = .002). The number of attempts to reach proficiency was significantly lower. The study group had significantly faster learning of skills in three out of four individual tasks; instrument navigation, grasping and suturing. Using the Simball ® Box, no difference in laparoscopic knot tying after the LapSim ® course was noted when comparing the groups. Laparoscopic training in virtual reality with 3D vision and haptic feedback made training more time efficient and did not negatively affect later video box-performance in 2D. [Formula: see text].

  18. A magnetorheological fluid-based multifunctional haptic device for vehicular instrument controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Kim, Chan-Jung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performances of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based multifunctional haptic device which is applicable to vehicular instrument controls. By combining in-vehicle functions into a single device, the proposed haptic device can transmit various reflection forces for each comfort function to a driver without requiring the driver's visual attention. As a multifunctional haptic device, a MR knob is proposed in this work and then devised to be capable of both rotary and push motions with a single knob. Under consideration of the spatial limitations of vehicle dashboards, design parameters are optimally determined by finite element analysis, and the objective function is to maximize a relative control torque. The proposed haptic device is then manufactured, and in-vehicle comfort functions are constructed in a virtual environment which makes the functions to communicate with the haptic device. Subsequently, a feed-forward controller using torque/force maps is formulated for the force tracking control. Control performances such as reflection force of the haptic device are experimentally evaluated via the torque/force map-based feed-forward controller

  19. Development of nanomanipulator using a high-speed atomic force microscope coupled with a haptic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, F.; Ohashi, Y.; Ishisaki, I.; Picco, L.M.; Ushiki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely used for surface fabrication and manipulation. However, nanomanipulation using a conventional AFM is inefficient because of the sequential nature of the scan-manipulation scan cycle, which makes it difficult for the operator to observe the region of interest and perform the manipulation simultaneously. In this paper, a nanomanipulation technique using a high-speed atomic force microscope (HS-AFM) is described. During manipulation using the AFM probe, the operation is periodically interrupted for a fraction of a second for high-speed imaging that allows the topographical image of the manipulated surface to be periodically updated. With the use of high-speed imaging, the interrupting time for imaging can be greatly reduced, and as a result, the operator almost does not notice the blink time of the interruption for imaging during the manipulation. This creates a more intuitive interface with greater feedback and finesse to the operator. Nanofabrication under real-time monitoring was performed to demonstrate the utility of this arrangement for real-time nanomanipulation of sample surfaces under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the HS-AFM is coupled with a haptic device for the human interface, enabling the operator to move the HS-AFM probe to any position on the surface while feeling the response from the surface during the manipulation. - Highlights: • A nanomanipulater based on a high-speed atomic force microscope was developped. • High-speed imaging provides a valuable feedback during the manipulation operation. • Operator can feel the response from the surface via a haptic device during manipulation. • Nanofabrications under real-time monitoring were successfully performed

  20. Augmented kinematic feedback from haptic virtual reality for dental skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Jittimanee, Pannapa; Viratket, Piyanuch

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a haptic virtual reality system for dental skill training. In this study we examined several kinds of kinematic information about the movement provided by the system supplement knowledge of results (KR) in dental skill acquisition. The kinematic variables examined involved force utilization (F) and mirror view (M). This created three experimental conditions that received augmented kinematic feedback (F, M, FM) and one control condition that did not (KR-only). Thirty-two dental students were randomly assigned to four groups. Their task was to perform access opening on the upper first molar with the haptic virtual reality system. An acquisition session consisted of two days of ten trials of practice in which augmented kinematic feedback was provided for the appropriate experimental conditions after each trial. One week after, a retention test consisting of two trials without augmented feedback was completed. The results showed that the augmented kinematic feedback groups had larger mean performance scores than the KR-only group in Day 1 of the acquisition and retention sessions (ANOVA, p0.05). The trends in acquisition and retention sessions suggest that the augmented kinematic feedback can enhance the performance earlier in the skill acquisition and retention sessions.

  1. Emotional feedback for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Seebode, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.

  2. Virtual Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping with Real-Time Haptic Force Feedback in Neurosurgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmeiner, Matthias; Dirnberger, Johannes; Fenz, Wolfgang; Gollwitzer, Maria; Wurm, Gabriele; Trenkler, Johannes; Gruber, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Realistic, safe, and efficient modalities for simulation-based training are highly warranted to enhance the quality of surgical education, and they should be incorporated in resident training. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific virtual cerebral aneurysm-clipping simulator with haptic force feedback and real-time deformation of the aneurysm and vessels. A prototype simulator was developed from 2012 to 2016. Evaluation of virtual clipping by blood flow simulation was integrated in this software, and the prototype was evaluated by 18 neurosurgeons. In 4 patients with different medial cerebral artery aneurysms, virtual clipping was performed after real-life surgery, and surgical results were compared regarding clip application, surgical trajectory, and blood flow. After head positioning and craniotomy, bimanual virtual aneurysm clipping with an original forceps was performed. Blood flow simulation demonstrated residual aneurysm filling or branch stenosis. The simulator improved anatomic understanding for 89% of neurosurgeons. Simulation of head positioning and craniotomy was considered realistic by 89% and 94% of users, respectively. Most participants agreed that this simulator should be integrated into neurosurgical education (94%). Our illustrative cases demonstrated that virtual aneurysm surgery was possible using the same trajectory as in real-life cases. Both virtual clipping and blood flow simulation were realistic in broad-based but not calcified aneurysms. Virtual clipping of a calcified aneurysm could be performed using the same surgical trajectory, but not the same clip type. We have successfully developed a virtual aneurysm-clipping simulator. Next, we will prospectively evaluate this device for surgical procedure planning and education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time surgery simulation of intracranial aneurysm clipping with patient-specific geometries and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, Wolfgang; Dirnberger, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Providing suitable training for aspiring neurosurgeons is becoming more and more problematic. The increasing popularity of the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms leads to a lack of simple surgical situations for clipping operations, leaving mainly the complex cases, which present even experienced surgeons with a challenge. To alleviate this situation, we have developed a training simulator with haptic interaction allowing trainees to practice virtual clipping surgeries on real patient-specific vessel geometries. By using specialized finite element (FEM) algorithms (fast finite element method, matrix condensation) combined with GPU acceleration, we can achieve the necessary frame rate for smooth real-time interaction with the detailed models needed for a realistic simulation of the vessel wall deformation caused by the clamping with surgical clips. Vessel wall geometries for typical training scenarios were obtained from 3D-reconstructed medical image data, while for the instruments (clipping forceps, various types of clips, suction tubes) we use models provided by manufacturer Aesculap AG. Collisions between vessel and instruments have to be continuously detected and transformed into corresponding boundary conditions and feedback forces, calculated using a contact plane method. After a training, the achieved result can be assessed based on various criteria, including a simulation of the residual blood flow into the aneurysm. Rigid models of the surgical access and surrounding brain tissue, plus coupling a real forceps to the haptic input device further increase the realism of the simulation.

  4. Mastoidectomy simulation with combined visual and haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Marco; Giachetti, Andrea; Gobbetti, Enrico; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Zorcolo, Antonio; John, Nigel W; Stone, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Mastoidectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures relating to the petrous bone. In this paper we describe our preliminary results in the realization of a virtual reality mastoidectomy simulator. Our system is designed to work on patient-specific volumetric object models directly derived from 3D CT and MRI images. The paper summarizes the detailed task analysis performed in order to define the system requirements, introduces the architecture of the prototype simulator, and discusses the initial feedback received from selected end users.

  5. Closing the sensorimotor loop: haptic feedback facilitates decoding of motor imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rodriguez, M.; Peters, J.; Hill, J.; Schölkopf, B.; Gharabaghi, A.; Grosse-Wentrup, M.

    2011-06-01

    The combination of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) with robot-assisted physical therapy constitutes a promising approach to neurorehabilitation of patients with severe hemiparetic syndromes caused by cerebrovascular brain damage (e.g. stroke) and other neurological conditions. In such a scenario, a key aspect is how to reestablish the disrupted sensorimotor feedback loop. However, to date it is an open question how artificially closing the sensorimotor feedback loop influences the decoding performance of a BCI. In this paper, we answer this issue by studying six healthy subjects and two stroke patients. We present empirical evidence that haptic feedback, provided by a seven degrees of freedom robotic arm, facilitates online decoding of arm movement intention. The results support the feasibility of future rehabilitative treatments based on the combination of robot-assisted physical therapy with BCIs.

  6. Haptic Paddle Enhancements and a Formal Assessment of Student Learning in System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewicz, Jenna L.; Kratchman, Louis B.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2014-01-01

    The haptic paddle is a force-feedback joystick used at several universities in teaching System Dynamics, a core mechanical engineering undergraduate course where students learn to model dynamic systems in several domains. A second goal of the haptic paddle is to increase the accessibility of robotics and haptics by providing a low-cost device for…

  7. Virtual reality in neurosurgical education: part-task ventriculostomy simulation with dynamic visual and haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemole, G Michael; Banerjee, P Pat; Luciano, Cristian; Neckrysh, Sergey; Charbel, Fady T

    2007-07-01

    Mastery of the neurosurgical skill set involves many hours of supervised intraoperative training. Convergence of political, economic, and social forces has limited neurosurgical resident operative exposure. There is need to develop realistic neurosurgical simulations that reproduce the operative experience, unrestricted by time and patient safety constraints. Computer-based, virtual reality platforms offer just such a possibility. The combination of virtual reality with dynamic, three-dimensional stereoscopic visualization, and haptic feedback technologies makes realistic procedural simulation possible. Most neurosurgical procedures can be conceptualized and segmented into critical task components, which can be simulated independently or in conjunction with other modules to recreate the experience of a complex neurosurgical procedure. We use the ImmersiveTouch (ImmersiveTouch, Inc., Chicago, IL) virtual reality platform, developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to simulate the task of ventriculostomy catheter placement as a proof-of-concept. Computed tomographic data are used to create a virtual anatomic volume. Haptic feedback offers simulated resistance and relaxation with passage of a virtual three-dimensional ventriculostomy catheter through the brain parenchyma into the ventricle. A dynamic three-dimensional graphical interface renders changing visual perspective as the user's head moves. The simulation platform was found to have realistic visual, tactile, and handling characteristics, as assessed by neurosurgical faculty, residents, and medical students. We have developed a realistic, haptics-based virtual reality simulator for neurosurgical education. Our first module recreates a critical component of the ventriculostomy placement task. This approach to task simulation can be assembled in a modular manner to reproduce entire neurosurgical procedures.

  8. 77 FR 49458 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices.... 1337 in the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics, by reason of the infringement of claims of six...

  9. 78 FR 23593 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices... the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics that infringe certain claims of six Immersion patents. 77...

  10. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  11. The value of haptic feedback in conventional and robot-assisted minimal invasive surgery and virtual reality training: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, O A J; Schijven, M P

    2009-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) as surgical training tool has become a state-of-the-art technique in training and teaching skills for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Although intuitively appealing, the true benefits of haptic (VR training) platforms are unknown. Many questions about haptic feedback in the different areas of surgical skills (training) need to be answered before adding costly haptic feedback in VR simulation for MIS training. This study was designed to review the current status and value of haptic feedback in conventional and robot-assisted MIS and training by using virtual reality simulation. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using PubMed and MEDLINE. The following search terms were used: Haptic feedback OR Haptics OR Force feedback AND/OR Minimal Invasive Surgery AND/OR Minimal Access Surgery AND/OR Robotics AND/OR Robotic Surgery AND/OR Endoscopic Surgery AND/OR Virtual Reality AND/OR Simulation OR Surgical Training/Education. The results were assessed according to level of evidence as reflected by the Oxford Centre of Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. In the current literature, no firm consensus exists on the importance of haptic feedback in performing minimally invasive surgery. Although the majority of the results show positive assessment of the benefits of force feedback, results are ambivalent and not unanimous on the subject. Benefits are least disputed when related to surgery using robotics, because there is no haptic feedback in currently used robotics. The addition of haptics is believed to reduce surgical errors resulting from a lack of it, especially in knot tying. Little research has been performed in the area of robot-assisted endoscopic surgical training, but results seem promising. Concerning VR training, results indicate that haptic feedback is important during the early phase of psychomotor skill acquisition.

  12. Design of a 7-DOF haptic master using a magneto-rheological devices for robot surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok-Rae; Choi, Seung-Bok; Hwang, Yong-Hoon; Cha, Seung-Woo

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a 7 degrees-of-freedom (7-DOF) haptic master which is applicable to the robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). By utilizing a controllable magneto-rheological (MR) fluid, the haptic master can provide force information to the surgeon during surgery. The proposed haptic master consists of three degrees motions of X, Y, Z and four degrees motions of the pitch, yaw, roll and grasping. All of them have force feedback capability. The proposed haptic master can generate the repulsive forces or torques by activating MR clutch and MR brake. Both MR clutch and MR brake are designed and manufactured with consideration of the size and output torque which is usable to the robotic surgery. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is then designed and implemented to achieve torque/force tracking trajectories. It is verified that the proposed haptic master can track well the desired torque and force occurred in the surgical place by controlling the input current applied to MR clutch and brake.

  13. HapticScreenを用いたメディアインスタレーション : ANOMALOCARIS(<特集>インタラクティブアート)

    OpenAIRE

    岩田, 洋夫; 矢野, 博明; 中泉, 文孝

    2000-01-01

    "ANOMALOCARIS" is an interactive work, which represents virtual creature through visual and haptic sensation. Anomalocaris is a name of an animal that supposed to live during the Cambrian Era. Virtual anomalocaris is displayed on the HapticScreen. HapticScreen is a new configuration of a force feedback device. HapticScreen has an innovative mechanism that creates sense of touch on whole palm. The device deforms itself to present shapes of virtual object. Typical force feedback device uses a g...

  14. 77 FR 20847 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on February 7, 2012, and an amended complaint was filed with the U.S...

  15. The Hedonic Haptics Player: A Wearable Device to Experience Vibrotactile Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Vallgårda, Anna; Cahill, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The Hedonic Haptics player is a portable wearable device that plays back vibrotactile compositions. It consists of three domes each of which houses a vibration motor providing vibrotactile sensations to the wearer. The domes are connected to a control unit the size of a small Walkman. The Hedonic...

  16. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  17. The "Haptic Finger"- a new device for monitoring skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mami; Lévêque, Jean Luc; Tagami, Hachiro; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Chonan, Seifi

    2003-05-01

    Touching the skin is of great importance for the Clinician for assessing roughness, softness, firmness, etc. This type of clinical assessment is very subjective and therefore non-reproducible from one Clinician to another one or even from time to time for the same Clinician. In order to objectively monitor skin texture, we developed a new sensor, placed directly on the Clinician's finger, which generate some electric signal when slid over the skin surface. The base of this Haptic Finger sensor is a thin stainless steel plate on which sponge rubber, PVDF foil, acetate film and gauze are layered. The signal generated by the sensor was filtered and digitally stored before processing. In a first in vitro experiment, the sensor was moved over different skin models (sponge rubber covered by silicon rubber) of varying hardness and roughness. These experiments allowed the definition of two parameters characterizing textures. The first parameter is variance of the signal processed using wavelet analysis, representing an index of roughness. The second parameter is dispersion of the power spectrum density in the frequency domain, corresponding to hardness. To validate these parameters, the Haptic Finger was used to scan skin surfaces of 30 people, 14 of whom displayed a skin disorder: xerosis (n = 5), atopic dermatitis (n = 7), and psoriasis (n = 2). The results obtained by means of the sensor were compared with subjective, clinical evaluations by a Clinician who scored both roughness and hardness of the skin. Good agreement was observed between clinical assessment of the skin and the two parameters generated using the Haptic Finger. Use of this sensor could prove extremely valuable in cosmetic research where skin surface texture (in terms of tactile properties) is difficult to measure.

  18. The role of haptic feedback in laparoscopic training using the LapMentor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkini, Mohamad W; Doarn, Charles R; Kiehl, Nicholai; Broderick, Timothy J; Donovan, James F; Gaitonde, Krishnanath

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard of care for many surgical diseases. Haptic (tactile) feedback (HFB) is considered an important component of laparoscopic surgery. Virtual reality simulation (VRS) is an alternative method to teach surgical skills to surgeons in training. Newer VRS trainers such as the Simbionix Lap Mentor II provide significantly improved tactile feedback. However, VRSs are expensive and adding HFB software adds an estimated cost of $30,000 to the commercial price. The HFB provided by the Lap Mentor II has not been validated by an independent party. We used the Simbionix Lap Mentor II in this study to demonstrate the effect of adding an HFB mechanism in the VRS trainer. The study was approved by the University of Cincinnati Institutional Review Board. Twenty laparoscopically novice medical students were enrolled. Each student was asked to perform three different tasks on the Lap Mentor II and repeat each one five times. The chosen tasks demanded significant amount of traction and counter traction. The first task was to pull leaking tubes enough and clip them. The second task was stretching a jelly plate enough to see its attachments to the floor and cut these attachments. In the third task, the trainee had to separate the gallbladder from its bed on the liver. The students were randomized into two groups to perform the tasks with and without HFB. We used accuracy, speed, and economy of movement as scales to compare the performance between the two groups. The participants also completed a simple questionnaire that highlighted age, sex, and experiences in videogame usage. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, and videogame playing. No differences in the accuracy, the economy, and the speed of hand movement were noticed. In fact, adding HFB to the Lap Mentor II simulator did not contribute to any improvement in the performance of the trainees. Interestingly, we found that videogame expert players tend to have faster and more economic

  19. Integration of soft tissue model and open haptic device for medical training simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasum, G. F.; Ramdhania, L. N.; Suprijanto; Widyotriatmo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been widely used to perform any surgical procedures nowadays. Currently, MIS has been applied in some cases in Indonesia. Needle insertion is one of simple MIS procedure that can be used for some purposes. Before the needle insertion technique used in the real situation, it essential to train this type of medical student skills. The research has developed an open platform of needle insertion simulator with haptic feedback that providing the medical student a realistic feel encountered during the actual procedures. There are three main steps in build the training simulator, which are configure hardware system, develop a program to create soft tissue model and the integration of hardware and software. For evaluating its performance, haptic simulator was tested by 24 volunteers on a scenario of soft tissue model. Each volunteer must insert the needle on simulator until rearch the target point with visual feedback that visualized on the monitor. From the result it can concluded that the soft tissue model can bring the sensation of touch through the perceived force feedback on haptic actuator by looking at the different force in accordance with different stiffness in each layer.

  20. Sonification and haptic feedback in addition to visual feedback enhances complex motor task learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent augmented feedback has been shown to be less effective for learning simple motor tasks than for complex tasks. However, as mostly artificial tasks have been investigated, transfer of results to tasks in sports and rehabilitation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of different concurrent feedback was evaluated in trunk-arm rowing. It was then investigated whether multimodal audiovisual and visuohaptic feedback are more effective for learning than visual feedback only. Naïve subjects (N = 24) trained in three groups on a highly realistic virtual reality-based rowing simulator. In the visual feedback group, the subject's oar was superimposed to the target oar, which continuously became more transparent when the deviation between the oars decreased. Moreover, a trace of the subject's trajectory emerged if deviations exceeded a threshold. The audiovisual feedback group trained with oar movement sonification in addition to visual feedback to facilitate learning of the velocity profile. In the visuohaptic group, the oar movement was inhibited by path deviation-dependent braking forces to enhance learning of spatial aspects. All groups significantly decreased the spatial error (tendency in visual group) and velocity error from baseline to the retention tests. Audiovisual feedback fostered learning of the velocity profile significantly more than visuohaptic feedback. The study revealed that well-designed concurrent feedback fosters complex task learning, especially if the advantages of different modalities are exploited. Further studies should analyze the impact of within-feedback design parameters and the transferability of the results to other tasks in sports and rehabilitation.

  1. Conflicting audio-haptic feedback in physically based simulation of walking sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania; Dimitrov, Smilen

    2010-01-01

    We describe an audio-haptic experiment conducted using a system which simulates in real-time the auditory and haptic sensation of walking on different surfaces. The system is based on physical models, that drive both the haptic and audio synthesizers, and a pair of shoes enhanced with sensors...... and actuators. Such experiment was run to examine the ability of subjects to recognize the different surfaces with both coherent and incoherent audio-haptic stimuli. Results show that in this kind of tasks the auditory modality is dominant on the haptic one....

  2. Multi-fingered haptic palpation utilizing granular jamming stiffness feedback actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Min; Sareh, Sina; Seneviratne, Lakmal D; Wurdemann, Helge A; Althoefer, Kaspar; Ranzani, Tommaso; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-fingered haptic palpation method using stiffness feedback actuators for simulating tissue palpation procedures in traditional and in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Soft tissue stiffness is simulated by changing the stiffness property of the actuator during palpation. For the first time, granular jamming and pneumatic air actuation are combined to realize stiffness modulation. The stiffness feedback actuator is validated by stiffness measurements in indentation tests and through stiffness discrimination based on a user study. According to the indentation test results, the introduction of a pneumatic chamber to granular jamming can amplify the stiffness variation range and reduce hysteresis of the actuator. The advantage of multi-fingered palpation using the proposed actuators is proven by the comparison of the results of the stiffness discrimination performance using two-fingered (sensitivity: 82.2%, specificity: 88.9%, positive predicative value: 80.0%, accuracy: 85.4%, time: 4.84 s) and single-fingered (sensitivity: 76.4%, specificity: 85.7%, positive predicative value: 75.3%, accuracy: 81.8%, time: 7.48 s) stiffness feedback. (paper)

  3. Real-time dual-band haptic music player for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Inwook; Lee, Hyeseon; Choi, Seungmoon

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel dual-band haptic music player for real-time simultaneous vibrotactile playback with music in mobile devices. Our haptic music player features a new miniature dual-mode actuator that can produce vibrations consisting of two principal frequencies and a real-time vibration generation algorithm that can extract vibration commands from a music file for dual-band playback (bass and treble). The algorithm uses a "haptic equalizer" and provides plausible sound-to-touch modality conversion based on human perceptual data. In addition, we present a user study carried out to evaluate the subjective performance (precision, harmony, fun, and preference) of the haptic music player, in comparison with the current practice of bass-band-only vibrotactile playback via a single-frequency voice-coil actuator. The evaluation results indicated that the new dual-band playback outperforms the bass-only rendering, also providing several insights for further improvements. The developed system and experimental findings have implications for improving the multimedia experience with mobile devices.

  4. Providing haptic feedback in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery: a direct optical force-sensing solution for haptic rendering of deformable bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrampoosh, Shervin; Dave, Mohit; Kia, Michael A; Rablau, Corneliu; Zadeh, Mehrdad H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced haptic-enabled master-slave teleoperation system which can be used to provide force feedback to surgeons in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). One of the research goals was to develop a combined-control architecture framework that included both direct force reflection (DFR) and position-error-based (PEB) control strategies. To achieve this goal, it was essential to measure accurately the direct contact forces between deformable bodies and a robotic tool tip. To measure the forces at a surgical tool tip and enhance the performance of the teleoperation system, an optical force sensor was designed, prototyped, and added to a robot manipulator. The enhanced teleoperation architecture was formulated by developing mathematical models for the optical force sensor, the extended slave robot manipulator, and the combined-control strategy. Human factor studies were also conducted to (a) examine experimentally the performance of the enhanced teleoperation system with the optical force sensor, and (b) study human haptic perception during the identification of remote object deformability. The first experiment was carried out to discriminate deformability of objects when human subjects were in direct contact with deformable objects by means of a laparoscopic tool. The control parameters were then tuned based on the results of this experiment using a gain-scheduling method. The second experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of the force feedback provided through the enhanced teleoperation system. The results show that the force feedback increased the ability of subjects to correctly identify materials of different deformable types. In addition, the virtual force feedback provided by the teleoperation system comes close to the real force feedback experienced in direct MIS. The experimental results provide design guidelines for choosing and validating the control architecture and the optical force sensor.

  5. Handling in the Micro/nano-world: haptic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigues, A.

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron Radiation and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) are among the most used techniques to study the physical and chemical properties of nano-structures. Coupling these two techniques is a promising path for opening new horizons in the study of nano-sciences. The merge has already proved its potentialities in the frame of the X-tip project where Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been associated with synchrotron radiation X-Ray diffraction to determine the Young's modulus of germanium micro-plots by dynamically indenting the sample while performing diffraction analysis. The configuration used there, however, does not permit three dimension (3D) manipulations of samples. The aim of our nano-manipulator is 3D management of samples with permanent control of the nano-forces exerted on the object while immersed in a scanning beam (X-Ray, e-beams). The first chapter focuses on the sensors with which measure the interactions at a nanometer scale and permit the selection of individual objects. After an overview of the different techniques of micro/nano-manipulation available today (mechanical micro-grippers based on MEMS technology, optic tweezers or grippers based on conventional atomic force microscopy), and considering the constraints imposed by synchrotron experiments, the choice of quartz oscillators (Tuning Forks or Length Extended Resonators (LER)) as sensors is explained. It follows an introduction to Atomic Force Microscopy in general and the description of its association to these oscillators. In the second chapter, the instrumental development of our nano-manipulation station is detailed with particular care on the definition of the geometry of the resonators and related tips for achieving both AFM imaging and gripping of the sample and on the way to control the coarse and ne positioning of the three elements of the nano-manipulator. Finally, the haptic system ERGOS and its coupling with our assembly is described. In the last chapter, two types of

  6. Computer-aided trauma simulation system with haptic feedback is easy and fast for oral-maxillofacial surgeons to learn and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, Sara C; Silva, Rebeka; Salisbury, Ken; Gaudilliere, Dyani; Girod, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Computer-assisted surgical (CAS) planning tools have become widely available in craniomaxillofacial surgery, but are time consuming and often require professional technical assistance to simulate a case. An initial oral and maxillofacial (OM) surgical user experience was evaluated with a newly developed CAS system featuring a bimanual sense of touch (haptic). Three volunteer OM surgeons received a 5-minute verbal introduction to the use of a newly developed haptic-enabled planning system. The surgeons were instructed to simulate mandibular fracture reductions of 3 clinical cases, within a 15-minute time limit and without a time limit, and complete a questionnaire to assess their subjective experience with the system. Standard landmarks and linear and angular measurements between the simulated results and the actual surgical outcome were compared. After the 5-minute instruction, all 3 surgeons were able to use the system independently. The analysis of standardized anatomic measurements showed that the simulation results within a 15-minute time limit were not significantly different from those without a time limit. Mean differences between measurements of surgical and simulated fracture reductions were within current resolution limitations in collision detection, segmentation of computed tomographic scans, and haptic devices. All 3 surgeons reported that the system was easy to learn and use and that they would be comfortable integrating it into their daily clinical practice for trauma cases. A CAS system with a haptic interface that capitalizes on touch and force feedback experience similar to operative procedures is fast and easy for OM surgeons to learn and use. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeling objects in Virtual Environments: Presence and Pseudo-Haptics in a Bowling Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniliauskaite, Kristina; Magnusdottir, Agusta; Bjørkå, Henrik Birke

    2007-01-01

    , by relying on visual cues, taking therefore advantage of sensory substitution (no haptic feedback device is actually present). The interdependency between presence and a pseudo-haptic feedback is investigated by building avirtual bowling game. Results indicate that there is a significant correlation between...

  8. Haptically facilitated bimanual training combined with augmented visual feedback in moderate to severe hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Amy; Qiu, Qinyin; Fluet, Gerard G; Adamovich, Sergei V

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and feasibility testing of a hand rehabilitation system that provides haptic assistance for hand opening in moderate to severe hemiplegia while subjects attempt to perform bilateral hand movements. A cable-actuated exoskeleton robot assists the subjects in performing impaired finger movements but is controlled by movement of the unimpaired hand. In an attempt to combine the neurophysiological stimuli of bilateral movement and action observation during training, visual feedback of the impaired hand is replaced by feedback of the unimpaired hand, either by using a sagittaly oriented mirror or a virtual reality setup with a pair of virtual hands presented on a flat screen controlled with movement of the unimpaired hand, providing a visual image of their paretic hand moving normally. Joint angles for both hands are measured using data gloves. The system is programmed to maintain a symmetrical relationship between the two hands as they respond to commands to open and close simultaneously. Three persons with moderate to severe hemiplegia secondary to stroke trained with the system for eight, 30 to 60 minute sessions without adverse events. Each demonstrated positive motor adaptations to training. The system was well tolerated by persons with moderate to severe upper extremity hemiplegia. Further testing of its effects on motor ability with a broader range of clinical presentations is indicated.

  9. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  10. Optimum design of 6-DOF parallel manipulator with translational/rotational workspaces for haptic device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Hwang, Yoon Kwon [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Je Ha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes an optimum design method that satisfies the desired orientation workspace at the boundary of the translation workspace while maximizing the mechanism isotropy for parallel manipulators. A simple genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal linkage parameters of a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator that can be used as a haptic device. The objective function is composed of a desired spherical shape translation workspace and a desired orientation workspace located on the boundaries of the desired translation workspace, along with a global conditioning index based on a homogeneous Jacobian matrix. The objective function was optimized to satisfy the desired orientation workspace at the boundary positions as translated from a neutral position of the increased entropy mechanism. An optimization result with desired translation and orientation workspaces for a haptic device was obtained to show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme, and the kinematic performances of the proposed model were compared with those of a preexisting base model

  11. Optimum design of 6-DOF parallel manipulator with translational/rotational workspaces for haptic device application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Hwang, Yoon Kwon; Ryu, Je Ha

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimum design method that satisfies the desired orientation workspace at the boundary of the translation workspace while maximizing the mechanism isotropy for parallel manipulators. A simple genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal linkage parameters of a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator that can be used as a haptic device. The objective function is composed of a desired spherical shape translation workspace and a desired orientation workspace located on the boundaries of the desired translation workspace, along with a global conditioning index based on a homogeneous Jacobian matrix. The objective function was optimized to satisfy the desired orientation workspace at the boundary positions as translated from a neutral position of the increased entropy mechanism. An optimization result with desired translation and orientation workspaces for a haptic device was obtained to show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme, and the kinematic performances of the proposed model were compared with those of a preexisting base model

  12. Surgical virtual reality - highlights in developing a high performance surgical haptic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custură-Crăciun, D; Cochior, D; Constantinoiu, S; Neagu, C

    2013-01-01

    Just like simulators are a standard in aviation and aerospace sciences, we expect for surgical simulators to soon become a standard in medical applications. These will correctly instruct future doctors in surgical techniques without there being a need for hands on patient instruction. Using virtual reality by digitally transposing surgical procedures changes surgery in are volutionary manner by offering possibilities for implementing new, much more efficient, learning methods, by allowing the practice of new surgical techniques and by improving surgeon abilities and skills. Perfecting haptic devices has opened the door to a series of opportunities in the fields of research,industry, nuclear science and medicine. Concepts purely theoretical at first, such as telerobotics, telepresence or telerepresentation,have become a practical reality as calculus techniques, telecommunications and haptic devices evolved,virtual reality taking a new leap. In the field of surgery barrier sand controversies still remain, regarding implementation and generalization of surgical virtual simulators. These obstacles remain connected to the high costs of this yet fully sufficiently developed technology, especially in the domain of haptic devices. Celsius.

  13. Customization, control, and characterization of a commercial haptic device for high-fidelity rendering of weak forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurari, Netta; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel

    2014-09-30

    The emergence of commercial haptic devices offers new research opportunities to enhance our understanding of the human sensory-motor system. Yet, commercial device capabilities have limitations which need to be addressed. This paper describes the customization of a commercial force feedback device for displaying forces with a precision that exceeds the human force perception threshold. The device was outfitted with a multi-axis force sensor and closed-loop controlled to improve its transparency. Additionally, two force sensing resistors were attached to the device to measure grip force. Force errors were modeled in the frequency- and time-domain to identify contributions from the mass, viscous friction, and Coulomb friction during open- and closed-loop control. The effect of user interaction on system stability was assessed in the context of a user study which aimed to measure force perceptual thresholds. Findings based on 15 participants demonstrate that the system maintains stability when rendering forces ranging from 0-0.20 N, with an average maximum absolute force error of 0.041 ± 0.013 N. Modeling the force errors revealed that Coulomb friction and inertia were the main contributors to force distortions during respectively slow and fast motions. Existing commercial force feedback devices cannot render forces with the required precision for certain testing scenarios. Building on existing robotics work, this paper shows how a device can be customized to make it reliable for studying the perception of weak forces. The customized and closed-loop controlled device is suitable for measuring force perceptual thresholds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient adaptive control of end-effector based gait rehabilitation devices using a haptic control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sami; Kruger, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Robot assisted training has proven beneficial as an extension of conventional therapy to improve rehabilitation outcome. Further facilitation of this positive impact is expected from the application of cooperative control algorithms to increase the patient's contribution to the training effort according to his level of ability. This paper presents an approach for cooperative training for end-effector based gait rehabilitation devices. Thereby it provides the basis to firstly establish sophisticated cooperative control methods in this class of devices. It uses a haptic control framework to synthesize and render complex, task specific training environments, which are composed of polygonal primitives. Training assistance is integrated as part of the environment into the haptic control framework. A compliant window is moved along a nominal training trajectory compliantly guiding and supporting the foot motion. The level of assistance is adjusted via the stiffness of the moving window. Further an iterative learning algorithm is used to automatically adjust this assistance level. Stable haptic rendering of the dynamic training environments and adaptive movement assistance have been evaluated in two example training scenarios: treadmill walking and stair climbing. Data from preliminary trials with one healthy subject is provided in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Large displacement haptic stimulus actuator using piezoelectric pump for wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Taisuke; Izumi, Shintaro; Masaki, Kana; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    Recently, given Japan's aging society background, wearable healthcare devices have increasingly attracted attention. Many devices have been developed, but most devices have only a sensing function. To expand the application area of wearable healthcare devices, an interactive communication function with the human body is required using an actuator. For example, a device must be useful for medication assistance, predictive alerts of a disease such as arrhythmia, and exercise. In this work, a haptic stimulus actuator using a piezoelectric pump is proposed to realize a large displacement in wearable devices. The proposed actuator drives tactile sensation of the human body. The measurement results obtained using a sensory examination demonstrate that the proposed actuator can generate sufficient stimuli even if adhered to the chest, which has fewer tactile receptors than either the fingertip or wrist.

  16. A kinesthetic washout filter for force-feedback rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieau, Fabien; Lecuyer, Anatole; Guillotel, Philippe; Fleureau, Julien; Mollet, Nicolas; Christie, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Today haptic feedback can be designed and associated to audiovisual content (haptic-audiovisuals or HAV). Although there are multiple means to create individual haptic effects, the issue of how to properly adapt such effects on force-feedback devices has not been addressed and is mostly a manual endeavor. We propose a new approach for the haptic rendering of HAV, based on a washout filter for force-feedback devices. A body model and an inverse kinematics algorithm simulate the user's kinesthetic perception. Then, the haptic rendering is adapted in order to handle transitions between haptic effects and to optimize the amplitude of effects regarding the device capabilities. Results of a user study show that this new haptic rendering can successfully improve the HAV experience.

  17. A function-behavior-structure framework for quantification and reproduction of emotional haptic experience in using an electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Il Ju; Lee, Soo Hong; Ok, Hyung Seok; Lee, Jae In

    2013-01-01

    A user's haptic experience in using an electronic device is related to the continuous and dynamic variances of the structural state of the device. Since the changes of the structural component cause complex changes of the dynamics, it is difficult to predict the user's experience. We propose a function-behavior-structure framework to predict and improve the user's experience. The framework consists of the function layer model, the behavior layer model, and the structure layer model. Especially, the independent behavior model to the device is based on a physical phenomenon. Finally, an optimized structure which produces an ideal haptic experience for a cell phone is suggested.

  18. Finite Element Methods for real-time Haptic Feedback of Soft-Tissue Models in Virtual Reality Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andreas O.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Barth, Timothy J.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have applied the linear elastic finite element method to compute haptic force feedback and domain deformations of soft tissue models for use in virtual reality simulators. Our results show that, for virtual object models of high-resolution 3D data (>10,000 nodes), haptic real time computations (>500 Hz) are not currently possible using traditional methods. Current research efforts are focused in the following areas: 1) efficient implementation of fully adaptive multi-resolution methods and 2) multi-resolution methods with specialized basis functions to capture the singularity at the haptic interface (point loading). To achieve real time computations, we propose parallel processing of a Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method applied to a reduced system of equations resulting from surface domain decomposition. This can effectively be achieved using reconfigurable computing systems such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), thereby providing a flexible solution that allows for new FPGA implementations as improved algorithms become available. The resulting soft tissue simulation system would meet NASA Virtual Glovebox requirements and, at the same time, provide a generalized simulation engine for any immersive environment application, such as biomedical/surgical procedures or interactive scientific applications.

  19. Preliminarily measurement and analysis of sawing forces in fresh cadaver mandible using reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yua, Dedong; Zhengb, Xiaohu; Chenc, Ming; Shend, Steve G F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to preliminarily measure and analyze the cutting forces in fresh Chinese cadaver mandible using a clinically widely used reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback. Eight mandibles were taken from fresh Chinese cadavers, 4 females and 4 males, aged between 59 and 95 years. A set of sawing experiments, using a surgery Stryker micro-reciprocating saw and Kistler piezoelectric dynamometer, was carried out by a CNC machining center. Under different vibration frequencies of saw and feeding rates measured from orthognathic surgery, sawing forces were recorded by a signal acquisition system. Remarkably different sawing forces were measured from different cadavers. Feed and vibration frequency of the reciprocating saw could determine the cutting forces only on 1 body. To reduce the impact of bone thickness changes on the cutting force measurements, all the cutting force data should be converted to the force of unit cutting length. The vibration frequency of haptic feedback system is determined by main cutting forces. Fast Fourier transform method can be used to calculate the frequency of this system. To simulate surgery in higher fidelity, all the sawing forces from the experiment should be amended by experienced surgeons before use in virtual reality surgery simulator. Sawing force signals of different ages for force feedback were measured successfully, and more factors related to the bone mechanical properties, such as bone density, should be concerned in the future.

  20. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.

    2013-02-01

    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  1. Haptic feedback improves surgeons' user experience and fracture reduction in facial trauma simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Sabine; Schvartzman, Sara C; Gaudilliere, Dyani; Salisbury, Kenneth; Silva, Rebeka

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted surgical (CAS) planning tools are available for craniofacial surgery, but are usually based on computer-aided design (CAD) tools that lack the ability to detect the collision of virtual objects (i.e., fractured bone segments). We developed a CAS system featuring a sense of touch (haptic) that enables surgeons to physically interact with individual, patient-specific anatomy and immerse in a three-dimensional virtual environment. In this study, we evaluated initial user experience with our novel system compared to an existing CAD system. Ten surgery resident trainees received a brief verbal introduction to both the haptic and CAD systems. Users simulated mandibular fracture reduction in three clinical cases within a 15 min time limit for each system and completed a questionnaire to assess their subjective experience. We compared standard landmarks and linear and angular measurements between the simulated results and the actual surgical outcome and found that haptic simulation results were not significantly different from actual postoperative outcomes. In contrast, CAD results significantly differed from both the haptic simulation and actual postoperative results. In addition to enabling a more accurate fracture repair, the haptic system provided a better user experience than the CAD system in terms of intuitiveness and self-reported quality of repair.

  2. Self-Control of Haptic Assistance for Motor Learning: Influences of Frequency and Opinion of Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Camille K.; Tseung, Victrine; Carnahan, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Studies of self-controlled practice have shown benefits when learners controlled feedback schedule, use of assistive devices and task difficulty, with benefits attributed to information processing and motivational advantages of self-control. Although haptic assistance serves as feedback, aids task performance and modifies task difficulty, researchers have yet to explore whether self-control over haptic assistance could be beneficial for learning. We explored whether self-control of haptic assistance would be beneficial for learning a tracing task. Self-controlled participants selected practice blocks on which they would receive haptic assistance, while participants in a yoked group received haptic assistance on blocks determined by a matched self-controlled participant. We inferred learning from performance on retention tests without haptic assistance. From qualitative analysis of open-ended questions related to rationales for/experiences of the haptic assistance that was chosen/provided, themes emerged regarding participants’ views of the utility of haptic assistance for performance and learning. Results showed that learning was directly impacted by the frequency of haptic assistance for self-controlled participants only and view of haptic assistance. Furthermore, self-controlled participants’ views were significantly associated with their requested haptic assistance frequency. We discuss these findings as further support for the beneficial role of self-controlled practice for motor learning. PMID:29255438

  3. IMPROVING MEDICAL EDUCATION: SIMULATING CHANGES IN PATIENT ANATOMY USING DYNAMIC HAPTIC FEEDBACK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, Mary; Pepley, David; Mirkin, Katelin; Moore, Jason; Han, David; Miller, Scarlett

    2016-09-01

    Virtual simulation is an emerging field in medical education. Research suggests that simulation reduces complication rates and improves learning gains for medical residents. One benefit of simulators is their allowance for more realistic and dynamic patient anatomies. While potentially useful throughout medical education, few studies have explored the impact of dynamic haptic simulators on medical training. In light of this research void, this study was developed to examine how a Dynamic-Haptic Robotic Trainer (DHRT) impacts medical student self-efficacy and skill gains compared to traditional simulators developed to train students in Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter (IJ CVC) placement. The study was conducted with 18 third year medical students with no prior CVC insertion experience who underwent a pre-test, simulator training (manikin, robotic, or mixed) and post-test. The results revealed the DHRT as a useful method for training CVC skills and supports further research on dynamic haptic trainers in medical education.

