WorldWideScience

Sample records for hapten complexes attached

  1. Hapten-directed spontaneous disulfide shuffling: a universal technology for site-directed covalent coupling of payloads to antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengl, Stefan; Hoffmann, Eike; Grote, Michael; Wagner, Cornelia; Mundigl, Olaf; Georges, Guy; Thorey, Irmgard; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Bujotzek, Alexander; Josel, Hans-Peter; Dziadek, Sebastian; Benz, Joerg; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Humanized hapten-binding IgGs were designed with an accessible cysteine close to their binding pockets, for specific covalent payload attachment. Individual analyses of known structures of digoxigenin (Dig)- and fluorescein (Fluo) binding antibodies and a new structure of a biotin (Biot)-binder, revealed a “universal” coupling position (52+2) in proximity to binding pockets but without contributing to hapten interactions. Payloads that carry a free thiol are positioned on the antibody and covalently linked to it via disulfides. Covalent coupling is achieved and driven toward complete (95–100%) payload occupancy by spontaneous redox shuffling between antibody and payload. Attachment at the universal position works with different haptens, antibodies, and payloads. Examples are the haptens Fluo, Dig, and Biot combined with various fluorescent or peptidic payloads. Disulfide-bonded covalent antibody-payload complexes do not dissociate in vitro and in vivo. Coupling requires the designed cysteine and matching payload thiol because payload or antibody without the Cys/thiol are not linked (<5% nonspecific coupling). Hapten-mediated positioning is necessary as hapten-thiol-payload is only coupled to antibodies that bind matching haptens. Covalent complexes are more stable in vivo than noncovalent counterparts because digoxigeninylated or biotinylated fluorescent payloads without disulfide-linkage are cleared more rapidly in mice (approximately 50% reduced 48 hour serum levels) compared with their covalently linked counterparts. The coupling technology is applicable to many haptens and hapten binding antibodies (confirmed by automated analyses of the structures of 140 additional hapten binding antibodies) and can be applied to modulate the pharmacokinetics of small compounds or peptides. It is also suitable to link payloads in a reduction-releasable manner to tumor- or tissue-targeting delivery vehicles.—Dengl, S., Hoffmann, E., Grote, M., Wagner, C., Mundigl, O

  2. Characterization and optimization of heroin hapten-BSA conjugates: method development for the synthesis of reproducible hapten-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Oscar B; Jalah, Rashmi; Rice, Kenner C; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Boutaghou, Mohamed Nazim; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2014-09-01

    A potential new treatment for drug addiction is immunization with vaccines that induce antibodies that can abrogate the addictive effects of the drug of abuse. One of the challenges in the development of a vaccine against drugs of abuse is the availability of an optimum procedure that gives reproducible and high yielding hapten-protein conjugates. In this study, a heroin/morphine surrogate hapten (MorHap) was coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using maleimide-thiol chemistry. MorHap-BSA conjugates with 3, 5, 10, 15, 22, 28, and 34 haptens were obtained using different linker and hapten ratios. Using this optimized procedure, MorHap-BSA conjugates were synthesized with highly reproducible results and in high yields. The number of haptens attached to BSA was compared by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, modified Ellman's test and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Among the three methods, MALDI-TOF MS discriminated subtle differences in hapten density. The effect of hapten density on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performance was evaluated with seven MorHap-BSA conjugates of varying hapten densities, which were used as coating antigens. The highest antibody binding was obtained with MorHap-BSA conjugates containing 3-5 haptens. This is the first report that rigorously analyzes, optimizes and characterizes the conjugation of haptens to proteins that can be used for vaccines against drugs of abuse. The effect of hapten density on the ELISA detection of antibodies against haptens demonstrates the importance of careful characterization of the hapten density by the analytical techniques described.

  3. Complex cooperative networks from evolutionary preferential attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poncela

    Full Text Available In spite of its relevance to the origin of complex networks, the interplay between form and function and its role during network formation remains largely unexplored. While recent studies introduce dynamics by considering rewiring processes of a pre-existent network, we study network growth and formation by proposing an evolutionary preferential attachment model, its main feature being that the capacity of a node to attract new links depends on a dynamical variable governed in turn by the node interactions. As a specific example, we focus on the problem of the emergence of cooperation by analyzing the formation of a social network with interactions given by the Prisoner's Dilemma. The resulting networks show many features of real systems, such as scale-free degree distributions, cooperative behavior and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, results such as the cooperators being located mostly on nodes of intermediate degree are very different from the observations of cooperative behavior on static networks. The evolutionary preferential attachment mechanism points to an evolutionary origin of scale-free networks and may help understand similar feedback problems in the dynamics of complex networks by appropriately choosing the game describing the interaction of nodes.

  4. Haptenation: Chemical Reactivity and Protein Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Chipinda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight chemical (LMW allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed.

  5. From detached to attached buildup complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, B.; Elvebakk, G.; Andreassen, K.

    2008-01-01

    warm- and cool-water carbonate buildups from the Finnmark Platform is controlled by faults and the sea floor morphology at the time of their growth. A fluctuating sea level affected the growth of the carbonate buildups, but they also influenced their own environment by forming lagoons, atoll...... deposition and buildup growth bridged the detached platform with the attached platform. In the Bjarmeland Group (Lower Permian) 0.35-4.8 km wide, 1.5-27 km long and 60-420 m thick cool-water bryozoan-dominated straight, sinuous and continuous carbonate ridges or atoll-like ridges are located on top...

  6. Disturbance of hapten-antibody equilibria by ammonium sulphate solutions. A source of error in antibody affinity determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, I J

    1975-12-01

    The affinity of anti-hapten antibody can be conveniently measured by precipitating immune complexes with ammonium sulphate. The method has, however, not proved very reproducible. Here is described one variable difficult to control in the assay: the ammonium sulphate was found to cause dissociation of ligands from hapten (NIP)--antibody complexes. The reason was the volume increase caused by addition of ammonium sulphate. The study suggested that in the calculation of the free hapten concentration the final volume during precipitation should be used. The precipitate should not be washed when hapten binding capacities are measured.

  7. Antibody-Hapten Recognition at the Surface of Functionalized Liposomes Studied by SPR: Steric Hindrance of Pegylated Phospholipids in Stealth Liposomes Prepared for Targeted Radionuclide Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot. P. Botosoa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted PEGylated liposomes could increase the amount of drugs or radionuclides delivered to tumor cells. They show favorable stability and pharmacokinetics, but steric hindrance of the PEG chains can block the binding of the targeting moiety. Here, specific interactions between an antihapten antibody (clone 734, specific for the DTPA-indium complex and DTPA-indium-tagged liposomes were characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR. Non-PEGylated liposomes fused on CM5 chips whereas PEGylated liposomes did not. By contrast, both PEGylated and non-PEGylated liposomes attached to L1 chips without fusion. SPR binding kinetics showed that, in the absence of PEG, the antibody binds the hapten at the surface of lipid bilayers with the affinity of the soluble hapten. The incorporation of PEGylated lipids hinders antibody binding to extents depending on PEGylated lipid fraction and PEG molecular weight. SPR on immobilized liposomes thus appears as a useful technique to optimize formulations of liposomes for targeted therapy.

  8. A Generalized Preferential Attachment Model for Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yamasaki, K; Fu, D; Buldyrev, S V; Pammolli, F; Riccaboni, M; Stanley, H E; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Matia, Kaushik; Fu, Dongfeng; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Complex systems can be characterized by classes of equivalency of their elements defined according to system specific rules. We propose a generalized preferential attachment model to describe the class size distribution. The model postulates preferential growth of the existing classes and the steady influx of new classes. We investigate how the distribution depends on the initial conditions and changes from a pure exponential form for zero influx of new classes to a power law with an exponential cutoff form when the influx of new classes is substantial. We apply the model to study the growth dynamics of pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Syntheses of haptens and hapten-protein conjugates for insecticide propoxur and cyhalothrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A facile procedure was described for the hapten design of the N-methylcarbamate insecticide propoxur.Two new haptens of propoxur(hapten 1a and hapten 1b) were synthesized by introducing appropriate spacers in the pesticide aromatic moiety of the analyte molecular structure.First,the propoxur reacted with nitric acid to yield the intermediate product.Then hapten 1a was prepared via the reduction of the intermediate product,and hapten 1b was formed by the acylation of hapten 1a with succinic anhydride.In addition,we have also developed a simple method to prepare hapten 2 for the pyrethroid insecticide cyhalothrin,which only requires two steps including the reactions of nitration and reduction.Three haptens were coupled to carrier proteins to prepare the corresponding artificial antigens.The molecular structures of these three haptens were identified by 1H NMR and MS,and those of the artificial antigens were confirmed by UV-vis.

  10. Design and Synthesis of 6α-Corticosteroid Haptens and Their Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The site of attachment of protein carrier to corticosteroids has great influence on the specificity of produced antibody. In order to obtain highly specific and accurate antibodies for bioimmunoassay determination of cortisol, different tether lengths of 6α-corticosteroid haptens and their BSA conjugates were designed and synthesized.

  11. Caged fluorescent haptens reveal the generation of cryptic epitopes in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Carl; Andersson, Sofia I; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Bergström, Jörgen; Bauer, Brigitte; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Ericson, Marica B; Broo, Kerstin S

    2011-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most prevalent form of human immunotoxicity. It is caused by skin exposure to haptens, i.e., protein-reactive, low-molecular-weight chemical compounds, which form hapten-protein complexes (HPCs) in the skin, triggering the immune system. These immunogenic HPCs are elusive. In this study a series of thiol-reactive caged fluorescent haptens, i.e., bromobimanes, were deployed in combination with two-photon fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and proteomics to identify possible hapten targets in proteins in human skin. Key targets found were the basal keratinocytes and the keratins K5 and K14. Particularly, cysteine 54 of K5 was found to be haptenated by the bromobimanes. In addition, elevated levels of anti-keratin antibodies were found in the sera of mice exposed to bromobimanes in vivo. The results indicate a general mechanism in which thiol-reactive haptens generate cryptic epitopes normally concealed from the immune system. In addition, keratinocytes and keratin seem to have an important role in the mechanism behind ACD, which is a subject for further investigations.

  12. The influence of the Complexity of Attachment in Adult & Higher Education Learning

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The attachment theory of John Bowlby has had an enduring impact on our understanding of child development. But these ideas are a neglected and forgotten discourse in the education of adults. In this paper secure and insecure attachments, internal attachment models, and the impact of attachment for adult higher education learning are explored. This paper seeks to contextualise the complexity that attachment experience adds to the teaching/learning mix and suggests how facilitators of education...

  13. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens.

  14. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  15. A New Hapten for Immunoassay of Aldicarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Feng ZHANG; Zhi Xian GAO; Qing Min ZHANG; Shu Gui DAI

    2006-01-01

    A new hapten, aldicarb oxime succinic ester (AOSE), was synthesized for immunoassay of aldicarb. It was conjugated to proteins by active ester method. Polyclonal antibody was raised against AOSE-BSA (bovine serum albumin) conjugate. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that this antiserum had high affinity to aldicarb and can be used for sensitive and selective immunoassay of aldicarb.

  16. Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-Jun; GAO Zi-You; SUN Hui-Jun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics ofthis new network are given.

  17. Complex trauma of war captivity: a prospective study of attachment and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Z; Dekel, R; Mikulincer, M

    2008-10-01

    Victims of war captivity sometimes suffer from complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a unique form of PTSD that entails various alterations in personality. These alterations may involve changes in attachment orientation. The sample comprised two groups of veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War: 103 ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 106 comparable control veterans. They were assessed at two points in time, 18 years and 30 years after the war. Ex-POWs suffered from more post-traumatic symptoms than controls at both measurements points and these symptoms increased only among ex-POWs from Time 1 to Time 2. In addition, both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance increased with time among ex-POWs, whereas they decreased slightly or remained stable among controls. Finally, the increases in attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively associated with the increase in post-traumatic symptoms among both study groups. Further analyses indicated that early PTSD symptoms predicted later attachment better than early attachment predicted later PTSD symptoms. The results suggest that: (1) complex traumas are implicated in attachment orientations and PTSD symptoms even many years after captivity; (2) there is an increase in attachment insecurities (anxiety, avoidance) and an increase in PTSD symptoms decades after the captivity; (3) and post-traumatic stress symptoms predict attachment orientations better than attachment orientations predict an increase in PTSD symptoms.

  18. Mediated attachment as a mechanism for growth of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shekatkar, Snehal M

    2014-01-01

    Connection topologies of many networked systems like human brain, biological cell, world wide web, power grids, human society and ecological food webs markedly deviate from that of completely random networks indicating the presence of organizing principles behind their evolution. The five important features that characterize such networks are scale-free topology, small average path length, high clustering, hierarchical community structure and assortative mixing. Till now the generic mechanisms underlying the existence of these properties are not well understood. Here we show that potentially a single mechanism, which we call "mediated attachment", where two nodes get connected through a mediator or common neighbor, could be responsible for the emergence of all important properties of real networks. The mediated attachment naturally unifies scale-free topology, high clustering, small world nature, hierarchical community structure and dissortative nature of networks. Further, with additional mixing by age, this...

  19. Mepanipyrim haptens and antibodies with nanomolar affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Turrillas, Francesc Albert; Mercader Badia, Josep Vicent; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad Somovilla, Antonio; Abad Fuentes, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Mepanipyrim is an anilinopyrimidine fungicide used worldwide for crop protection. With the aim of developing useful immunoreagents for mepanipyrim immunoanalysis, two new functionalized derivatives were prepared and antibodies were generated. Affinity and specificity were assessed by direct and indirect competitive ELISA using homologous and heterologous conjugates. Although all antibodies were selective for the target analyte, the immunizing hapten structure was revealed as a determinant for...

  20. New strategy for chemically attachment of Schiff base complexes on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemically attachment of Schiff base complexes on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs surfaces through a convenient and simple method was studied. In the first step of this method, we present a new method for preparation of aminated MWCNTs in order to attachment of (new chlorinated salen Schiff bases. Amination of multiwalled carbon nanotubes performed under microwave (MW irradiation through a one pot two step reaction. The chemically attachment of salen Schiff bases on functionalized MWCNTs (salen@MWCNTs performed under a facile simple nucleophilic substitution reaction and complexation of attached salen Schiff bases (salen complex@MWCNTs in last step, have been occurred with reaction of transition metal salts and salen@MWCNTs. The obtained products were characterized in detail, using FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis absorption, SEM and EDX methods.

  1. Calpains mediate integrin attachment complex maintenance of adult muscle in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Timothy; Oczypok, Elizabeth A; Lehmann, Susann; Fields, Brandon D; Shephard, Freya; Jacobson, Lewis A; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2012-01-01

    Two components of integrin containing attachment complexes, UNC-97/PINCH and UNC-112/MIG-2/Kindlin-2, were recently identified as negative regulators of muscle protein degradation and as having decreased mRNA levels in response to spaceflight. Integrin complexes transmit force between the inside and outside of muscle cells and signal changes in muscle size in response to force and, perhaps, disuse. We therefore investigated the effects of acute decreases in expression of the genes encoding these multi-protein complexes. We find that in fully developed adult Caenorhabditis elegans muscle, RNAi against genes encoding core, and peripheral, members of these complexes induces protein degradation, myofibrillar and mitochondrial dystrophies, and a movement defect. Genetic disruption of Z-line- or M-line-specific complex members is sufficient to induce these defects. We confirmed that defects occur in temperature-sensitive mutants for two of the genes: unc-52, which encodes the extra-cellular ligand Perlecan, and unc-112, which encodes the intracellular component Kindlin-2. These results demonstrate that integrin containing attachment complexes, as a whole, are required for proper maintenance of adult muscle. These defects, and collapse of arrayed attachment complexes into ball like structures, are blocked when DIM-1 levels are reduced. Degradation is also blocked by RNAi or drugs targeting calpains, implying that disruption of integrin containing complexes results in calpain activation. In wild-type animals, either during development or in adults, RNAi against calpain genes results in integrin muscle attachment disruptions and consequent sub-cellular defects. These results demonstrate that calpains are required for proper assembly and maintenance of integrin attachment complexes. Taken together our data provide in vivo evidence that a calpain-based molecular repair mechanism exists for dealing with attachment complex disruption in adult muscle. Since C. elegans lacks

  2. Calpains mediate integrin attachment complex maintenance of adult muscle in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Etheridge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two components of integrin containing attachment complexes, UNC-97/PINCH and UNC-112/MIG-2/Kindlin-2, were recently identified as negative regulators of muscle protein degradation and as having decreased mRNA levels in response to spaceflight. Integrin complexes transmit force between the inside and outside of muscle cells and signal changes in muscle size in response to force and, perhaps, disuse. We therefore investigated the effects of acute decreases in expression of the genes encoding these multi-protein complexes. We find that in fully developed adult Caenorhabditis elegans muscle, RNAi against genes encoding core, and peripheral, members of these complexes induces protein degradation, myofibrillar and mitochondrial dystrophies, and a movement defect. Genetic disruption of Z-line- or M-line-specific complex members is sufficient to induce these defects. We confirmed that defects occur in temperature-sensitive mutants for two of the genes: unc-52, which encodes the extra-cellular ligand Perlecan, and unc-112, which encodes the intracellular component Kindlin-2. These results demonstrate that integrin containing attachment complexes, as a whole, are required for proper maintenance of adult muscle. These defects, and collapse of arrayed attachment complexes into ball like structures, are blocked when DIM-1 levels are reduced. Degradation is also blocked by RNAi or drugs targeting calpains, implying that disruption of integrin containing complexes results in calpain activation. In wild-type animals, either during development or in adults, RNAi against calpain genes results in integrin muscle attachment disruptions and consequent sub-cellular defects. These results demonstrate that calpains are required for proper assembly and maintenance of integrin attachment complexes. Taken together our data provide in vivo evidence that a calpain-based molecular repair mechanism exists for dealing with attachment complex disruption in adult muscle. Since C

  3. Link Prediction in Complex Networks by Multi Degree Preferential-Attachment Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ke; Yang, Wanchun; Xu, Xiaoke; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    In principle, the rules of links formation of a network model can be considered as a kind of link prediction algorithm. By revisiting the preferential attachment mechanism for generating a scale-free network, here we propose a class of preferential attachment indices which are different from the previous one. Traditionally, the preferential attachment index is defined by the product of the related nodes degrees, while the new indices will define the similarity score of a pair of nodes by either the maximum in the two nodes degrees or the summarization of their degrees. Extensive experiments are carried out on fourteen real-world networks. Compared with the traditional preferential attachment index, the new ones, especially the degree-summarization similarity index, can provide more accurate prediction on most of the networks. Due to the improved prediction accuracy and low computational complexity, these proposed preferential attachment indices may be of help to provide an instruction for mining unknown links...

  4. Attachment-Focused Hypnosis in Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma: Attunement, Representation, and Mentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    The relational and psychological functions of attunement, representation, and mentalization are essential components of a secure attachment experience. Psychotherapeutic approaches informed by attachment theory have gained significant empirical and clinical support, particularly in the area of complex trauma. Despite these advances, attachment-informed trauma treatment could benefit greatly from the experiential wealth that clinical hypnosis has to offer. In its utilization of shared attention, tone of voice, pacing, representational imagery, and hypnotic language, clinical hypnosis as a state, relationship, and technique offers psychotherapists a way of introducing a healthy attachment experience and renewing appropriate developmental functioning in patients who are survivors of complex trauma. In this article, attunement, representation, and mentalization are reviewed from a hypnotherapeutic perspective.

  5. Joint estimation of preferential attachment and node fitness in growing complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thong; Sheridan, Paul; Shimodaira, Hidetoshi

    2016-09-01

    Complex network growth across diverse fields of science is hypothesized to be driven in the main by a combination of preferential attachment and node fitness processes. For measuring the respective influences of these processes, previous approaches make strong and untested assumptions on the functional forms of either the preferential attachment function or fitness function or both. We introduce a Bayesian statistical method called PAFit to estimate preferential attachment and node fitness without imposing such functional constraints that works by maximizing a log-likelihood function with suitably added regularization terms. We use PAFit to investigate the interplay between preferential attachment and node fitness processes in a Facebook wall-post network. While we uncover evidence for both preferential attachment and node fitness, thus validating the hypothesis that these processes together drive complex network evolution, we also find that node fitness plays the bigger role in determining the degree of a node. This is the first validation of its kind on real-world network data. But surprisingly the rate of preferential attachment is found to deviate from the conventional log-linear form when node fitness is taken into account. The proposed method is implemented in the R package PAFit.

  6. Joint estimation of preferential attachment and node fitness in growing complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thong; Sheridan, Paul; Shimodaira, Hidetoshi

    2016-09-07

    Complex network growth across diverse fields of science is hypothesized to be driven in the main by a combination of preferential attachment and node fitness processes. For measuring the respective influences of these processes, previous approaches make strong and untested assumptions on the functional forms of either the preferential attachment function or fitness function or both. We introduce a Bayesian statistical method called PAFit to estimate preferential attachment and node fitness without imposing such functional constraints that works by maximizing a log-likelihood function with suitably added regularization terms. We use PAFit to investigate the interplay between preferential attachment and node fitness processes in a Facebook wall-post network. While we uncover evidence for both preferential attachment and node fitness, thus validating the hypothesis that these processes together drive complex network evolution, we also find that node fitness plays the bigger role in determining the degree of a node. This is the first validation of its kind on real-world network data. But surprisingly the rate of preferential attachment is found to deviate from the conventional log-linear form when node fitness is taken into account. The proposed method is implemented in the R package PAFit.

  7. PAFit: A Statistical Method for Measuring Preferential Attachment in Temporal Complex Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Pham

    Full Text Available Preferential attachment is a stochastic process that has been proposed to explain certain topological features characteristic of complex networks from diverse domains. The systematic investigation of preferential attachment is an important area of research in network science, not only for the theoretical matter of verifying whether this hypothesized process is operative in real-world networks, but also for the practical insights that follow from knowledge of its functional form. Here we describe a maximum likelihood based estimation method for the measurement of preferential attachment in temporal complex networks. We call the method PAFit, and implement it in an R package of the same name. PAFit constitutes an advance over previous methods primarily because we based it on a nonparametric statistical framework that enables attachment kernel estimation free of any assumptions about its functional form. We show this results in PAFit outperforming the popular methods of Jeong and Newman in Monte Carlo simulations. What is more, we found that the application of PAFit to a publically available Flickr social network dataset yielded clear evidence for a deviation of the attachment kernel from the popularly assumed log-linear form. Independent of our main work, we provide a correction to a consequential error in Newman's original method which had evidently gone unnoticed since its publication over a decade ago.

  8. The Ndc80 complex uses a tripartite attachment point to couple microtubule depolymerization to chromosome movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, John G; Miller, Stephanie A; Stukenberg, P Todd

    2011-04-15

    In kinetochores, the Ndc80 complex couples the energy in a depolymerizing microtubule to perform the work of moving chromosomes. The complex directly binds microtubules using an unstructured, positively charged N-terminal tail located on Hec1/Ndc80. Hec1/Ndc80 also contains a calponin homology domain (CHD) that increases its affinity for microtubules in vitro, yet whether it is required in cells and how the tail and CHD work together are critical unanswered questions. Human kinetochores containing Hec1/Ndc80 with point mutations in the CHD fail to align chromosomes or form productive microtubule attachments. Kinetochore architecture and spindle checkpoint protein recruitment are unaffected in these mutants, and the loss of CHD function cannot be rescued by removing Aurora B sites from the tail. The interaction between the Hec1/Ndc80 CHD and a microtubule is facilitated by positively charged amino acids on two separate regions of the CHD, and both are required for kinetochores to make stable attachments to microtubules. Chromosome congression in cells also requires positive charge on the Hec1 tail to facilitate microtubule contact. In vitro binding data suggest that charge on the tail regulates attachment by directly increasing microtubule affinity as well as driving cooperative binding of the CHD. These data argue that in vertebrates there is a tripartite attachment point facilitating the interaction between Hec1/Ndc80 and microtubules. We discuss how such a complex microtubule-binding interface may facilitate the coupling of depolymerization to chromosome movement.

  9. The Monopolin Complex Crosslinks Kinetochore Components to Regulate Chromosome-Microtubule Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, Kevin D.; Yip, Calvin K.; Ee, Ly-Sha; Walz, Thomas; Amon, Angelika; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (MIT)

    2010-09-27

    The monopolin complex regulates different types of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in fungi, ensuring sister chromatid co-orientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis I and inhibiting merotelic attachment in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitosis. In addition, the monopolin complex maintains the integrity and silencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats in the nucleolus. We show here that the S. cerevisiae Csm1/Lrs4 monopolin subcomplex has a distinctive V-shaped structure, with two pairs of protein-protein interaction domains positioned {approx}10 nm apart. Csm1 presents a conserved hydrophobic surface patch that binds two kinetochore proteins: Dsn1, a subunit of the outer-kinetochore MIND/Mis12 complex, and Mif2/CENP-C. Csm1 point-mutations that disrupt kinetochore-subunit binding also disrupt sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I. We further show that the same Csm1 point-mutations affect rDNA silencing, probably by disrupting binding to the rDNA-associated protein Tof2. We propose that Csm1/Lrs4 functions as a molecular clamp, crosslinking kinetochore components to enforce sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I and to suppress merotelic attachment in S. pombe mitosis, and crosslinking rDNA repeats to aid rDNA silencing.

  10. Discovery of protein complexes with core-attachment structures from Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Ng, See-Kiong; Wong, Limsoon

    2012-09-01

    Many cellular functions involve protein complexes that are formed by multiple interacting proteins. Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) is a popular experimental method for detecting such multi-protein interactions. However, current computational methods that predict protein complexes from TAP data require converting the co-complex relationships in TAP data into binary interactions. The resulting pairwise protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is then mined for densely connected regions that are identified as putative protein complexes. Converting the TAP data into PPI data not only introduces errors but also loses useful information about the underlying multi-protein relationships that can be exploited to detect the internal organization (i.e., core-attachment structures) of protein complexes. In this article, we propose a method called CACHET that detects protein complexes with Core-AttaCHment structures directly from bipartitETAP data. CACHET models the TAP data as a bipartite graph in which the two vertex sets are the baits and the preys, respectively. The edges between the two vertex sets represent bait-prey relationships. CACHET first focuses on detecting high-quality protein-complex cores from the bipartite graph. To minimize the effects of false positive interactions, the bait-prey relationships are indexed with reliability scores. Only non-redundant, reliable bicliques computed from the TAP bipartite graph are regarded as protein-complex cores. CACHET constructs protein complexes by including attachment proteins into the cores. We applied CACHET on large-scale TAP datasets and found that CACHET outperformed existing methods in terms of prediction accuracy (i.e., F-measure and functional homogeneity of predicted complexes). In addition, the protein complexes predicted by CACHET are equipped with core-attachment structures that provide useful biological insights into the inherent functional organization of protein complexes. Our supplementary material can

  11. An anti-hapten camelid antibody reveals a cryptic binding site with significant energetic contributions from a nonhypervariable loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, Sean W.; Horn, James R. (NIU)

    2014-03-05

    Conventional anti-hapten antibodies typically bind low-molecular weight compounds (haptens) in the crevice between the variable heavy and light chains. Conversely, heavy chain-only camelid antibodies, which lack a light chain, must rely entirely on a single variable domain to recognize haptens. While several anti-hapten VHHs have been generated, little is known regarding the underlying structural and thermodynamic basis for hapten recognition. Here, an anti-methotrexate VHH (anti-MTX VHH) was generated using grafting methods whereby the three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) were inserted onto an existing VHH framework. Thermodynamic analysis of the anti-MTX VHH CDR1-3 Graft revealed a micromolar binding affinity, while the crystal structure of the complex revealed a somewhat surprising noncanonical binding site which involved MTX tunneling under the CDR1 loop. Due to the close proximity of MTX to CDR4, a nonhypervariable loop, the CDR4 loop sequence was subsequently introduced into the CDR1-3 graft, which resulted in a dramatic 1000-fold increase in the binding affinity. Crystal structure analysis of both the free and complex anti-MTX CDR1-4 graft revealed CDR4 plays a significant role in both intermolecular contacts and binding site conformation that appear to contribute toward high affinity binding. Additionally, the anti-MTX VHH possessed relatively high specificity for MTX over closely related compounds aminopterin and folate, demonstrating that VHH domains are capable of binding low-molecular weight ligands with high affinity and specificity, despite their reduced interface.

  12. Molecular modeling assisted hapten design to produce broad selectivity antibodies for fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinacho, Daniel G; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

    2012-05-15

    Antibodies with a wide recognition profile of fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been produced based on chemical criteria, theoretical studies, and molecular modeling assisted hapten design. The immunizing hapten preserves the most important and characteristic epitopes of this antibiotic family. The studies have taken into consideration the zwitterionic character of most of the fluoroquinolones and the relative concentration of the different species in equilibrium at physiologic pH. The hapten is prepared in the form of a stable prehapten through a 5 step synthetic pathway. Immediately before conjugation, the immunizing hapten is obtained by removing the diphenylmethane protecting group. The specificity of the antibodies obtained is directed toward the common area defined by the fluorine atom at position 6 and the β-ketoacid moiety. The ELISA developed is able to recognize with very good detectability important fluoroquinolones used in the veterinary field such as ciprofloxacin (CPFX, IC(50), 0.35 μg L(-1)), enrofloxacin (ERFX, IC(50), 0.65 μg L(-1)), danofloxacin (DNFX, IC(50), 7.31 μg L(-1)), difloxacin (DFX, IC(50), 0.91 μg L(-1)), sarafloxacin (SRFX, IC(50), 0.96 μg L(-1)), norfloxacin (NRFX, IC(50), 0.78 μg L(-1)), ofloxacin (OFX, IC(50), 1.84 μg L(-1)), flumequine (Flume, IC(50), 3.91 μ gL(-1)), marbofloxacin (MBFX, IC(50), 4.30 μ gL(-1)), and oxolinic acid (OXO, IC(50), 23.53 μg L(-1)). The results presented here demonstrate that the antibody affinity is strongly affected by the presence of divalent cations, owing to their complexation with the fluoroquinolone molecules. Moreover, the outcome from the effect of the pH on the immunochemical assays suggests that the selectivity could be modulated with the pH due to the zwitterionic character of the fluoroquinolones and as a function of their different pK(a) values.

  13. Novel Fragmentation Pathways of Anionic Adducts of Steroids Formed by Electrospray Anion Attachment Involving Regioselective Attachment, Regiospecific Decompositions, Charge-Induced Pathways, and Ion-Dipole Complex Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannulu, Nalaka S.; Cole, Richard B.

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of several bifunctional neutral steroids, 5-α-pregnane diol (5-α-pregnane-3α-20βdiol), estradiol (3,17α-dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratriene), progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione), lupeol (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene), pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one), and pregnenolone acetate (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one acetate) was accomplished by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) employing adduct formation with various anions: fluoride, bicarbonate, acetate, and chloride. Fluoride yielded higher abundances of anionic adducts and more substantial abundances of deprotonated molecules compared with other investigated anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor [M + anion]- adducts of these steroids revealed that fluoride adduct [M + F]- precursors first lose HF to produce [M - H]- and then undergo consecutive decompositions to yield higher abundances of structurally-informative product ions than the other tested anions. In addition to charge-remote fragmentations, the majority of CID pathways of estradiol are deduced to occur via charge-induced fragmentation. Most interestingly, certain anions exhibit preferential attachment to a specific site on these bifunctional steroid molecules, which we are calling "regioselective anion attachment." Regioselective anion attachment is evidenced by subsequent regiospecific decomposition. Regioselective attachment of fluoride (and acetate) anions to low (and moderate) acidity functional groups of pregnenolone, respectively, is demonstrated using deuterated compounds. Moreover, the formation of unique intermediate ion-dipole complexes leading to novel fragmentation pathways of fluoride adducts of pregnenolone acetate, and bicarbonate adducts of d4-pregnenolone, are also discussed.

  14. "Am I Safe Here and Do You Like Me?" Understanding Complex Trauma and Attachment Disruption in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Linda; Guenette, Francis; Kitchenham, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Elementary and special education teachers and school counsellors currently provide support to children presenting learning disabilities and behavioural problems symptomatic of the more hidden diagnosis of complex trauma resulting from abuse or severe attachment disruption. Specific disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD)…

  15. Efficacy, but not antibody titer or affinity, of a heroin hapten conjugate vaccine correlates with increasing hapten densities on tetanus toxoid, but not on CRM197 carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalah, Rashmi; Torres, Oscar B; Mayorov, Alexander V; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Beck, Zoltan; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2015-06-17

    Vaccines against drugs of abuse have induced antibodies in animals that blocked the biological effects of the drug by sequestering the drug in the blood and preventing it from crossing the blood-brain barrier. Drugs of abuse are too small to induce antibodies and, therefore, require conjugation of drug hapten analogs to a carrier protein. The efficacy of these conjugate vaccines depends on several factors including hapten design, coupling strategy, hapten density, carrier protein selection, and vaccine adjuvant. Previously, we have shown that 1 (MorHap), a heroin/morphine hapten, conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) and mixed with liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A [L(MPLA)] as adjuvant, partially blocked the antinociceptive effects of heroin in mice. Herein, we extended those findings, demonstrating greatly improved vaccine induced antinociceptive effects up to 3% mean maximal potential effect (%MPE). This was obtained by evaluating the effects of vaccine efficacy of hapten 1 vaccine conjugates with varying hapten densities using two different commonly used carrier proteins, TT and cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197). Immunization of mice with these conjugates mixed with L(MPLA) induced very high anti-1 IgG peak levels of 400-1500 μg/mL that bound to both heroin and its metabolites, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine. Except for the lowest hapten density for each carrier, the antibody titers and affinity were independent of hapten density. The TT carrier based vaccines induced long-lived inhibition of heroin-induced antinociception that correlated with increasing hapten density. The best formulation contained TT with the highest hapten density of ≥30 haptens/TT molecule and induced %MPE of approximately 3% after heroin challenge. In contrast, the best formulation using CRM197 was with intermediate 1 densities (10-15 haptens/CRM197 molecule), but the %MPE was approximately 13%. In addition, the chemical synthesis of 1, the optimization of the conjugation

  16. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. Erkes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1 ex vivo haptenation, (2 in situ haptenation, (3 epifocal hapten application, and (4 antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field.

  17. Morphology and location of attached follicular cumulus-oocyte complexes in horses, cattle and llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, M R; Del Campo, C H; Mapletoft, R J; Ginther, O J

    1995-02-01

    Morphology and location of the attached cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) were studied in slaughter-house ovaries in horses (49 follicles, 9 to 44 mm), cattle (68 follicles, 6 to 18 mm), and llamas (38 follicles, 3 to 14 mm). The expected point of ovulation was marked, using the ovulation fossa in mares and the center of the projecting follicular surface in cattle and llamas. A follicle was dissected from an ovary, and tissue was removed from the follicle until the COC became visible by transillumination. However, most llama follicles protruded prominently from the ovarian surface so that dissection was not required to locate the COC. The COC was more readily recognized from the external follicular surface in mares and llamas than in cattle, primarily because of a dark oocyte. Compact COC's projected into the antrum with a smooth dome-shape in horses. The COC's in cattle were also dome-shaped but were more irregular and a few contained prominent processes. The mean diameter of the isolated follicle was calculated from 3 planes, except that in llamas the follicles were spherical so that the 3 dimensions were identical. The angle between a straight line connecting the expected ovulation site and the opposite pole and a straight line from the ovulation site to the COC was defined as the COC-location angle. This angle was chosen because it is unaltered by size of a sphere (45 degrees for a COC at the equator). The mean (+/-SEM) COC-location angle differed (P < 0.01) among horses (39.9 +/- 3.3), cattle (50.0 +/- 2.5), and llamas (64.8 +/- 2.1). In mares, the locations of the COC's did not differ from equality between follicular hemispheres, but in cattle and llamas the COC's were located with greater frequency (P < 0.05) in the hemisphere containing the expected ovulation site (cattle, 65%; llamas, 91%).

  18. Targeting BCL1 lymphoma with anti-idiotype antibodies: biodistribution kinetics of directly labeled antibodies and bispecific antibody-targeted bivalent haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, C; Rouvier, E; Gautherot, E; Loucif, E; Barbet, J; Le Doussal, J M

    1997-06-11

    The mouse BCL1 lymphoma model has been used for evaluating immunotherapy with anti-idiotype (anti-Id) antibodies, including Id immunisation, IgG therapy and bispecific (Bs) antibody-targeted cytotoxicity. Here, we provide quantitative data on the targeting of small (25 +/- 12 mg) intrasplenic BCL1 tumours, using anti-Id IgG, F(ab')2 and anti-Id x anti-hapten BsF(ab')2 covalently labelled with 125iodine, as well as noncovalent complexes of BsF(ab')2 and 125I-labelled bivalent hapten. The results are the following: 1) up to 115% of the injected dose per gram (% ID/g) of spleen can be localised in the first hour, corresponding to approximately 600% ID/g of tumour; 2) localisation is specific for cell-surface Id; 3) optimal doses can overcome circulating Id; 4) circulating Id markedly increases the catabolism of IgG, thus impairing tumour localisation; 5) bivalent reagents are internalised by the target cells; 6) iodine covalently bound to bivalent antibodies [IgG, F(ab')2] is rapidly (T(1/2): 6-9 hr) released from the tumour; in contrast, the bivalent hapten is retained for a longer time (T(1/2): 25 hr); and 7) in the absence of bivalent hapten, the monovalent BsF(ab')2 is not rapidly internalised and dissociates from tumour cell-surface Id. Our results suggest that monovalent anti-Id, lacking Fc, can efficiently be targeted to the BCL1 tumour surface. For radioimmunotherapy, the intracellular targeting of catabolism-resistant 125I-labelled bivalent hapten provides optimal tissue selectivity.

  19. Synthetic methyl hexagalacturonate hapten inhibitors of antihomogalacturonan monoclonal antibodies LM7, JIM5 and JIM7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Willats, William George Tycho; Knox, J. Paul

    2003-01-01

    A range of synthetic methyl hexagalacturonates were used as potential hapten inhibitors in competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with anti-homogalacturonan monoclonal antibodies LM7, JIM5 and JIM7. The selective inhibition of these antibodies by different haptens prov...

  20. Augmenting the efficacy of anti-cocaine catalytic antibodies through chimeric hapten design and combinatorial vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J; Cai, Xiaoqing; Ellis, Beverly A; Janda, Kim D

    2017-08-15

    Given the need for further improvements in anti-cocaine vaccination strategies, a chimeric hapten (GNET) was developed that combines chemically-stable structural features from steady-state haptens with the hydrolytic functionality present in transition-state mimetic haptens. Additionally, as a further investigation into the generation of an improved bifunctional antibody pool, sequential vaccination with steady-state and transition-state mimetic haptens was undertaken. While GNET induced the formation of catalytically-active antibodies, it did not improve overall behavioral efficacy. In contrast, the resulting pool of antibodies from GNE/GNT co-administration demonstrated intermediate efficacy as compared to antibodies developed from either hapten alone. Overall, improved antibody catalytic efficiency appears necessary to achieve the synergistic benefits of combining cocaine hydrolysis with peripheral sequestration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hapten-derivatized nanoparticle targeting and imaging of gene expression by multimodality imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-M; Chu, P-Y; Chuang, K-H; Roffler, S R; Kao, C-H; Tseng, W-L; Shiea, J; Chang, W-D; Su, Y-C; Chen, B-M; Wang, Y-M; Cheng, T-L

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive gene monitoring is important for most gene therapy applications to ensure selective gene transfer to specific cells or tissues. We developed a non-invasive imaging system to assess the location and persistence of gene expression by anchoring an anti-dansyl (DNS) single-chain antibody (DNS receptor) on the cell surface to trap DNS-derivatized imaging probes. DNS hapten was covalently attached to cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO) to form a 39+/-0.5 nm DNS-CLIO nanoparticle imaging probe. DNS-CLIO specifically bound to DNS receptors but not to a control single-chain antibody receptor. DNS-CLIO (100 microM Fe) was non-toxic to both B16/DNS (DNS receptor positive) and B16/phOx (control receptor positive) cells. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could detect as few as 10% B16/DNS cells in a mixture in vitro. Importantly, DNS-CLIO specifically bound to a B16/DNS tumor, which markedly reduced signal intensity. Similar results were also shown with DNS quantum dots, which specifically targeted CT26/DNS cells but not control CT26/phOx cells both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that DNS nanoparticles can systemically monitor the expression of DNS receptor in vivo by feasible imaging systems. This targeting strategy may provide a valuable tool to estimate the efficacy and specificity of different gene delivery systems and optimize gene therapy protocols in the clinic.

  2. Simple method for preparation of fluor/hapten-labeled dUTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmakayalu, M; Henegariu, O; Ward, D C; Bray-Ward, P

    2000-03-01

    Many projects, such as multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) karyotyping, require the use of relatively large amounts of multiple fluor- or hapten-labeled nucleotides for the preparation of DNA probes. Such a requirement makes these experimental approaches prohibitively expensive for many researchers. The cost of such nucleotides can be reduced approximately 99% by purchasing the chemical precursors, fluor or hapten succinimidyl esters and 5-(3-aminoallyl)-2'-deoxyuridine 5' triphosphate (AA-dUTP), and performing the simple coupling/purification described here. It is possible to finish four to ten different fluor/hapten dUTP preparations of 2.5 microM scale within a 24 h period. The reagent cost for each preparation ranges from $33-$237 per microM, depending on the fluor/hapten. This laboratory uses such nucleotide preparations to prepare FISH probes by nick translation or PCR amplification.

  3. Monopolin subunit Csm1 associates with MIND complex to establish monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores at meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sourav; Shenoy, Rajesh T; Dalgaard, Jacob Z; Newnham, Louise; Hoffmann, Eva; Millar, Jonathan B A; Arumugam, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms halve their cellular ploidy during gametogenesis by undergoing a specialized form of cell division known as meiosis. During meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of nuclear divisions (referred to as meiosis I and II). While sister kinetochores bind to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles during mitosis, they bind to microtubules originating from the same spindle pole during meiosis I. This phenomenon is referred to as mono-orientation and is essential for setting up the reductional mode of chromosome segregation during meiosis I. In budding yeast, mono-orientation depends on a four component protein complex referred to as monopolin which consists of two nucleolar proteins Csm1 and Lrs4, meiosis-specific protein Mam1 of unknown function and casein kinase Hrr25. Monopolin complex binds to kinetochores during meiosis I and prevents bipolar attachments. Although monopolin associates with kinetochores during meiosis I, its binding site(s) on the kinetochore is not known and its mechanism of action has not been established. By carrying out an imaging-based screen we have found that the MIND complex, a component of the central kinetochore, is required for monopolin association with kinetochores during meiosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that interaction of monopolin subunit Csm1 with the N-terminal domain of MIND complex subunit Dsn1, is essential for both the association of monopolin with kinetochores and for monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I. As such this provides the first functional evidence for a monopolin-binding site at the kinetochore.

  4. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde haptenated protein binds macrophage scavenger receptor(s) and induces lysosomal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Monte S; Klassen, Lynell W; Carlson, Deborah L; Brouse, Chad F; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2004-07-01

    There is evidence that the chemical modification of proteins (haptens) with malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) and the immune response to these haptenated proteins is associated with the initiation and/or progression of alcohol liver disease. Experimentally, proteins modified with MAA induce antibody and T cell responses, which are mediated by scavenger receptor(s). Moreover, macrophages have been shown to play an important role in processing and presenting MAA-haptenated proteins in vitro. In vitro, MAA-modified proteins have been shown to induce both apoptosis and necrosis in a dose- and cell-type-dependent manner. Natural ligands modified by oxidative stress, such as oxidized LDL, similarly initiate not only antibody responses, but also cause cell death by disrupting lysosomes after binding to scavenger receptors and internalization. We therefore investigated the binding, internalization, and lysosomal integrity in a macrophage cell line to a MAA-haptenated protein. We demonstrate for the first time that MAA-haptenated proteins are preferentially bound by scavenger receptors on macrophages, which internalize the ligands and shuttle them to lysosomes. Moreover, MAA-haptenated proteins are demonstrated to be associated with a rapid dose-dependent disruption in lysosomal integrity, resulting in leakage and caspase activation. Similarly, as hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-MAA concentrations increased (>31.3 microg/ml), increased levels of apoptosis and a G1/S cell cycle checkpoint inhibition were identified. This study identifies mechanisms by which MAA-haptenated proteins are taken up by a representative antigen-presenting cell and may delineate steps by which MAA-haptenated proteins induce cell death and induce their immunogenicity to the carrier protein. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Carbon nanotube-protein carriers enhance size-dependent self-adjuvant antibody response to haptens

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Javier; Abad Somovilla, Antonio; Mercader Badia, Josep Vicent; Taton, T. Andrew; Abad Fuentes, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with interesting emerging applications. Their properties make CNTs excellent candidates for use as new nanovehicles in drug delivery, immunization and diagnostics. In the current study, we assessed the immune-response-amplifying properties of CNTs to haptens by using azoxystrobin, the first developed strobilurin fungicide, asamodel analyte. Anazoxystrobin derivative bearingacarboxylated spacer arm (hapten AZc6) was covalently coupled to bovine serum a...