  4. Review of Designs for Haptic Data Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneels, Sabrina; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    There are many different uses for haptics, such as training medical practitioners, teleoperation, or navigation of virtual environments. This review focuses on haptic methods that display data. The hypothesis is that haptic devices can be used to present information, and consequently, the user gains quantitative, qualitative, or holistic knowledge about the presented data. Not only is this useful for users who are blind or partially sighted (who can feel line graphs, for instance), but also the haptic modality can be used alongside other modalities, to increase the amount of variables being presented, or to duplicate some variables to reinforce the presentation. Over the last 20 years, a significant amount of research has been done in haptic data presentation; e.g., researchers have developed force feedback line graphs, bar charts, and other forms of haptic representations. However, previous research is published in different conferences and journals, with different application emphases. This paper gathers and collates these various designs to provide a comprehensive review of designs for haptic data visualization. The designs are classified by their representation: Charts, Maps, Signs, Networks, Diagrams, Images, and Tables. This review provides a comprehensive reference for researchers and learners, and highlights areas for further research.

  5. Mechatronic design of haptic forceps for robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizun, P; Gunn, D; Cox, B; Sutherland, G

    2006-12-01

    Haptic feedback increases operator performance and comfort during telerobotic manipulation. Feedback of grasping pressure is critical in many microsurgical tasks, yet no haptic interface for surgical tools is commercially available. Literature on the psychophysics of touch was reviewed to define the spectrum of human touch perception and the fidelity requirements of an ideal haptic interface. Mechanical design and control literature was reviewed to translate the psychophysical requirements to engineering specification. High-fidelity haptic forceps were then developed through an iterative process between engineering and surgery. The forceps are a modular device that integrate with a haptic hand controller to add force feedback for tool actuation in telerobotic or virtual surgery. Their overall length is 153 mm and their mass is 125 g. A contact-free voice coil actuator generates force feedback at frequencies up to 800 Hz. Maximum force output is 6 N (2N continuous) and the force resolution is 4 mN. The forceps employ a contact-free magnetic position sensor as well as micro-machined accelerometers to measure opening/closing acceleration. Position resolution is 0.6 microm with 1.3 microm RMS noise. The forceps can simulate stiffness greater than 20N/mm or impedances smaller than 15 g with no noticeable haptic artifacts or friction. As telerobotic surgery evolves, haptics will play an increasingly important role. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Real-time vision, tactile cues, and visual form agnosia in pantomimed grasping: removing haptic feedback induces a switch from natural to pantomime-like grasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leslie Whitwell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators study the kinematics of grasping movements (prehension under a variety of conditions to probe visuomotor function in normal and brain-damaged individuals. When patient DF, who suffers from visual form agnosia, performs natural grasps, her in-flight hand aperture is scaled to the widths of targets ('grip scaling' that she cannot discriminate amongst. In contrast, when DF's pantomime grasps are based on a memory of a previewed object, her grip scaling is very poor. Her failure on this task has been interpreted as additional support for the dissociation between the use of object vision for action and object vision for perception. Curiously, however, when DF directs her pantomimed grasps towards a displaced imagined copy of a visible object where her fingers make contact with the surface of the table, her grip scaling does not appear to be particularly poor. In the first of two experiments, we revisit this previous work and show that her grip scaling in this real-time pantomime grasping task does not differ from controls, suggesting that terminal tactile feedback from a proxy of the target can maintain DF's grip scaling. In a second experiment with healthy participants, we tested a recent variant of a grasping task in which no tactile feedback is available (i.e. no haptic feedback by comparing the kinematics of target-directed grasps with and without haptic feedback to those of real-time pantomime grasps without haptic feedback. Compared to natural grasps, removing haptic feedback increased RT, slowed the velocity of the reach, reduced grip aperture, sharpened the slopes relating grip aperture to target width, and reduced the final grip aperture. All of these effects were also observed in the pantomime grasping task. Taken together, these results provide compelling support for the view that removing haptic feedback induces a switch from real-time visual control to one that depends more on visual perception and cognitive supervision.

  7. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  8. IMPROVING MEDICAL EDUCATION: SIMULATING CHANGES IN PATIENT ANATOMY USING DYNAMIC HAPTIC FEEDBACK

    OpenAIRE

    Yovanoff, Mary; Pepley, David; Mirkin, Katelin; Moore, Jason; Han, David; Miller, Scarlett

    2016-01-01

    Virtual simulation is an emerging field in medical education. Research suggests that simulation reduces complication rates and improves learning gains for medical residents. One benefit of simulators is their allowance for more realistic and dynamic patient anatomies. While potentially useful throughout medical education, few studies have explored the impact of dynamic haptic simulators on medical training. In light of this research void, this study was developed to examine how a Dynamic-Hapt...

  9. Resident simulation training in endoscopic endonasal surgery utilizing haptic feedback technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Jayesh P; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Abdullah, Kalil G; Hudgins, Eric; Vaughan, Kerry; Piazza, Matthew; Madsen, Peter J; Buch, Vivek; Sean Grady, M

    2016-12-01

    Simulated practice may improve resident performance in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Using the NeuroTouch haptic simulation platform, we evaluated resident performance and assessed the effect of simulation training on performance in the operating room. First- (N=3) and second- (N=3) year residents were assessed using six measures of proficiency. Using a visual analog scale, the senior author scored subjects. After the first session, subjects with lower scores were provided with simulation training. A second simulation served as a task-learning control. Residents were evaluated in the operating room over six months by the senior author-who was blinded to the trained/untrained identities-using the same parameters. A nonparametric bootstrap testing method was used for the analysis (Matlab v. 2014a). Simulation training was associated with an increase in performance scores in the operating room averaged over all measures (p=0.0045). This is the first study to evaluate the training utility of an endoscopic endonasal surgical task using a virtual reality haptic simulator. The data suggest that haptic simulation training in endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to improvements in operative performance. Limitations include a small number of subjects and adjudication bias-although the trained/untrained identity of subjects was blinded. Further study using the proposed methods may better describe the relationship between simulated training and operative performance in endoscopic Neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Haptic tracking control for minimally invasive robotic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaohong; Song, Chengli; Wu, Wenwu

    2012-06-01

    Haptic feedback plays a significant role in minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS). A major deficiency of the current MIRS is the lack of haptic perception for the surgeon, including the commercially available robot da Vinci surgical system. In this paper, a dynamics model of a haptic robot is established based on Newton-Euler method. Because it took some period of time in exact dynamics solution, we used a digital PID arithmetic dependent on robot dynamics to ensure real-time bilateral control, and it could improve tracking precision and real-time control efficiency. To prove the proposed method, an experimental system in which two Novint Falcon haptic devices acting as master-slave system has been developed. Simulations and experiments showed proposed methods could give instrument force feedbacks to operator, and bilateral control strategy is an effective method to master-slave MIRS. The proposed methods could be used to tele-robotic system.

  11. Six axis force feedback input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  12. Roughness based perceptual analysis towards digital skin imaging system with haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K

    2016-08-01

    To examine psoriasis or atopic eczema, analyzing skin roughness by palpation is essential to precisely diagnose skin diseases. However, optical sensor based skin imaging systems do not allow dermatologists to touch skin images. To solve the problem, a new haptic rendering technology that can accurately display skin roughness must be developed. In addition, the rendering algorithm must be able to filter spatial noises created during 2D to 3D image conversion without losing the original roughness on the skin image. In this study, a perceptual way to design a noise filter that will remove spatial noises and in the meantime recover maximized roughness is introduced by understanding human sensitivity on surface roughness. A visuohaptic rendering system that can provide a user with seeing and touching digital skin surface roughness has been developed including a geometric roughness estimation method from a meshed surface. In following, a psychophysical experiment was designed and conducted with 12 human subjects to measure human perception with the developed visual and haptic interfaces to examine surface roughness. From the psychophysical experiment, it was found that touch is more sensitive at lower surface roughness, and vice versa. Human perception with both senses, vision and touch, becomes less sensitive to surface distortions as roughness increases. When interact with both channels, visual and haptic interfaces, the performance to detect abnormalities on roughness is greatly improved by sensory integration with the developed visuohaptic rendering system. The result can be used as a guideline to design a noise filter that can perceptually remove spatial noises while recover maximized roughness values from a digital skin image obtained by optical sensors. In addition, the result also confirms that the developed visuohaptic rendering system can help dermatologists or skin care professionals examine skin conditions by using vision and touch at the same time. © 2015

  13. A function-behavior-structure framework for quantification and reproduction of emotional haptic experience in using an electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Il Ju; Lee, Soo Hong [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Hyung Seok; Lee, Jae In [LG Electronics Inc, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    A user's haptic experience in using an electronic device is related to the continuous and dynamic variances of the structural state of the device. Since the changes of the structural component cause complex changes of the dynamics, it is difficult to predict the user's experience. We propose a function-behavior-structure framework to predict and improve the user's experience. The framework consists of the function layer model, the behavior layer model, and the structure layer model. Especially, the independent behavior model to the device is based on a physical phenomenon. Finally, an optimized structure which produces an ideal haptic experience for a cell phone is suggested.

  14. GPU-based real-time soft tissue deformation with cutting and haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtecuisse, Hadrien; Jung, Hoeryong; Allard, Jérémie; Duriez, Christian; Lee, Doo Yong; Cotin, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a series of contributions in the field of real-time simulation of soft tissue biomechanics. These contributions address various requirements for interactive simulation of complex surgical procedures. In particular, this article presents results in the areas of soft tissue deformation, contact modelling, simulation of cutting, and haptic rendering, which are all relevant to a variety of medical interventions. The contributions described in this article share a common underlying model of deformation and rely on GPU implementations to significantly improve computation times. This consistency in the modelling technique and computational approach ensures coherent results as well as efficient, robust and flexible solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Pseudo-Haptic Interactions with Soft Objects in Virtual Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a pseudo-haptic feedback method conveying simulated soft surface stiffness information through a visual interface. The method exploits a combination of two feedback techniques, namely visual feedback of soft surface deformation and control of the indenter avatar speed, to convey stiffness information of a simulated surface of a soft object in virtual environments. The proposed method was effective in distinguishing different sizes of virtual hard nodules integrated into the simulated soft bodies. To further improve the interactive experience, the approach was extended creating a multi-point pseudo-haptic feedback system. A comparison with regards to (a nodule detection sensitivity and (b elapsed time as performance indicators in hard nodule detection experiments to a tablet computer incorporating vibration feedback was conducted. The multi-point pseudo-haptic interaction is shown to be more time-efficient than the single-point pseudo-haptic interaction. It is noted that multi-point pseudo-haptic feedback performs similarly well when compared to a vibration-based feedback method based on both performance measures elapsed time and nodule detection sensitivity. This proves that the proposed method can be used to convey detailed haptic information for virtual environmental tasks, even subtle ones, using either a computer mouse or a pressure sensitive device as an input device. This pseudo-haptic feedback method provides an opportunity for low-cost simulation of objects with soft surfaces and hard inclusions, as, for example, occurring in ever more realistic video games with increasing emphasis on interaction with the physical environment and minimally invasive surgery in the form of soft tissue organs with embedded cancer nodules. Hence, the method can be used in many low-budget applications where haptic sensation is required, such as surgeon training or video games, either using desktop computers or portable devices, showing

  16. An MRI-Guided Telesurgery System Using a Fabry-Perot Interferometry Force Sensor and a Pneumatic Haptic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Li, Gang; Patel, Niravkumar; Fischer, Gregory S

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave teleoperation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The slave robot consists of a piezoelectrically actuated 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot for needle placement with an integrated fiber optic force sensor (1-DOF axial force measurement) using the Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle; it is configured to operate inside the bore of the MRI scanner during imaging. By leveraging the advantages of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation in force and position control respectively, we have designed a pneumatically actuated master robot (haptic device) with strain gauge based force sensing that is configured to operate the slave from within the scanner room during imaging. The slave robot follows the insertion motion of the haptic device while the haptic device displays the needle insertion force as measured by the FPI sensor. Image interference evaluation demonstrates that the telesurgery system presents a signal to noise ratio reduction of less than 17% and less than 1% geometric distortion during simultaneous robot motion and imaging. Teleoperated needle insertion and rotation experiments were performed to reach 10 targets in a soft tissue-mimicking phantom with 0.70 ± 0.35 mm Cartesian space error.

  17. Design of active feedback for rehabilitation device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liska Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor systems are an essential part of automated equipment. They are even more important in machines that come in contact with people, because they have a significant impact on safety. This paper describes the design of active feedback for rehabilitation device driven by pneumatic artificial muscles. Here are presented three methods for measuring the load of the robot. The first is a system composed of Force Sensitive Resistors (FSR placed in the handle of the device. Two other methods are intended to measure the load of the actuator composed of artificial muscles. The principle of one method is to measure the difference in filling pressures of the muscles, second is based on strain measurement in the drive cables. The paper describes advantages and disadvantages of using each of these methods in a rehabilitation device

  18. Development of a wearable haptic game interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Foottit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the ongoing development of a wearable haptic game interface, in this case for controlling a flight simulator. The device differs from many traditional haptic feedback implementations in that it combines vibrotactile feedback with gesture based input, thus becoming a two-way conduit between the user and the virtual environment. The device is intended to challenge what is considered an “interface” and sets out to purposefully blur the boundary between man and machine. This allows for a more immersive experience, and a user evaluation shows that the intuitive interface allows the user to become the aircraft that is controlled by the movements of the user's hand.

  19. Real-time solution of the forward kinematics for a parallel haptic device using a numerical approach based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guan Yang; Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Yan; Xie, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a neural network (NN)-based approach to solve the forward kinematics of a 3-RRR spherical parallel mechanism designed for a haptic device. The proposed algorithm aims to remarkably speed up computation to meet the requirement of high frequency rendering for haptic display. To achieve high accuracy, the workspace of the haptic device is divided into smaller subspaces. The proposed algorithm contains NNs of two different precision levels: a rough estimation NN to identify the index of the subspace and several precise estimation networks with expected accuracy to calculate the forward kinematics. For continuous motion, the algorithm structure is further simplified to save internal memory and increase computing speed, which are critical for a haptic device control system running on an embedded platform. Compared with the mostly used Newton-Raphson method, the proposed algorithm and its simplified version greatly increase the calculation speed by about four times and 10 times, respectively, while achieving the same accuracy level. The proposed approach is of great significance for solving the forward kinematics of parallel mechanism used as haptic devices when high update frequency is needed but hardware resources are limited.

  20. Remote Minimally Invasive Surgery – Haptic Feedback and Selective Automation in Medical Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Staub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of recurrent tasks and force feedback are complex problems in medical robotics. We present a novel approach that extends human-machine skill-transfer by a scaffolding framework. It assumes a consolidated working environment for both, the trainee and the trainer. The trainer provides hints and cues in a basic structure which is already understood by the learner. In this work, the scaffolding is constituted by abstract patterns, which facilitate the structuring and segmentation of information during “Learning by Demonstration” (LbD. With this concept, the concrete example of knot-tying for suturing is exemplified and evaluated. During the evaluation, most problems and failures arose due to intrinsic system imprecisions of the medical robot system. These inaccuracies were then improved by the visual guidance of the surgical instruments. While the benefits of force feedback in telesurgery has already been demonstrated and measured forces are also used during task learning, the transmission of signals between the operator console and the robot system over long-distances or across-network remote connections is still a challenge due to time-delay. Especially during incision processes with a scalpel into tissue, a delayed force feedback yields to an unpredictable force perception at the operator-side and can harm the tissue which the robot is interacting with. We propose a XFEM-based incision force prediction algorithm that simulates the incision contact-forces in real-time and compensates the delayed force sensor readings. A realistic 4-arm system for minimally invasive robotic heart surgery is used as a platform for the research.

  1. Development and control of a magnetorheological haptic device for robot assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Elnaz; Goldenberg, Andrew A; Drake, James M; Eastwood, Kyle W; Kang, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    A prototype magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based actuator has been designed for tele-robotic surgical applications. This device is capable of generating forces up to 47 N, with input currents ranging from 0 to 1.5 A. We begin by outlining the physical design of the device, and then discuss a novel nonlinear model of the device's behavior. The model was developed using the Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W) nonlinear black-box technique and is intended to accurately capture the hysteresis behavior of the MR-fluid. Several experiments were conducted on the device to collect estimation and validation datasets to construct the model and assess its performance. Different estimating functions were used to construct the model, and their effectiveness is assessed based on goodness-of-fit and final-prediction-error measurements. A sigmoid network was found to have a goodness-of-fit of 95%. The model estimate was then used to tune a PID controller. Two control schemes were proposed to eliminate the hysteresis behavior present in the MR fluid device. One method uses a traditional force feedback control loop and the other is based on measuring the magnetic field using a Hall-effect sensor embedded within the device. The Hall-effect sensor scheme was found to be superior in terms of cost, simplicity and real-time control performance compared to the force control strategy.

  2. The Hedonic Haptic Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Cahill, Ben

    2017-01-01

    In this design case we present the Hedonic Haptic Player—a wearable device that plays different patterns of vibrations on the body as a form of music for the skin. With this we begin to explore the enjoyability of vibrations in a wearable set-up. Instead of implementing vibrations as a haptic...... output for some form of communication we want to explore their hedonistic value. The process leading up to the Hedonic Haptic player served as a first step in getting a grasp of the design space of vibrotactile stimuli in a broader sense. This is reported as seven episodes of explorations. The Hedonic...

  3. Slave-side devices for micromanipulation in a haptic teleoperation scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Castillo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Haptic teleoperation is a promising approach for dealing with the manipulation of micro-objects, fabricated in small series or as prototypes, and in processes which are novel or uncertain. Human operators provide their ability to plan, understand and react when faced with unexpected situations

  4. Active skin as new haptic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Nguyen Huu Lam; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kim, Duksang; An, Kuangjun; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jae-Do; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new haptic interface, called "active skin", which is configured with a tactile sensor and a tactile stimulator in single haptic cell, and multiple haptic cells are embedded in a dielectric elastomer. The active skin generates a wide variety of haptic feel in response to the touch by synchronizing the sensor and the stimulator. In this paper, the design of the haptic cell is derived via iterative analysis and design procedures. A fabrication method dedicated to the proposed device is investigated and a controller to drive multiple haptic cells is developed. In addition, several experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the active skin.

  5. Comparison of Walking and Traveling-Wave Piezoelectric Motors as Actuators in Kinesthetic Haptic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Pontus; Nysjo, Fredrik; Carlbom, Ingrid B; Johansson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors offer an attractive alternative to electromagnetic actuators in portable haptic interfaces: they are compact, have a high force-to-volume ratio, and can operate with limited or no gearing. However, the choice of a piezoelectric motor type is not obvious due to differences in performance characteristics. We present our evaluation of two commercial, operationally different, piezoelectric motors acting as actuators in two kinesthetic haptic grippers, a walking quasi-static motor and a traveling wave ultrasonic motor. We evaluate each gripper's ability to display common virtual objects including springs, dampers, and rigid walls, and conclude that the walking quasi-static motor is superior at low velocities. However, for applications where high velocity is required, traveling wave ultrasonic motors are a better option.

  6. Role of combined tactile and kinesthetic feedback in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Lee, Hyung-Kew; Park, Joonah

    2014-10-18

    Haptic feedback is of critical importance in surgical tasks. However, conventional surgical robots do not provide haptic feedback to surgeons during surgery. Thus, in this study, a combined tactile and kinesthetic feedback system was developed to provide haptic feedback to surgeons during robotic surgery. To assess haptic feasibility, the effects of two types of haptic feedback were examined empirically - kinesthetic and tactile feedback - to measure object-pulling force with a telesurgery robotics system at two desired pulling forces (1 N and 2 N). Participants answered a set of questionnaires after experiments. The experimental results reveal reductions in force error (39.1% and 40.9%) when using haptic feedback during 1 N and 2 N pulling tasks. Moreover, survey analyses show the effectiveness of the haptic feedback during teleoperation. The combined tactile and kinesthetic feedback of the master device in robotic surgery improves the surgeon's ability to control the interaction force applied to the tissue. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Compliant actuation based on dielectric elastomers for a force-feedback device: modeling and experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vertechy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their large power densities, low costs and shock-insensitivity, Dielectric Elastomers (DE seem to be a promising technology for the implementation of light and compact force-feedback devices such as, for instance, haptic interfaces. Nonetheless, the development of these kinds of DE-based systems is not trivial owing to the relevant dissipative phenomena that affect the DE when subjected to rapidly changing deformations. In this context, the present paper addresses the development of a force feedback controller for an agonist-antagonist linear actuator composed of a couple of conically-shaped DE films and a compliant mechanism behaving as a negative-rate bias spring. The actuator is firstly modeled accounting for the visco-hyperelastic nature of the DE material. The model is then linearized and employed for the design of a force controller. The controller employs a position sensor, which determines the actuator configuration, and a force sensor, which measures the interaction force that the actuator exchanges with the environment. In addition, an optimum full-state observer is also implemented, which enables both accurate estimation of the time-dependent behavior of the elastomeric material and adequate suppression of the sensor measurement noise. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the proposed actuator-controller architecture.

  8. A novel shape-changing haptic table-top display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabin; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Cai, Yi

    2018-01-01

    A shape-changing table-top display with haptic feedback allows its users to perceive 3D visual and texture displays interactively. Since few existing devices are developed as accurate displays with regulatory haptic feedback, a novel attentive and immersive shape changing mechanical interface (SCMI) consisting of image processing unit and transformation unit was proposed in this paper. In order to support a precise 3D table-top display with an offset of less than 2 mm, a custommade mechanism was developed to form precise surface and regulate the feedback force. The proposed image processing unit was capable of extracting texture data from 2D picture for rendering shape-changing surface and realizing 3D modeling. The preliminary evaluation result proved the feasibility of the proposed system.

  9. Haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by novel applications, interest in haptic perception is growing. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of a number of important aspects of haptic perception. By means of touch we can not only perceive quite different material properties, such as roughness, compliance,

  10. Visual-haptic integration with pliers and tongs: signal ‘weights’ take account of changes in haptic sensitivity caused by different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eTakahashi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When we hold an object while looking at it, estimates from visual and haptic cues to size are combined in a statistically optimal fashion, whereby the ‘weight’ given to each signal reflects their relative reliabilities. This allows object properties to be estimated more precisely than would otherwise be possible. Tools such as pliers and tongs systematically perturb the mapping between object size and the hand opening. This could complicate visual-haptic integration because it may alter the reliability of the haptic signal, thereby disrupting the determination of appropriate signal weights. To investigate this we first measured the reliability of haptic size estimates made with virtual pliers-like tools (created using a stereoscopic display and force-feedback robots with different ‘gains’ between hand opening and object size. Haptic reliability in tool use was straightforwardly determined by a combination of sensitivity to changes in hand opening and the effects of tool geometry. The precise pattern of sensitivity to hand opening, which violated Weber’s law, meant that haptic reliability changed with tool gain. We then examined whether the visuo-motor system accounts for these reliability changes. We measured the weight given to visual and haptic stimuli when both were available, again with different tool gains, by measuring the perceived size of stimuli in which visual and haptic sizes were varied independently. The weight given to each sensory cue changed with tool gain in a manner that closely resembled the predictions of optimal sensory integration. The results are consistent with the idea that different tool geometries are modelled by the brain, allowing it to calculate not only the distal properties of objects felt with tools, but also the certainty with which those properties are known. These findings highlight the flexibility of human sensory integration and tool-use, and potentially provide an approach for optimising the

  11. 1st International AsiaHaptics conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hideyuki; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed not only at haptics and human interface researchers, but also at developers and designers from manufacturing corporations and the entertainment industry who are working to change our lives. This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International AsiaHaptics conference, held in Tsukuba, Japan, in 2014. The book describes the state of the art of the diverse haptics- (touch-) related research, including scientific research into haptics perception and illusion, development of haptics devices, and applications for a wide variety of fields such as education, medicine, telecommunication, navigation, and entertainment.

  12. Contribution to the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, A.

    2007-12-01

    This thesis focuses on the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces using cable drive. An haptic interface is a force feedback device, which enables its user to interact with a virtual world or a remote environment explored by a slave system. It aims at the matching between the forces and displacements given by the user and those applied to virtual world. Usually, haptic interfaces make use of a mechanical actuated structure whose distal link is equipped with a handle. When manipulating this handle to interact with explored world, the user feels the apparent mass, compliance and friction of the interface. This distortion introduced between the operator and the virtual world must be modeled and identified to enhance the design of the interface and develop appropriate control laws. The first approach has been to adapt the modeling and identification methods of rigid and localized flexibilities robots to haptic interfaces. The identification technique makes use of the inverse dynamic model and the linear least squares with the measurements of joint torques and positions. This approach is validated on a single degree of freedom and a three degree of freedom haptic devices. A new identification method needing only torque data is proposed. It is based on a closed loop simulation using the direct dynamic model. The optimal parameters minimize the 2 norms of the error between the actual torque and the simulated torque assuming the same control law and the same tracking trajectory. This non linear least squares problem dramatically is simplified using the inverse model to calculate the simulated torque. This method is validated on the single degree of freedom haptic device and the SCARA robot. (author)

  13. Haptic exploration of fingertip-sized geometric features using a multimodal tactile sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Wong, Ruben D.; Hellman, Randall B.; Santos, Veronica J.

    2014-06-01

    Haptic perception remains a grand challenge for artificial hands. Dexterous manipulators could be enhanced by "haptic intelligence" that enables identification of objects and their features via touch alone. Haptic perception of local shape would be useful when vision is obstructed or when proprioceptive feedback is inadequate, as observed in this study. In this work, a robot hand outfitted with a deformable, bladder-type, multimodal tactile sensor was used to replay four human-inspired haptic "exploratory procedures" on fingertip-sized geometric features. The geometric features varied by type (bump, pit), curvature (planar, conical, spherical), and footprint dimension (1.25 - 20 mm). Tactile signals generated by active fingertip motions were used to extract key parameters for use as inputs to supervised learning models. A support vector classifier estimated order of curvature while support vector regression models estimated footprint dimension once curvature had been estimated. A distal-proximal stroke (along the long axis of the finger) enabled estimation of order of curvature with an accuracy of 97%. Best-performing, curvature-specific, support vector regression models yielded R2 values of at least 0.95. While a radial-ulnar stroke (along the short axis of the finger) was most helpful for estimating feature type and size for planar features, a rolling motion was most helpful for conical and spherical features. The ability to haptically perceive local shape could be used to advance robot autonomy and provide haptic feedback to human teleoperators of devices ranging from bomb defusal robots to neuroprostheses.

  14. Audio effects on haptics perception during drilling simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Valbuena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality has provided immersion and interactions through computer generated environments attempting to reproduce real life experiences through sensorial stimuli. Realism can be achieved through multimodal interactions which can enhance the user’s presence within the computer generated world. The most notorious advances in virtual reality can be seen in computer graphics visuals, where photorealism is the norm thriving to overcome the uncanny valley. Other advances have followed related to sound, haptics, and in a lesser manner smell and taste feedback. Currently, virtual reality systems (multimodal immersion and interactions through visual-haptic-sound are being massively used in entertainment (e.g., cinema, video games, art, and in non-entertainment scenarios (e.g., social inclusion, educational, training, therapy, and tourism. Moreover, the cost reduction of virtual reality technologies has resulted in the availability at a consumer-level of various haptic, headsets, and motion tracking devices. Current consumer-level devices offer low-fidelity experiences due to the properties of the sensors, displays, and other electro-mechanical devices, that may not be suitable for high-precision or realistic experiences requiring dexterity. However, research has been conducted on how toovercome or compensate the lack of high fidelity to provide an engaging user experience using storytelling, multimodal interactions and gaming elements. Our work focuses on analyzing the possible effects of auditory perception on haptic feedback within a drilling scenario. Drilling involves multimodal interactions and it is a task with multiple applications in medicine, crafting, and construction. We compare two drilling scenarios were two groups of participants had to drill through wood while listening to contextual and non-contextual audios. We gathered their perception using a survey after the task completion. From the results, we believe that sound does

  15. Integration of Haptics in Agricultural Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Sreekanth, M. M.; Sivanantham, Vinu; Sai Kumar, K.; Ghanta, Sriharsha; Surya Teja, P.; Reddy, Rajesh G.

    2017-08-01

    Robots can differentiate with open loop system and closed loop system robots. We face many problems when we do not have a feedback from robots. In this research paper, we are discussing all possibilities to achieve complete closed loop system for Multiple-DOF Robotic Arm, which is used in a coconut tree climbing and cutting robot by introducing a Haptic device. We are working on various sensors like tactile, vibration, force and proximity sensors for getting feedback. For monitoring the robotic arm achieved by graphical user interference software which simulates the working of the robotic arm, send the feedback of all the real time analog values which are produced by various sensors and provide real-time graphs for estimate the efficiency of the Robot.

  16. SU-D-BRF-06: A Brachytherapy Simulator with Realistic Haptic Force Feedback and Real-Time Ultrasounds Image Simulation for Training and Teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, L; Carette, A; Comtois, S; Lavigueur, M; Cardou, P; Laurendeau, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical procedures require dexterity, expertise and repetition to reach optimal patient outcomes. However, efficient training opportunities are usually limited. This work presents a simulator system with realistic haptic force-feedback and full, real-time ultrasounds image simulation. Methods: The simulator is composed of a custom-made Linear-DELTA force-feedback robotic platform. The needle tip is mounted on a force gauge at the end effector of the robot, which responds to needle insertion by providing reaction forces. 3D geometry of the tissue is using a tetrahedral finite element mesh (FEM) mimicking tissue properties. As the needle is inserted/retracted, tissue deformation is computed using a mass-tensor nonlinear visco-elastic FEM. The real-time deformation is fed to the L-DELTA to take into account the force imparted to the needle, providing feedback to the end-user when crossing tissue boundaries or needle bending. Real-time 2D US image is also generated synchronously showing anatomy, needle insertion and tissue deformation. The simulator is running on an Intel I7 6- core CPU at 3.26 MHz. 3D tissue rendering and ultrasound display are performed on a Windows 7 computer; the FEM computation and L-DELTA control are executed on a similar PC using the Neutrino real-time OS. Both machines communicate through an Ethernet link. Results: The system runs at 500 Hz for a 8333-tetrahedron tissue mesh and a 100-node angular spring needle model. This frame rate ensures a relatively smooth displacement of the needle when pushed or retracted (±20 N in all directions at speeds of up to 2 m/s). Unlike commercially-available haptic platforms, the oblong workspace of the L-DELTA robot complies with that required for brachytherapy needle displacements of 0.1m by 0.1m by 0.25m. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a real-life, realistic brachytherapy simulator developed for prostate implants (LDR/HDR). The platform could be adapted to other sites or training for other

  17. Design and implementation of visual-haptic assistive control system for virtual rehabilitation exercise and teleoperation manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Eduardo J; De Laurentis, Kathryn J; Dubey, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a control system that integrates visual and haptic information to give assistive force feedback through a haptic controller (Omni Phantom) to the user. A sensor-based assistive function and velocity scaling program provides force feedback that helps the user complete trajectory following exercises for rehabilitation purposes. This system also incorporates a PUMA robot for teleoperation, which implements a camera and a laser range finder, controlled in real time by a PC, were implemented into the system to help the user to define the intended path to the selected target. The real-time force feedback from the remote robot to the haptic controller is made possible by using effective multithreading programming strategies in the control system design and by novel sensor integration. The sensor-based assistant function concept applied to teleoperation as well as shared control enhances the motion range and manipulation capabilities of the users executing rehabilitation exercises such as trajectory following along a sensor-based defined path. The system is modularly designed to allow for integration of different master devices and sensors. Furthermore, because this real-time system is versatile the haptic component can be used separately from the telerobotic component; in other words, one can use the haptic device for rehabilitation purposes for cases in which assistance is needed to perform tasks (e.g., stroke rehab) and also for teleoperation with force feedback and sensor assistance in either supervisory or automatic modes.

  18. Investigation of Virtual Digital Human and Robotic Device Technology Merger Complimented by Haptics and Autostereoscopic Displays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As expected, the STTR Phase I investigation confirmed that the Digital Virtual Human (DVH) and Robonaut technologies can be merged, and that haptic and...

  19. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  20. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  1. Discriminating Tissue Stiffness with a Haptic Catheter: Feeling the Inside of the Beating Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Catheter devices allow physicians to access the inside of the human body easily and painlessly through natural orifices and vessels. Although catheters allow for the delivery of fluids and drugs, the deployment of devices, and the acquisition of the measurements, they do not allow clinicians to assess the physical properties of tissue inside the body due to the tissue motion and transmission limitations of the catheter devices, including compliance, friction, and backlash. The goal of this research is to increase the tactile information available to physicians during catheter procedures by providing haptic feedback during palpation procedures. To accomplish this goal, we have developed the first motion compensated actuated catheter system that enables haptic perception of fast moving tissue structures. The actuated catheter is instrumented with a distal tip force sensor and a force feedback interface that allows users to adjust the position of the catheter while experiencing the forces on the catheter tip. The efficacy of this device and interface is evaluated through a psychophyisical study comparing how accurately users can differentiate various materials attached to a cardiac motion simulator using the haptic device and a conventional manual catheter. The results demonstrate that haptics improves a user's ability to differentiate material properties and decreases the total number of errors by 50% over the manual catheter system.

  2. Virtual Reality and Haptics for Product Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptics can significantly enhance the user's sense of immersion and interactivity. An industrial application of virtual reality and haptics for product assembly is described in this paper, which provides a new and low-cost approach for product assembly design, assembly task planning and assembly operation training. A demonstration of the system with haptics device interaction was available at the session of exp.at'11.

  3. Haptic-STM: a human-in-the-loop interface to a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Luís M A; Saywell, Alex

    2011-07-01

    The operation of a haptic device interfaced with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is presented here. The user moves the STM tip in three dimensions by means of a stylus attached to the haptic instrument. The tunneling current measured by the STM is converted to a vertical force, applied to the stylus and felt by the user, with the user being incorporated into the feedback loop that controls the tip-surface distance. A haptic-STM interface of this nature allows the user to feel atomic features on the surface and facilitates the tactile manipulation of the adsorbate/substrate system. The operation of this device is demonstrated via the room temperature STM imaging of C(60) molecules adsorbed on an Au(111) surface in ultra-high vacuum.

  4. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI sensor interface is integrated into an MRI robot control system. By leveraging the complementary features of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation, a pneumatically actuated haptic master robot is also developed to render force associated with needle placement interventions to the clinician. An aluminum load cell is implemented and calibrated to close the impedance control loop of the master robot. A force-position control algorithm is developed to control the hybrid actuated system. Teleoperated needle insertion is demonstrated under live MR imaging, where the slave robot resides in the scanner bore and the user manipulates the master beside the patient outside the bore. Force and position tracking results of the master-slave robot are demonstrated to validate the tracking performance of the integrated system. It has a position tracking error of 0.318mm and sine wave force tracking error of 2.227N.

  5. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI sensor interface is integrated into an MRI robot control system. By leveraging the complementary features of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation, a pneumatically actuated haptic master robot is also developed to render force associated with needle placement interventions to the clinician. An aluminum load cell is implemented and calibrated to close the impedance control loop of the master robot. A force-position control algorithm is developed to control the hybrid actuated system. Teleoperated needle insertion is demonstrated under live MR imaging, where the slave robot resides in the scanner bore and the user manipulates the master beside the patient outside the bore. Force and position tracking results of the master-slave robot are demonstrated to validate the tracking performance of the integrated system. It has a position tracking error of 0.318mm and sine wave force tracking error of 2.227N. PMID:25126446

  6. The value of haptic feedback in conventional and robot-assisted minimal invasive surgery and virtual reality training: a current review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, O. A. J.; Schijven, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) as surgical training tool has become a state-of-the-art technique in training and teaching skills for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Although intuitively appealing, the true benefits of haptic (VR training) platforms are unknown. Many questions about haptic

  7. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  8. Visual-Motor Learning Using Haptic Devices: How Best to Train Surgeons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Giles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionised medicine but requires surgeons to learn new visual-motor mappings. The optimal method for training surgeons is unknown. For instance, it may be easier to learn planar movements when training is constrained to a plane, since this forces the surgeon to develop an appropriate perceptual-motor map. In contrast, allowing the surgeon to move without constraints could improve performance because this provides greater experience of the control dynamics of the device. In order to test between these alternatives, we created an experimental tool that connected a commercially available robotic arm with specialised software that presents visual stimuli and objectively records kinematics. Participants were given the task of generating a series of aiming movements to move a visual cursor to a series of targets. The actions required movement along a horizontal plane, whereas the visual display was a screen positioned perpendicular to this plane (ie, vertically. One group (n=8 received training where the force field constrained their movement to the correct plane of action, whilst a second group (n=8 trained without constraints. On test trials (after training the unconstrained group showed better performance, as indexed by reduced movement duration and reduced path length. These results show that participants who explored the entire action space had an advantage, which highlights the importance of experiencing the full dynamics of a control device and the action space when learning a new visual-motor mapping.

  9. Short structured feedback training is equivalent to a mechanical feedback device in two-rescuer BLS: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavo, Noemi; Goliasch, Georg; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Stumpf, Dominik; Haugk, Moritz; Breckwoldt, Jan; Ruetzler, Kurt; Greif, Robert; Fischer, Henrik

    2016-05-13

    Resuscitation guidelines encourage the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) feedback devices implying better outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. Whether effective continuous feedback could also be given verbally by a second rescuer ("human feedback") has not been investigated yet. We, therefore, compared the effect of human feedback to a CPR feedback device. In an open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we compared CPR performance of three groups of medical students in a two-rescuer scenario. Group "sCPR" was taught standard BLS without continuous feedback, serving as control. Group "mfCPR" was taught BLS with mechanical audio-visual feedback (HeartStart MRx with Q-CPR-Technology™). Group "hfCPR" was taught standard BLS with human feedback. Afterwards, 326 medical students performed two-rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8 min. CPR quality parameters, such as "effective compression ratio" (ECR: compressions with correct hand position, depth and complete decompression multiplied by flow-time fraction), and other compression, ventilation and time-related parameters were assessed for all groups. ECR was comparable between the hfCPR and the mfCPR group (0.33 vs. 0.35, p = 0.435). The hfCPR group needed less time until starting chest compressions (2 vs. 8 s, p feedback or by using a mechanical audio-visual feedback device was similar. Further studies should investigate whether extended human feedback training could further increase CPR quality at comparable costs for training.

  10. A haptic sensing upgrade for the current EOD robotic fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The past decade and a half has seen a tremendous rise in the use of mobile manipulator robotic platforms for bomb inspection and disposal, explosive ordnance disposal, and other extremely hazardous tasks in both military and civilian settings. Skilled operators are able to control these robotic vehicles in amazing ways given the very limited situational awareness obtained from a few on-board camera views. Future generations of robotic platforms will, no doubt, provide some sort of additional force or haptic sensor feedback to further enhance the operator's interaction with the robot, especially when dealing with fragile, unstable, and explosive objects. Unfortunately, the robot operators need this capability today. This paper discusses an approach to provide existing (and future) robotic mobile manipulator platforms, with which trained operators are already familiar and highly proficient, this desired haptic and force feedback capability. The goals of this technology are to be rugged, reliable, and affordable. It should also be able to be applied to a wide range of existing robots with a wide variety of manipulator/gripper sizes and styles. Finally, the presentation of the haptic information to the operator is discussed, given the fact that control devices that physically interact with the operators are not widely available and still in the research stages.

  11. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected.

  12. A study on haptic collaborative game in shared virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keke; Liu, Guanyang; Liu, Lingzhi

    2013-03-01

    A study on collaborative game in shared virtual environment with haptic feedback over computer networks is introduced in this paper. A collaborative task was used where the players located at remote sites and played the game together. The player can feel visual and haptic feedback in virtual environment compared to traditional networked multiplayer games. The experiment was desired in two conditions: visual feedback only and visual-haptic feedback. The goal of the experiment is to assess the impact of force feedback on collaborative task performance. Results indicate that haptic feedback is beneficial for performance enhancement for collaborative game in shared virtual environment. The outcomes of this research can have a powerful impact on the networked computer games.

  13. Overview Electrotactile Feedback for Enhancing Human Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Daniel S.; Caesarendra, Wahyu

    2018-04-01

    To achieve effective interaction between a human and a computing device or machine, adequate feedback from the computing device or machine is required. Recently, haptic feedback is increasingly being utilised to improve the interactivity of the Human Computer Interface (HCI). Most existing haptic feedback enhancements aim at producing forces or vibrations to enrich the user’s interactive experience. However, these force and/or vibration actuated haptic feedback systems can be bulky and uncomfortable to wear and only capable of delivering a limited amount of information to the user which can limit both their effectiveness and the applications they can be applied to. To address this deficiency, electrotactile feedback is used. This involves delivering haptic sensations to the user by electrically stimulating nerves in the skin via electrodes placed on the surface of the skin. This paper presents a review and explores the capability of electrotactile feedback for HCI applications. In addition, a description of the sensory receptors within the skin for sensing tactile stimulus and electric currents alsoseveral factors which influenced electric signal to transmit to the brain via human skinare explained.

  14. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGeronazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., high in pitch or low in pitch. Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step.We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point’s height within (i a narrower and (ii a wider pitch range, or (iii a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only. Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition.

  15. Affective feedback in a tutoring system for procedural tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; André, E.; Vissers, M.; Dybkjaer, L.; Minker, W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heisterkamp, P.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the affective aspects of tutoring dialogues in an ITS -called INES- that helps students to practice nursing tasks using a haptic device and a virtual environment. Special attention is paid to affective control in the tutoring process by means of selecting the appropriate feedback, taking

  16. A Study on Immersion and Presence of a Portable Hand Haptic System for Immersive Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mingyu; Jeon, Changyu; Kim, Jinmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a portable hand haptic system using Leap Motion as a haptic interface that can be used in various virtual reality (VR) applications. The proposed hand haptic system was designed as an Arduino-based sensor architecture to enable a variety of tactile senses at low cost, and is also equipped with a portable wristband. As a haptic system designed for tactile feedback, the proposed system first identifies the left and right hands and then sends tactile senses (vibration and hea...