  6. A Modular Bioplatform Based on a Versatile Supramolecular Multienzyme Complex Directly Attached to Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Abeer; Posner, Mareike G; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Marken, Frank; Bagby, Stefan; Ilie, Adelina

    2016-08-17

    Developing generic strategies for building adaptable or multifunctional bioplatforms is challenging, in particular because protein immobilization onto surfaces often causes loss of protein function and because multifunctionality usually necessitates specific combinations of heterogeneous elements. Here, we introduce a generic, modular bioplatform construction strategy that uses cage-like supramolecular multienzyme complexes as highly adaptable building blocks immobilized directly and noncovalently on graphene. Thermoplasma acidophilum dihydrolipoyl acyltransferase (E2) supramolecular complexes organize as a monolayer or can be controllably transferred onto graphene, preserving their supramolecular form with specific molecular recognition capability and capacity for engineering multifunctionality. This E2-graphene platform can bind enzymes (here, E1, E2's physiological partner) without loss of enzyme function; in this test case, E1 catalytic activity was detected on E2-graphene over 6 orders of magnitude in substrate concentration. The E2-graphene platform can be multiplexed via patterned cotransfer of differently modified E2 complexes. As the E2 complexes are robust and highly customizable, E2-graphene is a platform onto which multiple functionalities can be built.

  7. Design and efficient synthesis of novel haptens and complete antigens for the AOZ, a toxic metabolite of furazolidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A good strategy was brought forward for designing efficient haptens and complete antigens for 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ).Haptens designed newly were achieved facilely in good yield by using LiCl-N(Et)3 as new catalysis system, the structure of which was elucidated by spectroscopy analysis, such as NMR and MS. Novel antigens for AOZ were prepared successfully by convenient indicated that the haptens with a short unsaturated side chain can evoke specific immune response effectively.

  8. Hapten synthesis and antibody production for the development of a melamine immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Hongtao; Shen Yudong; Song Lijun; Yang Jinyi [Key Laboratory of Food Safety of Guangdong Province/Institute of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong (China); Chevallier, Olivier P.; Haughey, Simon A. [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Wang Hong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety of Guangdong Province/Institute of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong (China); Sun Yuanming, E-mail: ymsun@scau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety of Guangdong Province/Institute of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong (China); Elliott, Christopher T., E-mail: chris.elliott@qub.ac.uk [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-14

    The incorporation of melamine into food products is banned but its misuse has been widely reported in both animal feeds and food. The development of a rapid screening immunoassay for monitoring of the substance is an urgent requirement. Two haptens of melamine were synthesized by introducing spacer arms of different lengths and structures on the triazine ring of the analyte molecular structure. 6-Aminocaproic acid and 3-mercaptopropionic acid were reacted with 2-chloro-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (CAAT) to produce hapten 1 [3-(4,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino) hexanoic acid] and hapten 2 [3-(4,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylthio) propanoic acid], respectively. The molecular structures of the two haptens were identified by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry. An immunogen was prepared by coupling hapten 1 to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Two plate coating antigens were prepared by coupling both haptens to egg ovalbumin (OVA). A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) was developed to evaluate homogeneous and heterogeneous assay formats. The results showed that polyclonal antibodies with high titers were obtained, and the heterogeneous immunoassay format demonstrated a better performance with an IC{sub 50} of 70.6 ng mL{sup -1}, a LOD of 2.6 ng mL{sup -1} and a LOQ of 7.6 ng mL{sup -1}. Except for cyromazine, no obvious cross-reactivity to common compounds was found. The data showed that the hapten synthesis was successful and the resultant antisera could be used in an immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive detection of this banned chemical.

  9. The Ndc80 internal loop is required for recruitment of the Ska complex to establish end-on microtubule attachment to kinetochores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Kelstrup, Christian D; Hu, Xiao-Wen;

    2012-01-01

    the chromosomes and stable kinetochore fibers are absent. Through quantitative mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence we find that the binding of the Ska complex depends on the loop region explaining why end-on attachment is defective. This underscores the importance of the Ndc80 loop region in coordinating......The Ndc80 complex establishes end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules essential for chromosome segregation. The Ndc80 subunit is characterized by an N-terminal region, that binds directly to microtubules, and a long coiled-coil region that interacts with Nuf2. A loop region in Ndc80...

  10. Systematic Structural Elucidation for the Protonated Form of Rare Earth Bis(porphyrinato) Double-Decker Complexes: Direct Structural Evidence of the Location of the Attached Proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Sakata, Naoya; Ogawa, Takuji

    2016-09-01

    Direct structural evidence of the presence and location of the attached proton in the protonated form of rare earth bis(porphyrinato) double-decker complexes is obtained from an X-ray diffraction study of single crystals for a series of protonated forms of bis(tetraphenylporphyrinato) complexes [M(III)(tpp)(tppH)] (M = Tb, Y, Sm, Nd, and La). When CHCl3 is used as a solvent for crystallization of the complexes, their nondisordered molecular structures are obtained and the attached proton is identified on one of the eight nitrogen atoms. Use of other solvents affords another type of crystal, in which the position of the proton is disordered and thus the molecular structure is averaged. La complex also affords the disordered average structure even when CHCl3 is used for crystallization. A variable-temperature diffraction study for the Tb complex reveals that the dynamics of the proton in the nondisordered crystal is restricted.

  11. Phobias of attachment-related inner states in the psychotherapy of adult survivors of childhood complex trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined.

  12. [BPO-Specific, complement-dependant cell-lysis of differently sensitized sheep red cells: evaluation of haptenic groups and their influence on IgM and IgG-induced lysis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, G; Stemberger, H; Förster, O; Müller, M

    1976-04-01

    Sheep erythrocytes were coated with bencylpenicilloyl-(BPO)groups. Different incubation periods resulted in erythrocyte preparations with different hapten density. Complement dependent lysis induced by IgM or IgG antibodies was studied with the cell preparations. The calculation of hapten density on the erythrocyte surface was not possible by direct measurement of coupled radioactive BPO since more than 90% of radioactive material was found in the soluble supernatant after osmotic cell lysis and less than 10% was fixed to the cellular membrane. Measurement of membrane bound immunologically relevant BPO-groups was achieved, therefore, by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of the test cells with that of a standard cell preparation. The latter consisted of tannic acid treated erythrocytes coated with protein complexed radioactive BPO. Surface hapten density of the different target cell preparations varied between 1.9 x 10(5) and 4.8 10(5) BPO-groups per cell depending on the time of incubation. Complement dependent antibody mediated cell lysis was significantly reduced by reduction of haptenic sites per target cell, IgG induced lysis being much more affected than hemolysis induced by IgM antibodies. Statistical calculations led to the conclusion that 18,000 protein islets per cell bearing 4 or more BPO-groups are not sufficient for hemolysis induced by IgG antibodies. 48,000 protein islets with this hapten density are necessary for "optimal" sensitization. IgG antibodies must be apparently bound to the cell surface in bivalent form.

  13. Generation of anti-hapten T cell cytotoxicity in vivo. Relationship to contact sensitivity and the role of contrasuppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptak, W. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Friedman, A.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Flood, P.M. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Immunization procedures that induce contact sensitivity to the trinitrophenyl (TNP) hapten in vivo were investigated for their ability to induce TNP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo. Spleen cells from C3H/HeN mice primed for CS responses either by the topical application of picryl chloride or by the adoptive transfer of PCL immune cells show little or no cytolytic activity in vitro against TNP-coupled target cells. Intravenous immunization with TNP-substituted syngeneic spleen cells, a procedure known to make animals unresponsive to agents normally inducing CS, also failed to induce cytolytic activity in spleen cells. However, both PCL sensitization and adoptive transfer, when combined with the injection of TNP-substituted syngeneic spleen cells, induce significant cytolytic activity against TNP-haptenated BW5147 target cells in vitro. Furthermore, i.v. injection of TNP-spleen cells with surface-bound immune complexes of the IgM or IgG1 isotypes, or with a monoclonal TNP-specific contrasuppressor T cell factor also induced strong antigen-specific cytolytic activity against TNP modified targets. TcsF bears serological determinants of T cell receptor {alpha} and {beta} chains and adheres to specific antigen columns. All these immunization regiments were shown to induce CS to TNP as well as the generation of contrasuppressor T cells. The CTL generated in the spleens of immunized mice are Thy1{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells and are antigen-specific and genetically restricted. The implications of these results with respect to the mechanisms by which cytolytic responses are controlled in vivo is discussed. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab.

  14. Large rate accelerations in antibody catalysis by strategic use of haptenic charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, S N; Daniels, R G; Auditor, M T; Hilvert, D

    1995-01-19

    General acid-base catalysis contributes substantially to the efficacy of many enzymes, enabling an impressive array of eliminations, isomerizations, racemizations, hydrolyses and carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to be carried out with high rates and selectivities. The fundamental challenge of exploiting similar effects in designed catalysts such as catalytic antibodies is that of correctly positioning the catalytic groups in an appropriate active-site microenvironment. Charge complementarity between antibody and hapten (the template used to induce an antibody) has been used successfully in a number of instances to elicit acids and bases within immunoglobulin combining sites, but the activities of the catalysts obtained by this strategy are generally considerably lower than those of natural enzymes. Here we report that by optimizing hapten design and efficiently screening the immune response, antibodies can be obtained that act effectively as general base catalysts. Thus a cationic hapten correctly mimicking the transition-state geometry of all reacting bonds and bearing little resemblance to the reaction product has yielded carboxylate-containing antibodies that catalyse an E2 elimination with more than 10(3) turnovers per active site and rate accelerations of greater than 10(8). These results demonstrate that very large effects can be achieved by strategic use of haptenic charge.

  15. T cell proliferative responses to malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde haptenated protein are scavenger receptor mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Monte S; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Tuma, Dean J; Klassen, Lynell W

    2003-10-01

    Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) haptenated proteins have been described in disease processes related to prolonged oxidative stress (via malondialdehyde production), such as alcohol liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic non-steatohepatitis (NASH) and atherosclerosis. Experimentally, high titer IgG1 antibody responses are seen after immunization without adjuvant; however, T cell proliferative responses and the role of scavenger receptors in this immunogenicity has not previously been described. In this study, T cell proliferative responses to the carrier protein, but not the MAA hapten itself, were identified in vitro. Moreover, these T proliferative responses were inhibited when MAA-hen egg lysozyme (HEL) was co-immunized with excess scavenger receptor ligand polyG (poly-guanylic acid), implicating the role of (a) scavenger receptor(s) in initiating the T helper cell response. Activated B cells were unable to process and present MAA-HEL preferentially to T cells, while thioglycollate-elicited (but not Con A-elicited) macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) did so with approximately 32-fold less MAA-HEL than native antigen necessary to initiate equal proliferative responses. While this preferential processing and presentation may be related to several factors, preferential binding of MAA haptenated proteins mediated by scavenger receptors may be one mechanism. IL-4 was absent from the supernatants of T proliferative assays despite a strong IgG1 response in vivo, although the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 were expressed. Since the modification of proteins by the MAA have previously been shown to occur after ethanol consumption in vivo, the ability of MAA haptens to experimentally enhance immune responses, specifically humoral and T cell responses, may represent mechanisms by which autoimmune phenomena found in ALD occur.

  16. Influence of dietary lipid on hapten-specific UV-induced immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okotie-Eboh, G; Gerguis, J; Black, H S

    1998-01-01

    The influence of diets containing high (12%, w/w) and low (0.75%) levels of corn oil on hapten-specific antibody production to trinitrophenol-conjugated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC) was examined in mice receiving 0, 3, 9, and 11 wk of UV radiation. Splenocytes from HRA HRII-c/+/Skh female hairless mice from the two dietary groups were incubated under a special atmosphere of low oxygen tension (7% O2, 10% CO2, and 83% N2) with TNP-SRBC to generate hapten-specific T-suppressor cells that, in turn, influence the number of direct plaque forming cells (PFC) in the Cunnigham-Szenberg plaque assay. Chronic UV irradiation reduced the number of direct PFC in both groups. After 11 wk of UV, the number of PFC in the high dietary fat group was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than that observed in the low fat group. These results suggest that dietary fat modulates UV-induced hapten-specific immunosuppression. Furthermore, the influence of dietary fat level, in this respect, was not realized until after 11 wk of UV, a time at which dietary fat has been shown to exert its influence on UV-carcinogenic expression.

  17. The range and fine specificity of the anti-hapten immune response: phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, G W; Stolen, J S; Sarvas, H O; Mäkelä, O

    1982-12-01

    Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) and Pseudopleuronectes americanus (winter flounder) were immunized with furyl-oxazolone (furyl-Ox) and phenyl-oxazolone (phenyl-Ox) coupled either to bacteria or protein carriers. The antibodies produced were measured by inactivation of furyl- or phenyl-Ox conjugated bacteriophage, and their affinity and fine specificity were estimated by inhibition of phage inactivation with a series of structurally related hapten analogues. In both species, post-immunization peak titres were 100 to 2000 times higher than preimmunization titres. A number of unique features distinguished Heterodontus antibodies from Pseudopleuronectes or mammalian antibodies. Heterondontus antibodies exhibited a lower affinity for the immunizing hapten (furyl-Ox or phenyl-Ox) and a reduced ability to distinguish the homologous immunogenic hapten from its structural analogues. In addition, Heterodontus antibodies exhibited a lower level of inter-individual variation in affinity and fine specificity than did Pseudopleuronectes or mammalian IgM antibodies; this was especially prominent in anti-furyl-Ox responses. Typically the affinity and fine specificity of Heterodontus antibodies did not change over the 146-day period of immunization and were not influenced by the nature of the carrier. The implications of these findings in terms of the phylogenetic origins of antibody diversity are discussed.

  18. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  19. Technical note: Hapten synthesis, antibody production and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of the natural steroidal alkaloid Dendrogenin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medina, Philippe; Paillasse, Michael R; Segala, Gregory; Al Saati, Talal; Boyes, Jeannine; Delsol, Georges; Allal, Cuider; Marsili, Sabrina; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2013-03-01

    We have recently discovered the existence of 5α-Hydroxy-6β-[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylamino]cholestan-3β-ol, called Dendrogenin A (DDA), as the first endogenous steroidal alkaloid ever described in mammals. We found that the DDA content of tumors and cancer cell lines was low or absent compared with normal cells showing that a deregulation in DDA biosynthesis was associated with cancer and therefore suggesting that DDA could represent a metabolomic cancer biomarker. This prompted us to produce antibodies that selectively recognize DDA. For this purpose, the hapten 5α-hydroxy-6β-[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylamino]cholestan-3β-o-hemisuccinate with a carboxylic spacer arm attached to the 3β-hydroxyl group of DDA was synthesized. The hapten was coupled to bovine serum albumin and keyhole limpet hemocyanin for antibody production to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein conjugates were injected into BALB/c mice to raise antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies that were secreted from the hybridoma cell lines established were assessed with indirect ELISA by competitive assays using dilutions of a DDA standard. The antibodies from the selected hybridomas had an IC(50) value ranging from 0.8 to 425 ng/ml. Three antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with structurally related compounds including histamine, cholesterol, ring B oxysterols and a regio-isomer of DDA. In this study, high-affinity and selective antibodies against DDA were produced for the first time, and a competitive indirect ELISA was developed.

  20. Regulatory functions of hapten-reactive helper and suppressor T lymphocytes. I. Detection and characterization of hapten-reactive suppressor T-cell activity in mice immunized with hapten-isologous protein conjugate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Hamaoka, T; Yoshizawa, M; Kuroki, M; Kitagawa, M

    1977-01-01

    Helper and suppressor T-cell activities were detected simultaneously in the spleen cells of mice immunized with para-azobenzoate (PAB)-mouse gammaglobulin (MGG). Dinitrophenyl (DNP)-specific B cells were raised by immunization with DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and used as the indicator B-cell population. The helper and suppressor T-cell activities were determined after adoptively transferring spleen cells from PAB-MGG- primed donors and DNP-KLH-primed donors into X-irradiated recipients. Stimulation of these recipients with DNP-MGG-PAB detected helper T-cell activity, which was measured in terms of increased anti-DNP antibody responses of DNP-KLH-primed cells over these responses in the presence of unprimed cells. On the other hand, when DNP-KLH-primed cells were stimulated with DNP-KLH-PAB in the presence of PAB-MGG-primed cells, anti-DNP antibody responses were substantially lower than in unprimed normal cells. This suppressor cell population was (a) hapten-reactive, (b) present in B-cell-depleted spleen cells, (c) Thy-1 positive, (d) detectable earlier than the helper T-cell activities after priming (e) more radiosensitive than helper cells, and (f) found in the spleen but not the lymph nodes in contrast to helper T cells. These data indicate that these suppressor T cells are distinct from the helper T cells. PAB-reactive T cells clearly suppressed the antibody response by inhibiting KLH-reactive helper T-cell functions. The hapten-reactive T-lymphocyte system described here should be useful for analyzing and manipulating the immune response and for studying regulatory interactions of helper and suppressor T cells in the induction of antibody responses. PMID:68994

  1. The Alteration of the Epidermal Basement Membrane Complex of Human Nevus Tissue and Keratinocyte Attachment after High Hydrostatic Pressurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Morimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that human nevus tissue was inactivated after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP higher than 200 MPa and that human cultured epidermis (hCE engrafted on the pressurized nevus at 200 MPa but not at 1000 MPa. In this study, we explore the changes to the epidermal basement membrane in detail and elucidate the cause of the difference in hCE engraftment. Nevus specimens of 8 mm in diameter were divided into five groups (control and 100, 200, 500, and 1000 MPa. Immediately after HHP, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the presence of laminin-332 and type VII collagen, and the specimens were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. hCE was placed on the pressurized nevus specimens in the 200, 500, and 1000 MPa groups and implanted into the subcutis of nude mice; the specimens were harvested at 14 days after implantation. Then, human keratinocytes were seeded on the pressurized nevus and the attachment was evaluated. The immunohistochemical staining results revealed that the control and 100 MPa, 200 MPa, and 500 MPa groups were positive for type VII collagen and laminin-332 immediately after HHP. TEM showed that, in all of the groups, the lamina densa existed; however, anchoring fibrils were not clearly observed in the 500 or 1000 MPa groups. Although the hCE took in the 200 and 500 MPa groups, keratinocyte attachment was only confirmed in the 200 MPa group. This result indicates that HHP at 200 MPa is preferable for inactivating nevus tissue to allow its reuse for skin reconstruction in the clinical setting.

  2. Hapten-antibody recognition studies in competitive immunoassay of α-zearalanol analogs by computational chemistry and Pearson Correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhui; Luo, Pengjie; Cheng, Linli; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The molecular recognition of hapten-antibody is a fundamental event in competitive immunoassay, which guarantees the sensitivity and specificity of immunoassay for the detection of haptens. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between binding ability of one monoclonal antibody, 1H9B4, recognizing and the molecular aspects of α-zearalanol analogs. The mouse-derived monoclonal antibody was produced by using α-zearalanol conjugated to bovine serum albumin as an immunogen. The antibody recognition abilities, expressed as IC(50) values, were determined by a competitive ELISA. All of the hapten molecules were optimized by Density Function Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/ 6-31G* level and the conformation and electrostatic molecular isosurface were employed to explain the molecular recognition between α-zearalanol analogs and antibody 1H9B4. Pearson Correlation analysis between molecular descriptors and IC(50) values was qualitatively undertaken and the results showed that one molecular descriptor, surface of the hapten molecule, clearly demonstrated linear relationship with antibody recognition ability, where the relationship coefficient was 0.88 and the correlation was significant at p Pearson Correlation analysis can be used as tool to help the immunochemistries better understand the processing of antibody recognition of hapten molecules in competitive immunoassay.

  3. Study of protein haptenation by amoxicillin through the use of a biotinylated antibiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ariza

    Full Text Available Allergic reactions towards β-lactam antibiotics pose an important clinical problem. The ability of small molecules, such as a β-lactams, to bind covalently to proteins, in a process known as haptenation, is considered necessary for induction of a specific immunological response. Identification of the proteins modified by β-lactams and elucidation of the relevance of this process in allergic reactions requires sensitive tools. Here we describe the preparation and characterization of a biotinylated amoxicillin analog (AX-B as a tool for the study of protein haptenation by amoxicillin (AX. AX-B, obtained by the inclusion of a biotin moiety at the lateral chain of AX, showed a chemical reactivity identical to AX. Covalent modification of proteins by AX-B was reduced by excess AX and vice versa, suggesting competition for binding to the same targets. From an immunological point of view, AX and AX-B behaved similarly in RAST inhibition studies with sera of patients with non-selective allergy towards β-lactams, whereas, as expected, competition by AX-B was poorer with sera of AX-selective patients, which recognize AX lateral chain. Use of AX-B followed by biotin detection allowed the observation of human serum albumin (HSA modification by concentrations 100-fold lower that when using AX followed by immunological detection. Incubation of human serum with AX-B led to the haptenation of all of the previously identified major AX targets. In addition, some new targets could be detected. Interestingly, AX-B allowed the detection of intracellular protein adducts, which showed a cell type-specific pattern. This opens the possibility of following the formation and fate of AX-B adducts in cells. Thus, AX-B may constitute a valuable tool for the identification of AX targets with high sensitivity as well as for the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in allergy towards β-lactams.

  4. Interaction Between Cytochrome c and the Hapten 2,4-Dinitro-fluorobenzene by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Chu, Yan-qiu; Dai, Zhao-yun; Ding, Chuan-fan

    2008-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which results from skin exposure to low molecular weight chemicals such as haptens. To clarify the pathogenic mechanism, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange, as well as UV spectroscopy, were applied to determine the interaction between the model protein cytochrome c (cyt c) and the hapten 2,4-dinitro-fluorobenzene (DNFB). The ESI-MS results demonstrate that the conformation of cyt c can change from native folded state into partially unfolded state with the increase of DNFB. The equilibrium state H/D exchange followed by ESI-MS further confirms the above results. UV spectroscopy indicates that the strong-field coordination between iron of heme (prosthetic group) and His18 or Met80 of cyt c is not obviously affected by the hapten.

  5. Interaction Between Cytochrome c and the Hapten 2,4-Dinitro-fluorobenzene by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wu; Yan-qiu Chu; Zhao-yun Dai; Chuan-fan Ding

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which results from skin exposure to low molecular weight chemicals such as haptens. To clarify the pathogenic mechanism, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange, as well as UV spectroscopy, were applied to determine the interaction between the model protein cytochrome c (cyt c) and the hapten 2,4- dinitro-fluorobenzene (DNFB). The ESI-MS results demonstrate that the conformation of cyt c can change from native folded state into partially unfolded state with the increase of DNFB. The equilibrium state H/D exchange followed by ESI-MS further confirms the above results. UV spectroscopy indicates that the strong- field coordination between iron of heme (prosthetic group) and Hisl8 or Met80 of cyt c is not obviously affected by the hapten.

  6. Targeting medullary thyroid carcinomas with bispecific antibodies and bivalent haptens. Results and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvier, E; Gautherot, E; Meyer, P; Barbet, J

    1997-01-01

    The present article reviews the clinical trials that have been performed in recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma patients with the Affinity Enhancement System. This technique uses bispecific antibodies to target radiolabelled bivalent haptens to tumour cells. Its sensitivity in the detection of known tumour sites is high (90%) and this technique also achieves good sensitivity (61%) in the detection of occult disease as revealed by abnormal thyrocalcitonin blood levels. Due to its high targeting capacity, this technique is now considered for use as a therapeutic agent in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients.

  7. Photothermal therapy combined with dinitrophenyl hapten for the treatment of late stage malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosong; Du, Nan; Li, Haijun; Long, Shan; Chen, Dianjun; Zhou, Feifan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Fuli; Chen, Wei R.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of photothermal with dinitrophenyl hapten (DNP) for patients with malignant melanoma (MM), Patients with pathology confirmed stage III or IV MM were enrolled. Seventy-two patients were randomized into two groups, DNP alone group (n=36) and DNP plus photothermal therapy group (n=36). The results showed that the patients in the combination treatment group had longer median progression-free survival time (19.0m vs. 12.0m, p=0.007). No severe adverse events were observed in both groups. Thus, the combination of photothermal therapy and DNP maybe a new therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced MM.

  8. Extension of Light-Harvesting Ability of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) through Ultrafast Energy Transfer from Covalently Attached Artificial Chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Yusuke; Noji, Tomoyasu; Katayama, Tetsuro; Mizutani, Naoto; Komori, Daisuke; Nango, Mamoru; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Itoh, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Yutaka; Dewa, Takehisa

    2015-10-14

    Introducing appropriate artificial components into natural biological systems could enrich the original functionality. To expand the available wavelength range of photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila 10050), artificial fluorescent dye (Alexa Fluor 647: A647) was covalently attached to N- and C-terminal Lys residues in LH2 α-polypeptides with a molar ratio of A647/LH2 ≃ 9/1. Fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopies revealed that intracomplex energy transfer from A647 to intrinsic chromophores of LH2 (B850) occurs in a multiexponential manner, with time constants varying from 440 fs to 23 ps through direct and B800-mediated indirect pathways. Kinetic analyses suggested that B800 chromophores mediate faster energy transfer, and the mechanism was interpretable in terms of Förster theory. This study demonstrates that a simple attachment of external chromophores with a flexible linkage can enhance the light harvesting activity of LH2 without affecting inherent functions of energy transfer, and can achieve energy transfer in the subpicosecond range. Addition of external chromophores, thus, represents a useful methodology for construction of advanced hybrid light-harvesting systems that afford solar energy in the broad spectrum.

  9. Nickel-phendione complex covalently attached onto carbon nanotube/cross linked glucose dehydrogenase as bioanode for glucose/oxygen compartment-less biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, Aazam; Salimi, Abdollah; Hadadzadeh, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Here, [Ni(phendion) (phen)]Cl2 complex, (phendion and phen are 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione and 5-amino-1, 10-phenanthrolin) covalently attached onto carboxyl functionalized multi walls carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/MWCNTs-COOH) using solid phase interactions and combinatorial approaches.The attached [Ni(phendion) (phen)]Cl2 complex displays a surface controlled electrode process and it acts as an effective redox mediator for electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at reduced overpotentials. With co-immobilization of glucose dehydrogenase enzyme (GDH) by crosslinking an effective biocatalyst for glucose oxidation designed. The onset potential and current density are -0.1 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode and 0.550 mA cm-2, which indicate the applicability of the proposed system as an efficient bioanode for biofuel cell (BFC) design. A GCE/MWCNTs modified with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a platform for immobilization of bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and the prepared GCE/MWCNTs/AuNPs/BOD biocathode exhibits an onset potential of 0.56 V versus Ag/AgCl. The performance of the fabricated bioanode and biocathode in a membraneless enzyme based glucose/O2 biofuel cell is evaluated. The open circuit voltage of the cell and maximum current density are 520 mV and 0.233 mA cm-2, respectively, while maximum power density of 40 μWcm-2 achieves at voltage of 280 mV with stable output power after 24 h continues operation.

  10. Preparation of anti-ciguatoxin monoclonal antibodies using synthetic haptens: sandwich ELISA detection of ciguatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated a type of sodium channel activator toxin called ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50000 people each year. The extremely low level of CTXs in tainted fish has hampered the development of antibodies for the detection of these toxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against major congeners of CTX3C, 51-hydroxyCTX3C, CTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxins. We found that haptenic groups possessing a surface area larger than 400 angstroms2 were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTXs. Direct sandwich ELISA utilizing two different monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to one of the two wings of a CTX were established to detect CTXs. No cross-reactivity was observed against the other marine toxins tested, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, and maitotoxin.

  11. Mercuric mercaptide of penicillenic acid, a novel hapten for relevant immunoassay, synthesized from penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Tao, Xi; Xu, Wu; Fan, Liu-Yin; Zhang, Wei; Zhi, Yue-E; Zhou, Pei; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2010-02-28

    The synthesis of mercuric mercaptide of penicillenic acid (MMPA) has been the basis for detection of penicillin for nearly 40 years (J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1972, 24, 790; Chinese Pharmacopoeia Ed. II, 1995). Herein, experiments were performed on: (1) synthesis of MMPA used as a novel mercuric hapten, (2) preparation of mercuric antigen of MMPA-BSA, (3) production of antibodies by rabbits immunized with the antigen, and (4) properties of the antibodies studied by ELISA. The results show that: (1) the antigen is safe for immunized animals; (2) high titer antibodies against MMPA are obtained implying good immunogenicity of the antigen; (3) antisera show slightly higher affinity to OVA-GHS-HgCl than OVA-GSH, indicating weak specific affinity of antisera against mercuric ion. Even the weak specific affinity, the hapten and its antigen have potential uses in immunoassays of mercuric ion in environment and food samples, because of easy chemical selective conversion from mercuric ion to MMPA and complete decomposition of un-reacted penicillin in acidic solution.

  12. Polymerization of propene with modified constrained geometry complexes. Double-bond isomerization in pendant alkenyl groups attached to cyclopentadienyl ligands

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Polymerization of propene with dimethylsilylene-bridged (amidocyclopentadienyl) dichlorotitanium( IV) complexes [TiCl2 {eta(5)-1-(t-BuSiMe2N-kappaN)- 2,3,4- Me-3 -5- R-C-5}], where R =Me (1), H (2), Ph (3), 4-fluorophenyl (4), but-2-en-2-yl (5), and butyl (6), combined with excess methylaluminoxane revealed a moderate effect of the substituent R on the catalyst activity and the molecular weight of polypropene. The asymmetric substitution in the position adjacent to the bridging carbon atom re...

  13. Plasmon enhanced molecular absorption: A mixed quantum–classical description of supramolecular complexes attached to a metal nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megow, Jörg, E-mail: megow@physik.hu-berlin.de; May, Volkhard, E-mail: may@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Enhancement of molecular absorption was shown for J-aggregate-like coupling between molecules and MNP. • A large number of molecules is required in order to observe the molecular absorption. • Pheos Qx-band coupling to the plasmon resonance is hardly observable in the spectrum. - Abstract: The application of a mixed quantum–classical methodology for an investigation of single pheophorbide-a molecules (Pheos) and respective supramolecular complexes is continued to effects caused by a nearby placed metal nanoparticle (MNP). Therefore, the classical simulation of the molecular nuclear degrees of freedom is combined with a uniform quantum description of the molecular electronic excitations coupled to those of the MNP. To account for the short MNP plasmon life time the quantum dynamics of the electronic degrees of freedom is formulated in the framework of a system-bath theory. Linear absorption spectra are calculated for a spherical 14 nm diameter Au–MNP decorated with isolated Pheos or with P{sub 16} complexes formed by 16 Pheos. The spectra are analyzed with respect to the molecular orientation at the MNP surface. While all studies on P{sub 16} only account for the Pheo Q{sub y}-transition we also present data on the MNP induced change of the single Pheo Q{sub x}-absorption.

  14. Filling the "green gap" of the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex by covalent attachment of Rhodamine Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Kristina; Werwie, Mara; Wiegand, Sabine; Paulsen, Harald

    2009-12-01

    The major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) greatly enhances the efficiency of photosynthesis in green plants. Recombinant LHCII can be assembled in vitro from its denatured, bacterially expressed apoprotein and plant pigments. This makes it an interesting candidate for biomimetic light-harvesting in photovoltaic applications. Due to its almost 20 pigments bound per apoprotein, LHCII absorbs efficiently in the blue and red spectral domains of visible light but less efficiently in the green domain, the so-called "green gap" in its absorption spectrum. Here we present a hybrid complex of recombinant LHCII with organic dyes that add to LHCII absorption in the green spectral region. One or three Rhodamine Red dye molecules were site-specifically attached to cysteine side chains in the apoprotein and did not interfere with LHCII assembly, function and stability. The dyes transferred their excitation energy virtually completely to the chlorophylls in LHCII, partially filling in the green gap. Thus, organic dyes can be used to increase the absorption cross section and, thus, the light-harvesting efficiency of recombinant LHCII.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Hapten-Protein Conjugates for Antibody Production against Cyanogenic Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat Folashade

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cyanogenic plants can cause serious health problems for humans. The ability to detect and quantify cyanogenic glycosides, capable of generating cyanide, could contribute to prevention of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of improperly processed cyanogenic plants. Hapten-protein conjugates were synthesized with amygdalin and linamarin by using a novel approach. Polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing four New Zealand White rabbits with synthesized amygdalin-bovine serum albumin and linamarin-bovine serum albumin immunogen. This is the first time an antibody was produced against linamarin. Antibody titer curves were obtained from all the four rabbits by using a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High antibody titer was obtained at dilutions greater than 1:50,000 from both immunogens. This new method is an important step forward in preventing ingestion of toxic cyanogenic glycosides.

  16. Novel Anti-Nicotine Vaccine Using a Trimeric Coiled-Coil Hapten Carrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D Miller

    Full Text Available Tobacco addiction represents one of the largest public health problems in the world and is the leading cause of cancer and heart disease, resulting in millions of deaths a year. Vaccines for smoking cessation have shown considerable promise in preclinical models, although functional antibody responses induced in humans are only modestly effective in preventing nicotine entry into the brain. The challenge in generating serum antibodies with a large nicotine binding capacity is made difficult by the fact that this drug is non-immunogenic and must be conjugated as a hapten to a protein carrier. To circumvent the limitations of traditional carriers like keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, we have synthesized a short trimeric coiled-coil peptide (TCC that creates a series of B and T cell epitopes with uniform stoichiometry and high density. Here we compared the relative activities of a TCC-nic vaccine and two control KLH-nic vaccines using Alum as an adjuvant or GLA-SE, which contains a synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in a stable oil-in-water emulsion. The results showed that the TCC's high hapten density correlated with a better immune response in mice as measured by anti-nicotine Ab titer, affinity, and specificity, and was responsible for a reduction in anti-carrier immunogenicity. The Ab responses achieved with this synthetic vaccine resulted in a nicotine binding capacity in serum that could prevent >90% of a nicotine dose equivalent to three smoked cigarettes (0.05 mg/kg from reaching the brain.

  17. An immunoassay for dibutyl phthalate based on direct hapten linkage to the polystyrene surface of microtiter plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dibutyl phthalate (DBP is predominantly used as a plasticizer inplastics to make them flexible. Extensive use of phthalates in both industrial processes and other consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of phthalates in the environment. In order to better determine the level of pollution in the environment and evaluate the potential adverse effects of exposure to DBP, immunoassay for DBP was developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody specific to DBP was produced from a stable hybridoma cell line generated by lymphocyte hybridoma technique. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA employing direct coating of hapten on polystyrene microtiter plates was established for the detection of DBP. Polystyrene surface was first oxidized by permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid to generate carboxyl groups. Then dibutyl 4-aminophthalate, which is an analogue of DBP, was covalently linked to the carboxyl groups of polystyrene surface with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC. Compared with conjugate coated format (IC(50=106 ng/mL, the direct hapten coated format (IC(50=14.6 ng/mL improved assay sensitivity after careful optimization of assay conditions. The average recovery of DBP from spiked water sample was 104.4% and the average coefficient of variation was 9.95%. Good agreement of the results obtained by the hapten coated icELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the icELISA for the detection of DBP in certain plastic and cosmetic samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stable and efficient hybridoma cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to DBP. The hapten coated format is proposed as generally applicable because the carboxyl groups on modified microtiter plate surface enables stable immobilization of aminated or hydroxylated hapten with EDC. The developed

  18. Facial recognition of heroin vaccine opiates: type 1 cross-reactivities of antibodies induced by hydrolytically stable haptenic surrogates of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, and morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Gary R; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Mayorov, Alexander V; Beck, Zoltan; Torres, Oscar B; Alving, Carl R

    2014-03-14

    Novel synthetic compounds similar to heroin and its major active metabolites, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine, were examined as potential surrogate haptens for the ability to interface with the immune system for a heroin vaccine. Recent studies have suggested that heroin-like haptens must degrade hydrolytically to induce independent immune responses both to heroin and to the metabolites, resulting in antisera containing mixtures of antibodies (type 2 cross-reactivity). To test this concept, two unique hydrolytically stable haptens were created based on presumed structural facial similarities to heroin or to its active metabolites. After conjugation of a heroin-like hapten (DiAmHap) to tetanus toxoid and mixing with liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A, high titers of antibodies after two injections in mice had complementary binding sites that exhibited strong type 1 ("true") specific cross-reactivity with heroin and with both of its physiologically active metabolites. Mice immunized with each surrogate hapten exhibited reduced antinociceptive effects caused by injection of heroin. This approach obviates the need to create hydrolytically unstable synthetic heroin-like compounds to induce independent immune responses to heroin and its active metabolites for vaccine development. Facial recognition of hydrolytically stable surrogate haptens by antibodies together with type 1 cross-reactivities with heroin and its metabolites can help to guide synthetic chemical strategies for efficient development of a heroin vaccine.

  19. A highly sensitive immunoassay for atrazine based on covalently linking the small molecule hapten to a urea-glutaraldehyde network on a polystyrene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Na; Sun, Wenjing; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Yu, Guanggui; Huang, Guowei

    2016-11-01

    A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for atrazine was developed based on covalent bonding of the small molecule hapten, 2-mercaptopropionic acid-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (MPA-atrazine), to urea-glutaraldehyde (UGA)-treated microtiter plates. In this assay, the microtiter plate surface was treated with the UGA network to both introduce amino groups, which were used to cross-link with the hapten carboxylate groups, and efficiently prevent non-specific adsorption of antibodies, which successfully eliminated the time-consuming routine blocking step. Compared with HNO3-H2SO4-APTES-hapten coated ELISA (modified with a HNO3-H2SO4-APTES mixture and covalent-linked hapten) and conventional ELISA (coated with hapten-carrier protein conjugates), the novel ELISA format increased the sensitivity by approximately 3.5-fold and 7.5-fold, respectively, and saved 2.5h and 34h of coating hapten time, respectively. The method's 50% inhibition concentration for atrazine was 5.54ngmL(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.16ngmL(-1) after optimization of reaction conditions. Furthermore, the ELISA was adapted for analysis of atrazine in corn, rice, and water samples, demonstrating recoveries of 90%-108%. Thus, the assay provides a convenient alternative to conventional, laborious immunoassays for routine supervision of residue detection in food and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different hapten-carrier conjugation ratios and molecular orientations on antibody affinity against a peptide antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. K.; Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2006-01-01

    -based assay systems and in deciding whether a vaccine-induced antibody response will be protective. With ovalbumin as a carrier protein and a peptide (7.2NY) representing a 19 ammo acid sequence from the E. coli-derived Verotoxin 2e as a model hapten we investigated whether it was possible to influence...... the affinity and titre of antibodies raised against the hapten using different conjugation ratios and orientations. The peptide was coupled to ovalbumin in four Conjugation ratios and two molecular orientations - terminal and central - and the Conjugates were verified by mass spectrometry. Mice were immunised......, the molecular orientation of the Coupled peptide has a major effect on the anti-peptide antibody titres induced....

  1. Chemiluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Competitive Immunoassay Employing Hapten-Functionalized Quantum Dots for the Detection of Sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingfang; Wen, Kai; Beier, Ross C; Eremin, Sergei A; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new strategy for using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) by employing hapten-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) in a competitive immunoassay for detection of sulfamethazine (SMZ). Core/multishell QDs were synthesized and modified with phospholipid-PEG. The modified QDs were functionalized with the hapten 4-(4-aminophenyl-sulfonamido)butanoic acid. The CRET-based immunoassay exhibited a limit of detection for SMZ of 9 pg mL(-1), which is >4 orders of magnitude better than a homogeneous fluorescence polarization immunoassay and is 2 orders of magnitude better than a heterogeneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This strategy represents a simple, reliable, and universal approach for detection of chemical contaminants.

  2. Induction of hapten-specific tolerance of human CD8+ urushiol (poison ivy)-reactive T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, R S; Wood, J A

    1997-03-01

    The interaction of CD28 with B7 molecules (CD80 or CD86) is an essential second signal for both the activation of CD4+ T cells through the T-cell receptor and the prevention of anergy. We studied the requirement of hapten-specific human CD8+ cells for CD28 co-stimulation in recognition of hapten, and anergy induction. Urushiol, the immunogenic hapten of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), elicits a predominantly CD8+ T-cell response. Autologous PBMC were pre-incubated with urushiol prior to fixation by paraformaldehyde. Fixed antigen-presenting cells were unable to present urushiol to human CD8+ urushiol-specific T cells. Addition of anti-CD28, however, overcame this antigen-presenting defect, enabling CD8+ cells to proliferate. Fixation of antigen-presenting cells prevents upregulation of B7, and addition of anti-CD28 substitutes for this signal. Proliferation of CD8+ T cells in response to urushiol was blocked by CTLA4Ig, a recombinant fusion protein that blocks CD28/B7 interactions. Preincubation of urushiol-specific CD8+ cells with fixed PBMC + urushiol for 7 d induced anergy. Anergic CD8+ cells were viable and able to proliferate in response to IL-2, but not in response to urushiol. Induction of anergy required the presence of urushiol, and pre-incubation with irradiated PBMC + urushiol did not have this effect. It is proposed that anergy was induced by presentation of urushiol by fixed PBMC, in the absence of adequate co-stimulation signals. Induction of anergy by blocking of co-stimulation could potentially induce clinical hyposensitization to haptens.

  3. Radioimmunoassay for the teleocidins using 26 (2'-aminoethylthio)-tetrahydroteleocidin A-2 as hapten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.; Gjika, H.B.; Vunakis, H. van; Fujiki, Hirota; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    1988-09-01

    To obtain antibodies, 26 (2'-aminoethylthio)-tetrahydroteleocidin A-2 was covalently linked to bovine albumin with a carbodiimide and the resulting conjugate used for immunization of rabbits. Antibodies directed toward teleocidin were produced as measured by neutralization of teleocidin's capacity to stimulate arachidonic acid metabolism in rat liver cells (the C-9 cell line). An /sup 125/I-labeled ligand was prepared by reaction of the same derivative with radiolabeled Bolton-Hunter reagent. The antibodies bound this radiolabeled hapten, and the binding increased progressively with repeated immunizations. After absorption of the rabbit IgG with a goat anti-rabbit IgG, binding was reduced > 95%. The serologic specificity of the antiserum was characterized by measuring the inhibition of binding by several teleocidins of varying structure as well as by other tumor promoters and toxins. The rank order of inhibitory activity expressed as concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC/sub 50/) was for 26 (2'-aminoethylthio)-tetrahydroteleocidin A-2 (0.56 pmol) > teleocidin A-1 (6.5 pmol) greater than or equal to teleocidin A-2 (7.3 pmol) > (-)-indolactam-V (3.7 nmol) > teleocidin B-4 (13 nmol). Maitotoxin, aplysiatoxin, palytoxin, mezerein, okadaic acid and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate did not inhibit at the levels tested.