  17. Haptics in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Abdulpur Mallikarjun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, education has evolved, and new teaching/learning methods have been developed. These methods have helped us come a long way in understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the oral cavity. However, there is still no one good way to render a student/clinician the tactile sense for detecting calculus/caries or placing the incisions or detecting the smoothness of a restoration or any treatment procedures before entering the clinics. In the education field, to improve the tactile sensation, the sense of touch and force-feedback can offer great improvements to the existing learning methods, thus enhancing the quality of education procedures. The concept of Haptics, which is extensively in use and indispensable in other fields like aviation, telecommunication etc., is now making its way into dentistry. Against this background, the following write-up intends to provide a glimpse of the coming wave of Haptics - A virtual reality system in dental education and discusses the strengths and weak points of this system.

  18. Development of a virtual reality haptic Veress needle insertion simulator for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrainec, A; Farcas, M; Henao, O; Choy, I; Green, J; Fotoohi, M; Leslie, R; Wight, D; Karam, P; Gonzalez, N; Apkarian, J

    2009-01-01

    The Veress needle is the most commonly used technique for creating the pneumoperitoneum at the start of a laparoscopic surgical procedure. Inserting the Veress needle correctly is crucial since errors can cause significant harm to patients. Unfortunately, this technique can be difficult to teach since surgeons rely heavily on tactile feedback while advancing the needle through the various layers of the abdominal wall. This critical step in laparoscopy, therefore, can be challenging for novice trainees to learn without adequate opportunities to practice in a safe environment with no risk of injury to patients. To address this issue, we have successfully developed a prototype of a virtual reality haptic needle insertion simulator using the tactile feedback of 22 surgeons to set realistic haptic parameters. A survey of these surgeons concluded that our device appeared and felt realistic, and could potentially be a useful tool for teaching the proper technique of Veress needle insertion.

  19. Advanced Maintenance Simulation by Means of Hand-Based Haptic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Michele; Paolino, Luca; Ricciardi, Stefano; Sebillo, Monica; Vitiello, Giuliana

    Aerospace industry has been involved in virtual simulation for design and testing since the birth of virtual reality. Today this industry is showing a growing interest in the development of haptic-based maintenance training applications, which represent the most advanced way to simulate maintenance and repair tasks within a virtual environment by means of a visual-haptic approach. The goal is to allow the trainee to experiment the service procedures not only as a workflow reproduced at a visual level but also in terms of the kinaesthetic feedback involved with the manipulation of tools and components. This study, conducted in collaboration with aerospace industry specialists, is aimed to the development of an immersive virtual capable of immerging the trainees into a virtual environment where mechanics and technicians can perform maintenance simulation or training tasks by directly manipulating 3D virtual models of aircraft parts while perceiving force feedback through the haptic interface. The proposed system is based on ViRstperson, a virtual reality engine under development at the Italian Center for Aerospace Research (CIRA) to support engineering and technical activities such as design-time maintenance procedure validation, and maintenance training. This engine has been extended to support haptic-based interaction, enabling a more complete level of interaction, also in terms of impedance control, and thus fostering the development of haptic knowledge in the user. The user’s “sense of touch” within the immersive virtual environment is simulated through an Immersion CyberForce® hand-based force-feedback device. Preliminary testing of the proposed system seems encouraging.

  20. Development of haptic system for surgical robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Park, Jiong Min; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a new type of haptic system for surgical robot application is proposed and its performances are evaluated experimentally. The proposed haptic system consists of an effective master device and a precision slave robot. The master device has 3-DOF rotational motion as same as human wrist motion. It has lightweight structure with a gyro sensor and three small-sized MR brakes for position measurement and repulsive torque generation, respectively. The slave robot has 3-DOF rotational motion using servomotors, five bar linkage and a torque sensor is used to measure resistive torque. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the proposed haptic system has good performances on tracking control of desired position and repulsive torque. It can be concluded that the proposed haptic system can be effectively applied to the surgical robot system in real field.

  1. Design and Evaluation of Shape-Changing Haptic Interfaces for Pedestrian Navigation Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Adam J; Dollar, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Shape-changing interfaces are a category of device capable of altering their form in order to facilitate communication of information. In this work, we present a shape-changing device that has been designed for navigation assistance. 'The Animotus' (previously, 'The Haptic Sandwich' ), resembles a cube with an articulated upper half that is able to rotate and extend (translate) relative to the bottom half, which is fixed in the user's grasp. This rotation and extension, generally felt via the user's fingers, is used to represent heading and proximity to navigational targets. The device is intended to provide an alternative to screen or audio based interfaces for visually impaired, hearing impaired, deafblind, and sighted pedestrians. The motivation and design of the haptic device is presented, followed by the results of a navigation experiment that aimed to determine the role of each device DOF, in terms of facilitating guidance. An additional device, 'The Haptic Taco', which modulated its volume in response to target proximity (negating directional feedback), was also compared. Results indicate that while the heading (rotational) DOF benefited motion efficiency, the proximity (translational) DOF benefited velocity. Combination of the two DOF improved overall performance. The volumetric Taco performed comparably to the Animotus' extension DOF.

  2. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs. Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Tondro, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  3. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  4. Reducing domestic heating demand: Managing the impact of behavior-changing feedback devices via marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thorben; Chappin, Émile J L

    2017-07-15

    Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices. We did this by adapting an agent-based model to simulate the roll-out of a novel feedback technology and heating behavior within households in a virtual city. The most promising marketing strategies were simulated and their impacts were analyzed. We found it particularly effective to lend out feedback devices to consumers, followed by leveraging the social influence of well-connected individuals, and giving away the first few feedback devices for free. Making households aware of the possibility of purchasing feedback devices was found to be least effective. However, making households aware proved to be most cost-efficient. This study shows that actively managing the roll-out of feedback devices can increase their impacts on energy-conservation both effectively and cost-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Capacitive Sensors for Feedback Control of Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Darhuber, A. A.; Troian, S. M.; Wagner, S.

    2003-11-01

    Automation of microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary flow [1] requires feedback control and detection techniques for monitoring the location, and ideally also composition and volume of liquid droplets. For this purpose we have developed a co-planar capacitance technique with a sensitivity of 0.07 pF at a frequency of 370 kHz. The variation in capacitance due to the presence of a droplet is monitored by the output frequency of an RC relaxation oscillator consisting of two inverters, one resistor and one capacitor. We discuss the performance of this coplanar sensor as a function of the electrode dimensions and geometry. These geometric variables determine the electric field penetration depth within the liquid, which in our studies ranged from 30 to 450 microns. Numerical solutions for the capacitance corresponding to the exact fabricated geometry agree very well with experimental data. An approximate analytic solution, which ignores fringe field effects, provides a simple but excellent guide for design development. [1] A. A. Darhuber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 657 (2003).

  6. A haptic unit designed for magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Z T H; Elhawary, H; Rea, M; Young, I; Davis, B L; Lamperth, M

    2009-02-01

    The magnetic fields present in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment impose severe constraints on any mechatronic device present in its midst, requiring alternative actuators, sensors, and materials to those conventionally used in traditional system engineering. In addition the spatial constraints of closed-bore scanners require a physical separation between the radiologist and the imaged region of the patient. This configuration produces a loss of the sense of touch from the target anatomy for the clinician, which often provides useful information. To recover the force feedback from the tissue, an MR-compatible haptic unit, designed to be integrated with a five-degrees-of-freedom mechatronic system for MR-guided prostate biopsy, has been developed which incorporates position control and force feedback to the operator. The haptic unit is designed to be located inside the scanner isocentre with the master console in the control room. MR compatibility of the device has been demonstrated, showing a negligible degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio and virtually no geometric distortion. By combining information from the position encoder and force sensor, tissue stiffness measurement along the needle trajectory is demonstrated in a lamb liver to aid diagnosis of suspected cancerous tissue.

  7. A Taxonomy and Comparison of Haptic Actions for Disassembly Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomfield, Aaron; Deng, Yu; Wampler, Jeff; Rondot, Pascale; Harth, Dina; McManus, Mary; Badler, Norman

    2003-01-01

    .... We conducted a series of human subject experiments to compare user performance and preference on a disassembly task with and without haptic feedback using CyberGlove, Phantom, and SpaceMouse interfaces...

  8. An investigation of a passively controlled haptic interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Book, W.J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Haptic interfaces enhance cooperation between humans and robotic manipulators by providing force and tactile feedback to the human user during the execution of arbitrary tasks. The use of active actuators in haptic displays presents a certain amount of risk since they are capable of providing unacceptable levels of energy to the systems upon which they operate. An alternative to providing numerous safeguards is to remove the sources of risk altogether. This research investigates the feasibility of trajectory control using passive devices, that is, devices that cannot add energy to the system. Passive actuators are capable only of removing energy from the system or transferring energy within the system. It is proposed that the utility of passive devices is greatly enhanced by the use of redundant actuators. In a passive system, once motion is provided to the system, presumably by a human user, passive devices may be able to modify this motion to achieve a desired resultant trajectory. A mechanically passive, 2-Degree-of-Freedom (D.O.F.) manipulator has been designed and built. It is equipped with four passive actuators: two electromagnetic brakes and two electromagnetic clutches. This paper gives a review of the literature on passive and robotics and describes the experimental test bed used in this research. Several control algorithms are investigated, resulting in the formulation of a passive control law.

  9. An investigation of a passively controlled haptic interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.T.; Book, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Haptic interfaces enhance cooperation between humans and robotic manipulators by providing force and tactile feedback to the human user during the execution of arbitrary tasks. The use of active actuators in haptic displays presents a certain amount of risk since they are capable of providing unacceptable levels of energy to the systems upon which they operate. An alternative to providing numerous safeguards is to remove the sources of risk altogether. This research investigates the feasibility of trajectory control using passive devices, that is, devices that cannot add energy to the system. Passive actuators are capable only of removing energy from the system or transferring energy within the system. It is proposed that the utility of passive devices is greatly enhanced by the use of redundant actuators. In a passive system, once motion is provided to the system, presumably by a human user, passive devices may be able to modify this motion to achieve a desired resultant trajectory. A mechanically passive, 2-Degree-of-Freedom (D.O.F.) manipulator has been designed and built. It is equipped with four passive actuators: two electromagnetic brakes and two electromagnetic clutches. This paper gives a review of the literature on passive and robotics and describes the experimental test bed used in this research. Several control algorithms are investigated, resulting in the formulation of a passive control law

  10. A magnetorheological haptic cue accelerator for manual transmission vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Noh, Kyung-Wook; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Yang-Sub

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new haptic cue function for manual transmission vehicles to achieve optimal gear shifting. This function is implemented on the accelerator pedal by utilizing a magnetorheological (MR) brake mechanism. By combining the haptic cue function with the accelerator pedal, the proposed haptic cue device can transmit the optimal moment of gear shifting for manual transmission to a driver without requiring the driver's visual attention. As a first step to achieve this goal, a MR fluid-based haptic device is devised to enable rotary motion of the accelerator pedal. Taking into account spatial limitations, the design parameters are optimally determined using finite element analysis to maximize the relative control torque. The proposed haptic cue device is then manufactured and its field-dependent torque and time response are experimentally evaluated. Then the manufactured MR haptic cue device is integrated with the accelerator pedal. A simple virtual vehicle emulating the operation of the engine of a passenger vehicle is constructed and put into communication with the haptic cue device. A feed-forward torque control algorithm for the haptic cue is formulated and control performances are experimentally evaluated and presented in the time domain

  11. Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueqiang; Bondeson, A.; Gregoratto, D.; Fransson, C.M.; Gribov, Y.; Paccagnella, R.

    2003-01-01

    Feedback of nonaxisymmetric resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically for cylindrical plasmas and computationally for high beta tokamaks. Internal poloidal sensors give superior performance to radial sensors, and this is explained by the distribution of poles and residues for the transfer functions. A single poloidal array of feedback coils allows robust control with respect to variations in plasma pressure, current and rotation velocity. The control analysis is applied to advanced scenarios for ITER. Studies are also shown of configurations with multiple poloidal coils and of feedback systems for nonresonant MHD instabilities in reversed field pinches. (author)

  12. Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Konstantinova, Jelizaveta; Xu, Guanghua; He, Bo; Aminzadeh, Vahid; Xie, Jun; Wurdemann, Helge; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2017-01-01

    Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects. In an experimental tele-manipulation environment, a dynamically updated color map depicting the stiffness of probed soft tissue is presented via a graphical interface. The force feedback is provided, aided by a master haptic device. The haptic device uses data acquired from an F/T sensor attached to the end-effector of a tele-manipulated robot. Hard nodule detection performance is evaluated for 2 modes (force feedback and visual stiffness feedback) of stiffness feedback on an artificial organ containing buried stiff nodules. From this artificial organ, a virtual-environment tissue model is generated based on sliding indentation measurements. Employing this virtual-environment tissue model, we compare the performance of human participants in distinguishing differently sized hard nodules by force feedback and visual stiffness feedback. Results indicate that the proposed distributed visual representation of tissue stiffness can be used effectively for hard nodule identification. The representation can also be used as a sufficient substitute for force feedback in tissue palpation.

  13. Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects. In an experimental tele-manipulation environment, a dynamically updated color map depicting the stiffness of probed soft tissue is presented via a graphical interface. The force feedback is provided, aided by a master haptic device. The haptic device uses data acquired from an F/T sensor attached to the end-effector of a tele-manipulated robot. Hard nodule detection performance is evaluated for 2 modes (force feedback and visual stiffness feedback of stiffness feedback on an artificial organ containing buried stiff nodules. From this artificial organ, a virtual-environment tissue model is generated based on sliding indentation measurements. Employing this virtual-environment tissue model, we compare the performance of human participants in distinguishing differently sized hard nodules by force feedback and visual stiffness feedback. Results indicate that the proposed distributed visual representation of tissue stiffness can be used effectively for hard nodule identification. The representation can also be used as a sufficient substitute for force feedback in tissue palpation.

  14. Teaching Classical Mechanics Concepts Using Visuo-Haptic Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Luis; Noguez, Julieta; Robledo-Rella, Victor; Escobar-Castillejos, David; Gonzalez-Nucamendi, Andres

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the design and implementation of several physics scenarios using haptic devices are presented and discussed. Four visuo-haptic applications were developed for an undergraduate engineering physics course. Experiments with experimental and control groups were designed and implemented. Activities and exercises related to classical…

  15. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M L; Misra, Sarthak

    Background: Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician's dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods: A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated based

  16. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    Background - Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician’s dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods - A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated

  17. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  18. Multimodality with Eye tracking and Haptics: A New Horizon for Serious Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to illustrate the emerging use of multimodal virtual reality that can benefit learning-based games. The review begins with an introduction to multimodal virtual reality in serious games and we provide a brief discussion of why cognitive processes involved in learning and training are enhanced under immersive virtual environments. We initially outline studies that have used eye tracking and haptic feedback independently in serious games, and then review some innovative applications that have already combined eye tracking and haptic devices in order to provide applicable multimodal frameworks for learning-based games. Finally, some general conclusions are identified and clarified in order to advance current understanding in multimodal serious game production as well as exploring possible areas for new applications.

  19. UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING HAPTIC INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bardorfer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks – to assess the accuracy of movement – tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces – to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test – to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks–to assess the accuracy of movement-tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces-to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test-to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A comprehensive study, using the developed measurement setup within the

  20. Design and Control of a Haptic Enabled Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yaqoob

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery offers various advantages over conventional surgery that includes less bleeding, less trauma, and more precise tissue cutting. However, even surgeons who use the best commercially available surgical robotic systems complain about the absence of haptic feedback in such systems. In this paper, we present the findings of our project to overcome this shortcoming of surgical robotic systems, in which a haptic-enabled robotic system based on master and slave topology is designed and developed. To detect real-time intrusion at the slave end, haptic feedback is implemented along with a programmable system on chip, functioning as an embedded system for processing information. In order to obtain real-time haptic feedback, force and motion sensors are mounted on each joint of the master and slave units. At the master end, results are displayed through a graphical user interface, along with the physical feeling of intrusion at the slave part. Apart from the obvious applications of the current system in robotic surgery, it could also be used in designing more intuitive video games with further precise haptic feedback mechanisms. Moreover, the results presented in our work should pave the way for further scientific investigation, to provide even better haptic mechanisms.

  1. A Study of an Assistance SystemUsing a Haptic Interface

    OpenAIRE

    浅川, 貴史

    2011-01-01

    We make a proposal for a music baton system for visual handicapped persons. This system is constituted by an acceleration sensor. a radio module. and a haptic interface device. The acceleration sensor is built in the music baton grip and the data are transmitted by the radio module. A performer has a receiver with the haptic interface device. The receiver's CPU picks up rhythm from the data and vibrates the haptic interface device. This paper is described about an experiment of comparing the ...

  2. Audio-haptic interaction in simulated walking experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    and interchangeable use of the haptic and auditory modality in floor interfaces, and for the synergy of perception and action in capturing and guiding human walking. We describe the technology developed in the context of this project, together with some experiments performed to evaluate the role of auditory......In this paper an overview of the work conducted on audio-haptic physically based simulation and evaluation of walking is provided. This work has been performed in the context of the Natural Interactive Walking (NIW) project, whose goal is to investigate possibilities for the integrated...... and haptic feedback in walking tasks....

  3. Multimodal Sensing Interface for Haptic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the integration of a multimodal sensing system for exploring limits of vibrato tactile haptic feedback when interacting with 3D representation of real objects. In this study, the spatial locations of the objects are mapped to the work volume of the user using a Kinect sensor. The position of the user’s hand is obtained using the marker-based visual processing. The depth information is used to build a vibrotactile map on a haptic glove enhanced with vibration motors. The users can perceive the location and dimension of remote objects by moving their hand inside a scanning region. A marker detection camera provides the location and orientation of the user’s hand (glove to map the corresponding tactile message. A preliminary study was conducted to explore how different users can perceive such haptic experiences. Factors such as total number of objects detected, object separation resolution, and dimension-based and shape-based discrimination were evaluated. The preliminary results showed that the localization and counting of objects can be attained with a high degree of success. The users were able to classify groups of objects of different dimensions based on the perceived haptic feedback.

  4. Teledildonics and New Ways of "Being in Touch": A Phenomenological Analysis of the Use of Haptic Devices for Intimate Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse teledildonics from a phenomenological perspective in order to show the possible effects they will have on ourselves and on our society. The new way of using digital technologies is to merge digital activities with our everyday praxes, and there are already devices which enable subjects to be digitally connected in every moment of their lives. Even the most intimate ones are becoming mediated by devices such as teledildonics which digitally provide a tactual stimulation allowing users to have sexual intercourse through them. The efforts made in order to provide such an intertwinement of our everyday lives and digital technologies are evident, but the effects produced by them are not clear at all. This paper will analyse these technologies from a phenomenological perspective in order to understand their effects on the constitution of the subjects and on our society at the intimate level.

  5. Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Q.

    2002-01-01

    Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)

  6. HapTip: Displaying Haptic Shear Forces at the Fingertips for Multi-Finger Interaction in Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eGirard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fingertips are one of the most important and sensitive parts of our body.They are the first stimulated areas of the hand when we interact with our environment.Providing haptic feedback to the fingertips in virtual reality could thus drastically improve perception and interaction with virtual environments.In this paper, we present a modular approach called HapTip to display such haptic sensations at the level of the fingertips.This approach relies on a wearable and compact haptic device able to simulate 2 Degree of Freedom (DoF shear forces on the fingertip with a displacement range of +/- 2 mm. Several modules can be added and used jointly in order to address multi-finger and/or bimanual scenarios in virtual environments.For that purpose, we introduce several haptic rendering techniques to cover different cases of 3D interaction such as touching a rough virtual surface, or feeling the inertia or weight of a virtual object.In order to illustrate the possibilities offered by HapTip, we provide four use cases focused on touching or grasping virtual objects.To validate the efficiency of our approach, we also conducted experiments to assess the tactile perception obtained with HapTip.Our results show that participants can successfully discriminate the directions of the 2 DoF stimulation of our haptic device.We found also that participants could well perceive different weights of virtual objects simulated using two HapTip devices. We believe that HapTip could be used in numerous applications in virtual reality for which 3D manipulation and tactile sensations are often crucial, such as in virtual prototyping or virtual training.

  7. Mechanical model of orthopaedic drilling for augmented-haptics-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkand, Ashkan; Zamani, Naghmeh; Grow, David

    2017-10-01

    In this study, augmented-haptic feedback is used to combine a physical object with virtual elements in order to simulate anatomic variability in bone. This requires generating levels of force/torque consistent with clinical bone drilling, which exceed the capabilities of commercially available haptic devices. Accurate total force generation is facilitated by a predictive model of axial force during simulated orthopaedic drilling. This model is informed by kinematic data collected while drilling into synthetic bone samples using an instrumented linkage attached to the orthopaedic drill. Axial force is measured using a force sensor incorporated into the bone fixture. A nonlinear function, relating force to axial position and velocity, was used to fit the data. The normalized root-mean-square error (RMSE) of forces predicted by the model compared to those measured experimentally was 0.11 N across various bones with significant differences in geometry and density. This suggests that a predictive model can be used to capture relevant variations in the thickness and hardness of cortical and cancellous bone. The practical performance of this approach is measured using the Phantom Premium haptic device, with some required customizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution to the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces; Contribution a la modelisation et a l'identification des interfaces haptiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, A

    2007-12-15

    This thesis focuses on the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces using cable drive. An haptic interface is a force feedback device, which enables its user to interact with a virtual world or a remote environment explored by a slave system. It aims at the matching between the forces and displacements given by the user and those applied to virtual world. Usually, haptic interfaces make use of a mechanical actuated structure whose distal link is equipped with a handle. When manipulating this handle to interact with explored world, the user feels the apparent mass, compliance and friction of the interface. This distortion introduced between the operator and the virtual world must be modeled and identified to enhance the design of the interface and develop appropriate control laws. The first approach has been to adapt the modeling and identification methods of rigid and localized flexibilities robots to haptic interfaces. The identification technique makes use of the inverse dynamic model and the linear least squares with the measurements of joint torques and positions. This approach is validated on a single degree of freedom and a three degree of freedom haptic devices. A new identification method needing only torque data is proposed. It is based on a closed loop simulation using the direct dynamic model. The optimal parameters minimize the 2 norms of the error between the actual torque and the simulated torque assuming the same control law and the same tracking trajectory. This non linear least squares problem dramatically is simplified using the inverse model to calculate the simulated torque. This method is validated on the single degree of freedom haptic device and the SCARA robot. (author)

  9. Contribution to the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces; Contribution a la modelisation et a l'identification des interfaces haptiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, A

    2007-12-15

    This thesis focuses on the modeling and the identification of haptic interfaces using cable drive. An haptic interface is a force feedback device, which enables its user to interact with a virtual world or a remote environment explored by a slave system. It aims at the matching between the forces and displacements given by the user and those applied to virtual world. Usually, haptic interfaces make use of a mechanical actuated structure whose distal link is equipped with a handle. When manipulating this handle to interact with explored world, the user feels the apparent mass, compliance and friction of the interface. This distortion introduced between the operator and the virtual world must be modeled and identified to enhance the design of the interface and develop appropriate control laws. The first approach has been to adapt the modeling and identification methods of rigid and localized flexibilities robots to haptic interfaces. The identification technique makes use of the inverse dynamic model and the linear least squares with the measurements of joint torques and positions. This approach is validated on a single degree of freedom and a three degree of freedom haptic devices. A new identification method needing only torque data is proposed. It is based on a closed loop simulation using the direct dynamic model. The optimal parameters minimize the 2 norms of the error between the actual torque and the simulated torque assuming the same control law and the same tracking trajectory. This non linear least squares problem dramatically is simplified using the inverse model to calculate the simulated torque. This method is validated on the single degree of freedom haptic device and the SCARA robot. (author)

  10. Haptic interfaces using dielectric electroactive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsecen, Muzaffer Y.; Sivak, Mark; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2010-04-01

    Quality, amplitude and frequency of the interaction forces between a human and an actuator are essential traits for haptic applications. A variety of Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) based actuators can provide these characteristics simultaneously with quiet operation, low weight, high power density and fast response. This paper demonstrates a rolled Dielectric Elastomer Actuator (DEA) being used as a telepresence device in a heart beat measurement application. In the this testing, heart signals were acquired from a remote location using a wireless heart rate sensor, sent through a network and DEA was used to haptically reproduce the heart beats at the medical expert's location. A series of preliminary human subject tests were conducted that demonstrated that a) DE based haptic feeling can be used in heart beat measurement tests and b) through subjective testing the stiffness and actuator properties of the EAP can be tuned for a variety of applications.

  11. Human detection and discrimination of tactile repeatability, mechanical backlash, and temporal delay in a combined tactile-kinesthetic haptic display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxon, Andrew J; Johnson, David E; Tan, Hong Z; Provancher, William R

    2013-01-01

    Many of the devices used in haptics research are over-engineered for the task and are designed with capabilities that go far beyond human perception levels. Designing devices that more closely match the limits of human perception will make them smaller, less expensive, and more useful. However, many device-centric perception thresholds have yet to be evaluated. To this end, three experiments were conducted, using one degree-of-freedom contact location feedback device in combination with a kinesthetic display, to provide a more explicit set of specifications for similar tactile-kinesthetic haptic devices. The first of these experiments evaluated the ability of humans to repeatedly localize tactile cues across the fingerpad. Subjects could localize cues to within 1.3 mm and showed bias toward the center of the fingerpad. The second experiment evaluated the minimum perceptible difference of backlash at the tactile element. Subjects were able to discriminate device backlash in excess of 0.46 mm on low-curvature models and 0.93 mm on high-curvature models. The last experiment evaluated the minimum perceptible difference of system delay between user action and device reaction. Subjects were able to discriminate delays in excess of 61 ms. The results from these studies can serve as the maximum (i.e., most demanding) device specifications for most tactile-kinesthetic haptic systems.

  12. Haptic interface of the KAIST-Ewha colonoscopy simulator II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Ahn, Woojin; Lee, Doo Yong; Yi, Sun Young

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents an improved haptic interface for the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Ewha Colonoscopy Simulator II. The haptic interface enables the distal portion of the colonoscope to be freely bent while guaranteeing sufficient workspace and reflective forces for colonoscopy simulation. Its force-torque sensor measures the profiles of the user. Manipulation of the colonoscope tip is monitored by four deflection sensors and triggers computations to render accurate graphic images corresponding to the rotation of the angle knob. Tack sensors are attached to the valve-actuation buttons of the colonoscope to simulate air injection or suction as well as the corresponding deformation of the colon. A survey study for face validation was conducted, and the result shows that the developed haptic interface provides realistic haptic feedback for colonoscopy simulations.

  13. Expanding the Scope of Instant Messaging with Bidirectional Haptic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngjae; Hahn, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    This work was conducted on the combination of two fields, i.e., haptic and social messaging. Haptic is one of the most attention-drawing fields and the biggest buzzwords among nextgeneration users. Haptic is being applied to conventional devices such as the cellular phone and even the door lock. Diverse forms of media such as blogs, social network services, and instant messengers are used to send and receive messages. That is mainly why we focus on the messaging experience, the most frequent ...

  14. Demonstrating the application of dielectric polymer actuators for tactile feedback in a mobile consumer device.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moessinger, H.M.; Brokken, D.

    2010-01-01

    User interfaces of mobile consumer devices are becoming increasingly complex. To address this complexity touch-screen interfaces are used. They allow flexible design of the user interfaces but lack the tactile feedback mechanical buttons provide, limiting ease of use. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator

  15. Haptic Control with a Robotic Gripper

    OpenAIRE

    Rody, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    The Novint Falcon is a low cost, 3-axis, haptic device primarily designed and built for the gaming industry. Meant to replace the conventional mouse, the Novint Falcon has sub- millimeter accuracy and is capable of real time updates. The device itself has the potential to be used in telerobotics applications when coupled with a robotic gripper for example. Recently, the Intelligent Control Lab at Örebro University in Sweden built such a robotic gripper. The robotic gripper has three fingers a...

  16. Haptic sensitivity in needle insertion: the effects of training and visual aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Cedric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment conducted to measure haptic sensitivity and the effects of haptic training with and without visual aid. The protocol for haptic training consisted of a needle insertion task using dual-layer silicon samples. A visual aid was provided as a multimodal cue for the haptic perception task. Results showed that for a group of novices (subjects with no previous experience in needle insertion, training with a visual aid resulted in a longer time to task completion, and a greater applied force, during post-training tests. This suggests that haptic perception is easily overshadowed, and may be completely replaced, by visual feedback. Therefore, haptic skills must be trained differently from visuomotor skills.

  17. Interwoven fluctuations during intermodal perception: fractality in head sway supports the use of visual feedback in haptic perceptual judgments by manual wielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G; Dixon, James A

    2014-12-01

    Intermodal integration required for perceptual learning tasks is rife with individual differences. Participants vary in how they use perceptual information to one modality. One participant alone might change her own response over time. Participants vary further in their use of feedback through one modality to inform another modality. Two experiments test the general hypothesis that perceptual-motor fluctuations reveal both information use within modality and coordination among modalities. Experiment 1 focuses on perceptual learning in dynamic touch, in which participants use exploratory hand-wielding of unseen objects to make visually guided length judgments and use visual feedback to rescale their judgments of the same mechanical information. Previous research found that the degree of fractal temporal scaling (i.e., "fractality") in hand-wielding moderates the use of mechanical information. Experiment 1 shows that head-sway fractality moderates the use of visual information. Further, experience with feedback increases head-sway fractality and prolongs its effect on later hand-wielding fractality. Experiment 2 replicates effects of head-sway fractality moderating use of visual information in a purely visual-judgment task. Together, these findings suggest that fractal fluctuations may provide a modal-general window onto not just how participants use perceptual information but also how well they may integrate information among different modalities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Feedback about Astronomical Application Developments for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaff, A.; Boch, T.; Fernique, P.; Houpin, R.; Kaestlé, V.; Royer, M.; Scheffmann, J.; Weiler, A.

    2013-10-01

    Within a few years, Smartphones have become the standard for mobile telephony, and we are now witnessing a rapid development of Internet tablets. These mobile devices have enough powerful hardware features to run more and more complex applications. In the field of astronomy it is not only possible to use these tools to access data via a simple browser, but also to develop native applications reusing libraries (Java for Android, Objective-C for iOS) developed for desktops. We have been working for two years on mobile application development and we now have the skills in native iOS and Android development, Web development (especially HTML5, JavaScript, CSS3) and conversion tools (PhoneGap) from Web development to native applications. The biggest change comes from human/computer interaction that is radically changed by the use of multitouch. This interaction requires a redesign of interfaces to take advantage of new features (simultaneous selections in different parts of the screen, etc.). In the case of native applications, the distribution is usually done through online stores (App Store, Google Play, etc.) which gives visibility to a wider audience. Our approach is not only to perform testing of materials and developing of prototypes, but also operational applications. The native application development is costly in development time, but the possibilities are broader because it is possible to use native hardware such as the gyroscope and the accelerometer, to point out an object in the sky. Development depends on the Web browser and the rendering and performance are often very different between different browsers. It is also possible to convert Web developments to native applications, but currently it is better to restrict this possibility to light applications in terms of functionality. Developments in HTML5 are promising but are far behind those available on desktops. HTML5 has the advantage of allowing development independent from the evolution of the mobile

  19. What you can't feel won't hurt you: Evaluating haptic hardware using a haptic contrast sensitivity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, C M; Gillespie, R B; Tan, H Z; Barbagli, F; Salisbury, J K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the concept of the contrast sensitivity function - used to evaluate video projectors - to the evaluation of haptic devices. We propose using human observers to determine if vibrations rendered using a given haptic device are accompanied by artifacts detectable to humans. This determination produces a performance measure that carries particular relevance to applications involving texture rendering. For cases in which a device produces detectable artifacts, we have developed a protocol that localizes deficiencies in device design and/or hardware implementation. In this paper, we present results from human vibration detection experiments carried out using three commercial haptic devices and one high performance voice coil motor. We found that all three commercial devices produced perceptible artifacts when rendering vibrations near human detection thresholds. Our protocol allowed us to pinpoint the deficiencies, however, and we were able to show that minor modifications to the haptic hardware were sufficient to make these devices well suited for rendering vibrations, and by extension, the vibratory components of textures. We generalize our findings to provide quantitative design guidelines that ensure the ability of haptic devices to proficiently render the vibratory components of textures.

  20. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F.; Casset, F.; Danel, J. S.; Chappaz, C.; Basrour, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm2. Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system.

  1. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F; Basrour, S; Casset, F; Danel, J S; Chappaz, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm 2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm 2 . Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system. (paper)

  2. Haptic perception accuracy depending on self-produced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwook; Kim, Seonjin

    2014-01-01

    This study measured whether self-produced movement influences haptic perception ability (experiment 1) as well as the factors associated with levels of influence (experiment 2) in racket sports. For experiment 1, the haptic perception accuracy levels of five male table tennis experts and five male novices were examined under two different conditions (no movement vs. movement). For experiment 2, the haptic afferent subsystems of five male table tennis experts and five male novices were investigated in only the self-produced movement-coupled condition. Inferential statistics (ANOVA, t-test) and custom-made devices (shock & vibration sensor, Qualisys Track Manager) of the data were used to determine the haptic perception accuracy (experiment 1, experiment 2) and its association with expertise. The results of this research show that expert-level players acquire higher accuracy with less variability (racket vibration and angle) than novice-level players, especially in their self-produced movement coupled performances. The important finding from this result is that, in terms of accuracy, the skill-associated differences were enlarged during self-produced movement. To explain the origin of this difference between experts and novices, the functional variability of haptic afferent subsystems can serve as a reference. These two factors (self-produced accuracy and the variability of haptic features) as investigated in this study would be useful criteria for educators in racket sports and suggest a broader hypothesis for further research into the effects of the haptic accuracy related to variability.

  3. Vertical illusory self-motion through haptic stimulation of the feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Turchet, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Circular and linear self-motion illusions induced through visual and auditory stimuli have been studied rather extensively. While the ability of haptic stimuli to augment such illusions has been investigated, the self-motion illusions which primarily are induced by stimulation of the haptic...... to generate the haptic feedback while the final condition included no haptic feedback. Analysis of self-reports were used to assess the participants' experience of illusory self-motion. The results indicate that such illusions are indeed possible. Significant differences were found between the condition...... modality remain relatively unexplored. In this paper, we present an experiment performed with the intention of investigating whether it is possible to use haptic stimulation of the main supporting areas of the feet to induce vertical illusory self-motion on behalf of unrestrained participants during...

  4. Reviewing the technological challenges associated with the development of a laparoscopic palpation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, Peter; Barrie, Jenifer; Hewson, Rob; Levesley, Martin; Mon-Williams, Mark; Jayne, David; Neville, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has heralded a revolution in surgical practice, with numerous advantages over open surgery. Nevertheless, it prevents the surgeon from directly touching and manipulating tissue and therefore severely restricts the use of valuable techniques such as palpation. Accordingly a key challenge in MIS is to restore haptic feedback to the surgeon. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in laparoscopic palpation devices (LPDs) with particular focus on device mechanisms, sensors and data analysis. It concludes by examining the challenges that must be overcome to create effective LPD systems that measure and display haptic information to the surgeon for improved intraoperative assessment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Shifty: A Weight-Shifting Dynamic Passive Haptic Proxy to Enhance Object Perception in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, Andre; Kruger, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We define the concept of Dynamic Passive Haptic Feedback (DPHF) for virtual reality by introducing the weight-shifting physical DPHF proxy object Shifty. This concept combines actuators known from active haptics and physical proxies known from passive haptics to construct proxies that automatically adapt their passive haptic feedback. We describe the concept behind our ungrounded weight-shifting DPHF proxy Shifty and the implementation of our prototype. We then investigate how Shifty can, by automatically changing its internal weight distribution, enhance the user's perception of virtual objects interacted with in two experiments. In a first experiment, we show that Shifty can enhance the perception of virtual objects changing in shape, especially in length and thickness. Here, Shifty was shown to increase the user's fun and perceived realism significantly, compared to an equivalent passive haptic proxy. In a second experiment, Shifty is used to pick up virtual objects of different virtual weights. The results show that Shifty enhances the perception of weight and thus the perceived realism by adapting its kinesthetic feedback to the picked-up virtual object. In the same experiment, we additionally show that specific combinations of haptic, visual and auditory feedback during the pick-up interaction help to compensate for visual-haptic mismatch perceived during the shifting process.

  6. Hierarchical Brokering with Feedback Control Framework in Mobile Device-Centric Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lieh Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical brokering architecture (HiBA and Mobile Multicloud Networking (MMCN feedback control framework for mobile device-centric cloud (MDC2 computing. Exploiting the MMCN framework and RESTful web-based interconnection, each tier broker probes resource state of its federation for control and management. Real-time and seamless services were developed. Case studies including intrafederation energy-aware balancing based on fuzzy feedback control and higher tier load balancing are further demonstrated to show how HiBA with MMCN relieves the embedding of algorithms when developing services. Theoretical performance model and real-world experiments both show that an MDC2 based on HiBA features better quality in terms of resource availability and network latency if it federates devices with enough resources distributed in lower tier hierarchy. The proposed HiBA realizes a development platform for MDC2 computing which is a feasible solution to User-Centric Networks (UCNs.

  7. Basic life support: evaluation of learning using simulation and immediate feedback devices1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Teodoro, Simone Valentim; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi

    2017-10-30

    to evaluate students' learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immediate feedback devices was used. there were 62 participants, 87% female, 90% in the first and second year of college, with a mean age of 21.47 (standard deviation 2.39). With a 95% confidence level, the mean scores in the pre-test were 6.4 (standard deviation 1.61), and 9.3 in the post-test (standard deviation 0.82, p basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to the feedback device; 43.7 (standard deviation 26.86) mean duration of the compression cycle by second of 20.5 (standard deviation 9.47); number of compressions 167.2 (standard deviation 57.06); depth of compressions of 48.1 millimeter (standard deviation 10.49); volume of ventilation 742.7 (standard deviation 301.12); flow fraction percentage of 40.3 (standard deviation 10.03). the online course contributed to learning of basic life support. In view of the need for technological innovations in teaching and systematization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simulation and feedback devices are resources that favor learning and performance awareness in performing the maneuvers.

  8. Basic life support: evaluation of learning using simulation and immediate feedback devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tobase

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate students’ learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. Method: a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immediate feedback devices was used. Results: there were 62 participants, 87% female, 90% in the first and second year of college, with a mean age of 21.47 (standard deviation 2.39. With a 95% confidence level, the mean scores in the pre-test were 6.4 (standard deviation 1.61, and 9.3 in the post-test (standard deviation 0.82, p <0.001; in practice, 9.1 (standard deviation 0.95 with performance equivalent to basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to the feedback device; 43.7 (standard deviation 26.86 mean duration of the compression cycle by second of 20.5 (standard deviation 9.47; number of compressions 167.2 (standard deviation 57.06; depth of compressions of 48.1 millimeter (standard deviation 10.49; volume of ventilation 742.7 (standard deviation 301.12; flow fraction percentage of 40.3 (standard deviation 10.03. Conclusion: the online course contributed to learning of basic life support. In view of the need for technological innovations in teaching and systematization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simulation and feedback devices are resources that favor learning and performance awareness in performing the maneuvers.

  9. Improvement in chest compression quality using a feedback device (CPRmeter): a simulation randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buléon, Clément; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Halbout, Laurent; Arrot, Xavier; De Facq Régent, Hélène; Chelarescu, Dan; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac arrest survival depends on celerity and efficiency of life support action. Guidelines emphasized the chest compression (CC) quality and feedback devices are encouraged. The purpose is to study the impact of the CPRmeter feedback device on resuscitation performed by untrained rescuers. This is a prospective randomized crossover study on manikins (Resusci Anne). One hundred and forty four students inexperienced in cardiopulmonary resuscitation representing untrained rescuers were included. Participants performed 2 minutes of CC without interruption with (group G) or without (group B) feedback. Four months passed between the 2 crossover phases to avoid resilience effect. Data collected by the CPRmeter device were: CC rate, depth and release. Efficient CC rate ([simultaneous and correct CC rate, depth and release] primary outcome) (absolute difference [95% CI]) was significantly improved in group G (71%) compared to group B (26%; [45 {36-55}]; P 38 mm) was significantly improved in group G (85%) compared to group B (43%; [42 {33-52}]; P < .0001). Adequate CC rate (90-120/min) was significantly improved in group G (81%) compared to group B (56%; [25 {15-35}]; P < .0001). The average CC rate and depth in group G were significantly less dispersed around the mean compared to group B (test of variance P < .007; P < .015 respectively). The use of the CPRmeter significantly improved CC quality performed by students inexperienced in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2013.

  10. OzBot and haptics: remote surveillance to physical presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, James; Fielding, Mick; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on robotic and haptic technologies and capabilities developed for the law enforcement and defence community within Australia by the Centre for Intelligent Systems Research (CISR). The OzBot series of small and medium surveillance robots have been designed in Australia and evaluated by law enforcement and defence personnel to determine suitability and ruggedness in a variety of environments. Using custom developed digital electronics and featuring expandable data busses including RS485, I2C, RS232, video and Ethernet, the robots can be directly connected to many off the shelf payloads such as gas sensors, x-ray sources and camera systems including thermal and night vision. Differentiating the OzBot platform from its peers is its ability to be integrated directly with haptic technology or the 'haptic bubble' developed by CISR. Haptic interfaces allow an operator to physically 'feel' remote environments through position-force control and experience realistic force feedback. By adding the capability to remotely grasp an object, feel its weight, texture and other physical properties in real-time from the remote ground control unit, an operator's situational awareness is greatly improved through Haptic augmentation in an environment where remote-system feedback is often limited.

  11. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent

  12. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Dolfine Kosters, N.; Daanen, h.a.m.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the me-chanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic dis-crimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  13. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  14. The C-Lever Project: Haptics for Automotive Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Canseco, E.; Ayemlong Fokem, A.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Steinbuch, M.; Stigter, H.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to research the effectiveness of a controlled haptic force feedback shift lever that can accurately reproduce the behavior of a manual gear shift during driving, and that can also be used to control interior and comfort functions in the car.