  4. Application of Current Hapten in the Production of Broad Specificity Antibodies Against Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-jin; YAN Chun-rong; LIU Yuan; YU Xiang-yang; ZHANG Cun-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Diethylphosphono acetic acid (DPA) was used as a current hapten to generate broad specificity polycolonal antibodies against a group of organophosphorus pesticides. Six New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with immunogens synthesized by the active ester method (AEM) or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodimide method (EDC). The titers of antisera reached 25 600 by AEM and 6 400 by EDC, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies raised against DPA were screened and selected for the competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). A CI-ELISA for DPA was developed with a detection limit of 3.536 ng mL-1 and an I50 value of 0.182 ug mL-1. The assay specificity was evaluated by obtaining competitive curves for several structurally related compounds as competitors. The antiserum showed high affinities to chlorpyrifos, diazinon, omethoate, parathion-ethyl and profenofos with I50 of 0.12, 0.15, 0.21, 0.88, 0.97 and 2.5 ug mL-1, respectively. The results indicate that the assay could be a screening tool for quantitation and semi-quantitation determination of the above former five organophosphorus pesticides.

  5. Ready Access to Proquinazid Haptens via Cross-Coupling Chemistry for Antibody Generation and Immunoassay Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A.; Mercader, Josep V.; Parra, Javier; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bioconjugate preparation is a fundamental step for antibody generation and immunoassay development to small chemical compounds. For analytical targets holding in their structure an aryl halogen atom, cross-coupling reactions may be a simple and efficient way to obtain functionalized derivatives; thus offering great potential to elicit robust and selective immune responses after being coupled to immunogenic carrier proteins. However, substitution of the halogen atom by an aliphatic chain might eventually compromise the affinity and specificity of the resulting antibodies. In order to address this issue, proquinazid, a new-generation fungicide with outstanding performance, was chosen as model analyte. Two functionalized derivatives differing in spacer arm rigidity were synthesized by Sonogashira cross-coupling chemistry. These haptens were covalently coupled to bovine serum albumin and the resulting immunoconjugates were employed for rabbit vaccination. Antibodies were tested for proquinazid recognition by direct and indirect competitive immunoassay, and IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were found, thus demonstrating the suitability of this straightforward synthetic strategy for the generation of immunoreagents to compounds bearing an aryl halide. Following antibody characterization, competitive immunoassays were developed and employed to determine proquinazid residues in grape musts, and their analytical performance was satisfactorily validated by comparison with GC–MS. Besides having described the development of the first immunochemical method for proquinazid analysis, an efficient functionalization approach for analytes comprising aryl halides is reported. PMID:26214507

  6. Ready Access to Proquinazid Haptens via Cross-Coupling Chemistry for Antibody Generation and Immunoassay Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc A Esteve-Turrillas

    Full Text Available Bioconjugate preparation is a fundamental step for antibody generation and immunoassay development to small chemical compounds. For analytical targets holding in their structure an aryl halogen atom, cross-coupling reactions may be a simple and efficient way to obtain functionalized derivatives; thus offering great potential to elicit robust and selective immune responses after being coupled to immunogenic carrier proteins. However, substitution of the halogen atom by an aliphatic chain might eventually compromise the affinity and specificity of the resulting antibodies. In order to address this issue, proquinazid, a new-generation fungicide with outstanding performance, was chosen as model analyte. Two functionalized derivatives differing in spacer arm rigidity were synthesized by Sonogashira cross-coupling chemistry. These haptens were covalently coupled to bovine serum albumin and the resulting immunoconjugates were employed for rabbit vaccination. Antibodies were tested for proquinazid recognition by direct and indirect competitive immunoassay, and IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were found, thus demonstrating the suitability of this straightforward synthetic strategy for the generation of immunoreagents to compounds bearing an aryl halide. Following antibody characterization, competitive immunoassays were developed and employed to determine proquinazid residues in grape musts, and their analytical performance was satisfactorily validated by comparison with GC-MS. Besides having described the development of the first immunochemical method for proquinazid analysis, an efficient functionalization approach for analytes comprising aryl halides is reported.

  7. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  8. Adult attachment processes: individual and couple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K

    1997-09-01

    This paper overviews a new approach to understanding the range of difficulties experienced in close attachment relationships in adulthood. Drawing on the work of Bowlby, four prototypic adult attachment patterns are defined in terms of the intersection of two underlying dimensions, the positivity of the person's self-image and the positivity of the person's image of others (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The distinct interpersonal difficulties associated with each attachment pattern are described. Findings are presented indicating that individual differences in attachment have implications for the quality of adults' romantic relationships, and that attachment theory may be helpful in understanding violent spousal relationships. Five current issues in the study of adult attachment are addressed: the stability of attachment patterns, the associations between attachment and general personality factors, the relative merits of categorical and prototype assessments of attachment, the identification of multiple attachments in adulthood, and the specificity of adult attachment patterns. It is suggested that the four-category model of adult attachment is especially sensitive to the range and complexity of attachment-related difficulties experienced in adulthood.

  9. Engineering of a hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine nanovaccine as a next-generation immunotherapeutic strategy against nicotine addiction: A focus on hapten density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zongmin; Powers, Kristen; Hu, Yun; Raleigh, Michael; Pentel, Paul; Zhang, Chenming

    2017-04-01

    Although vaccination is a promising way to combat nicotine addiction, most traditional hapten-protein conjugate nicotine vaccines only show limited efficacy due to their poor recognition and uptake by immune cells. This study aimed to develop a hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine with improved efficacy. The focus was to study the impact of hapten density on the immunological efficacy of the proposed hybrid nanovaccine. It was shown that the nanovaccine nanoparticles were taken up by the dendritic cells more efficiently than the conjugate vaccine, regardless of the hapten density on the nanoparticles. At a similar hapten density, the nanovaccine induced a significantly stronger immune response against nicotine than the conjugate vaccine in mice. Moreover, the high- and medium-density nanovaccines resulted in significantly higher anti-nicotine antibody titers than their low-density counterpart. Specifically, the high-density nanovaccine exhibited better immunogenic efficacy, resulting in higher anti-nicotine antibody titers and lower anti-carrier protein antibody titers than the medium- and low-density versions. The high-density nanovaccine also had the best ability to retain nicotine in serum and to block nicotine from entering the brain. These results suggest that the hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine can elicit strong immunogenicity by modulating the hapten density, thereby providing a promising next-generation immunotherapeutic strategy against nicotine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  11. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  12. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience.

  13. Pretargetted imaging of colorectal cancer recurrences using an 111In-labelled bivalent hapten and a bispecific antibody conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetanneau, A; Barbet, J; Peltier, P; Le Doussal, J M; Gruaz-Guyon, A; Bernard, A M; Resche, I; Rouvier, E; Bourguet, P; Delaage, M

    1994-12-01

    In 11 patients recurrence of colorectal cancer was suspected by a rise in serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (nine cases), by a subocclusive clinical situation (one case) or by endoscopy (on an anastomosis, one case). Two-step tumour targetting was performed by a first injection of 0.1 mg kg-1 of unlabelled bispecific antibody conjugate (an anti-CEA Fab' fragment chemically coupled to an anti-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (DTPA)-indium fragment) followed 4 to 5 days later by injection of the bivalent DTPA hapten labelled with 5 to 8 mCi 111In. Planar scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) 360 degrees acquisitions and whole-body scans were obtained 4.5 and 24 h after injection of the radiolabelled hapten. Biodistribution was determined for eight patients at 48 h. The final diagnosis was confirmed histologically in nine patients (eight by second-look surgery, one by laparotomy). Overall, results were one true negative (1-year follow-up) and 10 true positive; however, for the three large liver metastases (3 to 6 cm), only the periphery of the metastasis had high uptake compared to normal liver. For pelvic recurrences, immunoscintigraphic (IS) contrast was better for small tumours. The highest tumour uptake was found for a 1 cm diameter pelvic recurrence (7.2% i.d. kg-1). Mean tumour-to-blood ratios were 6.4. Thus, this two-step tumour targetting technique, which uses a bispecific antibody conjugate and an 111In-labelled bivalent hapten injected sequentially without chasing the excess bispecific antibody, provided satisfactory results in this preliminary clinical trial for detection of recurrent colorectal cancers.

  14. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  15. Impact of Substituents Attached to N-Heterocyclic Carbenes on the Catalytic Activity of Copper Complexes in the Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with Triethoxysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG, Jiajian; CHEN, Lingzhen; XU, Zheng; HU, Yingqian; LI, Jiayun; BAI, Ying; QIU, Huayu; LAI, Guoqiao

    2009-01-01

    By using functionalized imidazolium salts such as 1-allyl-3-alkylimidazolium or 1-alkyi-3-vinylimidazolium salts as carbene ligand precursors, the reduction of aryl ketones with triethoxysilane may be catalyzed by copper salt/imidazolium salt/KO~tBu systems. The functional substituents attached to the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) serve to enhance the catalytic activity. Different copper salts also have an effect on the catalytic activity, with copper(Ⅱ) acetate monohydrate being superior to copper(I) chloride.

  16. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  17. Regulatory functions of hapten-reactive helper and suppressor T lymphocytes. II. Selective inactivation of hapten-reactive suppressor T cells by hapten-nonimmunogenic copolymers of D-amino acids, and its application to the study of suppressor T-cell effect on helper T-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, T; Yoshizawa, M; Yamamoto, H; Kuroki, M; Kitagawa, M

    1977-01-01

    An experimental condition was established in vivo for selectively eliminating hapten-reactive suppressor T-cell activity generated in mice primed with a para-azobenzoate (PAB)-mouse gamma globulin (MGG)-conjugate and treated with PAB-nonimmunogenic copolymer of D-amino acids (D- glutamic acid and D-lysine; D-GL). The elimination of suppressor T-cell activity with PAB-D-GL treatment from the mixed populations of hapten- reactive suppressor and helper T cells substantially increased apparent helper T-cell activity. Moreover, the inhibition of PAB-reactive suppressor T-cell generation by the pretreatment with PAB-D-GL before the PAB-MGG-priming increased the development of PAB-reactive helper T-cell activity. The analysis of hapten-specificity of helper T cells revealed that the reactivity of helper cells developed in the absence of suppressor T cells was more specific for primed PAB-determinants and their cross-reactivities to structurally related determinants such as meta-azobenzoate (MAB) significantly decreased, as compared with the helper T-cell population developed in the presence of suppressor T lymphocytes. In addition, those helper T cells generated in the absence of suppressor T cells were highly susceptible to tolerogenesis by PAB-D- GL. Similarly, the elimination of suppressor T lymphocytes also enhanced helper T-cell activity in a polyclonal fashion in the T-T cell interactions between benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-reactive T cells and PAB- reactive T cells after immunization of mice with BPO-MGG-PAB. Thus inhibition of BPO-reactive suppressor T-cell development by the BPO-v-GL- pretreatment resulted in augmented generation of PAB-reactive helper T cells with higher susceptibility of tolerogenesis to PAB-D-GL. Thus, these results support the notion that suppressor T cells eventually suppress helper T-cell activity and indicate that the function of suppressor T cells related to helper T-cell development is to inhibit the increase in the specificity and apparent

  18. Peptide reactivity assay using spectrophotometric method for high-throughput screening of skin sensitization potential of chemical haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun Hyeok; An, Susun; Shin, Kyeho; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2013-02-01

    Haptens must react with cellular proteins to be recognized by antigen presenting cells. Therefore, monitoring reactivity of chemicals with peptide/protein has been considered an in vitro skin sensitization testing method. The reactivity of peptides with chemicals (peptide reactivity) has usually been monitored by chromatographic methods like HPLC or LC/MS, which are robust tools for monitoring common chemical reactions but are rather expensive and time consuming. Here, we examined the possibility of using spectrophotometric methods to monitor peptide reactivity. Two synthetic peptides, Ac-RWAACAA and Ac-RWAAKAA, were reacted with 48 chemicals (34 sensitizers and 14 non-sensitizers). Peptide reactivity was measured by monitoring unreacted peptides with UV-Vis spectrophotometer using 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid as a detection reagent for the free thiol group of cysteine-containing peptide or fluorometer using fluorescamine™ as a detection reagent for the free amine group of lysine-containing peptide. Chemicals were categorized as sensitizers when they induced more than 10% depletion of cysteine-containing peptide or 20% depletion of lysine-containing peptide. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of this method were 82.4%, 85.7%, and 83.3%, respectively. These results demonstrate that spectrophotometric methods can be easy, fast, and high-throughput screening tools for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemical haptens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  20. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  1. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  2. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  3. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  4. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  5. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  6. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  7. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  8. Subtoxic concentrations of allergenic haptens induce LC migration and maturation in a human organotypic skin explant culture model: A novel method for identifying potential contact allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehé, C.L.; Jacobs, J.J.L.; Hua, C.M.; Courtellemont, P.; Elliott, G.R.; Das, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    The accelerated migration of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of the epidermis and up-regulation of maturation markers, upon treatment with subtoxic concentrations of chemicals, were used as the criteria to determine the potential of allergenic chemicals capable of inducing a hapten-specific delayed-type

  9. The Synthesis of N-Morphine Hapten and Production of Monoclonal Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Those antibodies elicited by different tether site for attachment to carrier protein have different specificity. Herein we reported that a monoclonal antibody against morphine with high specificity and affinity was successfully produced by using different linkers to couple to different carrier proteins.

  10. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  11. Li+ Ion Attachment to Chloromethyl and Chlorofluoromethyl Peroxyl Radicals: Structures and Properties of CHnCl3-nO2-Li+ and CFnCl3-nO2-Li+ (n=0-3) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG, Shuang; LI, Hai-Yang; LIU, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The structures and stabilities of these still experimentally unknown CHnCl3-nO2-Li+ and CFnCl3-nO2-Li+ ions have been theoretically investigated by ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory (DFF) in conjunction with the 6-311G(d,p), 6-311 + G(d,p), 6-311 + G(2d,p) and 6-311 + G(2df,2p) basis sets. The optimized geometries, chemical bonding and NBO analysis indicate that these complexes of CHnCl3-nO2-Li+ and CFnCl3-nO2-Li+ exist as ion-dipole molecules. The calculated affinity energies of these species exceed 41.9 kJ/mol, which are large enough to suggest the possibility that these title complexes could be detected as stable species in gas phase by Li+ ion attachment mass spectrometry.

  12. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  13. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  14. Vibrational sensitivity of the subgenual organ complex in female Sipyloidea sipylus stick insects in different experimental paradigms of stimulus direction, leg attachment, and ablation of a connective tibial sense organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    We document the sensitivity to sinusoidal vibrations for chordotonal organs in the stick insect tibia (Sipyloidea sipylus). In the tibia, the scolopidial subgenual organ (~40 scolopidial sensilla), distal organ (~20 scolopidial sensilla), and distal tibial chordotonal organ (~7 scolopidial sensilla) are present. We study the sensitivity of tibial sensory organs in all leg pairs to vibration stimuli as sensory thresholds by recording summed action potentials from Nervus cruris in the femur. The tibia was stimulated with a minishaker delivering vibrational stimuli. Because different experimental procedures may affect the vibration sensitivity, we here analysed possible effects of different experimental conditions: (1) the stimulus direction delivered in either horizontal or vertical direction to the leg; (2) recording responses only from the subgenual organ complex after ablation of the distal tibial chordotonal organ, and (3) the attachment of the leg to the minishaker by plastilin, beeswax-colophony, or freely standing legs. The tibial scolopidial organs give summed responses to vibration stimuli with highest sensitivity between 500 and 1000Hz for all leg pairs. In the different experimental series, we find that (1) thresholds were influenced by stimulation direction with lower thresholds in response to vertical vibrations, (2) ablating the distal tibial chordotonal organ by cutting the distal-most tibia did not change the summed sensory thresholds significantly, and (3) the attachment material between legs and the minishaker (plastilin or beeswax-colophony mixture) did not significant influence the sensory thresholds against free-standing tarsi. The distal tibial chordotonal organ is a connective chordotonal organ attached to a tendon and is likely a proprioceptive organ. These results emphasise that vibrational thresholds are mainly direction-sensitive. Thus, the direction of stimulus delivery during electrophysiological recordings is relevant for comparisons of

  15. Chemistry of bifunctional photoprobes. 3 -- Correlation between the efficiency of CH insertion by photolabile chelating agents and lifetimes of singlet nitrenes by flash photolysis: First example of photochemical attachment of {sup 99m}Tc-complex with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandurangi, R.S.; Lusiak, P.; Kuntz, R.R.; Volkert, W.A. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rogowski, J.; Platz, M.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-11-27

    Systematic functionalization of perfluoroaryl azides with chelating agents capable of complexing transition metals produces a new class of bifunctional photolabile chelating agents (BFPCAs). The strategy is shield the azide functionality from the electronic and steric influence of the electron-rich metal Pd through ester and amide bridges raised CH insertion efficiency to unprecedented levels (>92%) in a model solvent (cyclohexane). In contrast, perfluoroaryl azides attached to chelating agents via hydrazones show no significant CH insertion in cyclohexane upon photolysis. Measurements of the lifetimes of the singlet nitrenes derived from these agents by flash photolysis techniques correlate well with the efficiency of CH insertion by demonstrating longer lifetimes (10--50 times) for singlet nitrenes derived from azidotetrafluorinated esters and amides compared with the related hydrazones, which failed to yield significant CH insertion. A representative BFPCA 12 is chelated to diagnostic radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc and covalently attached to human serum albumin via photochemical activation extending the favorable bimolecular insertion characteristics of BFPCA to tracer level concentrations in buffer conditions. Flash photolysis experiments correlate singlet nitrene lifetimes with the efficiency of intermolecular insertion reactions. This work provides new photo-cross-linking technology, useful in radiodiagnostics and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine.

  16. Supramolecular inclusion complexes between a coumarin dye and β-cyclodextrin, and attachment kinetics of thiolated β-cyclodextrin to gold surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velic, Dusan; Knapp, Martin; Köhler, Gottfried

    2001-10-01

    Supramolecular host-guest complexes formed between dye molecules, which are absorbing and fluorescing in the visible range, and cyclodextrin molecules are studied with the aim to generate a self-assembled nanostructured layer on a surface. Studies in solution show that an aminocoumarin dye, i.e. coumarin-6, binds strongly to β-cyclodextrin and yields fluorescent structures. The complex formation is substantiated by 17 nm blue shift of the fluorescence spectrum. The binding of thiolated cyclodextrin, 6-monodeoxy-6-monothio-β-cyclodextrin, to gold surface is then studied by induced change in the second-harmonic signal intensity generated from the surface. The saturation times of surface adsorption, as a measure of binding kinetics, are estimated for thiolated cyclodextrin as well as hexadecanethiol. The results support formation of self-assembled layers of the host molecules, which can serve as basis for the formation of supramolecular host-guest surface layers.

  17. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  18. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  19. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic sym

  20. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  1. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  2. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  3. IL-6 mediated isotype specific suppression of hapten specific IgE in serum of BPO-KLH sensitized mice: role of IFN alpha in maintainance of hapten specific IgE responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auci, D L; Miller, H; Chice, S M; Durkin, H G

    1994-04-01

    The ability of IL-6 or IFN alpha or antibodies to these cytokines to regulate serum levels of hapten specific immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG1, IgE, IgA) was studied in BPO-KLH (benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) sensitized BALB/c mice at the peak of a hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) response. To induce peak IgE responses, mice were injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) on days 0, 21, and 42. On day 44, mice were injected s.c. with IL-6 (100-1000 U), IFN alpha (1000-10,000 U), anti-IL-6 (100-1000 neutralizing units [NU]), or anti-IFN alpha (1000-10,000 NU). On day 46, levels of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA in serum were determined (ELISA). Data are expressed as micrograms/ml. IL-6 suppressed BPO specific IgE in serum in isotype specific fashion (to > 90%), increasing IgA (approximately 3 fold), and leaving IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IL-6 with anti-IL-6 increased serum IgE, and suppressed IgG1 (approximately 50%), with IgM and IgA unchanged, this suggests that IL-6 is an isotype specific suppressor of peak IgE responses and as such may be useful in the therapeutic management of atopic disease. IFN alpha treatment increased serum IgE levels (60%), and potentiated IgA responses (> 30 fold), with IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IFN alpha with anti-IFN alpha decreased IgE levels (approximately 50%), increasing IgA, with IgM and IgG1 unchanged, this suggests a role for IFN alpha as an isotype specific helper of peak IgE responses and in maintenance of IgA responses.

  4. Synthesis and characteristics of a novel artificial hapten using the copper mercaptide of penicillenic acid from penicillin G for immunoassay of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Xie, Peng; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi; Xi, Tao; Zhou, Pei

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis of a novel copper ion hapten using the copper mercaptide of penicillenic acid (CMPA) derived from penicillin. Results from tests with immune rabbits indicate that: (i) A new antigen synthesized with CMPA has good stability and is safe for immunizing animals with no toxic phenomena being found in animal experiments; (ii) the immunogenic antigen (CMPA-BSA) can stimulate the immune system to produce specific antibodies with high titrations, up to 150000; and (iii) antibodies in antisera showed higher affinity to OVA-GSH-CuCl than OVA-GSH, which indicates that the antibodies have specific affinity towards copper ions. These results confirm that the novel hapten and relevant antigen for copper ion have been successfully synthesized, giving progress towards an immunoassay for copper ions in environmental and food samples.

  5. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  6. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  7. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  8. An in vitro skin sensitization assay termed EpiSensA for broad sets of chemicals including lipophilic chemicals and pre/pro-haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazutoshi; Takenouchi, Osamu; Nukada, Yuko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2016-12-10

    To evaluate chemicals (e.g. lipophilic chemicals, pre/pro-haptens) that are difficult to correctly evaluate using in vitro skin sensitization tests (e.g. DPRA, KeratinoSens or h-CLAT), we developed a novel in vitro test termed "Epidermal Sensitization Assay: EpiSensA" that uses reconstructed human epidermis. This assay is based on the induction of multiple marker genes (ATF3, IL-8, DNAJB4 and GCLM) related to two keratinocyte responses (inflammatory or cytoprotective) in the induction of skin sensitization. Here, we first confirmed the mechanistic relevance of these marker genes by focusing on key molecules that regulate keratinocyte responses in vivo (P2X7 for inflammatory and Nrf2 for cytoprotective responses). The up-regulation of ATF3 and IL-8, or DNAJB4 and GCLM induced by the representative sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in human keratinocytes was significantly suppressed by a P2X7 specific antagonist KN-62, or by Nrf2 siRNA, respectively, which supported mechanistic relevance of marker genes. Moreover, the EpiSensA had sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93%, 100% and 93% for 29 lipophilic chemicals (logKow≥3.5), and of 96%, 75% and 88% for 43 hydrophilic chemicals including 11 pre/pro-haptens, compared with the LLNA. These results suggested that the EpiSensA could be a mechanism-based test applicable to broad sets of chemicals including lipophilic chemicals and pre/pro-haptens.