  15. The Use of Haptic Display Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Woodrow

    2009-01-01

    The experience of "virtual reality" can consist of head-tracked and stereoscopic virtual worlds, spatialized sound, haptic feedback, and to a lesser extent olfactory cues. Although virtual reality systems have been proposed for numerous applications, the field of education is one particular application that seems well-suited for virtual…

  16. Skin-Inspired Haptic Memory Arrays with an Electrically Reconfigurable Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hong; Liu, Yaqing; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hua; Yu, Jiancan; Sherburne, Matthew; Wang, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-02-24

    Skin-inspired haptic-memory devices, which can retain pressure information after the removel of external pressure by virtue of the nonvolatile nature of the memory devices, are achieved. The rise of haptic-memory devices will allow for mimicry of human sensory memory, opening new avenues for the design of next-generation high-performance sensing devices and systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Computationally efficient design of optimal output feedback strategies for controllable passive damping devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalzare, Mahmoud; Johnson, Erik A; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    Designing control strategies for smart structures, such as those with semiactive devices, is complicated by the nonlinear nature of the feedback control, secondary clipping control and other additional requirements such as device saturation. The usual design approach resorts to large-scale simulation parameter studies that are computationally expensive. The authors have previously developed an approach for state-feedback semiactive clipped-optimal control design, based on a nonlinear Volterra integral equation that provides for the computationally efficient simulation of such systems. This paper expands the applicability of the approach by demonstrating that it can also be adapted to accommodate more realistic cases when, instead of full state feedback, only a limited set of noisy response measurements is available to the controller. This extension requires incorporating a Kalman filter (KF) estimator, which is linear, into the nominal model of the uncontrolled system. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated by a numerical study of a 100-degree-of-freedom frame model, excited by a filtered Gaussian random excitation, with noisy acceleration sensor measurements to determine the semiactive control commands. The results show that the proposed method can improve computational efficiency by more than two orders of magnitude relative to a conventional solver, while retaining a comparable level of accuracy. Further, the proposed approach is shown to be similarly efficient for an extensive Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effects of sensor noise levels and KF tuning on the accuracy of the response. (paper)

  18. Graphic and haptic simulation for transvaginal cholecystectomy training in NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun J; Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Li, Bai C; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu

    2016-04-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) provides an emerging surgical technique which usually needs a long learning curve for surgeons. Virtual reality (VR) medical simulators with vision and haptic feedback can usually offer an efficient and cost-effective alternative without risk to the traditional training approaches. Under this motivation, we developed the first virtual reality simulator for transvaginal cholecystectomy in NOTES (VTEST™). This VR-based surgical simulator aims to simulate the hybrid NOTES of cholecystectomy. We use a 6DOF haptic device and a tracking sensor to construct the core hardware component of simulator. For software, an innovative approach based on the inner-spheres is presented to deform the organs in real time. To handle the frequent collision between soft tissue and surgical instruments, an adaptive collision detection method based on GPU is designed and implemented. To give a realistic visual performance of gallbladder fat tissue removal by cautery hook, a multi-layer hexahedral model is presented to simulate the electric dissection of fat tissue. From the experimental results, trainees can operate in real time with high degree of stability and fidelity. A preliminary study was also performed to evaluate the realism and the usefulness of this hybrid NOTES simulator. This prototyped simulation system has been verified by surgeons through a pilot study. Some items of its visual performance and the utility were rated fairly high by the participants during testing. It exhibits the potential to improve the surgical skills of trainee and effectively shorten their learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fault localization and analysis in semiconductor devices with optical-feedback infrared confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, Raymund; Cemine, Vernon Julius; Tagaca, Imee Rose; Salvador, Arnel; Mar Blanca, Carlo; Saloma, Caesar

    2007-01-01

    We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change.We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emittingp-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity

  20. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  1. KinoHaptics: An Automated, Wearable, Haptic Assisted, Physio-therapeutic System for Post-surgery Rehabilitation and Self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Vijay; Vo, Patrick; Barth, Jerry; Mjelde, Matthew; Grey, Trevor; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    A carefully planned, structured, and supervised physiotherapy program, following a surgery, is crucial for the successful diagnosis of physical injuries. Nearly 50 % of the surgeries fail due to unsupervised, and erroneous physiotherapy. The demand for a physiotherapist for an extended period is expensive to afford, and sometimes inaccessible. Researchers have tried to leverage the advancements in wearable sensors and motion tracking by building affordable, automated, physio-therapeutic systems that direct a physiotherapy session by providing audio-visual feedback on patient's performance. There are many aspects of automated physiotherapy program which are yet to be addressed by the existing systems: a wide classification of patients' physiological conditions to be diagnosed, multiple demographics of the patients (blind, deaf, etc.), and the need to pursue patients to adopt the system for an extended period for self-care. In our research, we have tried to address these aspects by building a health behavior change support system called KinoHaptics, for post-surgery rehabilitation. KinoHaptics is an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system that can be used by a wide variety of demographics and for various physiological conditions of the patients. The system provides rich and accurate vibro-haptic feedback that can be felt by the user, irrespective of the physiological limitations. KinoHaptics is built to ensure that no injuries are induced during the rehabilitation period. The persuasive nature of the system allows for personal goal-setting, progress tracking, and most importantly life-style compatibility. The system was evaluated under laboratory conditions, involving 14 users. Results show that KinoHaptics is highly convenient to use, and the vibro-haptic feedback is intuitive, accurate, and has shown to prevent accidental injuries. Also, results show that KinoHaptics is persuasive in nature as it supports behavior change and habit building

  2. Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality with Unobstructed Tool-Hand Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Francesco; Garre, Carlos; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Visuo-haptic mixed reality consists of adding to a real scene the ability to see and touch virtual objects. It requires the use of see-through display technology for visually mixing real and virtual objects, and haptic devices for adding haptic interaction with the virtual objects. Unfortunately, the use of commodity haptic devices poses obstruction and misalignment issues that complicate the correct integration of a virtual tool and the user's real hand in the mixed reality scene. In this work, we propose a novel mixed reality paradigm where it is possible to touch and see virtual objects in combination with a real scene, using commodity haptic devices, and with a visually consistent integration of the user's hand and the virtual tool. We discuss the visual obstruction and misalignment issues introduced by commodity haptic devices, and then propose a solution that relies on four simple technical steps: color-based segmentation of the hand, tracking-based segmentation of the haptic device, background repainting using image-based models, and misalignment-free compositing of the user's hand. We have developed a successful proof-of-concept implementation, where a user can touch virtual objects and interact with them in the context of a real scene, and we have evaluated the impact on user performance of obstruction and misalignment correction.

  3. A “virtually minimal” visuo-haptic training of attention in severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although common during the early stages of recovery from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), attention deficits have been scarcely investigated. Encouraging evidence suggests beneficial effects of attention training in more chronic and higher functioning patients. Interactive technology may provide new opportunities for rehabilitation in inpatients who are earlier in their recovery. Methods We designed a “virtually minimal” approach using robot-rendered haptics in a virtual environment to train severely injured inpatients in the early stages of recovery to sustain attention to a visuo-motor task. 21 inpatients with severe TBI completed repetitive reaching toward targets that were both seen and felt. Patients were tested over two consecutive days, experiencing 3 conditions (no haptic feedback, a break-through force, and haptic nudge) in 12 successive, 4-minute blocks. Results The interactive visuo-haptic environments were well-tolerated and engaging. Patients typically remained attentive to the task. However, patients exhibited attention loss both before (prolonged initiation) and during (pauses during motion) a movement. Compared to no haptic feedback, patients benefited from haptic nudge cues but not break-through forces. As training progressed, patients increased the number of targets acquired and spontaneously improved from one day to the next. Conclusions Interactive visuo-haptic environments could be beneficial for attention training for severe TBI patients in the early stages of recovery and warrants further and more prolonged clinical testing. PMID:23938101

  4. A "virtually minimal" visuo-haptic training of attention in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Assaf Y; Ramaiya, Milan; Larson, Eric B; Zollman, Felise S; Hsu, Nancy; Pacini, Sonia; Shah, Amit; Patton, James L

    2013-08-09

    Although common during the early stages of recovery from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), attention deficits have been scarcely investigated. Encouraging evidence suggests beneficial effects of attention training in more chronic and higher functioning patients. Interactive technology may provide new opportunities for rehabilitation in inpatients who are earlier in their recovery. We designed a "virtually minimal" approach using robot-rendered haptics in a virtual environment to train severely injured inpatients in the early stages of recovery to sustain attention to a visuo-motor task. 21 inpatients with severe TBI completed repetitive reaching toward targets that were both seen and felt. Patients were tested over two consecutive days, experiencing 3 conditions (no haptic feedback, a break-through force, and haptic nudge) in 12 successive, 4-minute blocks. The interactive visuo-haptic environments were well-tolerated and engaging. Patients typically remained attentive to the task. However, patients exhibited attention loss both before (prolonged initiation) and during (pauses during motion) a movement. Compared to no haptic feedback, patients benefited from haptic nudge cues but not break-through forces. As training progressed, patients increased the number of targets acquired and spontaneously improved from one day to the next. Interactive visuo-haptic environments could be beneficial for attention training for severe TBI patients in the early stages of recovery and warrants further and more prolonged clinical testing.

  5. The Use of Haptic and Tactile Information in the Car to Improve Driving Safety: A Review of Current Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoren Gaffary

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the haptic technologies deployed in cars and their uses to enhance drivers’ safety during manual driving. These technologies enable to deliver haptic (tactile or kinesthetic feedback at various areas of the car, such as the steering wheel, the seat, or the pedal. The paper explores two main uses of the haptic modality to fulfill the safety objective: to provide driving assistance and warning. Driving assistance concerns the transmission of information usually conveyed with other modalities for controlling the car’s functions, maneuvering support, and guidance. Warning concerns the prevention of accidents using emergency warnings, increasing the awareness of surroundings, and preventing collisions, lane departures, and speeding. This paper discusses how haptic feedback has been introduced so far for these purposes and provides perspectives regarding the present and future of haptic cars meant to increase driver’s safety.

  6. Methods for Presenting Braille Characters on a Mobile Device with a Touchscreen and Tactile Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, J; Raisamo, R; Lylykangas, J; Surakka, V; Raisamo, J; Salminen, K; Pakkanen, T; Hippula, A

    2009-01-01

    Three novel interaction methods were designed for reading six-dot Braille characters from the touchscreen of a mobile device. A prototype device with a piezoelectric actuator embedded under the touchscreen was used to create tactile feedback. The three interaction methods, scan, sweep, and rhythm, enabled users to read Braille characters one at a time either by exploring the characters dot by dot or by sensing a rhythmic pattern presented on the screen. The methods were tested with five blind Braille readers as a proof of concept. The results of the first experiment showed that all three methods can be used to convey information as the participants could accurately (91-97 percent) recognize individual characters. In the second experiment the presentation rate of the most efficient and preferred method, the rhythm, was varied. A mean recognition accuracy of 70 percent was found when the speed of presenting a single character was nearly doubled from the first experiment. The results showed that temporal tactile feedback and Braille coding can be used to transmit single-character information while further studies are still needed to evaluate the presentation of serial information, i.e., multiple Braille characters.

  7. Pervasive haptics science, design, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Saga, Satoshi; Konyo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the state of the art in diverse areas of haptics (touch)-related research, including the psychophysics and neurophysiology of haptics, development of haptics displays and sensors, and applications to a wide variety of fields such as industry, education, therapy, medicine, and welfare for the visually impaired. It also discusses the potential of future haptics interaction, such as haptics for emotional control and remote haptics communication. The book offers a valuable resource not only for haptics and human interface researchers, but also for developers and designers at manufacturing corporations and in the entertainment industries.

  8. Haptic teleoperation systems signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-young

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the signal processing perspective in haptic teleoperation systems. This text covers the topics of prediction, estimation, architecture, data compression, and error correction that can be applied to haptic teleoperation systems. The authors begin with an overview of haptic teleoperation systems, then look at a Bayesian approach to haptic teleoperation systems. They move onto a discussion of haptic data compression, haptic data digitization and forward error correction.   ·         Presents haptic data prediction/estimation methods that compensate for unreliable networks   ·         Discusses haptic data compression that reduces haptic data size over limited network bandwidth and haptic data error correction that compensate for packet loss problem   ·         Provides signal processing techniques used with existing control architectures.

  9. FGB: A Graphical and Haptic User Interface for Creating Graphical, Haptic User Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDERSON, THOMAS G.; BRECKENRIDGE, ARTHURINE; DAVIDSON, GEORGE S.

    1999-01-01

    The emerging field of haptics represents a fundamental change in human-computer interaction (HCI), and presents solutions to problems that are difficult or impossible to solve with a two-dimensional, mouse-based interface. To take advantage of the potential of haptics, however, innovative interaction techniques and programming environments are needed. This paper describes FGB (FLIGHT GHUI Builder), a programming tool that can be used to create an application specific graphical and haptic user interface (GHUI). FGB is itself a graphical and haptic user interface with which a programmer can intuitively create and manipulate components of a GHUI in real time in a graphical environment through the use of a haptic device. The programmer can create a GHUI without writing any programming code. After a user interface is created, FGB writes the appropriate programming code to a file, using the FLIGHT API, to recreate what the programmer created in the FGB interface. FGB saves programming time and increases productivity, because a programmer can see the end result as it is created, and FGB does much of the programming itself. Interestingly, as FGB was created, it was used to help build itself. The further FGB was in its development, the more easily and quickly it could be used to create additional functionality and improve its own design. As a finished product, FGB can be used to recreate itself in much less time than it originally required, and with much less programming. This paper describes FGB's GHUI components, the techniques used in the interface, how the output code is created, where programming additions and modifications should be placed, and how it can be compared to and integrated with existing API's such as MFC and Visual C++, OpenGL, and GHOST

  10. Comparing three CPR feedback devices and standard BLS in a single rescuer scenario: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Bernhard; Greif, Robert; Stumpf, Dominik; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Frantal, Sophie; Haugk, Moritz; Ruetzler, Kurt; Schlimp, Christoph; Fischer, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    Efficiently performed basic life support (BLS) after cardiac arrest is proven to be effective. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is strenuous and rescuers' performance declines rapidly over time. Audio-visual feedback devices reporting CPR quality may prevent this decline. We aimed to investigate the effect of various CPR feedback devices on CPR quality. In this open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial we compared three CPR feedback devices (PocketCPR, CPRmeter, iPhone app PocketCPR) with standard BLS without feedback in a simulated scenario. 240 trained medical students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8min. Effective compression (compressions with correct depth, pressure point and sufficient decompression) as well as compression rate, flow time fraction and ventilation parameters were compared between the four groups. Study participants using the PocketCPR performed 17±19% effective compressions compared to 32±28% with CPRmeter, 25±27% with the iPhone app PocketCPR, and 35±30% applying standard BLS (PocketCPR vs. CPRmeter p=0.007, PocketCPR vs. standard BLS p=0.001, others: ns). PocketCPR and CPRmeter prevented a decline in effective compression over time, but overall performance in the PocketCPR group was considerably inferior to standard BLS. Compression depth and rate were within the range recommended in the guidelines in all groups. While we found differences between the investigated CPR feedback devices, overall BLS quality was suboptimal in all groups. Surprisingly, effective compression was not improved by any CPR feedback device compared to standard BLS. All feedback devices caused substantial delay in starting CPR, which may worsen outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Electric Music Baton using Haptic Interface for Assistance of Visually Disabled Persons

    OpenAIRE

    浅川, 貴史

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] We have made a proposal for a music baton system for visual disabled persons. The system is constituted by an acceleration sensor, a radio module, and a haptic interface device. When a conductor moves the baton, Players are able to acknowledge the action using the haptic interface device. We have carried out an experiment of comparing the visual and the haptic interface. The result declared that a pre-motion is important for the visual interface. In the paper, we make a proposal fo...

  12. Virtual reality haptic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erolin, Caroline; Wilkinson, Caroline; Soames, Roger

    2011-12-01

    This project aims to create a three-dimensional digital model of the human hand and wrist which can be virtually 'dissected' through a haptic interface. Tissue properties will be added to the various anatomical structures to replicate a realistic look and feel. The project will explore the role of the medical artist, and investigate cross-discipline collaborations in the field of virtual anatomy. The software will be used to train anatomy students in dissection skills, before experience on a real cadaver. The effectiveness of the software will be evaluated and assessed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  13. Visual and Haptic Mental Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shioiri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can be retained in several types of memory systems. Haptic information can also be retained in a memory because we can repeat a hand movement. There may be a common memory system for vision and action. On the one hand, it may be convenient to have a common system for acting with visual information. On the other hand, different modalities may have their own memory and use retained information without transforming specific to the modality. We compared memory properties of visual and haptic information. There is a phenomenon known as mental rotation, which is possibly unique to visual representation. The mental rotation is a phenomenon where reaction time increases with the angle of visual target (eg,, a letter to identify. The phenomenon is explained by the difference in time to rotate the representation of the target in the visual sytem. In this study, we compared the effect of stimulus angle on visual and haptic shape identification (two-line shapes were used. We found that a typical effect of mental rotation for the visual stimulus. However, no such effect was found for the haptic stimulus. This difference cannot be explained by the modality differences in response because similar difference was found even when haptical response was used for visual representation and visual response was used for haptic representation. These results indicate that there are independent systems for visual and haptic representations.

  14. A novel approach to haptic tele-operation of aerial robot vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Mahony, Robert; Corke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel, simple and effective approach for tele-operation of aerial robotic vehicles with haptic feedback. Such feedback provides the remote pilot with an intuitive feel of the robot's state and perceived local environment that will ensure simple and safe operation in cluttered 3D

  15. Adapting haptic guidance authority based on user grip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smisek, J.; Mugge, W.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Schiele, A

    2014-01-01

    Haptic guidance systems support the operator in task execution using additional forces on the input device. Scaling of the guidance forces determines the control authority of the support system. As task complexity may vary, one level of the guidance scaling may be insufficient, and adaptation of the

  16. Detection of Nuclear Sources by UAV Teleoperation Using a Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Aleotti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A visuo-haptic augmented reality (VHAR interface is presented enabling an operator to teleoperate an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a custom CdZnTe-based spectroscopic gamma-ray detector in outdoor environments. The task is to localize nuclear radiation sources, whose location is unknown to the user, without the close exposure of the operator. The developed detector also enables identification of the localized nuclear sources. The aim of the VHAR interface is to increase the situation awareness of the operator. The user teleoperates the UAV using a 3DOF haptic device that provides an attractive force feedback around the location of the most intense detected radiation source. Moreover, a fixed camera on the ground observes the environment where the UAV is flying. A 3D augmented reality scene is displayed on a computer screen accessible to the operator. Multiple types of graphical overlays are shown, including sensor data acquired by the nuclear radiation detector, a virtual cursor that tracks the UAV and geographical information, such as buildings. Experiments performed in a real environment are reported using an intense nuclear source.

  17. Detection of Nuclear Sources by UAV Teleoperation Using a Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleotti, Jacopo; Micconi, Giorgio; Caselli, Stefano; Benassi, Giacomo; Zambelli, Nicola; Bettelli, Manuele; Zappettini, Andrea

    2017-09-29

    A visuo-haptic augmented reality (VHAR) interface is presented enabling an operator to teleoperate an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a custom CdZnTe-based spectroscopic gamma-ray detector in outdoor environments. The task is to localize nuclear radiation sources, whose location is unknown to the user, without the close exposure of the operator. The developed detector also enables identification of the localized nuclear sources. The aim of the VHAR interface is to increase the situation awareness of the operator. The user teleoperates the UAV using a 3DOF haptic device that provides an attractive force feedback around the location of the most intense detected radiation source. Moreover, a fixed camera on the ground observes the environment where the UAV is flying. A 3D augmented reality scene is displayed on a computer screen accessible to the operator. Multiple types of graphical overlays are shown, including sensor data acquired by the nuclear radiation detector, a virtual cursor that tracks the UAV and geographical information, such as buildings. Experiments performed in a real environment are reported using an intense nuclear source.

  18. AR Feels "Softer" than VR: Haptic Perception of Stiffness in Augmented versus Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffary, Yoren; Le Gouis, Benoit; Marchal, Maud; Argelaguet, Ferran; Arnaldi, Bruno; Lecuyer, Anatole

    2017-11-01

    Does it feel the same when you touch an object in Augmented Reality (AR) or in Virtual Reality (VR)? In this paper we study and compare the haptic perception of stiffness of a virtual object in two situations: (1) a purely virtual environment versus (2) a real and augmented environment. We have designed an experimental setup based on a Microsoft HoloLens and a haptic force-feedback device, enabling to press a virtual piston, and compare its stiffness successively in either Augmented Reality (the virtual piston is surrounded by several real objects all located inside a cardboard box) or in Virtual Reality (the same virtual piston is displayed in a fully virtual scene composed of the same other objects). We have conducted a psychophysical experiment with 12 participants. Our results show a surprising bias in perception between the two conditions. The virtual piston is on average perceived stiffer in the VR condition compared to the AR condition. For instance, when the piston had the same stiffness in AR and VR, participants would select the VR piston as the stiffer one in 60% of cases. This suggests a psychological effect as if objects in AR would feel "softer" than in pure VR. Taken together, our results open new perspectives on perception in AR versus VR, and pave the way to future studies aiming at characterizing potential perceptual biases.

  19. Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.

    This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.

  20. Enhancing Mediated Interpersonal Communication through Affective Haptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetserukou, Dzmitry; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut; Kawakami, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Tachi, Susumu

    Driven by the motivation to enhance emotionally immersive experience of real-time messaging in 3D virtual world Second Life, we are proposing a conceptually novel approach to reinforcing (intensifying) own feelings and reproducing (simulating) the emotions felt by the partner through specially designed system, iFeel_IM!. In the paper we are describing the development of novel haptic devices (HaptiHeart, HaptiHug, HaptiTickler, HaptiCooler, and HaptiWarmer) integrated into iFeel_IM! system, which architecture is presented in detail.

  1. Feeling the beat where it counts: fostering multi-limb rhythm skills with the haptic drum kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, S.; Bouwer, A.J.; Dalgleish, M.; Hurtig, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool known as the Haptic Drum Kit, which employs four computer-controlled vibrotactile devices, one attached to each wrist and ankle. In the applications discussed here, haptic pulses are used to guide the playing, on a drum kit, of rhythmic patterns that require multi-limb

  2. Preliminary assessment of faculty and student perception of a haptic virtual reality simulator for training dental manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Gilad Ben; Weiss, Ervin I; Gafni, Naomi; Ziv, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Virtual reality force feedback simulators provide a haptic (sense of touch) feedback through the device being held by the user. The simulator's goal is to provide a learning experience resembling reality. A newly developed haptic simulator (IDEA Dental, Las Vegas, NV, USA) was assessed in this study. Our objectives were to assess the simulator's ability to serve as a tool for dental instruction, self-practice, and student evaluation, as well as to evaluate the sensation it provides. A total of thirty-three evaluators were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of twenty-one experienced dental educators; the second consisted of twelve fifth-year dental students. Each participant performed drilling tasks using the simulator and filled out a questionnaire regarding the simulator and potential ways of using it in dental education. The results show that experienced dental faculty members as well as advanced dental students found that the simulator could provide significant potential benefits in the teaching and self-learning of manual dental skills. Development of the simulator's tactile sensation is needed to attune it to genuine sensation. Further studies relating to aspects of the simulator's structure and its predictive validity, its scoring system, and the nature of the performed tasks should be conducted.

  3. Using mixed reality, force feedback and tactile augmentation to improve the realism of medical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J Brian; Porter, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a display approach which uses chromakey techniques to composite real and computer-generated images allowing a user to see his hands and medical instruments collocated with the display of virtual objects during a medical training simulation. Haptic feedback is provided through the use of a PHANTOM force feedback device in addition to tactile augmentation, which allows the user to touch virtual objects by introducing corresponding real objects in the workspace. A simplified catheter introducer insertion simulation was developed to demonstrate the capabilities of this approach.

  4. Graphic and haptic simulation system for virtual laparoscopic rectum surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun J; Chang, Jian; Yang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jian J; Qureshi, Tahseen; Howell, Robert; Hickish, Tamas

    2011-09-01

    Medical simulators with vision and haptic feedback techniques offer a cost-effective and efficient alternative to the traditional medical trainings. They have been used to train doctors in many specialties of medicine, allowing tasks to be practised in a safe and repetitive manner. This paper describes a virtual-reality (VR) system which will help to influence surgeons' learning curves in the technically challenging field of laparoscopic surgery of the rectum. Data from MRI of the rectum and real operation videos are used to construct the virtual models. A haptic force filter based on radial basis functions is designed to offer realistic and smooth force feedback. To handle collision detection efficiently, a hybrid model is presented to compute the deformation of intestines. Finally, a real-time cutting technique based on mesh is employed to represent the incision operation. Despite numerous research efforts, fast and realistic solutions of soft tissues with large deformation, such as intestines, prove extremely challenging. This paper introduces our latest contribution to this endeavour. With this system, the user can haptically operate with the virtual rectum and simultaneously watch the soft tissue deformation. Our system has been tested by colorectal surgeons who believe that the simulated tactile and visual feedbacks are realistic. It could replace the traditional training process and effectively transfer surgical skills to novices. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Randomized Control Trial of Cardiopulmonary Feedback Devices and Their Impact on Infant Chest Compression Quality: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Andrea L; Spalding, Carmen N; Landa, Katrina N; Myer, Brian R; Donald, Cure; Smith, Jason E; Platt, Gerald; King, Heather C

    2017-10-27

    In effort to improve chest compression quality among health care providers, numerous feedback devices have been developed. Few studies, however, have focused on the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation feedback devices for infants and children. This study evaluated the quality of chest compressions with standard team-leader coaching, a metronome (MetroTimer by ONYX Apps), and visual feedback (SkillGuide Cardiopulmonary Feedback Device) during simulated infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seventy voluntary health care providers who had recently completed Pediatric Advanced Life Support or Basic Life Support courses were randomized to perform simulated infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation into 1 of 3 groups: team-leader coaching alone (control), coaching plus metronome, or coaching plus SkillGuide for 2 minutes continuously. Rate, depth, and frequency of complete recoil during cardiopulmonary resuscitation were recorded by the Laerdal SimPad device for each participant. American Heart Association-approved compression techniques were randomized to either 2-finger or encircling thumbs. The metronome was associated with more ideal compression rate than visual feedback or coaching alone (104/min vs 112/min and 113/min; P = 0.003, 0.019). Visual feedback was associated with more ideal depth than auditory (41 mm vs 38.9; P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in complete recoil between groups. Secondary outcomes of compression technique revealed a difference of 1 mm. Subgroup analysis of male versus female showed no difference in mean number of compressions (221.76 vs 219.79; P = 0.72), mean compression depth (40.47 vs 39.25; P = 0.09), or rate of complete release (70.27% vs 64.96%; P = 0.54). In the adult literature, feedback devices often show an increase in quality of chest compressions. Although more studies are needed, this study did not demonstrate a clinically significant improvement in chest compressions with the addition of a metronome or visual

  6. Just-in-Time or Plenty-of-Time Teaching? Different Electronic Feedback Devices and Their Effect on Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Martinez, Brandon; Seli, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how incorporating different electronic feedback devices (i.e., clickers versus web-based polling) may affect specific types of student engagement (i.e., behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), whether students' self-efficacy for learning and performance may differ between courses that have integrated clickers and…

  7. Assignment about providing of substitute haptic interface for visually disabled persons

    OpenAIRE

    浅川, 貴史

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] This paper is described about an assignment of haptic interface. We have made a proposal for a music baton system for visually disabled persons. The system is constituted by an acceleration sensor, a radio module, and a haptic interface device. We have carried out an experiment of comparing the visual and the haptic interface. The assignments are declared by the results that are rise-time of a motor and pre-motion. In the paper, we make a proposal for new method of the voltage cont...

  8. Fundamentals of force feedback and application to a surgery simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Heiko; Chantier, Benjamin B A; Cakmak, Hueseyin K; Trantakis, Christos; Kuehnapfel, Uwe G

    2003-01-01

    Force feedback increases the effectiveness of virtual-reality surgery training systems. An overview of the fundamentals of applying force feedback is presented. An impedance control technique and data processing methods for stability preservation are illustrated. A flexible interface for general force-feedback applications has been developed. This interface is capable of controlling several different force-feedback hardware systems, including the SensAble PHANTOM, the Laparoscopic Impulse Engines from Immersion, and the VS-One virtual endoscopic surgery trainer. The findings are evaluated using the main simulation system, KISMET, and the modeling tools KISMO and VESUV. Within the scope of a cooperative project called HapticIO (funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research [BMBF]), new haptic devices have been designed for virtual neuroendoscopy and laparoscopy. The concept and implementations presented in this paper have been found to be flexible, stable and suitable for universal use. The impedance method, combined with the open-loop feed-forward control technique, is well suited and appropriate for the task.

  9. Haptics for Virtual Reality and Teleoperation

    CERN Document Server

    Mihelj, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    This book covers all topics relevant for the design of haptic interfaces and teleoperation systems. The book provides the basic knowledge required for understanding more complex approaches and more importantly it introduces all issues that must be considered for designing efficient and safe haptic interfaces. Topics covered in this book provide insight into all relevant components of a haptic system. The reader is guided from understanding the virtual reality concept to the final goal of being able to design haptic interfaces for specific tasks such as nanomanipulation.  The introduction chapter positions the haptic interfaces within the virtual reality context. In order to design haptic interfaces that will comply with human capabilities at least basic understanding of human sensors-motor system is required. An overview of this topic is provided in the chapter related to human haptics. The book does not try to introduce the state-of-the-art haptic interface solutions because these tend to change quickly. On...

  10. Tunable organic distributed feedback dye laser device excited through Förster mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Hinode, Taiki

    2017-03-01

    Tunable organic distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser performances are re-investigated and characterized. The slab-type waveguide DFB device consists of air/active layer/glass substrate. Active layer consisted of tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3), 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) dye, and polystyrene (PS) matrix. Effective energy transfer from Alq3 to DCM through Förster mechanism enhances the laser emission. Slope efficiency in the range of 4.9 and 10% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.10-0.15 mJ cm-2 (lower threshold), which is due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing. Typical slope efficiency for lasing in the range of 2.0 and 3.0% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.25-0.30 mJ cm-2 (higher threshold). The tuning wavelength for the laser emission is ranged from 620 to 645 nm depending on the ASE region.

  11. Mobile Haptic Technology Development through Artistic Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how artistic explorations can be useful for the development of mobile haptic technology. It presents an alternative framework of design for wearable haptics that contributes to the building of haptic communities outside specialized research contexts. The paper also present...

  12. Teledildonics and New Ways of “Being in Touch” : A Phenomenological Analysis of the Use of Haptic Devices for Intimate Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberati, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse teledildonics from a phenomenological perspective in order to show the possible effects they will have on ourselves and on our society. The new way of using digital technologies is to merge digital activities with our everyday praxes, and there are already devices

  13. A Three-Axis Force Sensor for Dual Finger Haptic Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Marco; Marcheschi, Simone; Salsedo, Fabio; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the design process, the characterization and testing of a novel three-axis mechanical force sensor. This sensor is optimized for use in closed-loop force control of haptic devices with three degrees of freedom. In particular the sensor has been conceived for integration with a dual finger haptic interface that aims at simulating forces that occur during grasping and surface exploration. The sensing spring structure has been purposely designed in order to match force an...

  14. Towards open-source, low-cost haptics for surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Sander, Christian; Schill, Julian; Serf, Manuel; Danz, Marcel; Asfour, Tamim; Burger, Wolfgang; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), virtual reality (VR) training systems have become a promising education tool. However, the adoption of these systems in research and clinical settings is still limited by the high costs of dedicated haptics hardware for MIS. In this paper, we present ongoing research towards an open-source, low-cost haptic interface for MIS simulation. We demonstrate the basic mechanical design of the device, the sensor setup as well as its software integration.

  15. Haptograph Representation of Real-World Haptic Information by Wideband Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Irie, Kouhei; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Artificial acquisition and reproduction of human sensations are basic technologies of communication engineering. For example, auditory information is obtained by a microphone, and a speaker reproduces it by artificial means. Furthermore, a video camera and a television make it possible to transmit visual sensation by broadcasting. On the contrary, since tactile or haptic information is subject to the Newton's “law of action and reaction” in the real world, a device which acquires, transmits, and reproduces the information has not been established. From the point of view, real-world haptics is the key technology for future haptic communication engineering. This paper proposes a novel acquisition method of haptic information named “haptograph”. The haptograph visualizes the haptic information like photograph. The proposed haptograph is applied to haptic recognition of the contact environment. A linear motor contacts to the surface of the environment and its reaction force is used to make a haptograph. A robust contact motion and sensor-less sensing of the reaction force are attained by using a disturbance observer. As a result, an encyclopedia of contact environment is attained. Since temporal and spatial analyses are conducted to represent haptic information as the haptograph, it is possible to be recognized and to be evaluated intuitively.

  16. Fusion of Haptic and Gesture Sensors for Rehabilitation of Bimanual Coordination and Dexterous Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningbo Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Disabilities after neural injury, such as stroke, bring tremendous burden to patients, families and society. Besides the conventional constrained-induced training with a paretic arm, bilateral rehabilitation training involves both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the neural injury, fitting well with the fact that both arms are needed in common activities of daily living (ADLs, and can promote good functional recovery. In this work, the fusion of a gesture sensor and a haptic sensor with force feedback capabilities has enabled a bilateral rehabilitation training therapy. The Leap Motion gesture sensor detects the motion of the healthy hand, and the omega.7 device can detect and assist the paretic hand, according to the designed cooperative task paradigm, as much as needed, with active force feedback to accomplish the manipulation task. A virtual scenario has been built up, and the motion and force data facilitate instantaneous visual and audio feedback, as well as further analysis of the functional capabilities of the patient. This task-oriented bimanual training paradigm recruits the sensory, motor and cognitive aspects of the patient into one loop, encourages the active involvement of the patients into rehabilitation training, strengthens the cooperation of both the healthy and impaired hands, challenges the dexterous manipulation capability of the paretic hand, suits easy of use at home or centralized institutions and, thus, promises effective potentials for rehabilitation training.

  17. Fusion of Haptic and Gesture Sensors for Rehabilitation of Bimanual Coordination and Dexterous Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ningbo; Xu, Chang; Li, Huanshuai; Wang, Kui; Wang, Liancheng; Liu, Jingtai

    2016-03-18

    Disabilities after neural injury, such as stroke, bring tremendous burden to patients, families and society. Besides the conventional constrained-induced training with a paretic arm, bilateral rehabilitation training involves both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the neural injury, fitting well with the fact that both arms are needed in common activities of daily living (ADLs), and can promote good functional recovery. In this work, the fusion of a gesture sensor and a haptic sensor with force feedback capabilities has enabled a bilateral rehabilitation training therapy. The Leap Motion gesture sensor detects the motion of the healthy hand, and the omega.7 device can detect and assist the paretic hand, according to the designed cooperative task paradigm, as much as needed, with active force feedback to accomplish the manipulation task. A virtual scenario has been built up, and the motion and force data facilitate instantaneous visual and audio feedback, as well as further analysis of the functional capabilities of the patient. This task-oriented bimanual training paradigm recruits the sensory, motor and cognitive aspects of the patient into one loop, encourages the active involvement of the patients into rehabilitation training, strengthens the cooperation of both the healthy and impaired hands, challenges the dexterous manipulation capability of the paretic hand, suits easy of use at home or centralized institutions and, thus, promises effective potentials for rehabilitation training.

  18. A Study on Immersion and Presence of a Portable Hand Haptic System for Immersive Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingyu; Jeon, Changyu; Kim, Jinmo

    2017-05-17

    This paper proposes a portable hand haptic system using Leap Motion as a haptic interface that can be used in various virtual reality (VR) applications. The proposed hand haptic system was designed as an Arduino-based sensor architecture to enable a variety of tactile senses at low cost, and is also equipped with a portable wristband. As a haptic system designed for tactile feedback, the proposed system first identifies the left and right hands and then sends tactile senses (vibration and heat) to each fingertip (thumb and index finger). It is incorporated into a wearable band-type system, making its use easy and convenient. Next, hand motion is accurately captured using the sensor of the hand tracking system and is used for virtual object control, thus achieving interaction that enhances immersion. A VR application was designed with the purpose of testing the immersion and presence aspects of the proposed system. Lastly, technical and statistical tests were carried out to assess whether the proposed haptic system can provide a new immersive presence to users. According to the results of the presence questionnaire and the simulator sickness questionnaire, we confirmed that the proposed hand haptic system, in comparison to the existing interaction that uses only the hand tracking system, provided greater presence and a more immersive environment in the virtual reality.

  19. Design of a 4-DOF MR haptic master for application to robot surgery: virtual environment work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the design and control performance of a novel type of 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master in cyberspace for a robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) application. By using a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid, the proposed haptic master can have a feedback function for a surgical robot. Due to the difficulty in utilizing real human organs in the experiment, the cyberspace that features the virtual object is constructed to evaluate the performance of the haptic master. In order to realize the cyberspace, a volumetric deformable object is represented by a shape-retaining chain-linked (S-chain) model, which is a fast volumetric model and is suitable for real-time applications. In the haptic architecture for an RMIS application, the desired torque and position induced from the virtual object of the cyberspace and the haptic master of real space are transferred to each other. In order to validate the superiority of the proposed master and volumetric model, a tracking control experiment is implemented with a nonhomogenous volumetric cubic object to demonstrate that the proposed model can be utilized in real-time haptic rendering architecture. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is then designed and empirically implemented to accomplish the desired torque trajectories. It has been verified from the experiment that tracking the control performance for torque trajectories from a virtual slave can be successfully achieved.

  20. A Study on Immersion and Presence of a Portable Hand Haptic System for Immersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingyu; Jeon, Changyu; Kim, Jinmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a portable hand haptic system using Leap Motion as a haptic interface that can be used in various virtual reality (VR) applications. The proposed hand haptic system was designed as an Arduino-based sensor architecture to enable a variety of tactile senses at low cost, and is also equipped with a portable wristband. As a haptic system designed for tactile feedback, the proposed system first identifies the left and right hands and then sends tactile senses (vibration and heat) to each fingertip (thumb and index finger). It is incorporated into a wearable band-type system, making its use easy and convenient. Next, hand motion is accurately captured using the sensor of the hand tracking system and is used for virtual object control, thus achieving interaction that enhances immersion. A VR application was designed with the purpose of testing the immersion and presence aspects of the proposed system. Lastly, technical and statistical tests were carried out to assess whether the proposed haptic system can provide a new immersive presence to users. According to the results of the presence questionnaire and the simulator sickness questionnaire, we confirmed that the proposed hand haptic system, in comparison to the existing interaction that uses only the hand tracking system, provided greater presence and a more immersive environment in the virtual reality. PMID:28513545

  1. Design of a 4-DOF MR haptic master for application to robot surgery: virtual environment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control performance of a novel type of 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master in cyberspace for a robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) application. By using a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid, the proposed haptic master can have a feedback function for a surgical robot. Due to the difficulty in utilizing real human organs in the experiment, the cyberspace that features the virtual object is constructed to evaluate the performance of the haptic master. In order to realize the cyberspace, a volumetric deformable object is represented by a shape-retaining chain-linked (S-chain) model, which is a fast volumetric model and is suitable for real-time applications. In the haptic architecture for an RMIS application, the desired torque and position induced from the virtual object of the cyberspace and the haptic master of real space are transferred to each other. In order to validate the superiority of the proposed master and volumetric model, a tracking control experiment is implemented with a nonhomogenous volumetric cubic object to demonstrate that the proposed model can be utilized in real-time haptic rendering architecture. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is then designed and empirically implemented to accomplish the desired torque trajectories. It has been verified from the experiment that tracking the control performance for torque trajectories from a virtual slave can be successfully achieved. (paper)

  2. External chest compressions using a mechanical feedback device : cross-over simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorning, M; Derwall, M; Brokmann, J C; Rörtgen, D; Bergrath, S; Pflipsen, J; Beuerlein, S; Rossaint, R; Beckers, S K

    2011-08-01

    External chest compressions (ECC) are essential components of resuscitation and are usually performed without any adjuncts in professional healthcare. Even for healthcare professionals during in-hospital and out-of-hospital resuscitation poor performance in ECC has been reported in recent years. Although several stand-alone devices have been developed none has been implemented as a standard in patient care. The aim of this study was to examine if the use of a mechanical device providing visual feedback and audible assistance during ECC improves performance of healthcare professionals following minimal and simplified instructions. In a prospective, randomized cross-over study 81 healthcare professionals performed ECC for 3 min (in the assumed setting of a secured airway) twice on a manikin (Skillreporter ResusciAnne®, with PC-Skillreporting System Version 1.3.0, Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) in a mock cardiac arrest scenario. Group 1 (n=40) performed ECC with the device first followed by classic ECC and group 2 (n=41) in the opposite order. Minimal instructions were standardized and provided by video instruction (1 min 38 s). Endpoints were achievement of a mean compression rate between 90 and 110/min and a mean compression depth of 40-50 mm. In addition participants had to answer questionnaires about demographic data, professional experience and recent recommendations for ECC as well as their impression of the device concerning the ease of use and their personal level of confidence. Data were analyzed for group-related and inter-group differences using SAS (Version 9.1.3, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A total of 81 healthcare professionals regularly involved in resuscitation attempts in pre-hospital or in-hospital settings took part in the study with no differences between the groups: females 35.8% (n=52), emergency medical technicians 32.1% (n=26), anesthesia nurses 32.1% (n=26), physicians (anesthesiology) 45% (n=29). In group 1 33 out of 40 (82.5%; 99.7±4

  3. Effect of capacitive feedback on the characteristics of direct current superconducting quantum interference device coupled to a multiturn input coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minotani, T.; Enpuku, K.; Kuroki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Distortion of voltage versus flux (V endash Φ) relation of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) coupled to a multiturn input coil is studied. First, resonant behavior of the coupled SQUID due to the so-called input coil resonance is clarified. It is shown that large rf noise flux is produced by the input coil resonance. This rf flux is added to the SQUID, and results in large rf voltage across the SQUID. In the case where parasitic capacitance exists between the input coil and the ground of the SQUID, this rf voltage produces the rf flux again, i.e., a feedback loop for the rf flux is formed. Taking into account this capacitive feedback, we study the V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. Numerical simulation shows that the V endash Φ relation is distorted considerably by the feedback mechanism. The simulation result explains well the experimental V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. The combination of the input coil resonance with the capacitive feedback is the most likely mechanism for the distorted V endash Φ curve of the coupled SQUID. The condition for occurrence of the distorted V endash Φ curve due to the capacitive feedback is also obtained, and methods to prevent degradation are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Dynamics modeling for parallel haptic interfaces with force sensing and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nicholas; Lawrence, Dale; Pao, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Closed-loop force control can be used on haptic interfaces (HIs) to mitigate the effects of mechanism dynamics. A single multidimensional force-torque sensor is often employed to measure the interaction force between the haptic device and the user's hand. The parallel haptic interface at the University of Colorado (CU) instead employs smaller 1D force sensors oriented along each of the five actuating rods to build up a 5D force vector. This paper shows that a particular manipulandum/hand partition in the system dynamics is induced by the placement and type of force sensing, and discusses the implications on force and impedance control for parallel haptic interfaces. The details of a "squaring down" process are also discussed, showing how to obtain reduced degree-of-freedom models from the general six degree-of-freedom dynamics formulation.

  5. Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dung Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our

  6. Haptic/graphic rehabilitation: integrating a robot into a virtual environment library and applying it to stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Ian; Patton, James; Listenberger, Molly; Case, Emily

    2011-08-08

    Recent research that tests interactive devices for prolonged therapy practice has revealed new prospects for robotics combined with graphical and other forms of biofeedback. Previous human-robot interactive systems have required different software commands to be implemented for each robot leading to unnecessary developmental overhead time each time a new system becomes available. For example, when a haptic/graphic virtual reality environment has been coded for one specific robot to provide haptic feedback, that specific robot would not be able to be traded for another robot without recoding the program. However, recent efforts in the open source community have proposed a wrapper class approach that can elicit nearly identical responses regardless of the robot used. The result can lead researchers across the globe to perform similar experiments using shared code. Therefore modular "switching out"of one robot for another would not affect development time. In this paper, we outline the successful creation and implementation of a wrapper class for one robot into the open-source H3DAPI, which integrates the software commands most commonly used by all robots.

  7. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...

  8. Introduction to haptics for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Orsa, Rachael; Macnab, Chris J B; Tavakoli, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Robots are becoming increasingly relevant to neurosurgeons, extending a neurosurgeon's physical capabilities, improving navigation within the surgical landscape when combined with advanced imaging, and propelling the movement toward minimally invasive surgery. Most surgical robots, however, isolate surgeons from the full range of human senses during a procedure. This forces surgeons to rely on vision alone for guidance through the surgical corridor, which limits the capabilities of the system, requires significant operator training, and increases the surgeon's workload. Incorporating haptics into these systems, ie, enabling the surgeon to "feel" forces experienced by the tool tip of the robot, could render these limitations obsolete by making the robot feel more like an extension of the surgeon's own body. Although the use of haptics in neurosurgical robots is still mostly the domain of research, neurosurgeons who keep abreast of this emerging field will be more prepared to take advantage of it as it becomes more prevalent in operating theaters. Thus, this article serves as an introduction to the field of haptics for neurosurgeons. We not only outline the current and future benefits of haptics but also introduce concepts in the fields of robotic technology and computer control. This knowledge will allow readers to be better aware of limitations in the technology that can affect performance and surgical outcomes, and "knowing the right questions to ask" will be invaluable for surgeons who have purchasing power within their departments.

  9. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  10. Guideline implementation in clinical practice: Use of statistical process control charts as visual feedback devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A Al-Hussein

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: A process of audits in the context of statistical process control is necessary for any improvement in the implementation of guidelines in primary care. Statistical process control charts are an effective means of visual feedback to the care providers.

  11. Robust haptic large distance telemanipulation for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, D.J.F.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Koning, J.F.; Abbasi, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER remote handling maintenance can be controlled safely over a large distance. • Bilateral teleoperation experiments were performed in a local network. • Wave variables make the controller robust against constant communication delays. • Master and slave position synchronization guaranteed by proportional action. -- Abstract: During shutdowns, maintenance crews are expected to work in 24/6 shifts to perform critical remote handling maintenance tasks on the ITER system. In this article, we investigate the possibility to safely perform these haptic maintenance tasks remotely from control stations located anywhere around the world. To guarantee stability in time delayed bilateral teleoperation, the symmetric position tracking controller using wave variables is selected. This algorithm guarantees robustness against communication delays, can eliminate wave reflections and provide position synchronization of the master and slave devices. Experiments have been conducted under realistic local network bandwidth, latency and jitter constraints. They show sufficient transparency even for substantial communication delays

  12. Robust haptic large distance telemanipulation for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, D.J.F., E-mail: d.j.f.heck@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Koning, J.F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technologies, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Abbasi, A.; Nijmeijer, H. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER remote handling maintenance can be controlled safely over a large distance. • Bilateral teleoperation experiments were performed in a local network. • Wave variables make the controller robust against constant communication delays. • Master and slave position synchronization guaranteed by proportional action. -- Abstract: During shutdowns, maintenance crews are expected to work in 24/6 shifts to perform critical remote handling maintenance tasks on the ITER system. In this article, we investigate the possibility to safely perform these haptic maintenance tasks remotely from control stations located anywhere around the world. To guarantee stability in time delayed bilateral teleoperation, the symmetric position tracking controller using wave variables is selected. This algorithm guarantees robustness against communication delays, can eliminate wave reflections and provide position synchronization of the master and slave devices. Experiments have been conducted under realistic local network bandwidth, latency and jitter constraints. They show sufficient transparency even for substantial communication delays.

  13. Portable haptic interface with omni-directional movement and force capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizzano, Carlo Alberto; Satler, Massimo; Ruffaldi, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design of a new mobile haptic interface that employs wheels for force rendering. The interface, consisting of an omni-directional Killough type platform, provides 2DOF force feedback with different control modalities. The system autonomously performs sensor fusion for localization and force rendering. This paper explains the relevant choices concerning the functional aspects, the control design, the mechanical and electronic solution. Experimental results for force feedback characterization are reported.

  14. Guidelines for haptic interpersonal communication applications : an exploration of foot interaction styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, A.F.; Essen, van H.A.

    2006-01-01

    A new method for researching haptic interaction styles is presented, based on a layered interaction model and a classification of existing devices. The method is illustrated by designing a new foot interaction device. The aim of which is to enhance non-verbal communication over a computer network. A

  15. Design of a 7-DOF slave robot integrated with a magneto-rheological haptic master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong-Hoon; Cha, Seung-Woo; Kang, Seok-Rae; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a 7-DOF slave robot integrated with the haptic master is designed and its dynamic motion is controlled. The haptic master is made using a controllable magneto-rheological (MR) clutch and brake and it provides the surgeon with a sense of touch by using both kinetic and kinesthetic information. Due to the size constraint of the slave robot, a wire actuating is adopted to make the desired motion of the end-effector which has 3-DOF instead of a conventional direct-driven motor. Another motions of the link parts that have 4-DOF use direct-driven motor. In total system, for working as a haptic device, the haptic master need to receive the information of repulsive forces applied on the slave robot. Therefore, repulsive forces on the end-effector are sensed by using three uniaxial torque transducer inserted in the wire actuating system and another repulsive forces applied on link part are sensed by using 6-axis transducer that is able to sense forces and torques. Using another 6-axis transducer, verify the reliability of force information on final end of slave robot. Lastly, integrated with a MR haptic master, psycho-physical test is conducted by different operators who can feel the different repulsive force or torque generated from the haptic master which is equivalent to the force or torque occurred on the end-effector to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  16. A real-time haptic interface for interventional radiology procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Thomas; Ilic, Dejan; Fracheboud, Blaise; Zoethout, Jurjen; Bleuler, Hannes

    2005-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a minimally-invasive surgery technique (MIS) where guidewires and catheters are steered in the vascular system under X-ray imaging. In order to perform these procedures, a radiologist has to be correctly trained to master hand-eye coordination, instrument manipulation and procedure protocols. This paper proposes a computer-assisted training environment dedicated to IR. The system is composed of a virtual reality (VR) simulation of the anatomy of the patient linked to a robotic interface providing haptic force feedback.The paper focuses on the requirements, design and prototyping of a specific part of the haptic interface dedicated to catheters. Translational tracking and force feedback on the catheter is provided by two cylinders forming a friction drive arrangement. The whole friction can be set in rotation with an additional motor providing torque feedback. A force and a torque sensor are integrated in the cylinders for direct measurement on the catheter enabling disturbance cancellation with a close-loop force control strategy.

  17. Archaeologies of touch interfacing with haptics from electricity to computing

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, David

    2018-01-01

    David Parisi offers the first full history of new computing technologies known as haptic interfaces--which use electricity, vibration, and force feedback to stimulate the sense of touch--showing how the efforts of scientists and engineers over the past 300 years have gradually remade and redefined our sense of touch. Archaeologies of Touch offers a timely and provocative engagement with the long history of touch technology that helps us confront and question the power relations underpinning the project of giving touch its own set of technical media.

  18. A randomised control trial of prompt and feedback devices and their impact on quality of chest compressions--a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Joyce; Davies, Robin; Gao, Fang; Perkins, Gavin D

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to compare the effect of three CPR prompt and feedback devices on quality of chest compressions amongst healthcare providers. A single blinded, randomised controlled trial compared a pressure sensor/metronome device (CPREzy), an accelerometer device (Phillips Q-CPR) and simple metronome on the quality of chest compressions on a manikin by trained rescuers. The primary outcome was compression depth. Secondary outcomes were compression rate, proportion of chest compressions with inadequate depth, incomplete release and user satisfaction. The pressure sensor device improved compression depth (37.24-43.64 mm, p=0.02), the accelerometer device decreased chest compression depth (37.38-33.19 mm, p=0.04) whilst the metronome had no effect (39.88 mm vs. 40.64 mm, p=0.802). Compression rate fell with all devices (pressure sensor device 114.68-98.84 min(-1), p=0.001, accelerometer 112.04-102.92 min(-1), p=0.072 and metronome 108.24 min(-1) vs. 99.36 min(-1), p=0.009). The pressure sensor feedback device reduced the proportion of compressions with inadequate depth (0.52 vs. 0.24, p=0.013) whilst the accelerometer device and metronome did not have a statistically significant effect. Incomplete release of compressions was common, but unaffected by the CPR feedback devices. Users preferred the accelerometer and metronome devices over the pressure sensor device. A post hoc study showed that de-activating the voice prompt on the accelerometer device prevented the deterioration in compression quality seen in the main study. CPR feedback devices vary in their ability to improve performance. In this study the pressure sensor device improved compression depth, whilst the accelerometer device reduced it and metronome had no effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A feedback linearization approach to spacecraft control using momentum exchange devices. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzielski, John Edward

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of nonlinear control theory have shown how coordiante changes in the state and input spaces can be used with nonlinear feedback to transform certain nonlinear ordinary differential equations into equivalent linear equations. These feedback linearization techniques are applied to resolve two problems arising in the control of spacecraft equipped with control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). The first application involves the computation of rate commands for the gimbals that rotate the individual gyroscopes to produce commanded torques on the spacecraft. The second application is to the long-term management of stored momentum in the system of control moment gyroscopes using environmental torques acting on the vehicle. An approach to distributing control effort among a group of redundant actuators is described that uses feedback linearization techniques to parameterize sets of controls which influence a specified subsystem in a desired way. The approach is adapted for use in spacecraft control with double-gimballed gyroscopes to produce an algorithm that avoids problematic gimbal configurations by approximating sets of gimbal rates that drive CMG rotors into desirable configurations. The momentum management problem is stated as a trajectory optimization problem with a nonlinear dynamical constraint. Feedback linearization and collocation are used to transform this problem into an unconstrainted nonlinear program. The approach to trajectory optimization is fast and robust. A number of examples are presented showing applications to the proposed NASA space station.

  20. Ascending and Descending in Virtual Reality: Simple and Safe System Using Passive Haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Ryohei; Matsumoto, Keigo; Narumi, Takuji; Tanikawa, Tomohiro; Hirose, Michitaka

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel interactive system that provides users with virtual reality (VR) experiences, wherein users feel as if they are ascending/descending stairs through passive haptic feedback. The passive haptic stimuli are provided by small bumps under the feet of users; these stimuli are provided to represent the edges of the stairs in the virtual environment. The visual stimuli of the stairs and shoes, provided by head-mounted displays, evoke a visuo-haptic interaction that modifies a user's perception of the floor shape. Our system enables users to experience all types of stairs, such as half-turn and spiral stairs, in a VR setting. We conducted a preliminary user study and two experiments to evaluate the proposed technique. The preliminary user study investigated the effectiveness of the basic idea associated with the proposed technique for the case of a user ascending stairs. The results demonstrated that the passive haptic feedback produced by the small bumps enhanced the user's feeling of presence and sense of ascending. We subsequently performed an experiment to investigate an improved viewpoint manipulation method and the interaction of the manipulation and haptics for both the ascending and descending cases. The experimental results demonstrated that the participants had a feeling of presence and felt a steep stair gradient under the condition of haptic feedback and viewpoint manipulation based on the characteristics of actual stair walking data. However, these results also indicated that the proposed system may not be as effective in providing a sense of descending stairs without an optimization of the haptic stimuli. We then redesigned the shape of the small bumps, and evaluated the design in a second experiment. The results indicated that the best shape to present haptic stimuli is a right triangle cross section in both the ascending and descending cases. Although it is necessary to install small protrusions in the determined direction, by

  1. Improving the performance of DTP2 bilateral teleoperation control system with haptic augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viinikainen, Mikko; Tuominen, Janne; Alho, Pekka; Mattila, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An experimental haptic shared control system, called CAT developed at the DTP2. •We investigate how the system integrates with the ITER compliant DTP2 RHCS. •The effect of CAT experimentally assessed in an ITER relevant maintenance scenario. -- Abstract: The remote maintenance of the ITER divertor is largely dependent on the usage of haptically teleoperated manipulators and man-in-the-loop operations. These maintenance operations are very demanding for the manipulator operators, yet vital for the success of the whole ITER experiment. Haptic shared control of the maintenance manipulators offers a promising solution for assisting the teleoperators in the maintenance tasks. A shared control system assists the operator by generating artificial guiding force effects and overlaying them on top of the haptic feedback from the teleoperation environment. An experimental haptic shared control system, called the Computer Assisted Teleoperation (CAT) has been developed at the Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2). In this paper, we investigate the design of the system and how the system integrates with the ITER compliant DTP2 prototype Remote Handling Control System (RHCS). We also experimentally assess the effect of the guidance to the operator performance in an ITER-relevant maintenance scenario using the Water Hydraulic MANipulator (WHMAN), which is specially designed for the divertor maintenance. The result of the experiment gives suggestive indication that the CAT system improves the performance of the operators of the system

  2. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  3. Influence of Force and Torque Feedback on Operator Performance in a VR-Based Suturing Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santos-Carreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS has revolutionised surgical care, considerably improving the quality of many surgical procedures. Technological advances, particularly in robotic surgery systems, have reduced the complexity of such an approach, paving the way for even less invasive surgical trends. However, the fact that haptic feedback has been progressively lost through this transition is an issue that to date has not been solved. Whereas traditional open surgery provides full haptic feedback, the introduction of MIS has eliminated the possibility of direct palpation and tactile exploration. Nevertheless, these procedures still provide a certain amount of force feedback through the rigid laparoscopic tool. Many of the current telemanipulated robotic surgical systems in return do not provide full haptic feedback, which to a certain extent can be explained by the requirement of force sensors integrated into the tools of the slave robot and actuators in the surgeon’s master console. In view of the increased complexity and cost, the benefit of haptic feedback is open to dispute. Nevertheless, studies have shown the importance of haptic feedback, especially when visual feedback is unreliable or absent. In order to explore the importance of haptic feedback for the surgeon’s master console of a novel teleoperated robotic surgical system, we have identified a typical surgical task where performance could potentially be improved by haptic feedback, and investigate performance with and without this feedback. Two rounds of experiments are performed with 10 subjects, six of them with a medical background. Results show that feedback conditions, including force feedback, significantly improve task performance independently of the operator’s suturing experience. There is, however, no further significant improvement when torque feedback is added. Consequently, it is deduced that force feedback in translations improves subject

  4. Evaluation of multimodal feedback effects on improving rowing competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.

  5. Annotation an effective device for student feedback: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Elaine C

    2010-05-01

    The paper examines hand-written annotation, its many features, difficulties and strengths as a feedback tool. It extends and clarifies what modest evidence is in the public domain and offers an evaluation of how to use annotation effectively in the support of student feedback [Marshall, C.M., 1998a. The Future of Annotation in a Digital (paper) World. Presented at the 35th Annual GLSLIS Clinic: Successes and Failures of Digital Libraries, June 20-24, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, March 24, pp. 1-20; Marshall, C.M., 1998b. Toward an ecology of hypertext annotation. Hypertext. In: Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, June 20-24, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, US, pp. 40-49; Wolfe, J.L., Nuewirth, C.M., 2001. From the margins to the centre: the future of annotation. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 15(3), 333-371; Diyanni, R., 2002. One Hundred Great Essays. Addison-Wesley, New York; Wolfe, J.L., 2002. Marginal pedagogy: how annotated texts affect writing-from-source texts. Written Communication, 19(2), 297-333; Liu, K., 2006. Annotation as an index to critical writing. Urban Education, 41, 192-207; Feito, A., Donahue, P., 2008. Minding the gap annotation as preparation for discussion. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 7(3), 295-307; Ball, E., 2009. A participatory action research study on handwritten annotation feedback and its impact on staff and students. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 22(2), 111-124; Ball, E., Franks, H., McGrath, M., Leigh, J., 2009. Annotation is a valuable tool to enhance learning and assessment in student essays. Nurse Education Today, 29(3), 284-291]. Although a significant number of studies examine annotation, this is largely related to on-line tools and computer mediated communication and not hand-written annotation as comment, phrase or sign written on the student essay to provide critique. Little systematic research has been conducted to consider how this latter form

  6. A Fabric-Based Approach for Wearable Haptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wearable haptic systems (WHS have gained increasing attention as a novel and exciting paradigm for human–robot interaction (HRI. These systems can be worn by users, carried around, and integrated in their everyday lives, thus enabling a more natural manner to deliver tactile cues. At the same time, the design of these types of devices presents new issues: the challenge is the correct identification of design guidelines, with the two-fold goal of minimizing system encumbrance and increasing the effectiveness and naturalness of stimulus delivery. Fabrics can represent a viable solution to tackle these issues. They are specifically thought “to be worn”, and could be the key ingredient to develop wearable haptic interfaces conceived for a more natural HRI. In this paper, the author will review some examples of fabric-based WHS that can be applied to different body locations, and elicit different haptic perceptions for different application fields. Perspective and future developments of this approach will be discussed.

  7. Control of 4-DOF MR haptic master for medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    In this work, magnetorheological (MR) based haptic master for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is proposed and analyzed. Using a controllable MR fluid, the masters can generate a reflection force with the 4-DOF motion. The proposed master consists of two actuators: MR clutch featuring gimbal mechanism for 2-DOF rotational motion (X and Y axes) and MR clutch attached at gripper of gimbal structures for 1-DOF rotational motion (Z axis) and 1-DOF translational motion. After analyzing the dynamic motion by integrating mechanical and physical properties of the actuators, torque model of the proposed haptic master is derived. For realization of master-slave system, an encoder which can measure position information is integrated with the MR haptic master. In the RMIS system, the measured position is converted as a command signal and sent to the slave robot. In this work, slave and organ of patient are modeled in virtual space. In order to embody a human organ into virtual space, a volumetric deformable object is mathematically formulated by a shape retaining chain linked (S-chain) model. Accordingly, the haptic architecture is established by incorporating the virtual slave with the master device in which the reflection force and desired position originated from the object of the virtual slave and operator of the master, respectively, are transferred to each other. In order to achieve the desired force trajectories, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is designed and implemented. It has been demonstrated that the effective tracking control performance for the desired motion of reflection force is well presented in time domain.

  8. Functional Contour-following via Haptic Perception and Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Randall B; Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Santos, Veronica J

    2018-01-01

    Many tasks involve the fine manipulation of objects despite limited visual feedback. In such scenarios, tactile and proprioceptive feedback can be leveraged for task completion. We present an approach for real-time haptic perception and decision-making for a haptics-driven, functional contour-following task: the closure of a ziplock bag. This task is challenging for robots because the bag is deformable, transparent, and visually occluded by artificial fingertip sensors that are also compliant. A deep neural net classifier was trained to estimate the state of a zipper within a robot's pinch grasp. A Contextual Multi-Armed Bandit (C-MAB) reinforcement learning algorithm was implemented to maximize cumulative rewards by balancing exploration versus exploitation of the state-action space. The C-MAB learner outperformed a benchmark Q-learner by more efficiently exploring the state-action space while learning a hard-to-code task. The learned C-MAB policy was tested with novel ziplock bag scenarios and contours (wire, rope). Importantly, this work contributes to the development of reinforcement learning approaches that account for limited resources such as hardware life and researcher time. As robots are used to perform complex, physically interactive tasks in unstructured or unmodeled environments, it becomes important to develop methods that enable efficient and effective learning with physical testbeds.

  9. Sensing and Force-Feedback Exoskeleton (SAFE) Robotic Glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tzvi, Pinhas; Ma, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and experimental validation of a novel robotic haptic exoskeleton device to measure the user's hand motion and assist hand motion while remaining portable and lightweight. The device consists of a five-finger mechanism actuated with miniature DC motors through antagonistically routed cables at each finger, which act as both active and passive force actuators. The SAFE Glove is a wireless and self-contained mechatronic system that mounts over the dorsum of a bare hand and provides haptic force feedback to each finger. The glove is adaptable to a wide variety of finger sizes without constraining the range of motion. This makes it possible to accurately and comfortably track the complex motion of the finger and thumb joints associated with common movements of hand functions, including grip and release patterns. The glove can be wirelessly linked to a computer for displaying and recording the hand status through 3D Graphical User Interface (GUI) in real-time. The experimental results demonstrate that the SAFE Glove is capable of reliably modeling hand kinematics, measuring finger motion and assisting hand grasping motion. Simulation and experimental results show the potential of the proposed system in rehabilitation therapy and virtual reality applications.

  10. Virtual reality haptic human dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Caroline; Wilkinson, Caroline; Soames, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to create a three-dimensional digital model of the human hand and wrist which can be virtually 'dissected' through a haptic interface. Tissue properties will be added to the various anatomical structures to replicate a realistic look and feel. The project will explore the role of the medical artist and investigate the cross-discipline collaborations required in the field of virtual anatomy. The software will be used to train anatomy students in dissection skills before experience on a real cadaver. The effectiveness of the software will be evaluated and assessed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  11. Cutaneous Feedback of Fingertip Deformation and Vibration for Palpation in Robotic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J

    2016-02-01

    Despite its expected clinical benefits, current teleoperated surgical robots do not provide the surgeon with haptic feedback largely because grounded forces can destabilize the system's closed-loop controller. This paper presents an alternative approach that enables the surgeon to feel fingertip contact deformations and vibrations while guaranteeing the teleoperator's stability. We implemented our cutaneous feedback solution on an Intuitive Surgical da Vinci Standard robot by mounting a SynTouch BioTac tactile sensor to the distal end of a surgical instrument and a custom cutaneous display to the corresponding master controller. As the user probes the remote environment, the contact deformations, dc pressure, and ac pressure (vibrations) sensed by the BioTac are directly mapped to input commands for the cutaneous device's motors using a model-free algorithm based on look-up tables. The cutaneous display continually moves, tilts, and vibrates a flat plate at the operator's fingertip to optimally reproduce the tactile sensations experienced by the BioTac. We tested the proposed approach by having eighteen subjects use the augmented da Vinci robot to palpate a heart model with no haptic feedback, only deformation feedback, and deformation plus vibration feedback. Fingertip deformation feedback significantly improved palpation performance by reducing the task completion time, the pressure exerted on the heart model, and the subject's absolute error in detecting the orientation of the embedded plastic stick. Vibration feedback significantly improved palpation performance only for the seven subjects who dragged the BioTac across the model, rather than pressing straight into it.

  12. The development of a haptic virtual reality environment to study body image and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Bouchard, Stephane; Chebbi, Brahim; Wei, Lai; Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Boulanger, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary study testing the effect of participants' mood rating on visual motor performance using a haptic device to manipulate a cartoonish human body. Our results suggest that moods involving high arousal (e.g. happiness) produce larger movements whereas mood involving low arousal (e.g. sadness) produce slower speed of performance. Our results are used for the development of a new haptic virtual reality application that we briefly present here. This application is intended to create a more interactive and motivational environment to treat body image issues and for emotional communication.

  13. Application of current guidelines for chest compression depth on different surfaces and using feedback devices: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, P; Krage, R; Lagerburg, V; Van Groeningen, D; Loer, S A; Schwarte, L A

    2014-04-01

    Current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-guidelines recommend an increased chest compression depth and rate compared to previous guidelines, and the use of automatic feedback devices is encouraged. However, it is unclear whether this compression depth can be maintained at an increased frequency. Moreover, the underlying surface may influence accuracy of feedback devices. We investigated compression depths over time and evaluated the accuracy of a feedback device on different surfaces. Twenty-four volunteers performed four two-minute blocks of CPR targeting at current guideline recommendations on different surfaces (floor, mattress, 2 backboards) on a patient simulator. Participants rested for 2 minutes between blocks. Influences of time and different surfaces on chest compression depth (ANOVA, mean [95% CI]) and accuracy of a feedback device to determine compression depth (Bland-Altman) were assessed. Mean compression depth did not reach recommended depth and decreased over time during all blocks (first block: from 42 mm [39-46 mm] to 39 mm [37-42 mm]). A two-minute resting period was insufficient to restore compression depth to baseline. No differences in compression depth were observed on different surfaces. The feedback device slightly underestimated compression depth on the floor (bias -3.9 mm), but markedly overestimated on the mattress (bias +12.6 mm). This overestimation was eliminated after correcting compression depth by a second sensor between manikin and mattress. Strategies are needed to improve chest compression depth, and more than two providers should alternate with chest compressions. The underlying surface does not necessarily adversely affect CPR performance but influences accuracy of feedback devices. Accuracy is improved by a second, posterior, sensor.

  14. Design of a New 4-DOF Haptic Master Featuring Magnetorheological Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Keun Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel 4-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF haptic master using magnetorheological (MR fluid which is applicable to a robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS system. By using MR fluid, the proposed haptic device can easily generate bidirectional repulsive torque along the directions of the required motions. The proposed master consists of two actuators: an MR bidirectional clutch associated with a planetary gear system and an MR clutch with a bevel gear system. After demonstrating the configuration, the torque models of MR actuators are mathematically derived based on the field-dependent Bingham model. An optimal design that accounts for spatial-limitation and the desired torque constraint is then undertaken. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis is proposed to determine optimal geometric dimensions. Based on the design procedure, MR haptic master with the optimal parameters has been manufactured. In order to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed haptic master, the field-dependent generating repulsive force is measured. In addition, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is empirically implemented to accomplish the desired torque trajectories. It has been shown that the proposed haptic master can track the desired torque trajectory without a significant error.

  15. Torque Measurement of 3-DOF Haptic Master Operated by Controllable Electrorheological Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jong-Seok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a torque measurement method of 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF haptic master featuring controllable electrorheological (ER fluid. In order to reflect the sense of an organ for a surgeon, the ER haptic master which can generate the repulsive torque of an organ is utilized as a remote controller for a surgery robot. Since accurate representation of organ feeling is essential for the success of the robot-assisted surgery, it is indispensable to develop a proper torque measurement method of 3-DOF ER haptic master. After describing the structural configuration of the haptic master, the torque models of ER spherical joint are mathematically derived based on the Bingham model of ER fluid. A new type of haptic device which has pitching, rolling, and yawing motions is then designed and manufactured using a spherical joint mechanism. Subsequently, the field-dependent parameters of the Bingham model are identified and generating repulsive torque according to applied electric field is measured. In addition, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque model, a comparative work between simulated and measured torques is undertaken.

  16. A haptic-robotic platform for upper-limb reaching stroke therapy: Preliminary design and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Paul; Hebert, Debbie; Boger, Jennifer; Lacheray, Hervé; Gardner, Don; Apkarian, Jacob; Mihailidis, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been shown that intense training can significantly improve post-stroke upper-limb functionality. However, opportunities for stroke survivors to practice rehabilitation exercises can be limited because of the finite availability of therapists and equipment. This paper presents a haptic-enabled exercise platform intended to assist therapists and moderate-level stroke survivors perform upper-limb reaching motion therapy. This work extends on existing knowledge by presenting: 1) an anthropometrically-inspired design that maximizes elbow and shoulder range of motions during exercise; 2) an unobtrusive upper body postural sensing system; and 3) a vibratory elbow stimulation device to encourage muscle movement. Methods A multi-disciplinary team of professionals were involved in identifying the rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors incorporating these into a prototype device. The prototype system consisted of an exercise device, postural sensors, and a elbow stimulation to encourage the reaching movement. Eight experienced physical and occupational therapists participated in a pilot study exploring the usability of the prototype. Each therapist attended two sessions of one hour each to test and evaluate the proposed system. Feedback about the device was obtained through an administered questionnaire and combined with quantitative data. Results Seven of the nine questions regarding the haptic exercise device scored higher than 3.0 (somewhat good) out of 4.0 (good). The postural sensors detected 93 of 96 (97%) therapist-simulated abnormal postures and correctly ignored 90 of 96 (94%) of normal postures. The elbow stimulation device had a score lower than 2.5 (neutral) for all aspects that were surveyed, however the therapists felt the rehabilitation system was sufficient for use without the elbow stimulation device. Conclusion All eight therapists felt the exercise platform could be a good tool to use in upper-limb rehabilitation as the prototype was

  17. A haptic-robotic platform for upper-limb reaching stroke therapy: Preliminary design and evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boger Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that intense training can significantly improve post-stroke upper-limb functionality. However, opportunities for stroke survivors to practice rehabilitation exercises can be limited because of the finite availability of therapists and equipment. This paper presents a haptic-enabled exercise platform intended to assist therapists and moderate-level stroke survivors perform upper-limb reaching motion therapy. This work extends on existing knowledge by presenting: 1 an anthropometrically-inspired design that maximizes elbow and shoulder range of motions during exercise; 2 an unobtrusive upper body postural sensing system; and 3 a vibratory elbow stimulation device to encourage muscle movement. Methods A multi-disciplinary team of professionals were involved in identifying the rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors incorporating these into a prototype device. The prototype system consisted of an exercise device, postural sensors, and a elbow stimulation to encourage the reaching movement. Eight experienced physical and occupational therapists participated in a pilot study exploring the usability of the prototype. Each therapist attended two sessions of one hour each to test and evaluate the proposed system. Feedback about the device was obtained through an administered questionnaire and combined with quantitative data. Results Seven of the nine questions regarding the haptic exercise device scored higher than 3.0 (somewhat good out of 4.0 (good. The postural sensors detected 93 of 96 (97% therapist-simulated abnormal postures and correctly ignored 90 of 96 (94% of normal postures. The elbow stimulation device had a score lower than 2.5 (neutral for all aspects that were surveyed, however the therapists felt the rehabilitation system was sufficient for use without the elbow stimulation device. Conclusion All eight therapists felt the exercise platform could be a good tool to use in upper-limb rehabilitation as

  18. A three-axis force sensor for dual finger haptic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Marco; Marcheschi, Simone; Salsedo, Fabio; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2012-10-10

    In this work we present the design process, the characterization and testing of a novel three-axis mechanical force sensor. This sensor is optimized for use in closed-loop force control of haptic devices with three degrees of freedom. In particular the sensor has been conceived for integration with a dual finger haptic interface that aims at simulating forces that occur during grasping and surface exploration. The sensing spring structure has been purposely designed in order to match force and layout specifications for the application. In this paper the design of the sensor is presented, starting from an analytic model that describes the characteristic matrix of the sensor. A procedure for designing an optimal overload protection mechanism is proposed. In the last part of the paper the authors describe the experimental characterization and the integrated test on a haptic hand exoskeleton showing the improvements in the controller performances provided by the inclusion of the force sensor.

  19. A Three-Axis Force Sensor for Dual Finger Haptic Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Salsedo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the design process, the characterization and testing of a novel three-axis mechanical force sensor. This sensor is optimized for use in closed-loop force control of haptic devices with three degrees of freedom. In particular the sensor has been conceived for integration with a dual finger haptic interface that aims at simulating forces that occur during grasping and surface exploration. The sensing spring structure has been purposely designed in order to match force and layout specifications for the application. In this paper the design of the sensor is presented, starting from an analytic model that describes the characteristic matrix of the sensor. A procedure for designing an optimal overload protection mechanism is proposed. In the last part of the paper the authors describe the experimental characterization and the integrated test on a haptic hand exoskeleton showing the improvements in the controller performances provided by the inclusion of the force sensor.

  20. Guideline implementation in clinical practice: use of statistical process control charts as visual feedback devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussein, Fahad A

    2009-01-01

    To use statistical control charts in a series of audits to improve the acceptance and consistant use of guidelines, and reduce the variations in prescription processing in primary health care. A series of audits were done at the main satellite of King Saud Housing Family and Community Medicine Center, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, where three general practitioners and six pharmacists provide outpatient care to about 3000 residents. Audits were carried out every fortnight to calculate the proportion of prescriptions that did not conform to the given guidelines of prescribing and dispensing. Simple random samples of thirty were chosen from a sampling frame of all prescriptions given in the two previous weeks. Thirty six audits were carried out from September 2004 to February 2006. P-charts were constructed around a parametric specification of non-conformities not exceeding 25%. Of the 1081 prescriptions, the most frequent non-conformity was failure to write generic names (35.5%), followed by the failure to record patient's weight (16.4%), pharmacist's name (14.3%), duration of therapy (9.1%), and the use of inappropriate abbreviations (6.0%). Initially, 100% of prescriptions did not conform to the guidelines, but within a period of three months, this came down to 40%. A process of audits in the context of statistical process control is necessary for any improvement in the implementation of guidelines in primary care. Statistical process control charts are an effective means of visual feedback to the care providers.

  1. Integrated nozzle - flapper valve with piezoelectric actuator and isothermal chamber: a feedback linearization multi control device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Jazayeri, Seyed Ali [K. N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farid [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kawashima, Kenji [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagawa, Toshiharu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This paper introduces a new nozzle-flapper valve with isothermal chamber using piezoelectric actuator. It controls the pressure and flow rate simply, effectively and separately. The proposed valve uses isothermal chamber presenting practical isothermal condition due to its large heat transfer interfaces filled by metal wool. The valve uses stacked type piezoelectric actuator with unique advantages. By using this valve, a simple method has been fulfilled to control flow rate or pressure of ideal gases in a pneumatic actuators. Experimental results demonstrated applications of the proposed valve to control either pressure or flow rate in pneumatic circuits. This valve can be also used in the pilot stage valve to actuate the main stage of a much bigger pneumatic valve. Designated structure contains only one pressure sensor installed on the isothermal control chamber, capable of controlling both pressure and flow rate. The desired output mass flow rate of the valve is controlled by the pressure changes during positioning of piezoelectric actuator at proper position. The proposed valve can control steady and unsteady oscillatory flow rate and pressure effectively, using nonlinear control method such as feedback linearization approach. Its effectiveness is demonstrated and validated through simulation and experiments.

  2. A wireless lingual feedback device to reduce overpressures in seated posture: a feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Chenu

    2009-10-01

    .The findings suggest that, in this trial, subjects were able to use a tongue tactile feedback system to reduce buttock overpressure while seated. Further evaluation of this system on paraplegic subjects remains to be done.

  3. A portable thermal imaging device as a feedback system for breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Oshrit A.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Katz, Eyal; Sholomov, Meny; Kelson, Itzhak; Gannot, Israel

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in the Western world. Currently, no imaging technique assesses tumor heat generation and vasculature changes during radiotherapy in viable tumor and as adjuvant therapy. Thermography is a non-ionizing, non-invasive, portable and low-cost imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of thermography in cancer treatment monitoring for feedback purposes. Six stage-IV breast cancer patients with viable breast tumor and 8 patients (9 breasts) who underwent tumor resection were monitored by a thermal camera prior to radiotherapy sessions over several weeks of radiation treatment. The thermal changes over the treated breast were calculated and analyzed for comparison with healthy surrounded breast tissue or contralateral breast. A model of a breast with a tumor was created. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effects of tumor metabolism and breast tissue perfusion on the temperature difference were analyzed. All patients with active tumors exhibited drops in maximal temperature of the tumor during radiation therapy. The patients who underwent radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment exhibited a rise in maximal temperature over the treated breast in correlation with skin erythema during radiation. This difference between the groups was statistically significant (P=0.001). The simulated human breast cancer models analysis showed that tumor aggressiveness reduction causes decrease in the tumor temperature. Inflammation causes vasodilatation and increases tissue perfusion, resulted in an increase in breast tissue temperature. A correlation was demonstrated between the clinical outcome and the simulation. We report a method for monitoring cancer response to radiation therapy, which measures the physiological response along with clinical response. These anticipatory efficacy evaluations of radiotherapy during treatment may further promote changes in treatment regimen

  4. A Wireless Lingual Feedback Device to Reduce Overpressures in Seated Posture: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Olivier; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2009-01-01

    were, the more they were decreased. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that, in this trial, subjects were able to use a tongue tactile feedback system to reduce buttock overpressure while seated. Further evaluation of this system on paraplegic subjects remains to be done. PMID:19888336

  5. New tools for C.A.D. of input devices for tele-operation with force feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The performances of a tele-operation system are related to the master arm's ability to emulate the behavior of the remote environment. Ideally, it allows the operator to control the slave arm in a natural way as if that were an extension of its own body. The criteria to be checked for that are known but contradictory. It is thus necessary to make trade-offs on which there is not consensus. Existing input devices are therefore very varied thus more or less adapted to the tasks considered, which is in general checked a posteriori. In this document, we propose an original approach allowing to dimension the master arm a priori according to the use which one wishes to make. For that, we developed two tools: - the first one makes it possible to establish his specifications by taking account of the transmission of information between the operator and the slave arm. By exploiting their respective limitations, one is assured that the master arm will not limit the performances of the system, - the second one allows to design it (kinematics, size, motorization... ) according to the preceding specifications. For that, we use well-known theoretical tools which however are approached here as design tools. This leads to the definition of new concepts which do not appear in the literature. This approach is used to establish the specifications of a master arm for nuclear and offshore tele-operation then to design two input devices answering these specifications. The first has 3 degrees of freedom with force feedback. Its performances are higher than those of the best existing input devices. The second is a mock-up of a 6 degrees of freedom master arm. It uses a new parallel structure that is redundant in actuation and whose performances are remarkable. (author) [fr

  6. Fiber optical sensor system for shape and haptics for flexible instruments in minimally invasive surgery: overview and status quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Christoph; Pauer, Hendrikje; Woern, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, exible mechatronic instruments promise to improve the overall performance of surgical interventions. However, those instruments require highly developed sensors in order to provide haptic feedback to the surgeon or to enable (semi-)autonomous tasks. Precisely, haptic sensors and a shape sensor are required. In this paper, we present our ber optical sensor system of Fiber Bragg Gratings, which consists of a shape sensor, a kinesthetic sensor and a tactile sensor. The status quo of each of the three sensors is described, as well as the concept to integrate them into one ber optical sensor system.

  7. Human-Centered Design and Evaluation of Haptic Cueing for Teleoperation of Multiple Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyoung Il; Franchi, Antonio; Chuang, Lewis L; Kim, Junsuk; Bulthoff, Heinrich H; Giordano, Paolo Robuffo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of haptic cueing on a human operator's performance in the field of bilateral teleoperation of multiple mobile robots, particularly multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Two aspects of human performance are deemed important in this area, namely, the maneuverability of mobile robots and the perceptual sensitivity of the remote environment. We introduce metrics that allow us to address these aspects in two psychophysical studies, which are reported here. Three fundamental haptic cue types were evaluated. The Force cue conveys information on the proximity of the commanded trajectory to obstacles in the remote environment. The Velocity cue represents the mismatch between the commanded and actual velocities of the UAVs and can implicitly provide a rich amount of information regarding the actual behavior of the UAVs. Finally, the Velocity+Force cue is a linear combination of the two. Our experimental results show that, while maneuverability is best supported by the Force cue feedback, perceptual sensitivity is best served by the Velocity cue feedback. In addition, we show that large gains in the haptic feedbacks do not always guarantee an enhancement in the teleoperator's performance.

  8. Electrotactile Feedback for Handheld Devices with Touch Screen and Simulation of Roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, M E; Merchel, S

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel electrotactile display that can be integrated into current handheld devices with touch screens. In this display, tactile information is presented to the fingertip of the user by transmitting small currents through electrodes. Experiments were conducted to investigate the perception of simulated textures using this electrotactile display technique. One fundamental feature of texture, which is the focus of this study, is roughness. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the relationship between electrotactile stimulation parameters such as current and pulse frequency and the perception of roughness. An increase in the current magnitude resulted in an increase in perceived roughness. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate parameter combinations of electrotactile stimuli can be used to simulate textures. Subjects adjusted the intensity and frequency of the current stimuli until the simulated textures were perceived as being equal to reference textures such as sandpapers of varying grit numbers and grooved woods with varying groove widths. Subjects tended to find an electrotactile stimulus with a high current magnitude and a low pulse frequency more suitable to represent rough surfaces. They tended to find just-perceptible current magnitudes suitable for very smooth surfaces and did not show a preference for any frequency.