  9. Intracellular uptake and catabolism of anti-IgM antibodies and bi-specific antibody-targeted hapten by B-lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, C; Le Doussal, J M; Rouvier, E; Gruaz-Guyon, A; Barbet, J

    1995-10-09

    The efficiency of radioimmunotherapy with iodine-labelled antibodies is often limited by intracellular internalisation and catabolism after initial binding to the cellular targets. We have developed a technique called affinity enhancement system (AES) which uses bi-specific antibodies to target radiolabelled bivalent haptens to cells. This targeting method has been applied successfully to tumour imaging in colorectal cancer patients and is now considered for therapy. We have investigated the potential of this technique to target iodine radioisotopes by comparing it to targeting with covalently iodine-labelled antibodies in a rapidly internalising antigenic system, the surface IgM of a B-lymphoma cell line. A 5-fold increase in the intracellular retention time of activity as compared to 125I-labelled F(ab')2 or IgG was observed. The radiolabelled hapten did not undergo any catabolism after internalisation. Resistance to cellular proteases and failure of recognition of the hapten by amino acid transporter systems may be potential explanations for these observations. This should make non-covalent targeting, particularly the AES, a method of choice to target modulating antigens for the therapy of malignant hemopathies.

  10. Down-regulation of poison ivy/oak-induced contact sensitivity by treatment with a class II MHC binding peptide:hapten conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, C; Gemmell, L; McAteer, D; Homola, M; Swain, P; Liu, A; Wilson, K J; Gefter, M

    1997-03-01

    Immune regulation of contact sensitivity to the poison ivy/oak catechol was studied at the level of class II MHC-restricted T cell recognition of hapten:peptide conjugates. In this study we have shown that 1) T cells from C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice, immunized with a synthetic I-Ak binding peptide coupled to 3-pentadecyl-catechol (PDC; a representative catechol in urushiol), recognized peptides derived from syngeneic cells linked to the same catechol; 2) T cells from draining lymph nodes of C3H/HeN mice skin-painted with PDC proliferated in response to a peptide carrier:PDC conjugate only when it was linked at the 7th, but not the 4th or the 10th, position on the peptide carrier; and 3) tolerization studies confirmed down-regulation of PDC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity following treatment with a single I-Ak binding peptide carrying PDC covalently bound to a lysine residue at the middle (7th) TCR contact position. Tolerization with peptide:PDC conjugate resulted in abrogation of hapten-specific T cell proliferative responses that correlated with diminished IL-2 secretion. On the basis of these data we propose that it may be sufficient to couple the hapten at a single, well-chosen position on a carrier peptide to target a relevant population of T cells involved in contact sensitivity.

  11. Rapid extraction and quantitative detection of the herbicide diuron in surface water by a hapten-functionalized carbon nanotubes based electrochemical analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Tuteja, Satish; Kukkar, Manil; Suri, C Raman

    2012-05-21

    A solid phase extraction micro-cartridge containing a non-polar polystyrene absorbent matrix was coupled with an electrochemical immunoassay analyzer (EIA) and used for the ultra-sensitive detection of the phenyl urea herbicide diuron in real samples. The EIA was fabricated by using carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with a hapten molecule (an amine functionalized diuron derivative). Screen printed electrodes (SPE) were modified with these haptenized CNTs and specific in-house generated anti diuron antibodies were used for bio-interface development. The immunodetection was realized in a competitive electrochemical immunoassay format using alkaline phosphatase labeled secondary anti-IgG antibody. The addition of 1-naphthyl phosphate substrate resulted in the production of an electrochemically active product, 1-naphthol, which was monitored by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity having a dynamic response range of 0.01 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) for diuron with a limit of detection of around 0.1 pg mL(-1) (n = 3) in standard water samples. The micro-cartridge coupled hapten-CNTs modified SPE provided an effective and efficient electrochemical immunoassay for the real-time monitoring of pesticides samples with a very high degree of sensitivity.

  12. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  13. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  14. Synthesis of novel haptens and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of histamine in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Li, Yong-Jun; Beier, Ross C; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Lei, Hong-Tao; Wang, Hong; Shen, Yu-Dong

    2014-12-24

    Novel haptens were designed and synthesized to prepare antibodies against free histamine, but none resulted in producing suitable antibodies for developing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, an antiserum was obtained having high specificity and affinity to p-nitrobenzoylated histamine (NPHA), which can be easily formed from reaction between histamine and p-nitrobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PNBA-OSu) under mild conditions. Based on rabbit polyclonal antibodies, a competitive indirect ELISA (ciELISA) for histamine determination in foods was developed. After ciELISA and derivatization optimization, the assay showed good sensitivity, with limits of detection of 1.8 mg/kg, 93.6 μg/L, and 93.6 μg/kg in fish, red wine, and yoghurt, respectively, with negligible cross-reactivity with related biogenic amines and amino acids. Average recovery of histamine in fortified food samples ranged from 80.9% to 110.1% with coefficients of variation below 16.3%. Good correlation between the ciELISA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was obtained for spiked food samples.

  15. Hapten synthesis and development of a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acrylamide in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Shen, Yu-Dong; Lei, Hong-Tao; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Wang, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Lin

    2014-07-23

    The high level of acrylamide in widely consumed processed foods poses a potentially significant risk to human health, which has led to an increasing demand for rapid, simple, and selective analytical methods. In the present work, several haptens for acrylamide were designed in an attempt to prepare antibodies with acrylamide affinity, but they failed their purpose. However, a polyclonal antibody was produced against 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (4-MPA)-derivatized acrylamide, which showed high binding affinity to the derivative. As acrylamide easily reacted with 4-MPA at high derivation yield, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for acrylamide via a preanalysis derivatization was developed. The derivatization and ELISA conditions were fully optimized to produce a method for acrylamide assay that exhibited an IC50 of 2.86 μg/kg, limit of detection at 0.036 μg/kg, and linear range of 0.25-24.15 μg/kg. The results of preanalysis recovery tests of acrylamide-spiked food samples and screening of blind food samples by both ciELISA and HPLC-MS/MS indicated the proposed ciELISA's good accuracy and reliability. This method was thus deemed suitable for routine acrylamide screening in food samples at low cost.

  16. Cyclophosphamide-induced blood and tissue eosinophilia in contact sensitivity: mechanism of hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment into the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Chen, Q J; Sasaki, G; Yokozeki, H; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism leading to selective production and accumulation of eosinophils in certain allergic skin diseases is unknown. Cyclophosphamide treatment (150 mg/kg) of BALB/c mice 48 h before sensitization with picryl chloride (PCl) resulted in striking blood and tissue eosinophilia, maximal at 13 days. Blood eosinophilia was not induced by the sensitization with oxazolone and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Challenge with 1 % PCl, but not croton oil caused preferential eosinophil accumulation into the dermis, which was associated with the enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Intravenous administration of anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated eosinophil infiltration. In this murine model, we examined the role of several cytokines, including chemokines in inducing selective tissue eosinophilia in vivo. Local administration of antibodies against interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and RANTES, but not against IL-5 before challenge inhibited hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment. Intradermal injection of recombinant (r)IL-1beta, rIL-4, rTNF-alpha, rRANTES, and rMIP-1alpha induced marked eosinophil accumulation. Nonetheless, intradermal rIL-5 was not a chemoattractant for eosinophils in vivo. Our findings suggest that IL-1beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and RANTES contribute to the selective accumulation of eosinophils in contact sensitivity reaction. Although circulating IL-5 can activate eosinophils and prolong their survival, locally secreted IL-5 is not crucial for inducing eosinophil recruitment into the skin.

  17. Production, characterization and utility of a panel of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of toluene diisocyanate haptenated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Johnson, Victor J; Hettick, Justin M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald; Wang, Wei; Simoyi, Reuben H; Siegel, Paul D

    2011-10-28

    Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are highly reactive low molecular weight chemicals used in the manufacture of polyurethane products and are the most commonly reported cause of occupational asthma. Mechanistic disease studies and development of biomonitoring and research tools, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been hampered by dNCOs' ability to self-polymerize and to cross-link biomolecules. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), with potential use in immunoassays for exposure and biomarker assessments, were produced and reactivities characterized against mono- and diisocyanate and dithioisocyanate protein conjugates. In general, TDI reactive mAbs displayed stronger recognition of isocyanate haptenated proteins when the NCO was in the ortho position relative to the tolyl group, and were capable of discriminating between isocyanate and isothiocyanate conjugates and between aromatic and aliphatic dNCOs. Preliminary studies using TDI vapor exposed cells suggest potential utility of these mAbs for both research and biomonitoring. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. INSECURE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR INTERMINGLING TRANSFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Doris K

    2017-06-01

    There are least two different but interrelated motivational systems in human beings both of which begin in infancy: the attachment system and the separate, but interacting, psychodynamic system. Each of these systems is the basis of transference. A major focus of the paper is the affect-regulating feature of the attachment system. Infants' emotional states can be well-regulated or dysregulated as they emerge in interactions with their primary caregiver. Aberrant interactions of dysregulation typically lead to the development of insecure or disorganized attachments. Rudimentary transference fantasies initially emerge as the child makes sense or meaning about such maladaptive interactions. Our complex minds comprise multi-determined, personally organized fantasies which include those derived from both the attachment system and the psychodynamic one. I present a clinical description of how these two transference fantasies intersect in the mental life of a patient. A clinical case is offered whose focus is on enactments, transferences, and countertransference.

  19. Complex Antigens Drive Permissive Clonal Selection in Germinal Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraoka, Masayuki; Schmidt, Aaron G; Nojima, Takuya; Feng, Feng; Watanabe, Akiko; Kitamura, Daisuke; Harrison, Stephen C; Kepler, Thomas B; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2016-03-15

    Germinal center (GC) B cells evolve toward increased affinity by a Darwinian process that has been studied primarily in genetically restricted, hapten-specific responses. We explored the population dynamics of genetically diverse GC responses to two complex antigens-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and influenza hemagglutinin-in which B cells competed both intra- and interclonally for distinct epitopes. Preferred VH rearrangements among antigen-binding, naive B cells were similarly abundant in early GCs but, unlike responses to haptens, clonal diversity increased in GC B cells as early "winners" were replaced by rarer, high-affinity clones. Despite affinity maturation, inter- and intraclonal avidities varied greatly, and half of GC B cells did not bind the immunogen but nonetheless exhibited biased VH use, V(D)J mutation, and clonal expansion comparable to antigen-binding cells. GC reactions to complex antigens permit a range of specificities and affinities, with potential advantages for broad protection.

  20. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  1. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  2. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  3. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Korstanje, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to jou...

  4. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  5. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  6. A Rational Method for Probing Macromolecules Dissociation: The Antibody-Hapten System

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques, Elsa S

    2007-01-01

    The unbinding process of a protein-ligand complex of major biological interest was investigated by means of a computational approach at atomistic classical mechanical level. An energy minimisation-based technique was used to determine the dissociation paths of the system by probing only a relevant set of generalized coordinates. The complex problem was reduced to a low-dimensional scanning along a selected distance between the protein and the ligand. Orientational coordinates of the escaping fragment (the ligand) were also assessed in order to further characterise the unbinding. Solvent effects were accounted for by means of the Poisson--Boltzmann continuum model. The corresponding dissociation time was derived from the calculated barrier height, in compliance with the experimentally reported Arrhenius-like behaviour. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Contact sensitization to common haptens is associated with atopic dermatitis: new insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Engkilde, K

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: It has been much debated whether atopic dermatitis is associated with contact sensitization since past findings have conflicted. A positive association might change our clinical practice. Objective: To investigate the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization t...... of atopic dermatitis and active disease. The fundamental relationship between atopic disease and environmental chemical exposure may be of a more complex and intimate nature than previously supposed....

  8. Day Care and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Fern C.; Simmons, Carolyn H.

    1978-01-01

    The attachment behavior of 35 white, middle-class 3 1/2- to 4-year-olds who had experienced different rearing histories was observed through a series of standardized episodes involving separations and reunions with the mother and a stranger. (Author/JMB)

  9. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  10. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  11. Reactive attachment disorder--a theoretical model beyond attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Marwick, Helen; Arthur, Julie; McLaughlin, Alexis

    2006-09-01

    Despite its importance in public health, reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is an under-researched and little used clinical category. Abnormalities of social relatedness have long been documented in children who have been abused, neglected or institutionalised, but there have been more recent efforts to define these behaviours within the psychiatric nosology. There has been an implicit assumption that the central deficit in RAD is in the attachment system, but this has caused controversy and may have blocked research. We propose that RAD is better construed within the framework of intersubjectivity, which has a central role in the development of core brain and social functions and may also have had an important role in the evolution of a key human characteristic-complex social functioning. This broader framework may potentially explain apparently diverse symptoms such as indiscriminate friendliness and negative or unpredictable reunion responses. Finally, we suggest that a change of name may be useful in progressing the field, but accept that this may be difficult until there is better agreement in the clinical and scientific communities about the core features and aetiology of this disorder.

  12. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  13. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  14. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  15. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  16. Monoclonal antibody production and indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid based on novel haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guopeng; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Li, Jiaying; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Tiangang; Zhou, Xilong; Ji, Baoping; Ren, Wanpeng

    2016-10-15

    Two novel immunizing haptens of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) were synthesized and conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with above conjugates, splenocytes were fused with Sp2/0 cells to produce monoclonal antibody. Compared with previous studies, antibodies raised in this work showed higher sensitivity. Meantime, a novel heterologous coating hapten was also prepared. The indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the optimum condition showed an IC50 of 3.1μg/kg (ppb), and the linear range of 0.46-10.5ppb for MQCA. The limit of detect (LOD) of MQCA in swine muscle, swine liver and chicken was 0.32, 0.54, and 0.28ppb, respectively. The LOD of this assay can satisfy the minimum required performance levels (4ppb) for MQCA. These results indicated that the proposed ELISA, with high sensitivity and specificity, as well as good reproducibility and accuracy, is suitable for determination of MQCA residues in food samples.

  17. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  18. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  19. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  20. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  1. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  2. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  3. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  4. A study on clinical attachment loss and gingival inflammation as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specialist consultation. Key words: Clinical attachment loss, pathologic tooth migration, periodontal disease ... of incisor flaring, diastema formation, rotation, extrusion, tipping into ..... tooth migration in its advanced stage is complex, expensive,.

  5. Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Hanson, Rochelle; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nichols, Todd; Barnett, Douglas; Zeanah, Charles; Berliner, Lucy; Egeland, Byron; Newman, Elana; Lyon, Tom; LeTourneau, Elizabeth; Miller-Perrin, Cindy

    2006-02-01

    Although the term attachment disorder is ambiguous, attachment therapies are increasingly used with children who are maltreated, particularly those in foster care or adoptive homes. Some children described as having attachment disorders show extreme disturbances. The needs of these children and their caretakers are real. How to meet their needs is less clear. A number of attachment-based treatment and parenting approaches purport to help children described as attachment disordered. Attachment therapy is a young and diverse field, and the benefits and risks of many treatments remain scientifically undetermined. Controversies have arisen about potentially harmful attachment therapy techniques used by a subset of attachment therapists. In this report, the Task Force reviews the controversy and makes recommendations for assessment, treatment, and practices. The report reflects American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children's (APSAC) position and also was endorsed by the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and the Division 37 Section on Child Maltreatment.

  6. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor...... in the plural’ in the city. In particular, we stress the role assumed in such engagements by various image-making practices, as means for activists to express, share and render publicly visible a range of embodied urban attachments. Pragmatic sociology, we conclude, may contribute to a novel understanding...

  7. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  8. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  9. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place...... attachment across participants in the region showed similar spatial intensity to aggregated values home range, but area-based assessment of place attachment and values home range are distorted by edge effects such as a coastline. To further develop the mapping of place attachment in PPGIS, we identify...

  10. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  11. Attachment and Outcomes in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslim Guvendeger Doksat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term and ldquo;attachment and rdquo; is used to imply the bonding between mother and child or the relationship between parents and child. Establishment of secure attachment is the healthiest way for the mental and physical development of the child. Secure attachment system constitutes a protection mechanism from high levels of stress. Insecurely attached children are presented with mental and physical developmental delays and problems in identity formation and personality in the future. To avoid all these, all the requirements of the child by means of affection, nutrition, protection, shelter and health are required to be met in a consistent and healthy way by the caregiver. This review article discuss the term attachment; features associated with insecure attachment and its negative influences in adulthood. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 489-501

  12. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  13. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  14. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  15. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  16. Utilization of Multi-Immunization and Multiple Selection Strategies for Isolation of Hapten-Specific Antibodies from Recombinant Antibody Phage Display Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Tullila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for construction of multiple antibody libraries. Selection methods were developed to utilize the full potential of the recombinant antibody library by applying four different elution conditions simultaneously. High-throughput immunoassays were used to analyse the binding properties of the individual antibody clones. Different carrier proteins were used in the immunization, selection, and screening phases to avoid enrichment of the antibodies for the carrier protein epitopes. Novel recombinant antibodies against mycophenolic acid and ochratoxin A, with affinities up to 39 nM and 34 nM, respectively, were isolated from a multi-immunized fragment antigen-binding (Fab library.

  17. Utilization of Multi-Immunization and Multiple Selection Strategies for Isolation of Hapten-Specific Antibodies from Recombinant Antibody Phage Display Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullila, Antti; Nevanen, Tarja K.

    2017-01-01

    Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for construction of multiple antibody libraries. Selection methods were developed to utilize the full potential of the recombinant antibody library by applying four different elution conditions simultaneously. High-throughput immunoassays were used to analyse the binding properties of the individual antibody clones. Different carrier proteins were used in the immunization, selection, and screening phases to avoid enrichment of the antibodies for the carrier protein epitopes. Novel recombinant antibodies against mycophenolic acid and ochratoxin A, with affinities up to 39 nM and 34 nM, respectively, were isolated from a multi-immunized fragment antigen-binding (Fab) library. PMID:28561803

  18. Radioimmunotherapy in medullary thyroid cancer using bispecific antibody and iodine 131-labeled bivalent hapten: preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Bardet, S; Hoefnagel, C A; Vieira, M R; Vuillez, J P; Murat, A; Ferreira, T C; Bardiès, M; Ferrer, L; Resche, I; Gautherot, E; Rouvier, E; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of escalating doses of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen x anti-N alpha-(diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N''-tetraacetic acid)-In bispecific monoclonal antibody (F6-734) and iodine 131-labeled bivalent hapten were determined in a Phase I/II trial. A total of 26 patients with recurrences of medullary thyroid cancer documented by imaging and a rise in serum thyrocalcitonin were enrolled. Twenty to 50 mg of F6-734 and 40-100 mCi of 131I-hapten were injected 4 days apart. Quantitative scintigraphy was performed after the second injection for dosimetry estimations in eight cases. Clinical, biological, and morphological follow-up was carried out for 1 year after treatment. The mean percentage of injected activity per gram of tumor at the time of maximum uptake was 0.08% (range, 0.003-0.26%). The tumor biological half-life ranged from 3 to 95 days, and tumor doses ranged from 2.91 to 184 cGy/mCi. The estimated tumor-to-nontumor dose ratios were 43.8 x 53.4, 29.6 x 35.3, 10.9 x 13.6, and 8.4 x 10.0 for total body, red marrow, liver, and kidney, respectively. Grade III/IV hematological toxicity was observed in seven patients, most of them with bone metastases. Among the 17 evaluable patients, 4 pain reliefs, 5 minor tumor responses, and 4 biological responses with decrease of thyrocalcitonin were observed. Nine patients developed human anti-mouse antibody. Dose-limiting toxicity was hematological, and maximum tolerated activity was 48 mCi/m2 in this group of patients, most of whom had suspected bone marrow involvement. The therapeutic responses observed in patients mainly with a small tumor burden are encouraging for the performance of a Phase II trial with minimal residual disease.

  19. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ibrahim A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. Results In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. Conclusions The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  20. Attachment research and eating disorders: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Ruth; Dallos, Rudi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical literature which examines the association between attachment patterns and eating disorders with a focus on anorexia nervosa, and to examine the varieties of methods and measures employed in attachment research. A literature review was carried out and the relevant articles are examined in terms of their contribution to this area. The literature indicates a number of important considerations when working with this group, including extreme separation anxiety and unresolved loss and trauma, and discusses the implications of these findings for treatment. The results also indicate conflicting evidence regarding associations between attachment style and eating disorder subgroup suggesting that severity of disorder matters more than eating disorder subtype. The different ways of investigating attachment patterns and experiences are explored in this paper. It is suggested that the attachment classification system runs the risk of reducing complex human experience to typologies and that qualitative research might help to address this problem.

  1. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  2. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  3. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  4. Substratum interfacial energetic effects on the attachment of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Linnea Kathryn

    attachment of bacteria to a substratum. We use VCG to model DeltaGadh and interfacial tensions as they relate to model bacterial attachment on SAMs that accumulate cells to different degrees. Even with the more complex interactions measured by VCG, surface energy of the attachment substratum alone was insufficient to predict attachment. VCG was then employed to model attachment of C. marina to a series of SAMs varying systematically in the number of ethylene glycol residues present in the molecule; an identical series has been previously shown to vary dramatically in the number of cells attached as a function of ethylene glycols present. Our results indicate that while VCG adequately models the interfacial tension between water and ethylene glycol SAMs in a manner that predicts bacterial attachment, DeltaGadh as calculated by VCG neither qualitatively nor quantitatively reflects the attachment data. The VCG model, thus, fails to capture specific information regarding the interactions between the attaching bacteria, water, and the SAM. We show that while hydrogen-bond accepting interactions are very well captured by this model, the ability for SAMs and bacteria to donate hydrogen bonds is not adequately described as the VCG model is currently applied. We also describe ways in which VCG fails to capture two specific biological aspects that may be important in bacterial attachment to surfaces:1.) specific interactions between molecules on the surface and bacteria and 2.) bacterial cell surface heterogeneities that may be important in differential attachment to different substrata.