  9. The Haptic Bracelets: Learning Multi-Limb Rhythm Skills from Haptic Stimuli While Reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, A.; Holland, S.; Dalgleish, M.; Holland, S.; Wilkie, K.; Mulholland, P.; Seago, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Haptic Bracelets are a system designed to help people learn multi-limbed rhythms (which involve multiple simultaneous rhythmic patterns) while they carry out other tasks. The Haptic Bracelets consist of vibrotactiles attached to each wrist and ankle, together with a computer system to control

  10. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cugini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user’s fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  11. Force sensitive handles and capacitive touch sensor for driving a flexible haptic-based immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-10-09

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user's fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  12. Massage Therapy of the Back Using a Real-Time Haptic-Enhanced Telerehabilitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramírez-Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the usability evaluation of a haptic-enhanced telerehabilitation system for massage therapy of the back using the Vybe haptic gaming pad and the gesture sensor LEAP motion controller. The evaluated system includes features that allow for (i administering online therapy programs, (ii providing self-adjustable and safety treatment of back massages using a virtual environment, and (iii saving and replaying massage sessions according to a patient’s therapy program. The usability evaluation with 25 older adults and 10 specialists suggests that the haptic telerehabilitation system is perceived with high usability and pleasurable user experience, while providing personalized intensity of haptic therapy in a supervised, real-time, and secure way to treat the patient. Moreover, the specialists totally agree that the system design features, such as save and play, and delimiting therapy zones are the most important for back massage therapy, while the features of regulating feedback intensity and providing/receiving a massage remotely are also important. Finally, based on their comments, five design insights aiming at improving the current version of the system were generated.

  13. Improved Haptic Linear Lines for Better Movement Accuracy in Upper Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan De Boeck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Force feedback has proven to be beneficial in the domain of robot-assisted rehabilitation. According to the patients' personal needs, the generated forces may either be used to assist, support, or oppose their movements. In our current research project, we focus onto the upper limb training for MS (multiple sclerosis and CVA (cerebrovascular accident patients, in which a basic building block to implement many rehabilitation exercises was found. This building block is a haptic linear path: a second-order continuous path, defined by a list of points in space. Earlier, different attempts have been investigated to realize haptic linear paths. In order to have a good training quality, it is important that the haptic simulation is continuous up to the second derivative while the patient is enforced to follow the path tightly, even when low or no guiding forces are provided. In this paper, we describe our best solution to these haptic linear paths, discuss the weaknesses found in practice, and propose and validate an improvement.

  14. Haptic Systems for Post-Stroke Rehabilitation: from Virtual Reality to Remote Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Daud, Omar Andres

    2011-01-01

    Haptic devices are becoming a common and significant tool in the perspective of robotic neurorehabilitation for motor learning, particularly in post-stroke patients. As a standard approach, this kind of devices are used in a local environment, where the patient interacts with a virtual environment recreated in the computer's screen. In this sense, a general framework for virtual reality based rehabilitation was developed. All the features of the framework, such as the control loop and the ext...

  15. Soft pneumatic actuator skin with piezoelectric sensors for vibrotactile feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Arun Sonar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest wearable technologies demand more intuitive and sophisticated interfaces for communication, sensing, and feedback closer to the body. Evidently, such interfaces require flexibility and conformity without losing their functionality even on rigid surfaces. Although there has been various research efforts in creating tactile feedback to improve various haptic interfaces and master-slave manipulators, we are yet to see a comprehensive device that can both supply vibratory actuation and tactile sensing. This paper describes a soft pneumatic actuator (SPA based, SPA-skin prototype that allows bidirectional tactile information transfer to facilitate simpler and responsive wearable interface. We describe the design and fabrication of a 1.4 mm-thick vibratory SPA - skin that is integrated with piezoelectric sensors. We examine in detail the mechanical performance compared to the SPA model and the sensitivity of the sensors for the application in vibrotactile feedback. Experimental findings show that this ultra-thin SPA and the unique integration process of the discrete lead zirconate titanate (PZT based piezoelectric sensors achieve high resolution of soft contact sensing as well as accurate control on vibrotactile feedback by closing the control loop.

  16. Proper target depth of an accelerometer-based feedback device during CPR performed on a hospital bed: a randomized simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Oh, Jaehoon; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho; Kim, Wonhee; Chee, Youngjoon; Song, Yeongtak; Ahn, Chiwon; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2015-10-01

    Feedback devices are used to improve chest compression (CC) quality related to survival rates in cardiac arrest. However, several studies have shown that feedback devices are not sufficiently reliable to ensure adequate CC depth on soft surfaces. Here, we determined the proper target depth of feedback (TDF) using an accelerometer during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospital beds. In prospective randomized crossover study, 19 emergency physicians performed CCs for 2 minutes continuously on a manikin in 2 different beds with 3 TDFs (5, 6, and 7 cm). We measured CC depth, the proportion of accurate compression depths, CC rate, the proportion of incomplete chest decompressions, the velocity of CC (CC velocity), the proportion of time spent in CC relative to compression plus decompression (duty cycle), and the time spent in CC (CC time). Mean (SD) CC depths at TDF 5, 6, and 7 were 45.42 (5.79), 52.68 (4.18), and 58.47 (2.48) on one bed and 46.26 (4.49), 53.58 (3.15), and 58.74 (2.10) mm on the other bed (all P.05). The duty cycle differed significantly on only B2. The target depth of the real-time feedback device should be at least 6 cm but should not exceed 7 cm for optimal CC on patients on hospital beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  18. Smartwatch feedback device for high-quality chest compressions by a single rescuer during infant cardiac arrest: a randomized, controlled simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juncheol; Song, Yeongtak; Oh, Jaehoon; Chee, Youngjoon; Ahn, Chiwon; Shin, Hyungoo; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Tae Ho

    2018-02-12

    According to the guidelines, rescuers should provide chest compressions (CC) ∼1.5 inches (40 mm) for infants. Feedback devices could help rescuers perform CC with adequate rates (CCR) and depths (CCD). However, there is no CC feedback device for infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We suggest a smartwatch-based CC feedback application for infant CPR. We created a smartwatch-based CC feedback application. This application provides feedback on CCD and CCR by colour and text for infant CPR. To evaluate the application, 30 participants were divided randomly into two groups on the basis of whether CC was performed with or without the assistance of the smartwatch application. Both groups performed continuous CC-only CPR for 2 min on an infant mannequin placed on a firm table. We collected CC parameters from the mannequin, including the proportion of correct depth, CCR, CCD and the proportion of correct decompression depth. Demographics between the two groups were not significantly different. The median (interquartile range) proportion of correct depth was 99 (97-100) with feedback compared with 83 (58-97) without feedback (P=0.002). The CCR and proportion of correct decompression depth were not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.482 and 0.089). The CCD of the feedback group was significantly deeper than that of the control group [feedback vs. 41.2 (39.8-41.7) mm vs. 38.6 (36.1-39.6) mm; P=0.004]. Rescuers who receive feedback of CC parameters from a smartwatch could perform adequate CC during infant CPR.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  19. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  20. Enhancing emotion recognition in VIPs with haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buimer, Hendrik; Bittner, Marian; Kostelijk, Tjerk; van der Geest, Thea; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Zhao, Yan; Stephanidis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    The rise of smart technologies has created new opportunities to support blind and visually impaired persons (VIPs). One of the biggest problems we identified in our previous research on problems VIPs face during activities of daily life concerned the recognition of persons and their facial

  1. Intuitive control of self-propelled microjets with haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Magdanz, V.; Medina-Sanchez, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Prattichizzo, D.; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Self-propelled microrobots have recently shown promising results in several scenarios at the microscale, such as targeted drug delivery and micromanipulation of cells. However, none of the steering systems available in the literature enable humans to intuitively and effectively control these

  2. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  3. Haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda L; Mier, Hanneke I van

    2006-04-01

    Research has shown that haptic spatial matching at intermanual distances over 60 cm is prone to large systematic errors. The error pattern has been explained by the use of reference frames intermediate between egocentric and allocentric coding. This study investigated haptic performance in near peripersonal space, i.e. at intermanual distances of 60 cm and less. Twelve blindfolded participants (six males and six females) were presented with two turn bars at equal distances from the midsagittal plane, 30 or 60 cm apart. Different orientations (vertical/horizontal or oblique) of the left bar had to be matched by adjusting the right bar to either a mirror symmetric (/ \\) or parallel (/ /) position. The mirror symmetry task can in principle be performed accurately in both an egocentric and an allocentric reference frame, whereas the parallel task requires an allocentric representation. Results showed that parallel matching induced large systematic errors which increased with distance. Overall error was significantly smaller in the mirror task. The task difference also held for the vertical orientation at 60 cm distance, even though this orientation required the same response in both tasks, showing a marked effect of task instruction. In addition, men outperformed women on the parallel task. Finally, contrary to our expectations, systematic errors were found in the mirror task, predominantly at 30 cm distance. Based on these findings, we suggest that haptic performance in near peripersonal space might be dominated by different mechanisms than those which come into play at distances over 60 cm. Moreover, our results indicate that both inter-individual differences and task demands affect task performance in haptic spatial matching. Therefore, we conclude that the study of haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space might reveal important additional constraints for the specification of adequate models of haptic spatial performance.

  4. The dynamic modeling and design improvement of a piezoelectric exciter of a touch screen device for efficient tactile feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Min; Kim, Kwang-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric exciters have been receiving greater attention recently as a vibration source for tactile feedback in devices with touch screens, such as a mobile phones, in place of DC motors due to lower energy consumption and smaller volume. Their insufficient excitation level, however, still remains a problem. In this paper, dynamic modeling and design improvement of a piezoelectric exciter are presented. The excitation performance is defined as the acceleration response at the center of a touch screen per electric power and to be maximized around 250 Hz where the index finger is most sensitive. The piezoelectric exciter consists of a z-shaped metal beam, a piezoelectric layer on the long horizontal segment and an adhesive layer between the short horizontal segment and the touch screen. Assuming that the piezoelectric exciter is attached onto a rigid ground due to its low mechanical impedance compared with that of the touch screen, the piezoelectric exciter is dynamically modeled by applying Hamilton's principle, where the adhesive layer is treated as a distributed stiffness. The touch screen is modeled approximately as a simply supported beam such that it may have the same fundamental natural frequency and bending stiffness as the screen based on measurements. The performance improvement is focused on the change of five geometric parameters of the piezoelectric exciter: length of the long horizontal segment, thickness of the piezoelectric layer, thickness of the elastic metal layer, width of the beams and tip mass. The procedure to improve the performance of the piezoelectric exciter via dynamic modeling is presented together with experimental results on a prototype. Effectiveness of the design modification and limitations in practice are further discussed as well

  5. Touch Is Everywhere: Floor Surfaces as Ambient Haptic Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visell, Y; Law, A; Cooperstock, J R

    2009-01-01

    Floor surfaces are notable for the diverse roles that they play in our negotiation of everyday environments. Haptic communication via floor surfaces could enhance or enable many computer-supported activities that involve movement on foot. In this paper, we discuss potential applications of such interfaces in everyday environments and present a haptically augmented floor component through which several interaction methods are being evaluated. We describe two approaches to the design of structured vibrotactile signals for this device. The first is centered on a musical phrase metaphor, as employed in prior work on tactile display. The second is based upon the synthesis of rhythmic patterns of virtual physical impact transients. We report on an experiment in which participants were able to identify communication units that were constructed from these signals and displayed via a floor interface at well above chance levels. The results support the feasibility of tactile information display via such interfaces and provide further indications as to how to effectively design vibrotactile signals for them.

  6. Design and control of MR haptic master/slave robot system for minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Chang-Ho; Nguyen, Phoung Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-04-01

    In this work, magnetorheological (MR) haptic master and slave robot for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have been designed and tested. The proposed haptic master consists of four actuators; three MR brakes featuring gimbal structure for 3-DOF rotation motion(X, Y and Z axes) and one MR linear actuator for 1-DOF translational motion. The proposed slave robot which is connected with the haptic master has vertically multi- joints, and it consists of four DC servomotors; three for positioning endoscope and one for spinning motion. We added a fixed bar with a ball joint on the base of the slave for the endoscope position at the patient's abdomen to maintain safety. A gimbal structure at the end of the slave robotic arm for the last joint rotates freely with respect to the pivot point of the fixed bar. This master-slave system runs as if a teleoperation system through TCP/IP connection, programmed by LabVIEW. In order to achieve the desired position trajectory, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is designed and implemented. It has been demonstrated that the effective tracking control performances for the desired motion are well achieved and presented in time domain. At last, an experiment in virtual environments is undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the MR haptic master device for MIS system.

  7. Improved haptic interface for colonoscopy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Ahn, Woojin; Lee, Doo Yong; Yi, Sun Young

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an improved haptic interface of the KAIST-Ewha colonoscopy simulator II. The haptic interface enables the distal portion of the colonoscope to be freely bent while guaranteeing enough workspace and reflective forces for colonoscopy simulation. Its force-torque sensor measures profiles of the user. Manipulation of the colonoscope tip is monitored by four deflection sensors, and triggers computation to render accurate graphic images corresponding to the angle knob rotation. Tack switches are attached on the valve-actuation buttons of the colonoscope to simulate air-injection or suction, and the corresponding deformation of the colon.

  8. One-Dimensional Haptic Rendering Using Audio Speaker with Displacement Determined by Inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin Khera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report overall design considerations and preliminary results for a new haptic rendering device based on an audio loudspeaker. Our application models tissue properties during microsurgery. For example, the device could respond to the tip of a tool by simulating a particular tissue, displaying a desired compressibility and viscosity, giving way as the tissue is disrupted, or exhibiting independent motion, such as that caused by pulsations in blood pressure. Although limited to one degree of freedom and with a relatively small range of displacement compared to other available haptic rendering devices, our design exhibits high bandwidth, low friction, low hysteresis, and low mass. These features are consistent with modeling interactions with delicate tissues during microsurgery. In addition, our haptic rendering device is designed to be simple and inexpensive to manufacture, in part through an innovative method of measuring displacement by existing variations in the speaker’s inductance as the voice coil moves over the permanent magnet. Low latency and jitter are achieved by running the real-time simulation models on a dedicated microprocessor, while maintaining bidirectional communication with a standard laptop computer for user controls and data logging.

  9. Haptic Cues for Balance: Use of a Cane Provides Immediate Body Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sozzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haptic cues are important for balance. Knowledge of the temporal features of their effect may be crucial for the design of neural prostheses. Touching a stable surface with a fingertip reduces body sway in standing subjects eyes closed (EC, and removal of haptic cue reinstates a large sway pattern. Changes in sway occur rapidly on changing haptic conditions. Here, we describe the effects and time-course of stabilization produced by a haptic cue derived from a walking cane. We intended to confirm that cane use reduces body sway, to evaluate the effect of vision on stabilization by a cane, and to estimate the delay of the changes in body sway after addition and withdrawal of haptic input. Seventeen healthy young subjects stood in tandem position on a force platform, with eyes closed or open (EO. They gently lowered the cane onto and lifted it from a second force platform. Sixty trials per direction of haptic shift (Touch → NoTouch, T-NT; NoTouch → Touch, NT-T and visual condition (EC-EO were acquired. Traces of Center of foot Pressure (CoP and the force exerted by cane were filtered, rectified, and averaged. The position in space of a reflective marker positioned on the cane tip was also acquired by an optoelectronic device. Cross-correlation (CC analysis was performed between traces of cane tip and CoP displacement. Latencies of changes in CoP oscillation in the frontal plane EC following the T-NT and NT-T haptic shift were statistically estimated. The CoP oscillations were larger in EC than EO under both T and NT (p < 0.001 and larger during NT than T conditions (p < 0.001. Haptic-induced effect under EC (Romberg quotient NT/T ~ 1.2 was less effective than that of vision under NT condition (EC/EO ~ 1.5 (p < 0.001. With EO cane had little effect. Cane displacement lagged CoP displacement under both EC and EO. Latencies to changes in CoP oscillations were longer after addition (NT-T, about 1.6 s than withdrawal (T-NT, about 0.9 s of haptic

  10. Haptic interventions as visual anthropology’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein Høgel, Arine

    2017-01-01

    This vignette arose in the course of a practice-led research project using “haptic interventions” to investigate contemporary consumption of cultural pasts and cultural difference. The vignette presents reworkings of unused and newly digitised archival material shot in the Persian Gulf in the 1950s...

  11. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  12. Testing haptic sensations for spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts\\' perceptions of the equivalent clinical events.

  13. A haptic floor for interaction and diagnostics with goal based tasks during virtual reality supported balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Krpič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance training of patients after stroke is one of the primary tasks of physiotherapy after the hospitalization. It is based on the intensive training, which consists of simple, repetitive, goal-based tasks. The tasks are carried out by physiotherapists, who follow predefined protocols. Introduction of a standing frame and a virtual reality decrease the physical load and number of required physiotherapists. The patients benefit in terms of safety and increased motivation. Additional feedbackhaptic floor can enhance the virtual reality experience, add additional level of difficulty and could be also used for generating postural perturbations. The purpose of this article is to examine whether haptic information can be used to identify specific anomalies in dynamic posturography.Methods: The performance and stability of closed-loop system of the haptic floor were tested using frequency analysis. A postural response normative was set up from data assessed in four healthy individuals who were exposed to unexpected movements of the haptic floor in eight directions. Postural responses of a patient after stroke participating in virtual reality supported balance training, where collisions resulted in floor movements, were assessed and contrasted to the normative.Results: Haptic floor system was stable and controllable up to the frequency of 1.1 Hz, sufficient for the generation of postural perturbations. Responses obtained after perturbations in two major directions for a patient after stroke demonstrated noticeable deviations from the normative.Conclusions: Haptic floor design, together with a standing frame and a virtual reality used for balance training, enables an assessment of directionally specific postural responses. The system was designed to identify postural disorders during balance training and rehabilitation progress outside specialized clinics, e.g. at patient’s home.

  14. An audiovisual feedback device for compression depth, rate and complete chest recoil can improve the CPR performance of lay persons during self-training on a manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Didon, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the scarce data available about the abilities of untrained lay persons to perform hands-only cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a manikin and the improvement of their skills during training with an autonomous CPR feedback device. The study focuses on the following questions: (i) Is there a need for such a CPR training device? (ii) How adequate are the embedded visual feedback and audio guidance for training of lay persons who learn and correct themselves in real time without instructor guidance? (iii) What is the achieved effect of only 3 min of training? This is a prospective study in which 63 lay persons (volunteers) received a debriefing to basic life support and then performed two consecutive 3 min trials of hands-only CPR on a manikin. The pre-training skills of the lay persons were tested in trial 1. The training process with audio guidance and visual feedback from a cardio compression control device (CC-Device) was recorded in trial 2. After initial debriefing for correct chest compressions (CC) with rate 85–115 min −1 , depth 3.8–5.4 cm and complete recoil, in trial 1 the lay persons were able to perform CC without feedback at mean rate 95.9 ± 18.9 min −1 , mean depth 4.13 ± 1.5 cm, with low proportions of 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' at 33%, 43%, 87%, resulting in the scarce proportion of 14% for compressions, which simultaneously fulfill the three quality criteria ('correct all'). In trial 2, the training process by the CC-Device was established by the significant improvement of the CC skills until the 60th second of training, when 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' attained the plateau of the highest quality at 82%, 90%, 96%, respectively, resulting in 73% 'correct all' compressions within 3 min of training. The training was associated with reduced variance of the mean rate 102.4 ± 4

  15. Haptics Application in Dentistry: Is the Time Poised Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of dental education is not only to impart knowledge but also to equip an aspiring clinician with all the para-phernalia to face most clinical situations if not all. What be-comes important here is the requirement that a student be not only observant but also have a precise idea of what a lesion or a surface should feel like under an instrument. No matter how far we have come in terms of pathogenesis and treatment of diseases of the oral cavity, there is still no one good way to teach a student about the tactile sense, be it while de-tecting calculus/caries or placing the incisions or detecting the smoothness of a restoration. Most often than not students learn these by a trial and error method. A not-so-recent development called Haptics may well be the answer to this predicament, at least in the near future. The concept which is extensively in use and indis-pensable in other fields like aviation, telecommunication etc is now making inroads into dentistry. It is essentially software which brings in the idea of giving the feedback response to applied force, be it simple exploration of caries or the fine pressure applied in placing an incision or an array of other areas/situations in dentistry where fine tactile sense becomes a prerequisite for intelligent diagnoses or cutting edge treatment procedures. The following write-up is an attempt to throw light on this new technology and the impact it may have on pre-clinical teaching in dentistry. The advantages, disadvantages be-tween manikin based dental simulators and haptics based dental simulators are also pre-sented.

  16. Control of an ER haptic master in a virtual slave environment for minimally invasive surgery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the control performance of an electrorheological (ER) fluid-based haptic master device connected to a virtual slave environment that can be used for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An already developed haptic joint featuring controllable ER fluid and a spherical joint mechanism is adopted for the master system. Medical forceps and an angular position measuring device are devised and integrated with the joint to establish the MIS master system. In order to embody a human organ in virtual space, a volumetric deformable object is used. The virtual object is then mathematically formulated by a shape-retaining chain-linked (S-chain) model. After evaluating the reflection force, computation time and compatibility with real-time control, the haptic architecture for MIS is established by incorporating the virtual slave with the master device so that the reflection force for the object of the virtual slave and the desired position for the master operator are transferred to each other. In order to achieve the desired force trajectories, a sliding mode controller is formulated and then experimentally realized. Tracking control performances for various force trajectories are evaluated and presented in the time domain

  17. Advanced haptic sensor for measuring human skin conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Okuyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a sensory receptor of the sensor to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of human skin. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight, and we can examine skin condition quickly using these sense. But, its subjectivity and ambiguity make it difficult to quantify skin conditions. Therefore, development of measurement device which can evaluate skin conditions easily and objectively is demanded by dermatologists, cosmetic industries, and so on. In this paper, an advanced haptic sensor system that can measure multiple information of skin condition in various parts of human body is developed. The applications of the sensor system to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of skin are investigated through two experiments.

  18. Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics (DITA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannella, F; Olivieri, E; Caldwell, D G; Scalise, L; Memeo, M

    2013-01-01

    Research on tactile sensitivity has been conducted since the last century and many devices have been proposed to study in detail this sense through experimental tests. The sense of touch is essential in every-day life of human beings, but it can also play a fundamental role for the assessment of some neurological disabilities and pathologies. In fact, the level of tactile perception can provide information on the health state of the nervous system. In this paper, authors propose the design and development of a novel test apparatus, named DITA (Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics), aiming to provide the measurement of the tactile sensitivity trough the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) curve of a subject. The paper reports the solution adopted for the system design and the results obtained on the set of experiments carried out on volunteers

  19. Breath-hold monitoring and visual feedback for radiotherapy using a charge-coupled device camera and a head-mounted display. System development and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the technical aspects of the breath-hold technique with respiratory monitoring and visual feedback and to evaluate the feasibility of this system in healthy volunteers. To monitor respiration, the vertical position of the fiducial marker placed on the patient's abdomen was tracked by a machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera. A monocular head-mounted display was used to provide the patient with visual feedback about the breathing trace. Five healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this study. They held their breath at the end-inspiration and the end-expiration phases. They performed five repetitions of the same type of 15-s breath-holds with and without a head-mounted display, respectively. A standard deviation of five mean positions of the fiducial marker during a 15-s breath-hold in each breath-hold type was used as the reproducibility value of breath-hold. All five volunteers well tolerated the breath-hold maneuver. For the inspiration breath-hold, the standard deviations with and without visual feedback were 1.74 mm and 0.84 mm, respectively (P=0.20). For the expiration breath-hold, the standard deviations with and without visual feedback were 0.63 mm and 0.96 mm, respectively (P=0.025). Our newly developed system might help the patient achieve improved breath-hold reproducibility. (author)

  20. Clinical and optical intraocular performance of rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL plate-haptic design versus C-loop haptic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alió, Jorge L; Plaza-Puche, Ana B; Javaloy, Jaime; Ayala, María José; Vega-Estrada, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    To compare the visual and intraocular optical quality outcomes with different designs of the refractive rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MFIOL) (Lentis Mplus; Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) with or without capsular tension ring (CTR) implantation. One hundred thirty-five consecutive eyes of 78 patients with cataract (ages 36 to 82 years) were divided into three groups: 43 eyes implanted with the C-Loop haptic design without CTR (C-Loop haptic only group); 47 eyes implanted with the C-Loop haptic design with CTR (C-Loop haptic with CTR group); and 45 eyes implanted with the plate-haptic design (plate-haptic group). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, defocus curve, and ocular and intraocular optical quality were evaluated at 3 months postoperatively. Significant differences in the postoperative sphere were found (P = .01), with a more myopic postoperative refraction for the C-Loop haptic only group. No significant differences were detected in photopic and scotopic contrast sensitivity among groups (P ⩾ .05). Significantly better visual acuities were present in the C-Loop haptic with CTR group for the defocus levels of -2.0, -1.5, -1.0, and -0.50 D (P ⩽.03). Statistically significant differences among groups were found in total intraocular root mean square (RMS), high-order intraocular RMS, and intraocular coma-like RMS aberrations (P ⩽.04), with lower values from the plate-haptic group. The plate-haptic design and the C-Loop haptic design with CTR implantation both allow good visual rehabilitation. However, better refractive predictability and intraocular optical quality was obtained with the plate-haptic design without CTR implantation. The plate-haptic design seems to be a better design to support rotational asymmetric MFIOL optics. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Soft Robotic Haptic Interface with Variable Stiffness for Rehabilitation of Neurologically Impaired Hand Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The human hand comprises complex sensorimotor functions that can be impaired by neurological diseases and traumatic injuries. Effective rehabilitation can bring the impaired hand back to a functional state because of the plasticity of the central nervous system to relearn and remodel the lost synapses in the brain. Current rehabilitation therapies focus on strengthening motor skills, such as grasping, employ multiple objects of varying stiffness so that affected persons can experience a wide range of strength training. These devices have limited range of stiffness due to the rigid mechanisms employed in their variable stiffness actuators. This paper presents a novel soft robotic haptic device for neuromuscular rehabilitation of the hand, which is designed to offer adjustable stiffness and can be utilized in both clinical and home settings. The device eliminates the need for multiple objects by employing a pneumatic soft structure made with highly compliant materials that act as the actuator of the haptic interface. It is made with interchangeable sleeves that can be customized to include materials of varying stiffness to increase the upper limit of the stiffness range. The device is fabricated using existing 3D printing technologies, and polymer molding and casting techniques, thus keeping the cost low and throughput high. The haptic interface is linked to either an open-loop system that allows for an increased pressure during usage or closed-loop system that provides pressure regulation in accordance to the stiffness the user specifies. Preliminary evaluation is performed to characterize the effective controllable region of variance in stiffness. It was found that the region of controllable stiffness was between points 3 and 7, where the stiffness appeared to plateau with each increase in pressure. The two control systems are tested to derive relationships between internal pressure, grasping force exertion on the surface, and displacement using

  2. Bilateral intraocular lens subluxation secondary to haptic angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Fernández-Hortelano, Ana; Caire, Josemaría

    2008-04-01

    An 82-year-old man had uneventful phacoemulsification with bilateral implantation of a hydrophilic acrylic, single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) (ACR6D SE, Laboratoires Cornéal). Five years later, simultaneous and bilateral IOL subluxations occurred. In both eyes, the subluxation was situated on the side of one haptic that had moved forward (temporal area in the right eye and superior area in the left eye). In the right eye, the haptic-capsular bag was entrapped by the pupil and produced endothelial damage. A transscleral suture was placed over and under the subluxated haptic through the anterior and posterior capsules to capture the haptic. The haptic was then sutured to the sclera. No postoperative complications developed. We hypothesize that 10-degree angulated and broad haptic junctions can lead to zonular damage and IOL subluxation.

  3. Haptic sense and the politicization of contemporary image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is intended to propose a theoretical approach to the political effects of the sense of touch/haptic in order to understand to what extent the intensification of contemporary haptic experience contributes to create proximity and engagement among individuals overloaded by too much visual information offered by multiple media. At the end, it is mentioned the work of Brazilian artist Rodrigo Braga to exemplify the contemporary political use of haptic sense.

  4. Control of repulsive force in a virtual environment using an electrorheological haptic master for a surgical robot application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control performances of a new type of four-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master that can be used for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). By adopting a controllable electrorheological (ER) fluid, the function of the proposed master is realized as a haptic feedback as well as remote manipulation. In order to verify the efficacy of the proposed master and method, an experiment is conducted with deformable objects featuring human organs. Since the use of real human organs is difficult for control due to high cost and moral hazard, an excellent alternative method, the virtual reality environment, is used for control in this work. In order to embody a human organ in the virtual space, the experiment adopts a volumetric deformable object represented by a shape-retaining chain linked (S-chain) model which has salient properties such as fast and realistic deformation of elastic objects. In haptic architecture for RMIS, the desired torque/force and desired position originating from the object of the virtual slave and operator of the haptic master are transferred to each other. In order to achieve the desired torque/force trajectories, a sliding mode controller (SMC) which is known to be robust to uncertainties is designed and empirically implemented. Tracking control performances for various torque/force trajectories from the virtual slave are evaluated and presented in the time domain. (paper)

  5. Control of repulsive force in a virtual environment using an electrorheological haptic master for a surgical robot application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control performances of a new type of four-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master that can be used for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). By adopting a controllable electrorheological (ER) fluid, the function of the proposed master is realized as a haptic feedback as well as remote manipulation. In order to verify the efficacy of the proposed master and method, an experiment is conducted with deformable objects featuring human organs. Since the use of real human organs is difficult for control due to high cost and moral hazard, an excellent alternative method, the virtual reality environment, is used for control in this work. In order to embody a human organ in the virtual space, the experiment adopts a volumetric deformable object represented by a shape-retaining chain linked (S-chain) model which has salient properties such as fast and realistic deformation of elastic objects. In haptic architecture for RMIS, the desired torque/force and desired position originating from the object of the virtual slave and operator of the haptic master are transferred to each other. In order to achieve the desired torque/force trajectories, a sliding mode controller (SMC) which is known to be robust to uncertainties is designed and empirically implemented. Tracking control performances for various torque/force trajectories from the virtual slave are evaluated and presented in the time domain.

  6. Spatial asymmetry in tactile sensor skin deformation aids perception of edge orientation during haptic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Wong, Ruben D; Hellman, Randall B; Santos, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb amputees rely primarily on visual feedback when using their prostheses to interact with others or objects in their environment. A constant reliance upon visual feedback can be mentally exhausting and does not suffice for many activities when line-of-sight is unavailable. Upper-limb amputees could greatly benefit from the ability to perceive edges, one of the most salient features of 3D shape, through touch alone. We present an approach for estimating edge orientation with respect to an artificial fingertip through haptic exploration using a multimodal tactile sensor on a robot hand. Key parameters from the tactile signals for each of four exploratory procedures were used as inputs to a support vector regression model. Edge orientation angles ranging from -90 to 90 degrees were estimated with an 85-input model having an R (2) of 0.99 and RMS error of 5.08 degrees. Electrode impedance signals provided the most useful inputs by encoding spatially asymmetric skin deformation across the entire fingertip. Interestingly, sensor regions that were not in direct contact with the stimulus provided particularly useful information. Methods described here could pave the way for semi-autonomous capabilities in prosthetic or robotic hands during haptic exploration, especially when visual feedback is unavailable.

  7. Using postural synergies to animate a low-dimensional hand avatar in haptic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatto, Sara; Formaglio, Alessandro; Malvezzi, Monica; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A technique to animate a realistic hand avatar with 20 DoFs based on the biomechanics of the human hand is presented. The animation does not use any sensor glove or advanced tracker with markers. The proposed approach is based on the knowledge of a set of kinematic constraints on the model of the hand, referred to as postural synergies, which allows to represent the hand posture using a number of variables lower than the number of joints of the hand model. This low-dimensional set of parameters is estimated from direct measurement of the motion of thumb and index finger tracked using two haptic devices. A kinematic inversion algorithm has been developed, which takes synergies into account and estimates the kinematic configuration of the whole hand, i.e., also of the fingers whose end tips are not directly tracked by the two haptic devices. The hand skin is deformable and its deformation is computed using a linear vertex blending technique. The proposed synergy-based animation of the hand avatar involves only algebraic computations and is suitable for real-time implementation as required in haptics.

  8. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  9. Relative Contribution of Haptic Technology to Assessment and Training in Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The teaching of implant surgery, as in other medical disciplines, is currently undergoing a particular evolution. Aim of the Study. To assess the usefulness of haptic device, a simulator for learning and training to accomplish basic acts in implant surgery. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 people including 40 third-year dental students without knowledge in implantology (divided into 2 groups: 20 beginners and 20 experiencing a simulator training course and 20 experienced practitioners (experience in implantology >15 implants participated in this study. A basic exercise drill was proposed to the three groups to assess their gestural abilities. Results. The results of the group training with the simulator tended to be significantly close to those of the experienced operators. Conclusion. Haptic simulator brings a real benefit in training for implant surgery. Long-term benefit and more complex exercises should be evaluated.

  10. A Semi-automated Approach to Improve the Efficiency of Medical Imaging Segmentation for Haptic Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pat; Hu, Mengqi; Kannan, Rahul; Krishnaswamy, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    The Sensimmer platform represents our ongoing research on simultaneous haptics and graphics rendering of 3D models. For simulation of medical and surgical procedures using Sensimmer, 3D models must be obtained from medical imaging data, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Image segmentation techniques are used to determine the anatomies of interest from the images. 3D models are obtained from segmentation and their triangle reduction is required for graphics and haptics rendering. This paper focuses on creating 3D models by automating the segmentation of CT images based on the pixel contrast for integrating the interface between Sensimmer and medical imaging devices, using the volumetric approach, Hough transform method, and manual centering method. Hence, automating the process has reduced the segmentation time by 56.35% while maintaining the same accuracy of the output at ±2 voxels.

  11. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, J M; Rosenberg, M A; Farber, M D

    1989-09-01

    Various complications following intraocular lens (IOL) surgery result in explantation of the lenses. Haptic fibrosis may necessitate cutting the IOL haptics prior to removal. In this study we used the neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser to cut polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) haptics in vitro and in rabbit eyes. In vitro we were able to cut 100% of both haptic types successfully (28 PMMA and 30 polypropylene haptics). In rabbit eyes we were able to cut 50% of the PMMA haptics and 43% of the polypropylene haptics. Poly(methyl methacrylate) haptics were easier to cut in vitro and in vivo than polypropylene haptics, requiring fewer shots for transection. Complications of Nd:YAG laser use frequently interfered with haptic transections in rabbit eyes. Haptic transection may be more easily accomplished in human eyes.

  12. Haptic identification of objects and their depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzky, R L; Loomis, J M; Lederman, S J; Wake, H; Fujita, N

    1993-08-01

    Haptic identification of real objects is superior to that of raised two-dimensional (2-D) depictions. Three explanations of real-object superiority were investigated: contribution of material information, contribution of 3-D shape and size, and greater potential for integration across the fingers. In Experiment 1, subjects, while wearing gloves that gently attenuated material information, haptically identified real objects that provided reduced cues to compliance, mass, and part motion. The gloves permitted exploration with free hand movement, a single outstretched finger, or five outstretched fingers. Performance decreased over these three conditions but was superior to identification of pictures of the same objects in all cases, indicating the contribution of 3-D structure and integration across the fingers. Picture performance was also better with five fingers than with one. In Experiment 2, the subjects wore open-fingered gloves, which provided them with material information. Consequently, the effect of type of exploration was substantially reduced but not eliminated. Material compensates somewhat for limited access to object structure but is not the primary basis for haptic object identification.

  13. VIRGY: a virtual reality and force feedback based endoscopic surgery simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, C; Guzzoni, D; Georg, O

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the VIRGY project at the VRAI Group (Virtual Reality and Active Interface), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne, Switzerland). Since 1994, we have been investigating a variety of virtual-reality based methods for simulating laparoscopic surgery procedures. Our goal is to develop an endoscopic surgical training tool which realistically simulates the interactions between one or more surgical instruments and gastrointestinal organs. To support real-time interaction and manipulation between instruments and organs, we have developed several novel graphic simulation techniques. In particular, we are using live video texturing to achieve dynamic effects such as bleeding or vaporization of fatty tissues. Special texture manipulations allows us to generate pulsing objects while minimizing processor load. Additionally, we have created a new surface deformation algorithm which enables real-time deformations under external constraints. Lastly, we have developed a new 3D object definition which allows us to perform operations such as total or partial object cuttings, as well as to selectively render objects with different levels of detail. To provide realistic physical simulation of the forces and torques on surgical instruments encountered during an operation, we have also designed a new haptic device dedicated to endososcopic surgery constraints. We are using special interpolation and extrapolation techniques to integrate our 25 Hz visual simulation with the 300 Hz feedback required for realistic tactile interaction. The fully VIRGY simulator has been tested by surgeons and the quality of both our visual and haptic simulation has been judged sufficient for training basic surgery gestures.

  14. A multimodal interface device for online board games designed for sight-impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporusso, Nicholas; Mkrtchyan, Lusine; Badia, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    Online games between remote opponents playing over computer networks are becoming a common activity of everyday life. However, computer interfaces for board games are usually based on the visual channel. For example, they require players to check their moves on a video display and interact by using pointing devices such as a mouse. Hence, they are not suitable for visually impaired people. The present paper discusses a multipurpose system that allows especially blind and deafblind people playing chess or other board games over a network, therefore reducing their disability barrier. We describe and benchmark a prototype of a special interactive haptic device for online gaming providing a dual tactile feedback. The novel interface of this proposed device is able to guarantee not only a better game experience for everyone but also an improved quality of life for sight-impaired people.

  15. Preliminary Experiment Combining Virtual Reality Haptic Shoes and Audio Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Berrezag, Amir; Dimitrov, Smilen

    2010-01-01

    We describe a system that provides combined auditory and haptic sensations to simulate walking on different grounds. It uses a physical model that drives haptic transducers embedded in sandals and headphones. The model represents walking interactions with solid surfaces that can creak, or be cove...

  16. Structural impact detection with vibro-haptic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwee-Kwon; Park, Gyuhae; Todd, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new sensing paradigm for structural impact detection using vibro-haptic interfaces. The goal of this study is to allow humans to ‘feel’ structural responses (impact, shape changes, and damage) and eventually determine health conditions of a structure. The target applications for this study are aerospace structures, in particular, airplane wings. Both hardware and software components are developed to realize the vibro-haptic-based impact detection system. First, L-shape piezoelectric sensor arrays are deployed to measure the acoustic emission data generated by impacts on a wing. Unique haptic signals are then generated by processing the measured acoustic emission data. These haptic signals are wirelessly transmitted to human arms, and with vibro-haptic interface, human pilots could identify impact location, intensity and possibility of subsequent damage initiation. With the haptic interface, the experimental results demonstrate that human could correctly identify such events, while reducing false indications on structural conditions by capitalizing on human’s classification capability. Several important aspects of this study, including development of haptic interfaces, design of optimal human training strategies, and extension of the haptic capability into structural impact detection are summarized in this paper.

  17. Haptic Glove Technology: Skill Development through Video Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargerhuff, Mary Ellen; Cowan, Heidi; Oliveira, Francisco; Quek, Francis; Fang, Bing

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a recently developed haptic glove system and describes how the participants used a video game that was purposely designed to train them in skills that are needed for the efficient use of the haptic glove. Assessed skills included speed, efficiency, embodied skill, and engagement. The findings and implications for future…

  18. Haptic Routes and digestive destinations in cooking series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jørgensen, Ulla Angkjær

    2010-01-01

    and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery...

  19. Semantic congruence in audio-haptic simulation of footsteps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    of semantic congruence for those audio–haptic pairs of materials which belonged to the same typology. Furthermore, better matching ability was found for the passive case compared to the interactive one, although this may be due to the limits of the technology used for the interactive haptic simulations....

  20. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  1. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Young-Kuk, E-mail: ykim@cnu.ac.kr [Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation.