  5. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  6. Long-term oxytocin administration enhances the experience of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Prinsen, Jellina; Berra, Emmely; Bosmans, Guy; Steyaert, Jean; Alaerts, Kaat

    2017-04-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. Previous studies showed that a single-dose of exogenously administered OT can affect trust and feelings of attachment insecurity. With the present study, we explored the effects of two weeks of daily OT administration on measures of state and trait attachment using a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled design. In 40 healthy young adult men state and trait attachment were assessed before and after two weeks of daily intranasal OT (24 IU) or placebo using the State Adult Attachment Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Mood, social responsiveness and quality of life were additionally assessed as secondary outcome measures. Reductions in attachment avoidance and increases in reports of attachment toward peers were reported after two weeks of OT treatment. Further, treatment-induced changes were most pronounced for participants with less secure attachment towards their peers. indicating that normal variance at baseline modulated treatment response. OT treatment was additionally associated with changes in mood, indicating decreases in feelings of tension and (tentatively) anger in the OT group, not in the placebo group. Further, at the end of the two-week trial, both treatment groups (OT, placebo) reported to experience an increase in social responsiveness and quality of life, but the effects were only specific to the OT-treatment in terms of reports on 'social motivation'. In summary, the observed improvements on state and trait dimensions of attachment after a multiple-dose treatment with OT provide further evidence in support of a pivotal role of OT in promoting the experience of attachment.

  7. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  8. Electron attachment to Cl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1984-08-01

    The electron attachment rate constant for Cl 2 as a function of the mean electron energy (0.04-0.78 eV) and temperature (213-323 K) has been measured and is reported; it shows a maximum at near thermal energy and is attributed to dissociative electron attachment via the ground state 2Σ u+ of Cl 2- from the ground state 1Σ g+ of Cl 2.

  9. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  10. Discriminant validity of the adult attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, J A; Waters, E; Treboux, D; O'Connor, E O; Colon-Downs, C; Feider, O; Golby, B; Posada

    1996-10-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview is a semi-structured interview developed to investigate adults' attachment representations. Subjects are asked to describe their parents as caregivers, explain these descriptions, describe how their parents typically responded to distress, and discuss their current relationships with their parents. They are also asked to describe any significant losses and/or instances of abuse during childhood. Scoring focuses on the accessibility of early experiences to memory and the coherence and plausibility of the subject's narrative. Discriminant validity is always an important issue with such measures because IQ and other cognitively loaded variables offer plausible alternative interpretations or represent important correlates that should be treated as covariates when the measure is used. In addition, complex, multifaceted interviews always pose the risk of assessing general social adjustment rather than a more narrowly defined construct. This study examines the discriminant validity of the AAI vis(-)à-vis intelligence, social desirability, discourse style, and general social adjustment in a sample of 53 native-English-speaking, married women with preschool children. They were assessed with the AAI, a written IQ test, the Social Adjustment Scale, the Employment Experience Interview (discourse style), and a measure of social desirability. There were modest but significant correlations with IQ scores and social adjustment. There was no relation between AAI classifications and discourse style or social desirability. These results substantially strengthen the case for interpreting the AAI as an attachment-related measure.

  11. Nanotube attachment for prevention of interfacial delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Karumuri, Anil K.

    2010-09-01

    A new approach to suppressing interfacial delamination in composites has been investigated. It involves growing strongly attached nanotubes on the surface of the core phase prior to matrix infiltration. Unusually durable interfaces between epoxy and graphite have been demonstrated using this technique. Two types of graphitic core materials have been studied: complex cellular foams having open-interconnected porosity and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) providing a model flat interface. When untreated foam is infiltrated with epoxy, the resulting composite is brittle, and shatters before 10% compression. However, when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on the foam prior to epoxy infiltration, the specimen becomes pliable, and visibly flattens out rather than fracturing. Model studies on a flat graphite-epoxy interface were performed by joining two HOPG specimens with a thin layer of epoxy, and testing the flexural response of the 'seam' using the three-point bend test. The untreated HOPG sandwich fails easily, whereas nanotube-attached HOPG sandwich shows an over three times increase in flexural load-carrying capacity, close to that of seamless monolithic graphite having identical dimensions. Microscopic evaluations of fractured interfaces indicate that, in all geometries, CNT grafting prevents delamination at the graphite-epoxy interface, and forces any crack(s) to propagate through the graphitic phase. This added inter-laminar strength and toughness can be related to the hierarchical morphology of the interface created by CNT attachment, and unprecedented composite structures can be envisioned.

  12. Delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea-pig to a protein—hapten conjugate and its relationship to in vitro transformation of lymph node, spleen, thymus and peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, J. J.; Wolstencroft, R. A.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1967-01-01

    Guinea-pig delayed hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) and guinea-pig albumin-orthanilic acid (AO) was produced in the absence of detectable antibody formation to the conjugate. Ten days after sensitization the guinea-pig peripheral leucocytes, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus cell suspensions were cultured from 1 to 5 days with various concentrations of immunizing antigens, unconjugated hapten, a hapten—ovalbumin conjugate or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). All the cultures of `draining' lymph node cells, and about 40 per cent of the spleen and peripheral leucocyte cultures manifested increased lymphocyte transformation on radioautographs, and by total tritiated thymidine incorporation when stimulated by PPD or AO. In addition all the cultures responded well to PHA. However, lymphocytes from the mediastinal and cervical lymph nodes from the immunized, and most of the lymphoid organ cultures from unimmunized guinea-pigs were not stimulated by antigens but responded only to PHA. Cultured guinea-pig thymocytes did not respond to any stimulus. The in vitro lymphocyte proliferation was carrier specific. It did not occur in response to unconjugated hapten. However, the response to AO was partially inhibited in the presence of the hapten. The in vitro kinetics and morphological changes in the cultures also were investigated, and the immunological significance and specificity of lymphocyte transformation are discussed. PMID:6017286

  13. Extremely sensitive and selective antibodies against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by rational design of a structurally optimized hapten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Steffen; Weller, Michael G

    2012-02-01

    Antibodies are a promising tool for the fast and selective trace detection of explosives. Unfortunately, the production of high-quality antibodies is not trivial and often expensive. Therefore, excellent antibodies are a rare and limiting resource in fields such as biosensing, environmental analysis, diagnostics, cancer therapy, and proteomics. Here, we report the synthesis, bioconjugation, and application of the structurally optimized hapten 6-(2,4,6-trinitro)-phenylhexanoic acid to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of antibodies for the detection of one of the most important explosives, trinitrotoluene. With a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and a highly purified N-hydroxy-succinimide (NHS)-activated hapten, two rabbits were immunized to obtain polyclonal antibodies. The immunization process was monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to gain information about the progress of antibody titer and affinity. Finally, the polyclonal antibodies reached an affinity constant of (5.1 ± 0.6) × 10(9) l/mol (rabbit R1) and (2.3 ± 0.2) × 10(9) l/mol (rabbit R2). The respective assays show a minimum test midpoint (IC(50) value) of 0.1 ± 0.01 µg/l (R1) and 0.2 ± 0.02 µg/l (R2) and a working range of 0.005 to 150 µg/l (R1) and 0.007 to 200 µg/l (R2), which corresponds to more than four orders of magnitude for both. This is quite remarkable for a competitive immunoassay, which is often believed to have a narrow dynamic range. The limit of detection was calculated to 0.6 ng/l (R1) and 1.5 ng/l (R2), which is up to 100 times improvement in relation to the assay of Zeck et al. (1999) on the basis of a monoclonal antibody. The excellent selectivity of the polyclonal antibodies was comprehensively examined by determining the cross-reactivity to common explosives and other nitroaromatics including nitro musk components. The widely held belief that polyclonal antibodies generally display higher cross-reactivities than monoclonals could be disproved. Copyright

  14. A simple DNA handle attachment method for single molecule mechanical manipulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Duyoung; Arbing, Mark A; Jefferson, Robert E; Bowie, James U

    2016-08-01

    Manipulating single molecules and systems of molecules with mechanical force is a powerful technique to examine their physical properties. Applying force requires attachment of the target molecule to larger objects using some sort of molecular tether, such as a strand of DNA. DNA handle attachment often requires difficult manipulations of the target molecule, which can preclude attachment to unstable, hard to obtain, and/or large, complex targets. Here we describe a method for covalent DNA handle attachment to proteins that simply requires the addition of a preprepared reagent to the protein and a short incubation. The handle attachment method developed here provides a facile approach for studying the biomechanics of biological systems.

  15. Childhood attachment and schizophrenia: the "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric syndrome whose exact causes remain unclear. However, current scientific consensus has highlighted the importance of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive processes in the development of schizophrenic symptoms. Research over the past three decades, motivated by the findings of the World Health Organization's large-scale studies, has highlighted the importance of psychosocial adversities - including childhood abuse and neglect - in this disorder. In this paper, I propose a hypothesis based on John Bowlby's framework of attachment theory, which I have termed the attachment-developmental-cognitive (ADC) hypothesis. The ADC hypothesis integrates recent developments related to (1) existing models of schizophrenia, (2) studies examining the effect of attachment on brain biology and cognitive development, and (3) various known facts about the course and outcome of this disorder. In doing so, it explains how disturbed childhood attachment leads to core psychological and neurochemical abnormalities which are implicated in the genesis of schizophrenia and also affect its outcome. The ADC hypothesis compasses and expands on earlier formulations, such as the "social defeat" and "traumagenic" models, and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Ways of testing and refining this hypothesis are outlined as avenues for future research. Though provisional, the ADC hypothesis is entirely consistent with both biological and psychosocial research into the origins of schizophrenia.

  16. Externalizing and internalizing problems: contributions of attachment and parental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attachment and parental practices with externalizing (aggression and delinquency and internalizing (social withdrawal and anxiety/depression behavioral problems were investigated in this study. Participants were 289 children (from 9 to 12 years old and 205 caregivers who answered distinct questionnaires: the formers on attachment and the later on parental practices. Results indicated that poor maternal attachment relationships, high levels of parental rejection and being a boy predicted aggression. Moreover, poor paternal attachment and father's low education predicted social withdrawal. Finally, parental rejection was marginally associated with anxiety/depression. The results reinforce, partially, the existing literature and help to understand the complex relationship between parenting and behavioral problems.

  17. Characterization of a hapten-induced, murine model with multiple features of atopic dermatitis: structural, immunologic, and biochemical changes following single versus multiple oxazolone challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Hatano, Yutaka; Lee, Seung H; Man, Mona; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Leung, Donald Y M; Holleran, Walter; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Elias, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic dermatosis bearing clinical, histological, and immunologic similarities to chronic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). AD shows a Th2 cell-dominant inflammatory infiltrate, elevated serum IgE levels, a permeability barrier abnormality, and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Repeated hapten challenges reportedly produce a Th2-like hypersensitivity reaction (Th2-like HR). Here, 9-10 challenges with oxazolone (Ox) to hairless mice also produced a chronic Th2-like HR. Permeability barrier function and expression of differentiation proteins, filaggrin, loricrin, and involucrin, became abnormal. CRTH-positive Th2-dominant inflammatory infiltrate, with increased IL-4 expression, and a large increase in serum IgE levels were observed. The barrier abnormality was associated with decreased stratum corneum (SC) ceramide content and impaired lamellar body secretion, resulting in abnormal lamellar membranes, as in human AD. Furthermore, as in human AD, epidermal serine protease activity in SC increased and expression of two lamellar body-derived antimicrobial peptides, CRAMP and mBD3, declined after Ox challenges, paralleling the decrease of their human homologues in AD. Thus, multiple Ox challenges to normal murine skin produce a chronic Th2-like HR, with multiple features of human AD. Because of its reproducibility, predictability, and low cost, this model could prove useful for evaluating both pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapies for AD.

  18. Improved performance of Brucella melitensis native hapten over Brucella abortus OPS tracer on goat antibody detection by the fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C; Díaz-Aparicio, E; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Morales-Loredo, A; Alvarez-Ojeda, G; Gomez-Flores, R

    2008-06-15

    The current method for goat brucellosis diagnosis is based on the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) using the screening card test (CT), with antigen at 8% (CT8) or 3% (CT3) of cell concentrations, and the confirmatory complement fixation test (CFT). However, these tests do not differentiate antibodies induced by vaccination from those derived from field infections by Brucella species or other bacterial agents; in places like Mexico, where the prevalence of brucellosis and the vaccination rates are high, there is a considerable percentage of false positive reactions that causes significant unnecessary slaughter of animals. Furthermore, results of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide (OPS) tracer in goats are poorer than those with cattle. The present study was undertaken to investigate a tracer prepared from the native hapten (NH) of the Rev. 1 strain of Brucella melitensis to improve FPA performance on goat brucellosis diagnosis. Evaluation of 48 positive samples and 96 negative samples showed that the NH tracer was more accurate (pgoat sera samples selected by test series approved by the OIE (card test 3% and CFT). We demonstrated a new application for the NH lipopolysaccharide on detecting antibodies against Brucella using the FPA, which may yield faster results (minutes vs. 24-72h) than the immunodiagnosis assays frequently used in bovine brucellosis. In addition, NH tracer produces similar or better performance results than the conventional OPS tracer, using the FPA in goat sera samples.

  19. Attachment Processes in Eating Disorder and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Detke, Holland; Kobak, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women (N=61). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. Findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward…

  20. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  1. Bar overdentures utilizing the Locator attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A L; Kurtzman, G M

    2001-01-01

    Implant-retained overdentures are a restorative option for both the fully and partially edentulous arches. A new attachment, the Locator, which features a reduced interarch requirement and the advantage of built-in guide planes providing precise insertion, is described. The Locator is an advancement in attachment technology, with an improved design combined from the best features of a ball attachment, an ERA attachment, and a cap attachment.

  2. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a

  3. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  4. Attachment-Focused Psychotherapy and the Wounded Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.

  5. Attachment Perspectives on Classroom Relationships: Helping Ourselves through Helping Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Recent research showing complex interactions between personality, experience, expectancies, values and career choice indicate that a prospective psychodynamic approach, via attachment theory, may yield important complementary motivational information. In this study, an unconscious need for a corrective emotional experience (CEE) driving the…

  6. Analysis strategies for longitudinal attachment loss data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J D; Elter, J R

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this invited review is to describe and discuss methods currently in use to quantify the progression of attachment loss in epidemiological studies of periodontal disease, and to make recommendations for specific analytic methods based upon the particular design of the study and structure of the data. The review concentrates on the definition of incident attachment loss (ALOSS) and its component parts; measurement issues including thresholds and regression to the mean; methods of accounting for longitudinal change, including changes in means, changes in proportions of affected sites, incidence density, the effect of tooth loss and reversals, and repeated events; statistical models of longitudinal change, including the incorporation of the time element, use of linear, logistic or Poisson regression or survival analysis, and statistical tests; site vs person level of analysis, including statistical adjustment for correlated data; the strengths and limitations of ALOSS data. Examples from the Piedmont 65+ Dental Study are used to illustrate specific concepts. We conclude that incidence density is the preferred methodology to use for periodontal studies with more than one period of follow-up and that the use of studies not employing methods for dealing with complex samples, correlated data, and repeated measures does not take advantage of our current understanding of the site- and person-level variables important in periodontal disease and may generate biased results.

  7. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  8. Use of the Brucella melitensis native hapten to diagnose brucellosis in goats by a rapid, simple, and specific fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, Carlos; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva

    2008-06-01

    The performance of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the recently described Brucella melitensis native hapten and the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide tracer was evaluated and compared with those of The World Organization for Animal Health tests related to indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as classification variables for goat sera obtained from a high-prevalence area where vaccination was performed; test series were also evaluated to increase the final specificity of the tests. Our results showed that the respective relative sensitivity and specificity were 99.7% and 32.5% for the rose Bengal test with a 3% cell concentration (RBT3), 92.8% and 68.8% for the rose Bengal test with 8% cell concentration (RBT8), 98.4% and 84.9% for the Canadian complement fixation test (CFT), 83.7% and 65.5% for the Mexican CFT, 98.4% and 81.0% for the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and 78.1% and 89.3% for the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA). The use of the FPA as the secondary test significantly increased the final specificities of test combinations; the screening tests BPAT, RBT3, and RBT8 plus FPA resulted in 90%, 91.2%, and 91.3% final specificities, respectively, whereas for the combinations RBT3 plus Mexican CFT, RBT8 plus Mexican CFT, and BPAT plus Canadian CFT, the specificities were 65.5%, 63.2%, and 91.7%, respectively. The results suggested that the FPA may be routinely applied as an adaptable screening test for diagnosis of goat brucellosis, since its cutoff can be adjusted to improve its sensitivity or specificity, it is a rapid and simple test, it can be the test of choice when specificity is relevant or when an alternative confirmatory test is not available, and it is not affected by vaccination, thus reducing the number of goats wrongly slaughtered due to misdiagnosis.

  9. Attachable rock bolters for roadheaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibezahn, K. [Wirth Maschinen- und Bohrgeraete-Fabrik GmbH, Erkelenz (Germany); West, M. [Deilmann-Haniel Mining Systems GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Roadheaders are used in mining and tunnelling in medium hard rock formations. The excavated space is made safe either by NATM-technology or a steel support system. The application of a rock bolting system up to now was restricted to formations that can cope with at least some support lag. A new system was developed in close cooperation between WIRTH Maschinen- und Bohrgeraetefabrik GmbH and deilmann-haniel mining systems gmbh that allows to carry out rock bolting with two drill rigs whicht are attached to the cutting boom of the roadheader even in front of the cutter head directly after cutting. Alternatively a robot may be attached to above named system that enables remotely controlled shot-creting close to the face.

  10. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  11. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

  12. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  14. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family ... Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female) from each family. ... (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.

  15. Conflicting attachment and the growth of bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Chung; Weitz, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Simple growth mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emergence of seemingly universal network structures. The widely-studied model of preferential attachment assumes that new nodes are more likely to connect to highly connected nodes. Preferential attachment explains the emergence of scale-free degree distributions within complex networks. Yet, it is incompatible with many network systems, particularly bipartite systems in which two distinct types of agents interact. For example, the addition of new links in a host-parasite system corresponds to the infection of hosts by parasites. Increasing connectivity is beneficial to a parasite and detrimental to a host. Therefore, the overall network connectivity is subject to conflicting pressures. Here, we propose a stochastic network growth model of conflicting attachment, inspired by a particular kind of parasite-host interactions: that of viruses interacting with microbial hosts. The mechanism of network growth includes conflicting preferences to network dens...

  16. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Apgar scores are 7 or greater at both 1 and 5...status, indications for cesarean delivery, anesthesis, and infant’s gestational age, birth weight, and apgar scores . Prior to meeting the father, the...delivery and attachment score ; highest school grade completed and attachment score ; and age and child care experience of the father and attachment score

  17. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  18. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recommendations for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susanna H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, explores a unique counseling relationship. Examines how the quality of parent-child attachment and care of a child during the formative preschool years affects interpersonal relationship skills and school adjustment. Discusses reactive attachment disorders, the pervasiveness of attachment disorders, and recommendations for…

  19. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups sho

  20. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  1. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  2. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  3. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  4. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  5. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  6. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  7. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966-2013), Sciencedirect (1970-2013), Psychindex (1980-2013), and Pubmed (1980-2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  8. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  9. Brushite cement additives inhibit attachment to cell culture beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Parastoo; Bridson, Rachel H; Wright, Adrian J; Grover, Liam M

    2013-05-01

    Brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements are of great interest as bone replacement materials because they are resorbable in physiological conditions. Cell-attached culture beads formed from this material could be of great use for cell therapy. Despite a significant amount of work on optimizing the physicochemical properties of these materials, there are very few studies that have evaluated the capacity of the materials to facilitate cell adhesion. In this study, we have formed resorbable calcium phosphate (brushite) culture beads and for the first time we showed that cell attachment to the surface of the brushite cement (BC) could be inhibited by the presence of an intermediate dicalcium phosphate-citrate complex, formed in the cement as a result of using citric acid, a retardant and viscosity modifier used in many cement formulations. The BC beads formed from the mixture of β-TCP/orthophosphoric acid using citric acid did not allow cell attachment without further treatment. Ageing of BC beads in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) solution at 37°C for 1 week greatly enhanced the cell adhesion capacity of the material. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confocal Raman microspectrometry indicated the increased capacity for cell adhesion was due to the changes in phase composition of BC. XRD patterns collected before and after ageing in aqueous solution and a high initial mass loss, suggest the formation of a dicalcium phosphate-citrate complex within the matrix. Since compacts formed from brushite powder supported cell attachment, it was hypothesized that the dicalcium phosphate-citrate complex prevented attachment to the cement surface.

  10. Electron attachment to F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christophorou, L. G.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Pichiarella, L.

    1986-08-01

    The rate constant ka for electron attachment to F2 has been measured at ambient (298 K) temperature T in the buffer gas Ar over the mean electron energy range 0.40-2.95 eV; similar measurements were made at T=233, 298, and 373 K in the buffer gas N2 over the range 0.04-0.75 eV. The ka() function attains a maximum value of 1.7×10-8 cm3 s-1 (T=298 K) at ˜0.04 eV and decreases monotonically with increasing above thermal energy; the magnitude of ka increases only slightly with increasing T. The ka() data at 298 K were unfolded and the resultant cross section σa(ɛ) shows a main maximum at ˜0.0 eV, a shoulder at ˜0.5 eV, and a weak maximum at ˜1.1 eV. Possible electron attachment processes are discussed to account for the energy dependence of σa(ɛ). Also discussed, in the light of the present measurements, are published experimental and theoretical results on ka() and σa(ɛ).

  11. Structural insights into calicivirus attachment and uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhella, David; Gatherer, Derek; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Pink, Rebecca; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family comprises positive-sense RNA viruses of medical and veterinary significance. In humans, caliciviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, while in animals respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, and hemorrhagic disease are documented. Investigation of virus-host interactions is limited by a lack of culture systems for many viruses in this family. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the Vesivirus genus, provides a tractable model, since it may be propagated in cell culture. Feline junctional adhesion molecule 1 (fJAM-1) was recently identified as a functional receptor for FCV. We have analyzed the structure of this virus-receptor complex by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, combined with fitting of homology modeled high-resolution coordinates. We show that domain 1 of fJAM-1 binds to the outer face of the P2 domain of the FCV capsid protein VP1, inducing conformational changes in the viral capsid. This study provides the first structural view of a native calicivirus-protein receptor complex and insights into the mechanisms of virus attachment and uncoating.