  2. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Neto, André C.; Wallander, Anders; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation

  3. Modeling and Design of an Electro-Rheological Fluid Based Haptic System for Tele-Operation of Space Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Pfeiffer, Charles; Paljic, Alex; Celestino, James; Lennon, Jamie; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2000-01-01

    For many years, the robotic community sought to develop robots that can eventually operate autonomously and eliminate the need for human operators. However, there is an increasing realization that there are some tasks that human can perform significantly better but, due to associated hazards, distance, physical limitations and other causes, only robot can be employed to perform these tasks. Remotely performing these types of tasks requires operating robots as human surrogates. While current "hand master" haptic systems are able to reproduce the feeling of rigid objects, they present great difficulties in emulating the feeling of remote/virtual stiffness. In addition, they tend to be heavy, cumbersome and usually they only allow limited operator workspace. In this paper a novel haptic interface is presented to enable human-operators to "feel" and intuitively mirror the stiffness/forces at remote/virtual sites enabling control of robots as human-surrogates. This haptic interface is intended to provide human operators intuitive feeling of the stiffness and forces at remote or virtual sites in support of space robots performing dexterous manipulation tasks (such as operating a wrench or a drill). Remote applications are referred to the control of actual robots whereas virtual applications are referred to simulated operations. The developed haptic interface will be applicable to IVA operated robotic EVA tasks to enhance human performance, extend crew capability and assure crew safety. The electrically controlled stiffness is obtained using constrained ElectroRheological Fluids (ERF), which changes its viscosity under electrical stimulation. Forces applied at the robot end-effector due to a compliant environment will be reflected to the user using this ERF device where a change in the system viscosity will occur proportionally to the force to be transmitted. In this paper, we will present the results of our modeling, simulation, and initial testing of such an

  4. Force feedback in a piezoelectric linear actuator for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; De Momi, Elena; Dyagilev, Ilya; Manganelli, Rudy; Formaglio, Alessandro; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Shoham, Moshe; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2011-09-01

    Force feedback in robotic minimally invasive surgery allows the human operator to manipulate tissues as if his/her hands were in contact with the patient organs. A force sensor mounted on the probe raises problems with sterilization of the overall surgical tool. Also, the use of off-axis gauges introduces a moment that increases the friction force on the bearing, which can easily mask off the signal, given the small force to be measured. This work aims at designing and testing two methods for estimating the resistance to the advancement (force) experienced by a standard probe for brain biopsies within a brain-like material. The further goal is to provide a neurosurgeon using a master-slave tele-operated driver with direct feedback on the tissue mechanical characteristics. Two possible sensing methods, in-axis strain gauge force sensor and position-position error (control-based method), were implemented and tested, both aimed at device miniaturization. The analysis carried out was aimed at fulfilment of the psychophysics requirements for force detection and delay tolerance, also taking into account safety, which is directly related to the last two issues. Controller parameters definition is addressed and consideration is given to development of the device with integration of a haptic interface. Results show better performance of the control-based method (RMSE sensors. Force feedback in minimally invasive surgery allows the human operator to manipulate tissues as if his/her hands were in contact with the patient organs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Wide-Area Haptic Guidance: Taking the User by the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Arias, Antonia; Hanebeck, Uwe D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel use of haptic information in extended range telepresence, the wide-area haptic guidance. It consists of force and position signals applied to the user's hand in order to improve safety, accuracy, and speed in some telepresent tasks. Wide-area haptic guidance assists the user in reaching a desired position in a remote environment of arbitrary size without degrading the feeling of presence. Several methods for haptic guidance are analyzed. With active haptic gu...

  6. Virtual Reality Robotic Operation Simulations Using MEMICA Haptic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mavroidis, C.; Bouzit, M.; Dolgin, B.; Harm, D. L.; Kopchok, G. E.; White, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that some tasks can be performed significantly better by humans than robots but, due to associated hazards, distance, etc., only a robot can be employed. Telemedicine is one area where remotely controlled robots can have a major impact by providing urgent care at remote sites. In recent years, remotely controlled robotics has been greatly advanced. The robotic astronaut, "Robonaut," at NASA Johnson Space Center is one such example. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of force and tactile feedback capability the operator must determine the required action using only visual feedback from the remote site, which limits the tasks that Robonaut can perform. There is a great need for dexterous, fast, accurate teleoperated robots with the operator?s ability to "feel" the environment at the robot's field. Recently, we conceived a haptic mechanism called MEMICA (Remote MEchanical MIrroring using Controlled stiffness and Actuators) that can enable the design of high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace system. Our team is developing novel MEMICA gloves and virtual reality models to allow the simulation of telesurgery and other applications. The MEMICA gloves are designed to have a high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace and intuitively mirror the conditions at a virtual site where a robot is simulating the presence of the human operator. The key components of MEMICA are miniature electrically controlled stiffness (ECS) elements and Electrically Controlled Force and Stiffness (ECFS) actuators that are based on the sue of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERF). In this paper the design of the MEMICA system and initial experimental results are presented.

  7. The contribution of cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory modalities in haptic perception of orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Antonio; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Reiner, Miriam; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2011-06-30

    The aim of this study was to understand the integration of cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory modalities in haptic perception of shape orientation. A specific robotic apparatus was employed to simulate the exploration of virtual surfaces by active touch with two fingers, with kinesthetic only, cutaneous only and combined sensory feedback. The cutaneous feedback was capable of displaying the local surface orientation at the contact point, through a small plate indenting the fingerpad at contact. A psychophysics test was conducted with SDT methodology on 6 subjects to assess the discrimination threshold of angle perception between two parallel surfaces, with three sensory modalities and two shape sizes. Results show that the cutaneous sensor modality is not affected by size of shape, but kinesthetic performance is decreasing with smaller size. Cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory cues are integrated according to a Bayesian model, so that the combined sensory stimulation always performs better than single modalities alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Haptic rendering foundations, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scienti

  9. Track 5: safety in engineering, construction, operations, and maintenance. Reactor physics design, validation, and operating experience. 5. A Negative Reactivity Feedback Device for Actinide Burner Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Hejzlar, P.

    2001-01-01

    Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled reactors are of considerable interest because they may be useful for destruction of actinides in a cost-effective manner, particularly cores fueled predominantly with minor actinides, which gain reactivity with burnup. However, they also pose several design challenges: 1. a small (and perhaps even slightly positive) Doppler feedback; 2. small effective delayed neutron yield; 3. a small negative feedback from axial fuel expansion; 4. positive coolant void and temperature coefficients for conventional designs. This has motivated a search for palliative measures, leading to conceptualization of the reactivity feedback device (RFD). The RFD consists of an in-core flask containing helium gas, tungsten wool, and a small reservoir of LBE that communicates with vertical tubes housing neutron absorber floats. The upper part of these guide tubes contains helium gas that is vented into a separate, cooler ex-core helium gas plenum. The principle of operation is as follows: 1. The tungsten wool, hence the helium gas in the in-core plenum, is heated by gammas and loses heat to the walls by convection and conduction (radiation is feeble for monatomic gases and, in any event, intercepted by the tungsten wool). An energy balance determines the gas temperature, hence, pressure, which is 10 atm here. The energy loss rate can be adjusted by using xenon or a gas mixture in place of helium. The tungsten wool mass, which is 1 vol% wool here, can also be increased to increase gamma heating and further retard convection; alternatively, a Dewar flask could be used in place of the additional wool. 2. An increase in core power causes a virtually instantaneous increase in gamma flux, hence, gas heatup: The thermal time constant of the tungsten filaments and their surrounding gas film is ∼40 μs. 3. The increased gas temperature is associated with an increased gas pressure, which forces more liquid metal into the float guide tubes: LBE will rise ∼100 cm

  10. Memory for curvature of objects: haptic touch vs. vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Marks, Lawrence E

    2007-11-01

    The present study examined the role of vision and haptics in memory for stimulus objects that vary along the dimension of curvature. Experiment 1 measured haptic-haptic (T-T) and haptic-visual (T-V) discrimination of curvature in a short-term memory paradigm, using 30-second retention intervals containing five different interpolated tasks. Results showed poorest performance when the interpolated tasks required spatial processing or movement, thereby suggesting that haptic information about shape is encoded in a spatial-motor representation. Experiment 2 compared visual-visual (V-V) and visual-haptic (V-T) short-term memory, again using 30-second delay intervals. The results of the ANOVA failed to show a significant effect of intervening activity. Intra-modal visual performance and cross-modal performance were similar. Comparing the four modality conditions (inter-modal V-T, T-V; intra-modal V-V, T-T, by combining the data of Experiments 1 and 2), in a global analysis, showed a reliable interaction between intervening activity and experiment (modality). Although there appears to be a general tendency for spatial and movement activities to exert the most deleterious effects overall, the patterns are not identical when the initial stimulus is encoded haptically (Experiment 1) and visually (Experiment 2).

  11. Investigation of size effect on film type haptic actuator made with cellulose acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Ki-Baek

    2014-01-01

    The most important factor in haptic interaction with hand-held devices is to develop a thin film type actuator which can be easily inserted into the devices and create vibrotactile signals with wide frequency bandwidth. This paper reports a film type vibrotactile actuator which is tiny enough to be embedded into small hand-held devices. The vibration mechanism and experiment results for the suggested vibrotactile actuator are explained. The aim of the actuator is to convey a vibrotactile force greater than a human’s vibrotactile threshold with broad frequency bandwidth to users. To achieve the requirement, we fabricate a film type vibrotactile actuator with cellulose acetate. When an AC voltage is applied to the actuator, the cellulose acetate film gets charged and then generates vibration. The suggested vibrotactile actuator is fabricated in two sizes: 50 mm × 25 mm and 25 mm × 25 mm. For each size of actuator, three kinds of actuator are fabricated with different pillar materials to support the cellulose acetate films. An experiment for measuring vibrational amplitude is conducted over a wide frequency range of actuation voltage. It is known that the proposed film type actuator is feasible for haptic application in the small hand-held devices. (paper)

  12. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger: a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Good

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP (robotic and laparoscopic, have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc. We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized [E-finger] capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection.Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point.Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = < 0.001. Intra-class correlation (ICC reliability tests showed good reliability (average ICC = 0.851. Sensitivity and specificity for tissue identification was 77% and 70% respectively to a resolution of 6 mm2.This cadaveric study has evaluated the ability of our elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to

  13. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger): a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Daniel W; Khan, Ashfaq; Hammer, Steven; Scanlan, Paul; Shu, Wenmiao; Phipps, Simon; Parson, Simon H; Stewart, Grant D; Reuben, Robert; McNeill, S Alan

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP) (robotic and laparoscopic), have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc). We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized) [E-finger]) capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection. Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point. Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to examine the use of elasticity assessment devices for tissue quality assessment with the aim of giving haptic feedback to surgeons performing complex surgery.

  14. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  15. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  16. Directly Printable Flexible Strain Sensors for Bending and Contact Feedback of Soft Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elgeneidy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully printable sensorized bending actuator that can be calibrated to provide reliable bending feedback and simple contact detection. A soft bending actuator following a pleated morphology, as well as a flexible resistive strain sensor, were directly 3D printed using easily accessible FDM printer hardware with a dual-extrusion tool head. The flexible sensor was directly welded to the bending actuator’s body and systematically tested to characterize and evaluate its response under variable input pressure. A signal conditioning circuit was developed to enhance the quality of the sensory feedback, and flexible conductive threads were used for wiring. The sensorized actuator’s response was then calibrated using a vision system to convert the sensory readings to real bending angle values. The empirical relationship was derived using linear regression and validated at untrained input conditions to evaluate its accuracy. Furthermore, the sensorized actuator was tested in a constrained setup that prevents bending, to evaluate the potential of using the same sensor for simple contact detection by comparing the constrained and free-bending responses at the same input pressures. The results of this work demonstrated how a dual-extrusion FDM printing process can be tuned to directly print highly customizable flexible strain sensors that were able to provide reliable bending feedback and basic contact detection. The addition of such sensing capability to bending actuators enhances their functionality and reliability for applications such as controlled soft grasping, flexible wearables, and haptic devices.

  17. Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a CPR feedback device and refresher simulations (CPR CARES Study): a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Brown, Linda L; Duff, Jonathan P; Davidson, Jennifer; Overly, Frank; Tofil, Nancy M; Peterson, Dawn T; White, Marjorie L; Bhanji, Farhan; Bank, Ilana; Gottesman, Ronald; Adler, Mark; Zhong, John; Grant, Vincent; Grant, David J; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Marohn, Kimberly; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Kessler, David O; Wong, Hubert; Robertson, Nicola; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duval-Arnould, Jordan M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2015-02-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) affects hemodynamics, survival, and neurological outcomes following pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Most health care professionals fail to perform CPR within established American Heart Association guidelines. To determine whether "just-in-time" (JIT) CPR training with visual feedback (VisF) before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA improves the quality of chest compressions (CCs) during simulated CPA. Prospective, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial-design trial with explicit methods (July 1, 2012, to April 15, 2014) at 10 International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research, & Education (INSPIRE) institutions running a standardized simulated CPA scenario, including 324 CPR-certified health care professionals assigned to 3-person resuscitation teams (108 teams). Each team was randomized to 1 of 4 permutations, including JIT training vs no JIT training before CPA and real-time VisF vs no real-time VisF during simulated CPA. The proportion of CCs with depth exceeding 50 mm, the proportion of CPR time with a CC rate of 100 to 120 per minute, and CC fraction (percentage CPR time) during simulated CPA. The quality of CPR was poor in the control group, with 12.7% (95% CI, 5.2%-20.1%) mean depth compliance and 27.1% (95% CI, 14.2%-40.1%) mean rate compliance. JIT training compared with no JIT training improved depth compliance by 19.9% (95% CI, 11.1%-28.7%; P 89.0%) in all groups. Combining both interventions showed the highest compliance with American Heart Association guidelines but was not significantly better than either intervention in isolation. The quality of CPR provided by health care professionals is poor. Using novel and practical technology, JIT training before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA, alone or in combination, improves compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for CPR that are associated with better outcomes. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02075450.

  18. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Dawn Stone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually-guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically-guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  19. Sensorimotor Interactions in the Haptic Perception of Virtual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    the human user. 2 Compared to our understanding of vision and audition , our knowledge of the human haptic perception is very limited. Many basic...modalities such as vision and audition on haptic perception of viscosity or mass, for example. 116 Some preliminary work has already been done in this...string[3]; *posx="x" *forf="f’ *velv="v" * acca ="a" trial[64]; resp[64]; /* random number */ /* trial number */ /* index */ /* array holding stim

  20. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain.

  1. Real-time haptic cutting of high-resolution soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Westermann, Rüdiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We present our systematic efforts in advancing the computational performance of physically accurate soft tissue cutting simulation, which is at the core of surgery simulators in general. We demonstrate a real-time performance of 15 simulation frames per second for haptic soft tissue cutting of a deformable body at an effective resolution of 170,000 finite elements. This is achieved by the following innovative components: (1) a linked octree discretization of the deformable body, which allows for fast and robust topological modifications of the simulation domain, (2) a composite finite element formulation, which thoroughly reduces the number of simulation degrees of freedom and thus enables to carefully balance simulation performance and accuracy, (3) a highly efficient geometric multigrid solver for solving the linear systems of equations arising from implicit time integration, (4) an efficient collision detection algorithm that effectively exploits the composition structure, and (5) a stable haptic rendering algorithm for computing the feedback forces. Considering that our method increases the finite element resolution for physically accurate real-time soft tissue cutting simulation by an order of magnitude, our technique has a high potential to significantly advance the realism of surgery simulators.

  2. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain. (paper)

  3. Virtual haptic system for intuitive planning of bone fixation plate placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kup-Sze Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of pre-contoured fixation plate is a common treatment for bone fracture. Fitting of fixation plates on fractured bone can be preoperatively planned and evaluated in 3D virtual environment using virtual reality technology. However, conventional systems usually employ 2D mouse and virtual trackball as the user interface, which makes the process inconvenient and inefficient. In the paper, a preoperative planning system equipped with 3D haptic user interface is proposed to allow users to manipulate the virtual fixation plate intuitively to determine the optimal position for placement on distal medial tibia. The system provides interactive feedback forces and visual guidance based on the geometric requirements. Creation of 3D models from medical imaging data, collision detection, dynamics simulation and haptic rendering are discussed. The system was evaluated by 22 subjects. Results show that the time to achieve optimal placement using the proposed system was shorter than that by using 2D mouse and virtual trackball, and the satisfaction rating was also higher. The system shows potential to facilitate the process of fitting fixation plates on fractured bones as well as interactive fixation plate design.

  4. Should drivers be operating within an automation-free bandwidth? Evaluating haptic steering support systems with different levels of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M; Abbink, David A; de Winter, Joost C F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare continuous versus bandwidth haptic steering guidance in terms of lane-keeping behavior, aftereffects, and satisfaction. An important human factors question is whether operators should be supported continuously or only when tolerance limits are exceeded. We aimed to clarify this issue for haptic steering guidance by investigating costs and benefits of both approaches in a driving simulator. Thirty-two participants drove five trials, each with a different level of haptic support: no guidance (Manual); guidance outside a 0.5-m bandwidth (Band1); a hysteresis version of Band1, which guided back to the lane center once triggered (Band2); continuous guidance (Cont); and Cont with double feedback gain (ContS). Participants performed a reaction time task while driving. Toward the end of each trial, the guidance was unexpectedly disabled to investigate aftereffects. All four guidance systems prevented large lateral errors (>0.7 m). Cont and especially ContS yielded smaller lateral errors and higher time to line crossing than Manual, Band1, and Band2. Cont and ContS yielded short-lasting aftereffects, whereas Band1 and Band2 did not. Cont yielded higher self-reported satisfaction and faster reaction times than Band1. Continuous and bandwidth guidance both prevent large driver errors. Continuous guidance yields improved performance and satisfaction over bandwidth guidance at the cost of aftereffects and variability in driver torque (indicating human-automation conflicts). The presented results are useful for designers of haptic guidance systems and support critical thinking about the costs and benefits of automation support systems.

  5. Adaptation of a haptic robot in a 3T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; May, Larry; Liu, Thomas T; Poizner, Howard

    2011-10-04

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides excellent functional brain imaging via the BOLD signal with advantages including non-ionizing radiation, millimeter spatial accuracy of anatomical and functional data, and nearly real-time analyses. Haptic robots provide precise measurement and control of position and force of a cursor in a reasonably confined space. Here we combine these two technologies to allow precision experiments involving motor control with haptic/tactile environment interaction such as reaching or grasping. The basic idea is to attach an 8 foot end effecter supported in the center to the robot allowing the subject to use the robot, but shielding it and keeping it out of the most extreme part of the magnetic field from the fMRI machine (Figure 1). The Phantom Premium 3.0, 6DoF, high-force robot (SensAble Technologies, Inc.) is an excellent choice for providing force-feedback in virtual reality experiments, but it is inherently non-MR safe, introduces significant noise to the sensitive fMRI equipment, and its electric motors may be affected by the fMRI's strongly varying magnetic field. We have constructed a table and shielding system that allows the robot to be safely introduced into the fMRI environment and limits both the degradation of the fMRI signal by the electrically noisy motors and the degradation of the electric motor performance by the strongly varying magnetic field of the fMRI. With the shield, the signal to noise ratio (SNR: mean signal/noise standard deviation) of the fMRI goes from a baseline of ~380 to ~330, and ~250 without the shielding. The remaining noise appears to be uncorrelated and does not add artifacts to the fMRI of a test sphere (Figure 2). The long, stiff handle allows placement of the robot out of range of the most strongly varying parts of the magnetic field so there is no significant effect of the fMRI on the robot. The effect of the handle on the robot's kinematics is minimal since it is lightweight (~2

  6. Rehabilitation of activities of daily living in virtual environments with intuitive user interface and force feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Lo, King-Hung; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using a virtual rehabilitation system with intuitive user interface and force feedback to improve the skills in activities of daily living (ADL). A virtual training system equipped with haptic devices was developed for the rehabilitation of three ADL tasks - door unlocking, water pouring and meat cutting. Twenty subjects with upper limb disabilities, supervised by two occupational therapists, received a four-session training using the system. The task completion time and the amount of water poured into a virtual glass were recorded. The performance of the three tasks in reality was assessed before and after the virtual training. Feedback of the participants was collected with questionnaires after the study. The completion time of the virtual tasks decreased during the training (p water successfully poured increased (p = 0.051). The score of the Borg scale of perceived exertion was 1.05 (SD = 1.85; 95% CI =  0.18-1.92) and that of the task specific feedback questionnaire was 31 (SD =  4.85; 95% CI =  28.66-33.34). The feedback of the therapists suggested a positive rehabilitation effect. The participants had positive perception towards the system. The system can potentially be used as a tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches of ADL. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation of activities of daily living can be facilitated using computer-assisted approaches. The existing approaches focus on cognitive training rather than the manual skills. A virtual training system with intuitive user interface and force feedback was designed to improve the learning of the manual skills. The study shows that system could be used as a training tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches.

  7. The Effect of Multimodal Feedback on Perceived Exertion on a VR Exercise Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Andersen, Morten G.; Clemmesen, Mathias M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine if multimodal feedback, from auditory and haptic stimuli, can affect a user’s perceived exertion in a virtual reality setting. A simple virtual environment was created in the style of a desert to minimize the amount of visual distractions; a head mounted display was ...

  8. Development of Remote-Type Haptic Catheter Sensor System using Piezoelectric Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Mineyuki; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Omata, Sadao

    This study describes the development of Remote-Type Haptic Catheter Sensor System which enables the mechanical property evaluation of a blood vessel. This system consists of a feedback circuit and a piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, and is operated based on a phase shift method so that the entire system oscillates at its inherent resonance frequency. Ultrasound reflected by the blood vessel makes a phase shift of the resonance system depending on the acoustic impedance of the reflector. The phase shift is then measured as a change in resonance frequency of the system; therefore, the detection resolution is highly improved. The correlation between the acoustic impedance and the resonance frequency change of the sensor system was demonstrated using silicone rubbers, metals and actual blood vessels from a pig. The performance of the sensor was also examined using vessel shaped phantom model. Finally, the discussion surveys a possibility of the novel sensor system in an application for intra vascular diagnosis.

  9. Visual-Haptic Integration: Cue Weights are Varied Appropriately, to Account for Changes in Haptic Reliability Introduced by Using a Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Takahashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tools such as pliers systematically change the relationship between an object's size and the hand opening required to grasp it. Previous work suggests the brain takes this into account, integrating visual and haptic size information that refers to the same object, independent of the similarity of the ‘raw’ visual and haptic signals (Takahashi et al., VSS 2009. Variations in tool geometry also affect the reliability (precision of haptic size estimates, however, because they alter the change in hand opening caused by a given change in object size. Here, we examine whether the brain appropriately adjusts the weights given to visual and haptic size signals when tool geometry changes. We first estimated each cue's reliability by measuring size-discrimination thresholds in vision-alone and haptics-alone conditions. We varied haptic reliability using tools with different object-size:hand-opening ratios (1:1, 0.7:1, and 1.4:1. We then measured the weights given to vision and haptics with each tool, using a cue-conflict paradigm. The weight given to haptics varied with tool type in a manner that was well predicted by the single-cue reliabilities (MLE model; Ernst and Banks, 2002. This suggests that the process of visual-haptic integration appropriately accounts for variations in haptic reliability introduced by different tool geometries.

  10. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  11. Effect of haptic assistance on learning vehicle reverse parking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Masakazu; Uesugi, Naohisa; Furugori, Satoru; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional visual- and auditory-based assisted driving technologies, haptic modality promises to be more effective and less disturbing assistance to the driver. However, in most previous studies, haptic assistance systems were evaluated from safety and stability viewpoints. Moreover, the effect of haptic assistance on human driving behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In this paper, we introduce an assisted driving method based on haptic assistance for driver training in reverse parking, which is considered as an uncertain factor in conventional assisted driving systems. The proposed system assists the driver by applying a torque on the steering wheel to guide proper and well-timed steering. To design the appropriate assistance method, we conducted a measurement experiment to determine the qualitative reverse parking driver characteristics. Based on the determined characteristics, we propose a haptic assistance calculation method that utilizes the receding horizon control algorithm. For a simulation environment to assess the proposed assistance method, we also developed a scaled car simulator comprising a 1/10 scaled robot car and an omnidirectional camera. We used the scaled car simulator to conduct comparative experiments on subjects, and observed that the driving skills of the assisted subjects were significantly better than those of the control subjects.

  12. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  13. Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, M.; Konstantinova, J.; Xu, G.; He, B.; Aminzadeh, V.; Xie, J.; Wurdemann, H.; Althoefer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by slidin...

  14. Vision holds a greater share in visuo-haptic object recognition than touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    approach of multisensory integration would predict that haptics as the less efficient sense for object recognition gains more from integrating additional visual information than vice versa. To test for asymmetries between vision and touch in visuo-haptic interactions, we measured regional changes in brain...... processed the target object, being more pronounced for haptic than visual targets. This preferential response of visuo-haptic regions indicates a modality-specific asymmetry in crossmodal matching of visual and haptic object features, suggesting a functional primacy of vision over touch in visuo...

  15. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  16. Visual-Haptic Integration: Cue Weights are Varied Appropriately, to Account for Changes in Haptic Reliability Introduced by Using a Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Chie Takahashi; Simon J Watt

    2011-01-01

    Tools such as pliers systematically change the relationship between an object's size and the hand opening required to grasp it. Previous work suggests the brain takes this into account, integrating visual and haptic size information that refers to the same object, independent of the similarity of the ‘raw’ visual and haptic signals (Takahashi et al., VSS 2009). Variations in tool geometry also affect the reliability (precision) of haptic size estimates, however, because they alter the change ...

  17. Communicating Emotion through Haptic Design: A Study Using Physical Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Marie Kjær; Larsen, Anne Cathrine; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how designers may communicate with the users of their products through haptic design. More specifically, how tactile properties of materials evoke emotions such as satisfaction, joy, or disgust. A research through design approach has been followed; mood- and material boards...... and prototypes of four ‘haptically enhanced’ (physical) keys were created. Types of keys selected include home, bicycle, hobby, and basement. An experiment with ten participants was conducted, using word association and a software to elicit product emotions (PrEmo). Results show a mapping between the designer...

  18. Perceptual grouping affects haptic enumeration over the fingers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K.E.; Plaisier, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial arrangement is known to influence enumeration times in vision. In haptic enumeration, it has been shown that dividing the total number of items over the two hands can speed up enumeration. Here we investigated how spatial arrangement of items and non-items presented to the individual fingers

  19. Salient features in 3-D haptic shape perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Myrthe A; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2009-01-01

    Shape is an important cue for recognizing an object by touch. Several features, such as edges, curvature, surface area, and aspect ratio, are associated with 3-D shape. To investigate the saliency of 3-D shape features, we developed a haptic search task. The target and distractor items consisted of

  20. Haptic perception disambiguates visual perception of 3D shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Volcic, Robert; Pont, Sylvia C.; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, Astrid M L

    We studied the influence of haptics on visual perception of three-dimensional shape. Observers were shown pictures of an oblate spheroid in two different orientations. A gauge-figure task was used to measure their perception of the global shape. In the first two sessions only vision was used. The

  1. Haptic virtual reality for skill acquisition in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Gajananan, Kugamoorthy

    2010-01-01

    Haptic virtual reality (VR) has revolutionized the skill acquisition in dentistry. The strength of the haptic VR system is that it can automatically record the outcome and associated kinematic data on how each step of the task is performed, which are not available in the conventional skill training environments. The aim of this study was to assess skill acquisition in endodontics and to identify process and outcome variables for the quantification of proficiency. Twenty novices engaged in the experimental study that involved practicing the access opening task with the haptic VR system. Process (speed, force utilization, and bimanual coordination) and outcome variables were determined for assessing skill performance. These values were compared before and after training. Significant improvements were observed through training in all variables. A unique force used pattern and bimanual coordination were observed in each step of the access opening in the posttraining session. The novices also performed the tasks considerably faster with greater outcome within the first two to three training sessions. The study objectively showed that the novices could learn to perform access opening tasks faster and with more consistency, better bimanual dexterity, and better force utilization. The variables examined showed great promise as objective indicators of proficiency and skill acquisition in haptic VR.

  2. Towards a standard on evaluation of tactile/haptic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, I.; Carter, J.; Kassner, S.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Weber, G.; Elliott, L.; Andrew, I.

    2012-01-01

    Tactile and haptic interaction is becoming increasingly important; ergonomic standards can ensure that systems are designed with sufficient concern for ergonomics and interoperability. ISO (through working group TC159/SC4/WG9) is developing international standards in this subject area, dual-tracked

  3. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, R A; Steinert, R F

    1985-11-01

    Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of polymethylmethacrylate and polypropylene anterior chamber and posterior chamber intraocular lens haptics was studied in terms of ease of transection and physical structure of the cut areas as seen by scanning electron microscopy. A marked difference was discovered, with the polymethylmethacrylate cutting easily along transverse planes, whereas the polypropylene resisted cutting along longitudinal fibers. Clinical guidelines are presented.

  4. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In the FG...

  5. The mere exposure effect in the domain of haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakesch, Martina; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities. We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels (simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of "Need for Touch" data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE. This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.

  6. The mere exposure effect in the domain of haptics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jakesch

    Full Text Available Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities.We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood and two complexity levels (simple and complex to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision. Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of "Need for Touch" data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE.This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis.

  7. The virtual haptic back: A simulation for training in palpatory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eland David C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models and simulations are finding increased roles in medical education. The Virtual Haptic Back (VHB is a virtual reality simulation of the mechanical properties of the human back designed as an aid to teaching clinical palpatory diagnosis. Methods Eighty-nine first year medical students of the Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine carried out six, 15-minute practice sessions with the VHB, plus tests before and after the sessions in order to monitor progress in identifying regions of simulated abnormal tissue compliance. Students palpated with two digits, fingers or thumbs, by placing them in gimbaled thimbles at the ends of PHANToM 3.0® haptic interface arms. The interface simulated the contours and compliance of the back surface by the action of electric motors. The motors limited the compression of the virtual tissues induced by the palpating fingers, by generating counterforces. Users could see the position of their fingers with respect to the back on a video monitor just behind the plane of the haptic back. The abnormal region varied randomly among 12 locations between trials. During the practice sessions student users received immediate feedback following each trial, indicating either a correct choice or the actual location of the abnormality if an incorrect choice had been made. This allowed the user to feel the actual abnormality before going on to the next trial. Changes in accuracy, speed and Weber fraction across practice sessions were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Students improved in accuracy and speed of diagnosis with practice. The smallest difference in simulated tissue compliance users were able to detect improved from 28% (SD = 9.5% to 14% (SD = 4.4% during the practice sessions while average detection time decreased from 39 (SD = 19.8 to 17 (SD = 11.7 seconds. When asked in anonymous evaluation questionnaires if they judged the VHB practice to be helpful to

  8. Designing feedback: multimodality and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart

  9. Encouragement-Induced Real-World Upper Limb Use after Stroke by a Tracking and Feedback Device: A Study Protocol for a Multi-Center, Assessor-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia P. O. Held

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRetraining the paretic upper limb after stroke should be intense and specific to be effective. Hence, the best training is daily life use, which is often limited by motivation and effort. Tracking and feedback technology have the potential to encourage self-administered, context-specific training of upper limb use in the patients’ home environment. The aim of this study is to investigate post-intervention and long-term effects of a wrist-worn activity tracking device providing multimodal feedback on daily arm use in hemiparetic subjects beyond 3 months post-stroke.Methods and analysisA prospective, multi-center, assessor-blinded, Phase 2 randomized controlled trial with a superiority framework. Sixty-two stroke patients will be randomized in two groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio, stratified based on arm paresis severity (Fugl-Meyer Assessment—Upper Extremity subscale <32 and ≥32. The experimental group receives a wrist-worn activity tracking device providing multimodal feedback on daily arm use for 6 weeks. Controls wear an identical device providing no feedback. Sample size: 31 participants per group, based on a difference of 0.75±1.00 points on the Motor Activity Log—14 Item Version, Amount of Use subscale (MAL—14 AOU, 80% power, two-sided alpha of 0.05, and a 10% attrition rate. Outcomes: primary outcome is the change in patient-reported amount of daily life upper limb use (MAL—14 AOU from baseline to post-intervention. Secondary outcomes are change in upper limb motor function, upper limb capacity, global disability, patient-reported quality of daily life upper limb use, and quality of life from baseline to post-intervention and 6-week follow-up, as well as compliance, activity counts, and safety.DiscussionThe results of this study will show the possible efficacy of a wrist-worn tracking and feedback device on patient-reported amount of daily life upper limb use.Ethics and disseminationThe study is approved by

  10. A New Hybrid Viscoelastic Soft Tissue Model based on Meshless Method for Haptic Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yidong; Wu, Dongmei; Yan, Zhiyuan; Du, Zhijiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid soft tissue model that consists of a multilayer structure and many spheres for surgical simulation system based on meshless. To improve accuracy of the model, tension is added to the three-parameter viscoelastic structure that connects the two spheres. By using haptic device, the three-parameter viscoelastic model (TPM) produces accurate deformationand also has better stress-strain, stress relaxation and creep properties. Stress relaxation and creep formulas have been obtained by mathematical formula derivation. Comparing with the experimental results of the real pig liver which were reported by Evren et al. and Amy et al., the curve lines of stress-strain, stress relaxation and creep of TPM are close to the experimental data of the real liver. Simulated results show that TPM has better real-time, stability and accuracy. PMID:24339837

  11. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors: simulation, planning, and contribution of virtual reality and haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Caroline; Soler, Luc; Gangi, Afshin

    2005-08-01

    For radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors, evaluation of vascular architecture, post-RFA necrosis prediction, and the choice of a suitable needle placement strategy using conventional radiological techniques remain difficult. In an attempt to enhance the safety of RFA, a 3D simulator, treatment planning, and training tool, that simulates the insertion of the needle, the necrosis of the treated area, and proposes an optimal needle placement, has been developed. The 3D scenes are automatically reconstructed from enhanced spiral CT scans. The simulator takes into account the cooling effect of local vessels greater than 3 mm in diameter, making necrosis shapes more realistic. Optimal needle positioning can be automatically generated by the software to produce complete destruction of the tumor, with maximum respect of the healthy liver and of all major structures to avoid. We also studied how the use of virtual reality and haptic devices are valuable to make simulation and training realistic and effective.

  12. Different haptic tools reduce trunk velocity in the frontal plane during walking, but haptic anchors have advantages over lightly touching a railing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Isabel; Moraes, Renato; Lanovaz, Joel L; Oates, Alison R

    2017-06-01

    There are different ways to add haptic input during walking which may affect walking balance. This study compared the use of two different haptic tools (rigid railing and haptic anchors) and investigated whether any effects on walking were the result of the added sensory input and/or the posture generated when using those tools. Data from 28 young healthy adults were collected using the Mobility Lab inertial sensor system (APDM, Oregon, USA). Participants walked with and without both haptic tools and while pretending to use both haptic tools (placebo trials), with eyes opened and eyes closed. Using the tools or pretending to use both tools decreased normalized stride velocity (p  .999). These findings highlight a difference in the type of tool used to add haptic input and suggest that changes in balance control strategy resulting from using the railing are based on arm placement, where it is the posture combined with added sensory input that affects balance control strategies with the haptic anchors. These findings provide a strong framework for additional research to be conducted on the effects of haptic input on walking in populations known to have decreased walking balance.

  13. The Impact of Simultaneously Applying Normal Stress and Vibrotactile Stimulation for Feedback of Exteroceptive Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Motamedi, M; Otis, Martin; Duchaine, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Commercially available prosthetic hands do not convey any tactile information, forcing amputees to rely solely on visual attention. A promising solution to this problem is haptics, which could lead to new prostheses in which tactile information is conveyed between the amputee and the artificial limb. However, the haptic feedback must be optimized so that amputees can use it effectively; and although several studies have examined how specific haptic feedback systems can transmit certain types of tactile information, there has not yet been much research on the effects of superposing two or more types of feedback at the same location, which might prove to be more effective than using a single type of feedback alone. This paper investigates how the simultaneous application of two different types of haptic feedback-vibration and normal stress-impacts the human sensory perception of each separate feedback type. These stimuli were applied to glabrous skin on the forearms of 14 participants. Our experiments tested whether participants experienced more accurate sensory perception, compared to vibration or normal stress alone, when vibration was applied at the same time as the normal stress, at either the same location, or at a different location 6 cm away. Results indicate that although participants' perception of the normal stress diminished when vibration was applied at the same location, the same combination improved their perception of the vibration. Apparently, vibration has a negative impact upon the ability to perceive normal stress, whether applied at the same or a different location; whereas the opposite is true for the effect of normal stress upon the perception of vibration.

  14. High-fidelity haptic and visual rendering for patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sonny; Li, Peter; Locketz, Garrett; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2016-12-01

    Medical imaging techniques provide a wealth of information for surgical preparation, but it is still often the case that surgeons are examining three-dimensional pre-operative image data as a series of two-dimensional images. With recent advances in visual computing and interactive technologies, there is much opportunity to provide surgeons an ability to actively manipulate and interpret digital image data in a surgically meaningful way. This article describes the design and initial evaluation of a virtual surgical environment that supports patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery using pre-operative medical image data. Computational methods are presented that enable six degree-of-freedom haptic feedback during manipulation, and that simulate virtual dissection according to the mechanical principles of orthogonal cutting and abrasive wear. A highly efficient direct volume renderer simultaneously provides high-fidelity visual feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy. The resulting virtual surgical environment was assessed by evaluating its ability to replicate findings in the operating room, using pre-operative imaging of the same patient. Correspondences between surgical exposure, anatomical features, and the locations of pathology were readily observed when comparing intra-operative video with the simulation, indicating the predictive ability of the virtual surgical environment.

  15. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  16. End-to-End Flow Control for Visual-Haptic Communication under Bandwidth Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Daisuke; Tian, Dapeng; Yakoh, Takahiro

    This paper proposes an end-to-end flow controller for visual-haptic communication. A visual-haptic communication system transmits non-real-time packets, which contain large-size visual data, and real-time packets, which contain small-size haptic data. When the transmission rate of visual data exceeds the communication bandwidth, the visual-haptic communication system becomes unstable owing to buffer overflow. To solve this problem, an end-to-end flow controller is proposed. This controller determines the optimal transmission rate of visual data on the basis of the traffic conditions, which are estimated by the packets for haptic communication. Experimental results confirm that in the proposed method, a short packet-sending interval and a short delay are achieved under bandwidth change, and thus, high-precision visual-haptic communication is realized.

  17. Haptic Data Processing for Teleoperation Systems: Prediction, Compression and Error Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-young

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores haptic data processing methods for teleoperation systems, including prediction, compression, and error correction. In the proposed haptic data prediction method, unreliable network conditions, such as time-varying delay and packet loss, are detected by a transport layer protocol. Given the information from the transport layer, a Bayesian approach is introduced to predict position and force data in haptic teleoperation systems. Stability of the proposed method within stoch...

  18. The haptic and the visual flash-lag effect and the role of flash characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Drewing

    Full Text Available When a short flash occurs in spatial alignment with a moving object, the moving object is seen ahead the stationary one. Similar to this visual "flash-lag effect" (FLE it has been recently observed for the haptic sense that participants judge a moving hand to be ahead a stationary hand when judged at the moment of a short vibration ("haptic flash" that is applied when the two hands are spatially aligned. We further investigated the haptic FLE. First, we compared participants' performance in two isosensory visual or haptic conditions, in which moving object and flash were presented only in a single modality (visual: sphere and short color change, haptic: hand and vibration, and two bisensory conditions, in which the moving object was presented in both modalities (hand aligned with visible sphere, but the flash was presented only visually or only haptically. The experiment aimed to disentangle contributions of the flash's and the objects' modalities to the FLEs in haptics versus vision. We observed a FLE when the flash was visually displayed, both when the moving object was visual and visuo-haptic. Because the position of a visual flash, but not of an analogue haptic flash, is misjudged relative to a same visuo-haptic moving object, the difference between visual and haptic conditions can be fully attributed to characteristics of the flash. The second experiment confirmed that a haptic FLE can be observed depending on flash characteristics: the FLE increases with decreasing intensity of the flash (slightly modulated by flash duration, which had been previously observed for vision. These findings underline the high relevance of flash characteristics in different senses, and thus fit well with the temporal-sampling framework, where the flash triggers a high-level, supra-modal process of position judgement, the time point of which further depends on the processing time of the flash.

  19. HSP v2: Haptic Signal Processing with Extensions for Physical Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Kontogeorgakopoulos, Alexandros; Berdahl, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The Haptic Signal Processing (HSP) platform aims to enable musicians to easily design and perform with digital haptic musical instruments [1]. In this paper, we present some new objects introduced in version v2 for modeling of musical dynamical systems such as resonators and vibrating strings. To....... To our knowledge, this is the first time that these diverse physical modeling elements have all been made available for a modular, real-time haptics platform....

  20. Validation of the updated ArthroS simulator: face and construct validity of a passive haptic virtual reality simulator with novel performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfjeld Roberts, Patrick; Guyver, Paul; Baldwin, Mathew; Akhtar, Kash; Alvand, Abtin; Price, Andrew J; Rees, Jonathan L

    2017-02-01

    To assess the construct and face validity of ArthroS, a passive haptic VR simulator. A secondary aim was to evaluate the novel performance metrics produced by this simulator. Two groups of 30 participants, each divided into novice, intermediate or expert based on arthroscopic experience, completed three separate tasks on either the knee or shoulder module of the simulator. Performance was recorded using 12 automatically generated performance metrics and video footage of the arthroscopic procedures. The videos were blindly assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Participants completed a survey about the simulator's realism and training utility. This new simulator demonstrated construct validity of its tasks when evaluated against a GRS (p ≤ 0.003 in all cases). Regarding it's automatically generated performance metrics, established outputs such as time taken (p ≤ 0.001) and instrument path length (p ≤ 0.007) also demonstrated good construct validity. However, two-thirds of the proposed 'novel metrics' the simulator reports could not distinguish participants based on arthroscopic experience. Face validity assessment rated the simulator as a realistic and useful tool for trainees, but the passive haptic feedback (a key feature of this simulator) is rated as less realistic. The ArthroS simulator has good task construct validity based on established objective outputs, but some of the novel performance metrics could not distinguish between surgical experience. The passive haptic feedback of the simulator also needs improvement. If simulators could offer automated and validated performance feedback, this would facilitate improvements in the delivery of training by allowing trainees to practise and self-assess.

  1. Force feedback delay affects perception of stiffness but not action, and the effect depends on the hand used but not on the handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Raz; Rubin, Inbar; Nisky, Ilana

    2018-05-16

    Interaction with an object often requires the estimation of its mechanical properties. We examined whether the hand that is used to interact with the object and their handedness affected people's estimation of these properties using stiffness estimation as a test case. We recorded participants' responses on a stiffness discrimination of a virtual elastic force field and the grip force applied on the robotic device during the interaction. In half of the trials, the robotic device delayed the participants' force feedback. Consistent with previous studies, delayed force feedback biased the perceived stiffness of the force field. Interestingly, in both left-handed and right-handed participants, for the delayed force field, there was even less perceived stiffness when participants used their left hand than their right hand. This result supports the idea that haptic processing is affected by laterality in the brain, not by handedness. Consistent with previous studies, participants adjusted their applied grip force according to the correct size and timing of the load force regardless of the hand that was used, the handedness, or the delay. This suggests that in all these conditions, participants were able to form an accurate internal representation of the anticipated trajectory of the load force (size and timing) and that this representation was used for accurate control of grip force independently of the perceptual bias. Thus, these results provide additional evidence for the dissociation between action and perception in the processing of delayed information.

  2. Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Force and Psychomotor Skills in a Novel Virtual Reality-Based Haptic Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M S Raghu; Manivannan, Muniyandi; Manoharan, Govindan; Chandramohan, S M

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercially available virtual reality-based laparoscopic simulators do not effectively evaluate combined psychomotor and force-based laparoscopic skills. Consequently, the lack of training on these critical skills leads to intraoperative errors. To assess the effectiveness of the novel virtual reality-based simulator, this study analyzed the combined psychomotor (i.e., motion or movement) and force skills of residents and expert surgeons. The study also examined the effectiveness of real-time visual force feedback and tool motion during training. Bimanual fundamental (i.e., probing, pulling, sweeping, grasping, and twisting) and complex tasks (i.e., tissue dissection) were evaluated. In both tasks, visual feedback on applied force and tool motion were provided. The skills of the participants while performing the early tasks were assessed with and without visual feedback. Participants performed 5 repetitions of fundamental and complex tasks. Reaction force and instrument acceleration were used as metrics. Surgical Gastroenterology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital; Institute of Surgical Gastroenterology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital. Residents (N = 25; postgraduates and surgeons with 4 and ≤10 years of laparoscopic surgery). Residents applied large forces compared with expert surgeons and performed abrupt tool movements (p < 0.001). However, visual + haptic feedback improved the performance of residents (p < 0.001). In complex tasks, visual + haptic feedback did not influence the applied force of expert surgeons, but influenced their tool motion (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in complex tissue sweeping task, expert surgeons applied more force, but were within the tissue damage limits. In both groups, exertion of large forces and abrupt tool motion were observed during grasping, probing or pulling, and tissue sweeping maneuvers (p < 0.001). Modern day curriculum-based training should evaluate the skills

  3. Short-term plasticity of visuo-haptic object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    , the same stimulation gave rise to relative increases in activation during S2 processing in the right LO, left FG, bilateral IPS, and other regions previously associated with object recognition. Critically, the modality of S2 determined which regions were recruited after rTMS. Relative to sham rTMS, real r......TMS induced increased activations during crossmodal congruent matching in the left FG for haptic S2 and the temporal pole for visual S2. In addition, we found stronger activations for incongruent than congruent matching in the right anterior parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus for crossmodal matching......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided ample evidence for the involvement of the lateral occipital cortex (LO), fusiform gyrus (FG), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visuo-haptic object integration. Here we applied 30 min of sham (non-effective) or real offline 1 Hz...

  4. Listening to white noise counteracts visual and haptic pseudoneglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Vecchi, Tomaso; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Neurologically intact individuals usually show a leftward bias in line bisection, a tendency known as "pseudoneglect", likely reflecting a right-hemisphere dominance in controlling the allocation of spatial attention. Studies in brain-damaged patients with left visuospatial neglect have reported that auditory stimulation may reduce the deficit, both in a spatially dependent and in a spatially independent way. Here we show for the first time that the concurrent binaural presentation of auditory white noise affects healthy individuals' performance in both visual and haptic bisection, reducing their leftward error. We suggest that this effect depends on the noise boosting alertness and restoring the hemispheric activation balance. Our data clearly show that task-irrelevant auditory noise crossmodally affects the allocation of spatial resources in both the haptic and the visual space; future research may clarify whether these effects are specific for the type of auditory stimulation.

  5. The Effect of Trial-by-trial Adaptation on Conflicts in Haptic Shared Control for Free-Air Teleoperation Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, A. W.; Wildenbeest, J. G. W.; Boessenkool, H.; Abbink, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Haptic shared control can improve execution of teleoperation and driving tasks. However, shared control designs may suffer from conflicts between individual human operators and constant haptic assistance when their desired trajectories differ, leading to momentarily increased forces, discomfort or

  6. Proximity: representations of fragile space through hapticity and vision

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Stephen Francis

    2017-01-01

    This research paper investigates the phenomenology of touch and its relationship to my sculptural practice. My studio research has been engaged in site-responsive interventions developed as a series of ephemeral artworks. Core to this is the relationship between vision and touch. My paper charts the evolution of this and how I consider these factors when making art. My process stems from my engagement with the notion of hapticity-how we understand the tactile experience of space and place ...

  7. Development of a new haptic perception instrument: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Leonardo Penteado; Martini, Joyce; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Hand sensory tests do not consider distinct physiological receptors, nor detect normal range variations concerning developmental or pathological changes. We developed an instrument with a set of tests with timing and scoring for assessing haptic perception, which is the interaction between sensory and motor systems, in surfaces exploration, by moving hands. Method Firstly, group meetings were set for test/manual conception and materials testing. The test/manual were sub...

  8. Feedback Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, Amir R.; Wu, Te-Lin; Sun, Lin; Shen, William; Malik, Jitendra; Savarese, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most successful learning models in computer vision are based on learning successive representations followed by a decision layer. This is usually actualized through feedforward multilayer neural networks, e.g. ConvNets, where each layer forms one of such successive representations. However, an alternative that can achieve the same goal is a feedback based approach in which the representation is formed in an iterative manner based on a feedback received from previous iteration's...

  9. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H

    2002-02-01

    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  10. Topographic modelling of haptic properties of tissue products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B-G; Fall, A; Farbrot, A; Bergström, P; Rosen, S

    2014-01-01

    The way a product or material feels when touched, haptics, has been shown to be a property that plays an important role when consumers determine the quality of products For tissue products in constant touch with the skin, ''softness'' becomes a primary quality parameter. In the present work, the relationship between topography and the feeling of the surface has been investigated for commercial tissues with varying degree of texture from the low textured crepe tissue to the highly textured embossed- and air-dried tissue products. A trained sensory panel at was used to grade perceived haptic ''roughness''. The technique used to characterize the topography was Digital light projection (DLP) technique, By the use of multivariate statistics, strong correlations between perceived roughness and topography were found with predictability of above 90 percent even though highly textured products were included. Characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2 topography parameters in combination with non-contacting topography measurement. The best prediction ability was obtained when combining haptic properties with the topography parameters auto-correlation length (Sal), peak material volume (Vmp), core roughness depth (Sk) and the maximum height of the surface (Sz)

  11. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis eHoneine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a subtract or integrate sensory inputs, (b move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa, and (c adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1-2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training

  12. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices

  13. Identification of virtual grounds using virtual reality haptic shoes and sound synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca; Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    We describe a system which simulates in real-time the auditory and haptic sensation of walking on different surfaces. The system is based on physical models, that drive both the haptic and audio synthesizers, and a pair of shoes enhanced with sensors and actuators. In a discrimination experiment,...

  14. Haptic Cues Used for Outdoor Wayfinding by Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here examines which haptic cues individuals with visual impairments use more frequently and determines which of these cues are deemed by these individuals to be the most important for way-finding in urban environments. It also investigates the ways in which these haptic cues are used by individuals with visual…

  15. Haptic shared control improves hot cell remote handling despite controller inaccuracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, J.; Abbink, D. A.; Koning, J. F.; Boessenkool, H.; Wildenbeest, J. G. W.; Heemskerk, C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A promising solution to improve task performance in ITER hot cell remote handling is the use of haptic shared control. Haptic shared control can assist the human operator along a safe and optimal path with continuous guiding forces from an intelligent autonomous controller. Previous research tested

  16. Telerobotic Haptic Exploration in Art Galleries and Museums for Individuals with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hyuk; Ryu, Eun-Seok; Howard, Ayanna M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a haptic telepresence system that enables visually impaired users to explore locations with rich visual observation such as art galleries and museums by using a telepresence robot, a RGB-D sensor (color and depth camera), and a haptic interface. The recent improvement on RGB-D sensors has enabled real-time access to 3D spatial information in the form of point clouds. However, the real-time representation of this data in the form of tangible haptic experience has not been challenged enough, especially in the case of telepresence for individuals with visual impairments. Thus, the proposed system addresses the real-time haptic exploration of remote 3D information through video encoding and real-time 3D haptic rendering of the remote real-world environment. This paper investigates two scenarios in haptic telepresence, i.e., mobile navigation and object exploration in a remote environment. Participants with and without visual impairments participated in our experiments based on the two scenarios, and the system performance was validated. In conclusion, the proposed framework provides a new methodology of haptic telepresence for individuals with visual impairments by providing an enhanced interactive experience where they can remotely access public places (art galleries and museums) with the aid of haptic modality and robotic telepresence.

  17. Differential effects of non-informative vision and visual interference on haptic spatial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volcic, Robert; Van Rheede, Joram J.; Postma, Albert; Kappers, Astrid M L

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-informative vision and visual interference upon haptic spatial processing, which supposedly derives from an interaction between an allocentric and egocentric reference frame. To this end, a haptic parallelity task served as baseline

  18. Immediate Memory for Haptically-Examined Braille Symbols by Blind and Sighted Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Slater E.; And Others

    The paper reports on two experiments in Braille learning which compared blind and sighted subjects on the immediate recall of haptically-examined Braille symbols. In the first study, sighted subjects (N=64) haptically examined each of a set of Braille symbols with their preferred or nonpreferred hand and immediately recalled the symbol by drawing…

  19. Obstacle Crossing Differences Between Blind and Blindfolded Subjects After Haptic Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner-Cordero, A.; Garcia, V.D.; Rodrigues, S.T.; Duysens, J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the ability of blind people to cross obstacles after they have explored haptically their size and position. Long-term absence of vision may affect spatial cognition in the blind while their extensive experience with the use of haptic information for guidance may lead to

  20. Evaluation of a haptics-based virtual reality temporal bone simulator for anatomy and surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun; Liu, Chih-Hsien; Su, Mu-Chun; Yeh, Shih-Ching

    2014-02-01

    Virtual reality simulation training may improve knowledge of anatomy and surgical skills. We evaluated a 3-dimensional, haptic, virtual reality temporal bone simulator for dissection training. The subjects were 7 otolaryngology residents (3 training sessions each) and 7 medical students (1 training session each). The virtual reality temporal bone simulation station included a computer with software that was linked to a force-feedback hand stylus, and the system recorded performance and collisions with vital anatomic structures. Subjects performed virtual reality dissections and completed questionnaires after the training sessions. Residents and students had favorable responses to most questions of the technology acceptance model (TAM) questionnaire. The average TAM scores were above neutral for residents and medical students in all domains, and the average TAM score for residents was significantly higher for the usefulness domain and lower for the playful domain than students. The average satisfaction questionnaire for residents showed that residents had greater overall satisfaction with cadaver temporal bone dissection training than training with the virtual reality simulator or plastic temporal bone. For medical students, the average comprehension score was significantly increased from before to after training for all anatomic structures. Medical students had significantly more collisions with the dura than residents. The residents had similar mean performance scores after the first and third training sessions for all dissection procedures. The virtual reality temporal bone simulator provided satisfactory training for otolaryngology residents and medical students. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Face, content, and construct validity of human placenta as a haptic training tool in neurointerventional surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi; Nicolato, Arthur; Santos, Marcilea; Godinho, Joao Victor; Brito, Rafael; Alvarenga, Alexandre; Martins, Ana Luiza Valle; Prosdocimi, André; Trivelato, Felipe Padovani; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Reis, Augusto Barbosa; Maestro, Rolando Del

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The development of neurointerventional treatments of central nervous system disorders has resulted in the need for adequate training environments for novice interventionalists. Virtual simulators offer anatomical definition but lack adequate tactile feedback. Animal models, which provide more lifelike training, require an appropriate infrastructure base. The authors describe a training model for neurointerventional procedures using the human placenta (HP), which affords haptic training with significantly fewer resource requirements, and discuss its validation. METHODS Twelve HPs were prepared for simulated endovascular procedures. Training exercises performed by interventional neuroradiologists and novice fellows were placental angiography, stent placement, aneurysm coiling, and intravascular liquid embolic agent injection. RESULTS The endovascular training exercises proposed can be easily reproduced in the HP. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed by 6 neurointerventional radiologists and 6 novice fellows in interventional radiology. CONCLUSIONS The use of HP provides an inexpensive training model for the training of neurointerventionalists. Preliminary validation results show that this simulation model has face and content validity and has demonstrated construct validity for the interventions assessed in this study.

  2. The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W

    2016-05-04

    Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct

  3. Virtual-Reality Simulator System for Double Interventional Cardiac Catheterization Using Fractional-Order Vascular Access Tracker and Haptic Force Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes virtual-reality (VR simulator system for double interventional cardiac catheterization (ICC using fractional-order vascular access tracker and haptic force producer. An endoscope or a catheter for diagnosis and surgery of cardiovascular disease has been commonly used in minimally invasive surgery. It needs specific skills and experiences for young surgeons or postgraduate year (PGY students to operate a Berman catheter and a pigtail catheter in the inside of the human body and requires avoiding damaging vessels. To improve the training in inserting catheters, a double-catheter mechanism is designed for the ICC procedures. A fractional-order vascular access tracker is used to trace the senior surgeons’ consoled trajectories and transmit the frictional feedback and visual feedback during the insertion of catheters. Based on the clinical feeling through the aortic arch, vein into the ventricle, or tortuous blood vessels, haptic force producer is used to mock the elasticity of the vessel wall using voice coil motors (VCMs. The VR establishment with surgeons’ consoled vessel trajectories and hand feeling is achieved, and the experimental results show the effectiveness for the double ICC procedures.

  4. Theoretical Investigation by Quantum Mechanics on the Tunnel Diode Effect of Electric Conductive Characteristics and Haptic Sensing in MCF Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Shimada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying our developed intelligent fluid, magnetic compound fluid (MCF, to silicon oil rubber, we have made the MCF rubber highly sensitive to temperature and electric conduction. MCF is useful as the element material in haptic robot sensors and other related devices. In the present paper, we clarified the relationship between the electric current and the voltage under a tensile strain by utilizing the quantum mechanics theory on the multibarrier potential problem. The experimental results could be qualitatively explained by our proposed theory. The electrons can be moved between the solid materials by the tunnel effect. The relation between voltage and electric current is affected by the formation of the clusters, and it is changed by the application of heat. We also clarified experimentally the present MCF rubber useful in haptic sensors. Because the motions of humans and robots are different, the sensing of the rubber is different, depending on the placement. However, as for both motions of human and robot, there is no quantitative difference in the electric resistance among kinetic energy, momentum, and force. The sensing is also different based on the stiffness of the surface to which the sensor is adhered.

  5. Digital modulation and achievable information rates of thru-body haptic communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Natalie; Pierobon, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The ever increasing biocompatibility and pervasive nature of wearable and implantable devices demand novel sustainable solutions to realize their connectivity, which can impact broad application scenarios such as in the defense, biomedicine, and entertainment fields. Where wireless electromagnetic communications are facing challenges such as device miniaturization, energy scarcity, limited range, and possibility of interception, solutions not only inspired but also based on natural communication means might result into valid alternatives. In this paper, a communication paradigm where digital information is propagated through the nervous system is proposed and analyzed on the basis of achievable information rates. In particular, this paradigm is based on an analytical framework where the response of a system based on haptic (tactile) information transmission and ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG)-based reception is modeled and characterized. Computational neuroscience models of the somatosensory signal representation in the brain, coupled with models of the generation and propagation of somatosensory stimulation from skin mechanoreceptors, are employed in this paper to provide a proof-of-concept evaluation of achievable performance in encoding information bits into tactile stimulation, and decoding them from the recorded brain activity. Based on these models, the system is simulated and the resulting data are utilized to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, which is finally used to provide a proof-of-concept validation of the system performance in terms of information rates against bit error probability at the reception.

  6. Haptic perception of object curvature in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Konczak

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The haptic perception of the curvature of an object is essential for adequate object manipulation and critical for our guidance of actions. This study investigated how the ability to perceive the curvature of an object is altered by Parkinson's disease (PD.Eight healthy subjects and 11 patients with mild to moderate PD had to judge, without vision, the curvature of a virtual "box" created by a robotic manipulandum. Their hands were either moved passively along a defined curved path or they actively explored the curved curvature of a virtual wall. The curvature was either concave or convex (bulging to the left or right and was judged in two locations of the hand workspace--a left workspace location, where the curved hand path was associated with curved shoulder and elbow joint paths, and a right workspace location in which these joint paths were nearly linear. After exploring the curvature of the virtual object, subjects had to judge whether the curvature was concave or convex. Based on these data, thresholds for curvature sensitivity were established. The main findings of the study are: First, 9 out 11 PD patients (82% showed elevated thresholds for detecting convex curvatures in at least one test condition. The respective median threshold for the PD group was increased by 343% when compared to the control group. Second, when distal hand paths became less associated with proximal joint paths (right workspace, haptic acuity was reduced substantially in both groups. Third, sensitivity to hand trajectory curvature was not improved during active exploration in either group.Our data demonstrate that PD is associated with a decreased acuity of the haptic sense, which may occur already at an early stage of the disease.

  7. New geometric data structures for collision detection and haptics

    CERN Document Server

    Weller, René

    2013-01-01

    Starting with novel algorithms for optimally updating bounding volume hierarchies of objects undergoing arbitrary deformations, the author presents a new data structure that allows, for the first time, the computation of the penetration volume. The penetration volume is related to the water displacement of the overlapping region, and thus corresponds to a physically motivated and continuous force. The practicability of the approaches used is shown by realizing new applications in the field of robotics and haptics, including a user study that evaluates the influence of the degrees of freedom in

  8. Advanced 3D Human Simulation Components with Thermal/Haptic Feedback and Tissue Deformation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In integrating the following three significant components for its research/research and development (R/R&D) effort, the power of this candidate Phase II project...

  9. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Margolis, Todd; DeFanti, Thomas A.; Dawe, Greg; Prudhomme, Andrew; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Cutchin, Steven

    2011-01-01

    consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user's hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a

  10. Advanced 3D Human Simulation Components with Thermal/Haptic Feedback and Tissue Deformation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In integrating the following three significant components for its research/research and development (R/R&D) effort, the power of this candidate Phase I project...

  11. A Sense of Touch in Laparoscopy : Using Augmented Haptic Feedback to Improve Grasp Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westebring-van der Putten, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopy is Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) that is conducted in the belly alcove and which enables instruments, which enter the body through small incisions, to manipulate tissue. The possible complications arising during laparoscopic surgery are partly caused by improper grasp control on the

  12. Get your virtual hands off me! - Developing threatening IVAs using haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedschalk, L.F.; Bosse, T.; Otte, M.; Verheij, B.; Wiering, M.

    2018-01-01

    Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) become widely used for numerous applications, varying from healthcare decision support to communication training. In several of such applications, it is useful if IVAs have the ability to take a negative stance towards the user, for instance for anti-bullying or

  13. The effect of force feedback delay on stiffness perception and grip force modulation during tool-mediated interaction with elastic force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Raz; Karniel, Amir; Nisky, Ilana

    2015-05-01

    During interaction with objects, we form an internal representation of their mechanical properties. This representation is used for perception and for guiding actions, such as in precision grip, where grip force is modulated with the predicted load forces. In this study, we explored the relationship between grip force adjustment and perception of stiffness during interaction with linear elastic force fields. In a forced-choice paradigm, participants probed pairs of virtual force fields while grasping a force sensor that was attached to a haptic device. For each pair, they were asked which field had higher level of stiffness. In half of the pairs, the force feedback of one of the fields was delayed. Participants underestimated the stiffness of the delayed field relatively to the nondelayed, but their grip force characteristics were similar in both conditions. We analyzed the magnitude of the grip force and the lag between the grip force and the load force in the exploratory probing movements within each trial. Right before answering which force field had higher level of stiffness, both magnitude and lag were similar between delayed and nondelayed force fields. These results suggest that an accurate internal representation of environment stiffness and time delay was used for adjusting the grip force. However, this representation did not help in eliminating the bias in stiffness perception. We argue that during performance of a perceptual task that is based on proprioceptive feedback, separate neural mechanisms are responsible for perception and action-related computations in the brain. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Design and Construction of a Bilateral Haptic System for the Remote Assessment of the Stiffness and Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oscari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of haptic devices in the rehabilitation of impaired limbs has become rather popular, given the proven effectiveness in promoting recovery. In a standard framework, such devices are used in rehabilitation centers, where patients interact with virtual tasks, presented on a screen. To track their sessions, kinematic/dynamic parameters or performance scores are recorded. However, as Internet access is now available at almost every home and in order to reduce the hospitalization time of the patient, the idea of doing rehabilitation at home is gaining wide consent. Medical care programs can be synchronized with the home rehabilitation device; patient data can be sent to the central server that could redirect to the therapist laptop (tele-healthcare. The controversial issue is that the recorded data do not actually represent the clinical conditions of the patients according to the medical assessment scales, forcing them to frequently undergo clinical tests at the hospital. To respond to this demand, we propose the use of a bilateral master/slave haptic system that could allow the clinician, who interacts with the master, to assess remotely and in real time the clinical conditions of the patient that uses the home rehabilitation device as the slave. In this paper, we describe a proof of concept to highlight the main issues of such an application, limited to one degree of freedom, and to the measure of the stiffness and range of motion of the hand.

  15. Rhythmic Haptic Stimuli Improve Short-Term Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shusheng; Wang, Dangxiao; Afzal, Naqash; Zhang, Yuru; Wu, Ruilin

    2016-01-01

    Brainwave entrainment using rhythmic visual and/or auditory stimulation has shown its efficacy in modulating neural activities and cognitive ability. In the presented study, we aim to investigate whether rhythmic haptic stimulation could enhance short-term attention. An experiment with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) increasing protocol was performed in which participants were presented sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulus of 15 Hz on their palm. Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) was performed before and after the stimulating session. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded across the stimulating session and the two attention test sessions. SMR band power manifested a significant increase after stimulation. Results of T.O.V.A. tests indicated an improvement in the attention of participants who had received the stimulation compared to the control group who had not received the stimulation. The D prime score of T.O.V.A. reveals that participants performed better in perceptual sensitivity and sustaining attention level compared to their baseline performance before the stimulating session. These findings highlight the potential value of using haptics-based brainwave entrainment for cognitive training.

  16. Frontoparietal white matter integrity predicts haptic performance in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Borstad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontoparietal white matter supports information transfer between brain areas involved in complex haptic tasks such as somatosensory discrimination. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between microstructural integrity of frontoparietal network white matter and haptic performance in persons with chronic stroke and to compare frontoparietal network integrity in participants with stroke and age matched control participants. Nineteen individuals with stroke and 16 controls participated. Haptic performance was quantified using the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe, an 18-item match-to-sample test of weight and texture discrimination. Three tesla MRI was used to obtain diffusion-weighted and high-resolution anatomical images of the whole brain. Probabilistic tractography was used to define 10 frontoparietal tracts total; Four intrahemispheric tracts measured bilaterally 1 thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex (T–S1, 2 thalamus to primary motor cortex (T–M1, 3 primary to secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 to SII and 4 primary somatosensory cortex to middle frontal gyrus (S1 to MFG and, 2 interhemispheric tracts; S1–S1 and precuneus interhemispheric. A control tract outside the network, the cuneus interhemispheric tract, was also examined. The diffusion metrics fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial (AD and radial diffusivity (RD were quantified for each tract. Diminished FA and elevated MD values are associated with poorer white matter integrity in chronic stroke. Nine of 10 tracts quantified in the frontoparietal network had diminished structural integrity poststroke compared to the controls. The precuneus interhemispheric tract was not significantly different between groups. Principle component analysis across all frontoparietal white matter tract MD values indicated a single factor explained 47% and 57% of the variance in tract mean diffusivity in stroke and control groups respectively

  17. Frontoparietal white matter integrity predicts haptic performance in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, Alexandra L; Choi, Seongjin; Schmalbrock, Petra; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Frontoparietal white matter supports information transfer between brain areas involved in complex haptic tasks such as somatosensory discrimination. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between microstructural integrity of frontoparietal network white matter and haptic performance in persons with chronic stroke and to compare frontoparietal network integrity in participants with stroke and age matched control participants. Nineteen individuals with stroke and 16 controls participated. Haptic performance was quantified using the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe), an 18-item match-to-sample test of weight and texture discrimination. Three tesla MRI was used to obtain diffusion-weighted and high-resolution anatomical images of the whole brain. Probabilistic tractography was used to define 10 frontoparietal tracts total; Four intrahemispheric tracts measured bilaterally 1) thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex (T-S1), 2) thalamus to primary motor cortex (T-M1), 3) primary to secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 to SII) and 4) primary somatosensory cortex to middle frontal gyrus (S1 to MFG) and, 2 interhemispheric tracts; S1-S1 and precuneus interhemispheric. A control tract outside the network, the cuneus interhemispheric tract, was also examined. The diffusion metrics fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were quantified for each tract. Diminished FA and elevated MD values are associated with poorer white matter integrity in chronic stroke. Nine of 10 tracts quantified in the frontoparietal network had diminished structural integrity poststroke compared to the controls. The precuneus interhemispheric tract was not significantly different between groups. Principle component analysis across all frontoparietal white matter tract MD values indicated a single factor explained 47% and 57% of the variance in tract mean diffusivity in stroke and control groups respectively. Age

  18. Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC of the macaque monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ishida

    Full Text Available The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48 of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys' active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45% began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48 of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE and precision grasping (PG execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object.

  19. Electrocautery Devices With Feedback Mode and Teflon-Coated Blades Create Less Surgical Smoke for a Quality Improvement in the Operating Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Tobias; Liodaki, Eirini; Kraemer, Robert; Mailaender, Peter; Brandenburger, Matthias; Hellwig, Veronika; Stang, Felix H

    2015-07-01

    Monopolar electrocautery is a fast and elegant cutting option. However, as it creates surgical smoke containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it may be hazardous to the health of the surgical team. Although new technologies, such as feedback mode (FM) and Teflon-coated blades (TBs), reduce tissue damage, their impact on surgical smoke creation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the plume at its source.The aim of this study was to evaluate if electrocautery FM and TBs create less surgical smoke.Porcine tissue containing skin was cut in a standardized manner using sharp-edged Teflon-coated blades (SETBs), normal-shaped TBs, or stainless steel blades (SSBs). Experiments were performed using FM and pure-cut mode. Surgical smoke was sucked through filters or adsorption tubes. Subsequently, filters were scanned and analyzed using a spectrophotometer. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) was performed to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene as 2 of the most critical PAHs. Temperature changes at the cutting site were measured by an infrared thermometer.In FM, more surgical smoke was created using SSB compared with TBs (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences between FM and pure-cut mode were found for SSB and TB (P < 0.001), but not for SETB (P = 0.911). Photometric analysis revealed differences in the peak heights of the PAH spectrum. In HLPC-UV, the amount of BaP and phenanthrene detected was lower for TB compared with SSB. Tissue temperature variations increased when SSB was used in FM and pure-cut mode. Furthermore, different modes revealed higher temperature variations with the use of SETB (P = 0.004) and TB (P = 0.005) during cutting, but not SSB (P = 0.789).We found that the use of both TBs and FM was associated with reduced amounts of surgical smoke created during cutting. Thus, the surgical team may benefit from the adoption of such new technologies, which could contribute to the primary

  20. Integration of serious games and wearable haptic interfaces for Neuro Rehabilitation of children with movement disorders: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Ilaria; Leonardis, Daniele; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Procopio, Caterina; Crecchi, Alessandra; Bonfiglio, Luca; Frisoli, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of rehabilitation treatments using virtual reality environments. One of the advantages in using this technology is the potential to create positive motivation, by means of engaging environments and tasks shaped in the form of serious games. In this work, we propose a novel Neuro Rehabilitation System for children with movement disorders, that is based on serious games in immersive virtual reality with haptic feedback. The system design aims to enhance involvement and engagement of patients, to provide congruent multi-sensory afferent feedback during motor exercises, and to benefit from the flexibility of virtual reality in adapting exercises to the patient's needs. We present a feasibility study of the method conducted through an experimental rehabilitation session in a group of 4 children with Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Dyspraxia, 4 Typically Developing children and 4 healthy adults. Subjects and patients were able to accomplish the proposed rehabilitation session and average performance of the motor exercises in patients were lower, although comparable, to healthy subjects. Together with positive comments reported by children after the rehabilitation session, results are encouraging for application of the method in a prolonged rehabilitation treatment.

  1. Study on real-time force feedback for a master-slave interventional surgical robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxiang; Wang, Yuan; Xiao, Nan; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2018-04-13

    In robot-assisted catheterization, haptic feedback is important, but is currently lacking. In addition, conventional interventional surgical robotic systems typically employ a master-slave architecture with an open-loop force feedback, which results in inaccurate control. We develop herein a novel real-time master-slave (RTMS) interventional surgical robotic system with a closed-loop force feedback that allows a surgeon to sense the true force during remote operation, provide adequate haptic feedback, and improve control accuracy in robot-assisted catheterization. As part of this system, we also design a unique master control handle that measures the true force felt by a surgeon, providing the basis for the closed-loop control of the entire system. We use theoretical and empirical methods to demonstrate that the proposed RTMS system provides a surgeon (using the master control handle) with a more accurate and realistic force sensation, which subsequently improves the precision of the master-slave manipulation. The experimental results show a substantial increase in the control accuracy of the force feedback and an increase in operational efficiency during surgery.

  2. Haptic, Virtual Interaction and Motor Imagery: Entertainment Tools and Psychophysiological Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitto, Sara; Faggiano, Chiara; Sammarco, Silvia; De Luca, Valerio; De Paolis, Lucio T

    2016-03-18

    In this work, the perception of affordances was analysed in terms of cognitive neuroscience during an interactive experience in a virtual reality environment. In particular, we chose a virtual reality scenario based on the Leap Motion controller: this sensor device captures the movements of the user's hand and fingers, which are reproduced on a computer screen by the proper software applications. For our experiment, we employed a sample of 10 subjects matched by age and sex and chosen among university students. The subjects took part in motor imagery training and immersive affordance condition (a virtual training with Leap Motion and a haptic training with real objects). After each training sessions the subject performed a recognition task, in order to investigate event-related potential (ERP) components. The results revealed significant differences in the attentional components during the Leap Motion training. During Leap Motion session, latencies increased in the occipital lobes, which are entrusted to visual sensory; in contrast, latencies decreased in the frontal lobe, where the brain is mainly activated for attention and action planning.

  3. Haptic, Virtual Interaction and Motor Imagery: Entertainment Tools and Psychophysiological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Invitto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the perception of affordances was analysed in terms of cognitive neuroscience during an interactive experience in a virtual reality environment. In particular, we chose a virtual reality scenario based on the Leap Motion controller: this sensor device captures the movements of the user’s hand and fingers, which are reproduced on a computer screen by the proper software applications. For our experiment, we employed a sample of 10 subjects matched by age and sex and chosen among university students. The subjects took part in motor imagery training and immersive affordance condition (a virtual training with Leap Motion and a haptic training with real objects. After each training sessions the subject performed a recognition task, in order to investigate event-related potential (ERP components. The results revealed significant differences in the attentional components during the Leap Motion training. During Leap Motion session, latencies increased in the occipital lobes, which are entrusted to visual sensory; in contrast, latencies decreased in the frontal lobe, where the brain is mainly activated for attention and action planning.

  4. Haptic, Virtual Interaction and Motor Imagery: Entertainment Tools and Psychophysiological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitto, Sara; Faggiano, Chiara; Sammarco, Silvia; De Luca, Valerio; De Paolis, Lucio T.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the perception of affordances was analysed in terms of cognitive neuroscience during an interactive experience in a virtual reality environment. In particular, we chose a virtual reality scenario based on the Leap Motion controller: this sensor device captures the movements of the user’s hand and fingers, which are reproduced on a computer screen by the proper software applications. For our experiment, we employed a sample of 10 subjects matched by age and sex and chosen among university students. The subjects took part in motor imagery training and immersive affordance condition (a virtual training with Leap Motion and a haptic training with real objects). After each training sessions the subject performed a recognition task, in order to investigate event-related potential (ERP) components. The results revealed significant differences in the attentional components during the Leap Motion training. During Leap Motion session, latencies increased in the occipital lobes, which are entrusted to visual sensory; in contrast, latencies decreased in the frontal lobe, where the brain is mainly activated for attention and action planning. PMID:26999151

  5. Design of a Magnetic Resonance-Safe Haptic Wrist Manipulator for Movement Disorder Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Dyon; Mugge, Winfred; Schouten, Alfred C.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Bour, Lo J.; van der Helm, Frans C. T.; Lammertse, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Tremor, characterized by involuntary and rhythmical movements, is the most common movement disorder. Tremor can have peripheral and central oscillatory components which properly assessed may improve diagnostics. A magnetic resonance (MR)-safe haptic wrist manipulator enables simultaneous measurement

  6. Operator dynamics for stability condition in haptic and teleoperation system: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbing; Zhang, Lei; Kawashima, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Currently, haptic systems ignore the varying impedance of the human hand with its countless configurations and thus cannot recreate the complex haptic interactions. The literature does not reveal a comprehensive survey on the methods proposed and this study is an attempt to bridge this gap. The paper includes an extensive review of human arm impedance modeling and control deployed to address inherent stability and transparency issues in haptic interaction and teleoperation systems. Detailed classification and comparative study of various contributions in human arm modeling are presented and summarized in tables and diagrams. The main challenges in modeling human arm impedance for haptic robotic applications are identified. The possible future research directions are outlined based on the gaps identified in the survey. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The workload implications of haptic displays in multi-display environments such as the cockpit: Dual-task interference of within-sense haptic inputs (tactile/proprioceptive) and between-sense inputs (tactile/proprioceptive/auditory/visual)

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, H

    2007-01-01

    Visual workload demand within the cockpit is reaching saturation, whereas the haptic sense (proprioceptive and tactile sensation) is relatively untapped, despite studies suggesting the benefits of haptic displays. MRT suggests that inputs from haptic displays will not interfere with inputs from visual or auditory displays. MRT is based on the premise that multisensory integration occurs only after unisensory processing. However, recent neuroscientific findings suggest that t...

  8. Use of VR Technology and Passive Haptics for MANPADS Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    reach satisfactory technical performance like latency and frame rate, while generating the sensory stimuli needed for this type of training —visual...release. Distribution is unlimited. USE OF VR TECHNOLOGY AND PASSIVE HAPTICS FOR MANPADS TRAINING SYSTEM by Faisal Rashid September 2017...HAPTICS FOR MANPADS TRAINING SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Faisal Rashid 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval

  9. Command Recognition of Robot with Low Dimension Whole-Body Haptic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshiaki

    The authors have developed “haptic armor”, a whole-body haptic sensor that has an ability to estimate contact position. Although it is developed for safety assurance of robots in human environment, it can also be used as an interface. This paper proposes a command recognition method based on finger trace information. This paper also discusses some technical issues for improving recognition accuracy of this system.

  10. Feasibility Study of Haptic Display for Rotation Tasks of Wrist Work

    OpenAIRE

    曽根, 順治; 岩井, 秀樹; 山田, 勝実; 陳, 軍; 徳山, 喜政; 今野, 晃市; Sone, Junji; Iwai, Hideki; Yamada, Katsumi; Chen, Jun; Tokuyama, Yoshimasa; Konno, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a haptic display for rotational tasks that involve functions of the human wrist. We represent the torque using a motor and a brake. Reference torque curves are obtained by the measuring torque required for each actual task using a torque sensor. The brake represents the stop condition. We have confirmed the effectiveness of the display by comparing the actual tasks with the haptic display experiment.

  11. Cognitive and tactile factors affecting human haptic performance in later life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision and haptics are the key modalities by which humans perceive objects and interact with their environment in a target-oriented manner. Both modalities share higher-order neural resources and the mechanisms required for object exploration. Compared to vision, the understanding of haptic information processing is still rudimentary. Although it is known that haptic performance, similar to many other skills, decreases in old age, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. It is yet to be determined to what extent this decrease is related to the age-related loss of tactile acuity or cognitive capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the haptic performance of 81 older adults by means of a cross-modal object recognition test. Additionally, we assessed the subjects' tactile acuity with an apparatus-based two-point discrimination paradigm, and their cognitive performance by means of the non-verbal Raven-Standard-Progressive matrices test. As expected, there was a significant age-related decline in performance on all 3 tests. With the exception of tactile acuity, this decline was found to be more distinct in female subjects. Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between haptic and cognitive performance for all subjects. Tactile performance, on the contrary, was only significantly correlated with male subjects' haptic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Haptic object recognition is a demanding task in old age, especially when it comes to the exploration of complex, unfamiliar objects. Our data support a disproportionately higher impact of cognition on haptic performance as compared to the impact of tactile acuity. Our findings are in agreement with studies reporting an increase in co-variation between individual sensory performance and general cognitive functioning in old age.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensing device based on a piezoelectric array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Abbi; Masamune, Ken; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Lamperth, Michael; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a widely used medical technique, one of the drawbacks of which is the loss of direct sense of touch during the operation. Palpation is the use of fingertips to explore and make fast assessments of tissue morphology. Although technologies are developed to equip minimally invasive surgery tools with haptic feedback capabilities, the majority focus on tissue stiffness profiling and tool-tissue interaction force measurement. For greatly increased diagnostic capability, a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensor design is proposed, which allows minimally invasive surgery to be performed under image guidance, combining the strong capability of magnetic resonance imaging soft tissue and intuitive palpation. The sensing unit is based on a piezoelectric sensor methodology, which conforms to the stringent mechanical and electrical design requirements imposed by the magnetic resonance environment The sensor mechanical design and the device integration to a 0.2 Tesla open magnetic resonance imaging scanner are described, together with the device's magnetic resonance compatibility testing. Its design limitations and potential future improvements are also discussed. A tactile sensing unit based on a piezoelectric sensor principle is proposed, which is designed for magnetic resonance imaging guided interventions.

  13. HAPTIC LOCATION IN PSEUDOPHAKIC EYES AND NONINFECTIOUS POSTOPERATIVE INFLAMMATION- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Baranwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative noninfectious inflammation after cataract surgery, which can be persistent, remains an undesirable consequence despite many advances in surgical techniques. This ocular inflammation after cataract surgery presents ophthalmologists with a treatment dilemma. The aim of the study was to evaluate and correlate the IOL haptic location and the presence of noninfectious postoperative inflammation in pseudophakic eyes using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective study, 80 eyes of 80 cataract patients underwent SICS with 6 mm optic non-foldable PCIOL implantation. Post surgery, an examination protocol was followed wherein the patients were assessed by slit-lamp examination on day 1, 2, 7, 14 and 30 for flare and cells. A UBM examination was performed on day 30 for locating the IOL haptic position. Finally, the postoperative inflammation was correlated with IOL haptic position. RESULTS The results showed that IOL haptic position outside the capsular bag significantly increased the amount and duration of postoperative inflammation. CONCLUSION Haptic position outside the bag increases the incidence and duration of postoperative inflammation significantly. In patients undergoing SICS, the aim should be a large continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis within the bag implantation of IOL. UBM examination on day 30 after surgery to know position of IOL haptics outside the bag will be helpful in decreasing apprehension of operating surgeon and suggesting prolonged need of steroids in cases having more than expected postoperative inflammation.

  14. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations

  15. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science Fukushima University, 1 Kanayakawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)], E-mail: tei@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shimadakun@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-21

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  16. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  17. [Methods of resolution for haptic assistance during catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, T A; Herrmann, J; Klages, S; Meiss, T; Werthschützky, R

    2005-01-01

    During catheterization navigation within the patient is mainly dependent on a live x-ray image on the screen. Although methods for 3D visualisation and remote navigation of the catheter are discussed and tested still precise positioning is merely the result of intense training and a high skill and level of training of the performing surgeon. This article refers to a system which can be considered as an add-on for existing procedures of catheterization. It compromises of a miniaturised force sensor located at the tip of guide-wires whose prototype is shown here. The measured forces will be presented to the surgeon amplified by an external actuator described in this article. As a result a haptic perception of the forces between the tip of the guide-wire and the vessels walls will be available and enable the surgeon to gain an impression which is comparable to palpation of living vessels from the inside

  18. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  19. A remote instruction system empowered by tightly shared haptic sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi

    2007-09-01

    We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.

  20. Technology-Based Feedback and Its Efficacy in Improving Gait Parameters in Patients with Abnormal Gait: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review synthesized and analyzed clinical findings related to the effectiveness of innovative technological feedback for tackling functional gait recovery. An electronic search of PUBMED, PEDro, WOS, CINAHL, and DIALNET was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016. The main inclusion criteria were: patients with modified or abnormal gait; application of technology-based feedback to deal with functional recovery of gait; any comparison between different kinds of feedback applied by means of technology, or any comparison between technological and non-technological feedback; and randomized controlled trials. Twenty papers were included. The populations were neurological patients (75%, orthopedic and healthy subjects. All participants were adults, bar one. Four studies used exoskeletons, 6 load platforms and 5 pressure sensors. The breakdown of the type of feedback used was as follows: 60% visual, 40% acoustic and 15% haptic. 55% used terminal feedback versus 65% simultaneous feedback. Prescriptive feedback was used in 60% of cases, while 50% used descriptive feedback. 62.5% and 58.33% of the trials showed a significant effect in improving step length and speed, respectively. Efficacy in improving other gait parameters such as balance or range of movement is observed in more than 75% of the studies with significant outcomes. Conclusion: Treatments based on feedback using innovative technology in patients with abnormal gait are mostly effective in improving gait parameters and therefore useful for the functional recovery of patients. The most frequently highlighted types of feedback were immediate visual feedback followed by terminal and immediate acoustic feedback.