  12. Less is more: removing membrane attachments stiffens the RBC cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gov, Nir S [Department of Chemical Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2007-11-15

    The polymerized network of the cytoskeleton of the red-blood cell (RBC) contains different protein components that maintain its overall integrity and attachment to the lipid bilayer. One of these key components is the band 3-ankyrin complex that attaches the spectrin filaments to the fluid bilayer. Defects in this particular component result in the shape transformation called spherocytosis, through the shedding of membrane nano-vesicles. We show here that this transition and membrane shedding can be explained through the increased stiffness of the network when the band 3-ankyrin complexes are removed. ATP-induced transient dissociations lead to network softening, which offsets the stiffening to some extent, and causes increased fragility of these mutant cells, as is observed.

  13. Wear simulation effects on overdenture stud attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wear effects on overdenture resilient attachments. Six commercially available attachments were investigated: ERA orange and white (EO and EW), Locator pink, white and blue (LRP, LRW and LRB) and OP anchor (OP). Five specimens were used for wear simulation while other two specimens served as controls. Fifteen thousands insertion-removal cycles were simulated. Dimensional changes and surface characteristics were evaluated using light microscopy and SEM, respectively. Sudden decrease of retentive force was characteristic for EO and EW attachments. Retentive force of Locator attachments fluctuated throughout the wear simulation period. Dimensional changes and surface wear was more expressed on plastic cores than on plastic rings of attachment males. Based on SEM analysis, some of the specimens obtained smoother surface after wear simulation. Mechanism of retention loss of resilient overdenture attachments can be only partially explained by dimensional changes and surface alterations.

  14. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric; Janko Medjedovic

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic persona...

  15. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  16. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...

  17. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  19. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  20. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  1. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  2. Radioimmunotherapy of small cell lung carcinoma with the two-step method using a bispecific anti-carcinoembryonic antigen/anti-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) antibody and iodine-131 Di-DTPA hapten: results of a phase I/II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillez, J P; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Moro, D; Bardiès, M; Douillard, J Y; Gautherot, E; Rouvier, E; Barbet, J; Garban, F; Moreau, P; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    As small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is frequently a widespread disease at diagnosis, highly radiosensitive and often only partially responsive to chemotherapy, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) would appear to be a promising technique for treatment. We report the preliminary results of a Phase I/II trial of RIT in SCLC using a two-step method and a myeloablative protocol with circulating stem cells transplantation. Fourteen patients with proved SCLC relapse after chemotherapy were treated with RIT. They were first injected i.v. with a bispecific (anti-carcinoembryonic antigen/anti-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) monoclonal antibody (20-80 mg in 100 ml of saline solution) and then 4 days later with di-(In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-tyrosyl-lysine hapten labeled with 1.48-6.66 GBq (40-180 mCi) of I-131 and diluted in 100 ml of saline solution. In patients receiving 150 mCi or more, circulating stem cells were harvested before treatment and reinfused 10-15 days later. Treatment response was evaluated by CT and biochemical data during the month before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. All patients received the scheduled dose without immediate adverse reactions to bispecific antibody or 1-131 hapten. Toxicity was mainly hematological, with two cases of grade 2 leukopenia and three cases of grade 3 or 4 thrombopenia. Body scanning 8 days after injection of the radiolabeled hapten generally showed good uptake at the tumor sites. Estimated tumor dose was 2.6-32.2 cGy/mCi. Among the 12 patients evaluated to date, we have observed 9 progressions, 2 partial responses (one almost complete for 3 months), and 1 stabilization of more than 24 months. Efficiency and toxicity were dose-related. The maximal tolerable dose without hematological rescue was 150 mCi. These preliminary results are encouraging, and dose escalation is currently continuing to reach 300 mCi. RIT should prove to be an interesting therapeutic method for SCLC, although repeated injections and

  3. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H

    2008-04-01

    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-alpha84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling.

  4. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  5. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  6. Attachment, emotion regulation and adult crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Laan, A.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment serves to facilitate the contact with and proximity to the primary caregiver, in that way contributing to a safe exploration of the environment. However, due to inconsistencies in the reaction of the caregiver or her/his absence, insecure attachment styles may develop. This chapter summar

  7. Attachment Disorder, Basic Trust and Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael G.; Newnham, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The label Attachment Disorder (AD) is used as either a description of a child's presentation, or as a diagnostic category. It is unclear whether this label is intended to be identical with the DSM-IV Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) diagnostic category, or if it is a separate diagnosis based on Randolph's Questionnaire and the premises…

  8. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  9. Forgiveness and health: The role of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler-Row, K.A.; Hyatt-Edwards, L.; Wünsch, K.L.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment was examined for its association to forgiveness and health. Young adults were interviewed about a time of conflict with a parent; during rest and interview periods, readings of blood pressure and heart rate were taken. Participants completed surveys of forgiveness, attachment, relationshi

  10. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  11. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  13. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  14. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  15. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy pr

  16. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  17. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic personality trait, was estimated by the Delta 10 test. The results of Principal component analysis showed that attachment dimensions are not separate constructs in relation to basic personality traits. Furthermore, results indicate that attachment dimensions represent emotional dysregulation in close interpersonal relationships, because positive correlations are found between dimensions of Attachment and Mania (.35, Anxiety (.51 and Depression (.55. Negative correlations have been obtained between Attachment and Positive emotions (-.34 and Feelings (-.31. These results suggest that Attachment dimensions should be considered as an expression of basic personality traits in romantic adult's relationships.

  18. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  19. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  20. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  1. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  2. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  3. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  4. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups.

  5. Security of attachment and preschool friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K A; Waters, E

    1989-10-01

    Attachment theory proposes that the quality of the mother-child tie predicts the quality of a child's other close relationships. The purpose of this study was to test whether security of attachment to mother is related to the quality of a preschooler's best friendships. 33 4-year-old and their best friends participated (mean age = 46 months). Attachment Q-set data were collected to score security of mother-child attachment. Security data were used to classify the friend pairs as secure-secure or secure-insecure. Best friend dyads were observed for a 1-hour free-play session. Each pair's behavior was described with the Dyadic Relationships Q-set, a measure designed to describe the behavior of a pair of children. Secure-secure pairs were more harmonious, less controlling, more responsive, and happier than secure-insecure pairs. The results are related to previous work on attachment and social competence.

  6. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  7. Attachment Theory and Concepts of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane F. Reinert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We replicated and extended Buri and Mueller’s study, which tested whether one’s God concept is primarily self- or parent-referenced. Following their findings, we predicted that God concepts would primarily be self-referenced. However, we also predicted, in line with attachment theory, that God concepts would be influenced to some degree by attachment to mother. We found our predicted result in a sample of university students (N = 223. However, when we examined the question by gender, we found significantly different patterns. Concepts of God as Loving, Controlling, and Distant were self-referenced in women but were not so in men. In men, Loving God was predicted primarily by attachment to mother, Controlling God was referenced to attachment to both parents, and Distant God was related to a combination of viewing self as distant and experiencing parental attachment difficulties, primarily with father.

  8. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Attachment, borderline personality, and romantic relationship dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. Study 2 consisted of a psychiatric sample (N = 138) aged 21-60. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 demonstrated that (1) attachment was specifically related to BPD symptoms and romantic dysfunction, (2) BPD symptoms were specifically associated with romantic dysfunction, and (3) the association between attachment and romantic dysfunction was statistically mediated by BPD symptoms. The findings support specific associations among attachment, BPD symptoms, and romantic dysfunction.

  10. Immunohistology of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-expressing tumors grafted in nude mice after radioimmunotherapy with 131I-labeled bivalent hapten and anti-CEA x antihapten bispecific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautherot, E; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Daniel, L; Fiche, M; Rouvier, E; Saï-Maurel, C; Thedrez, P; Chatal, J F; Barbet, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a pretargeting strategy, called the Affinity Enhancement System (AES), which uses bispecific antibodies (BsF(ab')2) to target radiolabeled bivalent haptens to tumor cells. We performed several radioimmunotherapy (RIT) experiments in nude mice grafted with LS174T colon carcinoma or TT medullary thyroid cancer. Mice were treated with 131I-labeled di-DTPA-indium-tyrosyl-lysine bivalent hapten (75-112 MBq) administered 15-48 h after anti-CEA x anti-DTPA-indium BsF(ab')2. Immunohistological studies were performed on tumors at their minimal relative volume (TT), on stabilized tumor nodules (LS174T), and on regrowing tumors (TT and LS174T). Untreated tumors were used as controls. On microscopic examination, regrowing tumors (2 months posttherapy) were similar to untreated tumors with cells showing their respective typical morphology (large cells with a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio for TT, small and very undifferentiated cells for LS174T). However, regrowing tumors showed larger necrotic areas and a higher mitotic index correlated with Ki-67 antigen staining. Immunostaining for CEA was as strong as for controls. By contrast, the immunohistology of TT tumors at their minimal relative volume (1 month posttherapy) or of LS174T residual nodules (8 months posttherapy) showed decreased mitotic indices correlated with poor Ki-67 antigen staining. Some clusters of LS174T presented with features of glandular lumen, which suggested a more differentiated and less aggressive status. In TT tumors, CEA expression remained unchanged (80-100% membrane and cytoplasmic staining), whereas only 70% of the LS174T tumors were stained, with 58% loss of the membrane expression. Repeated treatment early after the tumor has reached its minimal relative volume should thus be efficient and improve the overall efficacy of AES RIT.

  11. An exploration of family dynamics and attachment strategies in a family with ADHD/conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Smart, Cordet

    2011-10-01

    This article reports the preliminary findings of a study of attachment patterns and relationship themes using the TAAI (Transition to Adulthood Attachment Interview), AAI (Adult Attachment Interview) and family interviews (based on the first of 15 families). Research data is presented on a young man aged 16 with a diagnosis of ADHD and his family. Individual interviews, attachment interviews, and family interviews were conducted in order to explore the link between family dynamics, ADHD and attachment strategies. In contrast to findings from existing research indicating pre-occupied patterns for young people diagnosed with ADHD, the young man displayed a complex 'disoriented' attachment pattern which primarily featured a dismissive strategy. However, this was combined with pre-occupied patterns triggered by intrusions from unresolved traumas and memories of his parents' continuing unresolved conflicts. His sense of confusion and lack of a coherent strategy appeared to be closely related to his position of being triangulated into his parents' conflicts. Trans-generational processes were also influential, in that the parents' corrective intentions at more positive parenting were impeded by their own lack of experience of positive attachments in their own childhoods. The study emphasizes the need to consider the relationship between attachment patterns and problems within wider systemic process in the family, in particular triangulation and corrective scripts.

  12. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  13. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Watkins, Daphne C.; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM’s sexual behavior. PMID:27570578

  14. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  15. Crystallization by Particle Attachment in Synthetic, Biogenic, and Geologic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, James J.; Gilbert, Pupa U.; Sommerdijk, Nico; Penn, R. Lee; Whitelam, Stephen B.; Joester, Derk; Zhang, Hengzhong; Rimer, Jeffrey D.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Banfield, Jillian F.; Wallace, Adam F.; Michel, F. M.; Meldrum, Fiona C.; Colfen, Helmut; Dove, Patricia M.

    2015-07-31

    Field and laboratory observations show that crystals commonly form by the addition and attachment of particles that range from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanoparticles. These non-classical pathways to crystallization are diverse, in contrast to classical models that consider the addition of monomeric chemical species. We review progress toward understanding crystal growth by particle attachment processes and show that multiple pathways result from the interplay of free energy landscapes and reaction dynamics. Much remains unknown about the fundamental aspects; particularly the relationships between solution structure, interfacial forces, and particle motion. Developing a predictive description that connects molecular details to ensemble behavior will require revisiting long-standing interpretations of crystal formation in synthetic systems and patterns of mineralization in natural environments.

  16. [Ligamento-periostosis of the attachment of the patellar ligament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, V P

    1989-08-01

    The analysis of 1140 observations of ligamento-periostosis of the apex of the patella (the proximal attachment of its proper ligament) revealed that it was rather frequently present (3.1%) in the latent form during the prophylactic examinations of sportsmen, which constituted an important part (7.6%) in the structure of the diseases of the locomotor system. It was confirmed that the disease depended on the intensity of the loads and on the age of the patients. Early (at the preclinical stage) treatment allows to reduce the transition of the latent course of the disease into its clinical forms down to 6%. The administration of a complex treatment with novocaine electrophoresis and vitamin R12, drug blocks of the pathologic foci at the site of the attachment of the ligament and differential correction of the static and dynamic loads provide for steady healing without recurrences and relapses of the disease in 89% of the patients.

  17. Tracing detached and attached care practices in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of skills labs in Danish nursing education can, in itself, be viewed as a complexity. The students are expected to eventually carry out their work in a situated hospital practice, but they learn their professional skills in a different space altogether, detached and removed from...... of care are not explicated in the curriculum or textbooks; however, they surfaced once this crooked approach to studying care in a simulated practice was applied. The article starts from the assertion that detached engagements are not recognized within the field of nursing education as an equal component...... to attachments. Yet empirical cases from the skills lab and hospitals illustrate how students sometimes felt emotionally attached to plastic dummies and how experienced nurses sometimes practised a degree of detachment in relation to human patients. Detached engagements will therefore be presented as part...

  18. Predicting the growth of new links by new preferential attachment similarity indices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ke Hu; Ju Xiang; Xiao-Ke Xu; Hui-Jia Li; Wan-Chun Yang; Yi Tang

    2014-03-01

    By revisiting the preferential attachment (PA) mechanism for generating a classical scale-free network, we propose a class of novel preferential attachment similarity indices for predicting future links in evolving networks. Extensive experiments on 14 real-life networks show that these new indices can provide more accurate prediction than the traditional one. Due to the improved prediction accuracy and low computational complexity, these proposed preferential attachment indices can be helpful for providing both instructions for mining unknown links and new insights to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive the network evolution.

  19. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  20. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  1. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  2. An attachment research perspective on ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissgen, Ruediger; Franke, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of clinical attachment research in the mid-1980s the number of research projects in this area has been continuously increasing. The research questions so far can be allocated to numerous medical disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine, adult psychiatry or child and adolescent psychiatry. Recently, children with ADHD and their families have also become subjects of this branch of research. Their specific behavioral characteristics from early childhood on constitute unique challenges on the parent-child interaction. If these interactions develop in a suboptimal way, children may develop an insecure or even a disorganized attachment quality. The latter represents a risk factor for a clinically significant psychopathological development.This article initially presents basic principles of attachment theory and discusses the relevance of the cardinal symptoms of ADHD for clinical attachment research. Subsequently, it outlines and discusses the main results of existing research regarding attachment and ADHD. It concludes with a perspective on research questions that need to be addressed in the future with regard to a transgenerational model that highlights the importance of parental attachment representations to the development of children's attachment quality.

  3. Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C S

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review existing behavioral and neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Both love and social attachments function to facilitate reproduction, provide a sense of safety, and reduce anxiety or stress. Because social attachment is an essential component of love, understanding attachment formation is an important step toward identifying the neurobiological substrates of love. Studies of pair bonding in monogamous rodents, such as prairie voles, and maternal attachment in precocial ungulates offer the most accessible animal models for the study of mechanisms underlying selective social attachments and the propensity to develop social bonds. Parental behavior and sexual behavior, even in the absence of selective social behaviors, are associated with the concept of love; the analysis of reproductive behaviors, which is far more extensive than our understanding of social attachment, also suggests neuroendocrine substrates for love. A review of these literatures reveals a recurrent association between high levels of activity in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the subsequent expression of social behaviors and attachments. Positive social behaviors, including social bonds, may reduce HPA axis activity, while in some cases negative social interactions can have the opposite effect. Central neuropeptides, and especially oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated both in social bonding and in the central control of the HPA axis. In prairie voles, which show clear evidence of pair bonds, oxytocin is capable of increasing positive social behaviors and both oxytocin and social interactions reduce activity in the HPA axis. Social interactions and attachment involve endocrine systems capable of decreasing HPA reactivity and modulating the autonomic nervous system, perhaps accounting for health benefits that are attributed to loving relationships.

  4. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Märk, T. D.

    1996-10-01

    Highly monochromatized electrons (with 30 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters \\(O2\\)n at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2 eV. At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction \\(O2\\)n+e-->O-2 rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to \\(O2\\)n. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations.

  5. Combined Prosthesis with Extracoronal Castable Precision Attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfactory restoration in a patient with a partially edentulous situation can be challenging especially when unilateral or bilateral posterior segment of teeth is missing. Successful restoration can be done with various conventional and contemporary treatment options. One such treatment modality is attachment-retained cast partial dentures. This paper describes a case report of a patient with maxillary bilateral distal extension edentulous span restored with a cast partial denture having an extracoronal castable precision attachment (RHEIN 83 OT CAP attachments system.

  6. On the attached length of orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Yudin, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    The attached length of orifices in reactive mufflers has been estimated based on numerical calculations by the finite-element method. The numerical results for a diaphragm in a duct are compared with the theoretical data obtained by Rayleigh, Fock, Karal, and Ingard. The dependence of the attached length on the diaphragm thickness is given. The results obtained are generalized for the case in which the orifice is a Helmholtz resonator neck. The effect of the resonator length on the attached length of the neck is analyzed.

  7. Give Them Roots, Then Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Carole A., Ed.

    This book describes attachment theory, presents the attachment therapy program in place at the Evergreen Attachment Center at Evergreen, Colorado, and examines the implications of attachment therapy. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Carole A. McKelvey, John Alston); (2) "Attachment Theory and Assessment" (Michael Orlans, Terry Levy); (3)…

  8. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist...

  9. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  10. Arginine deiminase inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis surface attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, Carla; Stephens, Danielle N; Nguyen, Daniel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Davey, Mary E

    2013-02-01

    The oral cavity is host to a complex microbial community whose maintenance depends on an array of cell-to-cell interactions and communication networks, with little known regarding the nature of the signals or mechanisms by which they are sensed and transmitted. Determining the signals that control attachment, biofilm development and outgrowth of oral pathogens is fundamental to understanding pathogenic biofilm development. We have previously identified a secreted arginine deiminase (ADI) produced by Streptococcus intermedius that inhibited biofilm development of the commensal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis through downregulation of genes encoding the major (fimA) and minor (mfa1) fimbriae, both of which are required for proper biofilm development. Here we report that this inhibitory effect is dependent on enzymic activity. We have successfully cloned, expressed and defined the conditions to ensure that ADI from S. intermedius is enzymically active. Along with the cloning of the wild-type allele, we have created a catalytic mutant (ADIC399S), in which the resulting protein is not able to catalyse the hydrolysis of l-arginine to l-citrulline. P. gingivalis is insensitive to the ADIC399S catalytic mutant, demonstrating that enzymic activity is required for the effects of ADI on biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is absent under l-arginine-deplete conditions, and can be recovered by the addition of the amino acid. Taken together, the results indicate that arginine is an important signal that directs biofilm formation by this anaerobe. Based on our findings, we postulate that ADI functions to reduce arginine levels and, by a yet to be identified mechanism, signals P. gingivalis to alter biofilm development. ADI release from the streptococcal cell and its cross-genera effects are important findings in understanding the nature of inter-bacterial signalling and biofilm-mediated diseases of the oral cavity.

  11. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 year (Locator implant attachment: n=8, Locator bar attachment: n=8). RESULTS Marginal bone loss, probing depth, plaque index of the Locator bar attachment group were significantly lower than the Locator implant attachment group (P.05). The replacement of the attachment components was the most common complication in both groups. Although there was no correlation between marginal bone loss and plaque index, a significant correlation was found between marginal bone loss and probing depth. CONCLUSION The Locator bar attachment group indicates lesser marginal bone loss and need for maintenance, as compared with the Locator implant attachment group. This may be due to the splinting effect among implants rather than the types of Locator attachment. PMID:27555901

  12. Are anxiously attached women better mindreaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This research was aimed at providing first evidence concerning the relationship between adults' self-reported attachment style and their performance on a standard 'theory of mind' task. Based on adult attachment theory, we hypothesized that the two dimensions of self-reported adult attachment, anxiety and avoidance, are differently related to 'theory of mind,' and that this relationship is moderated by variables concerning the 'theory of mind' stimuli. The 'Experiences in Close Relationships' questionnaire and the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test were administered to 132 young women. In line with our expectations, women's attachment-related anxiety was associated with better mind reading concerning stimuli that were emotionally neutral or difficult to recognize.

  13. Imre Hermann's Freudian theory of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyskens, Tomas

    2003-12-01

    In this paper the author addresses some problems concerning the relation between attachment theory and psychoanalysis and sketches the outline of a Freudian theory of attachment, based on the ideas of the Hungarian psychoanalyst Imre Hermann. First, he elucidates the fundamental divergence behind the insults and misunderstandings that have dominated the debate between attachment theory and Freudian psychoanalysis: they differ radically in their conceptions of temporality and of the relation between psychopathology and human nature. Second, the author presents Hermann's work on 'Clinging--Going-in-search' (1976) as a theoretical model in which the findings of attachment theory can be integrated in a theory of psychopathology that is radically dimensional and that preserves the methodology of Freudian psychoanalysis. In the third part of the paper, the author discusses the question of whether Hermann's 'clinging instinct' is a primary instinct in the Freudian sense, and whether it is an interesting alternative for Freud's 'death instinct', as Hermann claims.

  14. Personality disorders, attachment and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lissa; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Siever, Larry

    2014-01-01

    While attachment has been a fruitful and critical concept in understanding enduring individual templates for interpersonal relationships, it does not have a well-understood relationship to personality disorders, where impairment of interpersonal functioning is paramount. Despite the recognition that attachment disturbances do not simply reflect nonoptimal caretaking environments, the relationship of underlying temperamental factors to these environmental insults has not been fully explored. In this paper we provide an alternate model for the role of neurobiological temperamental factors, including brain circuitry and neuropeptide modulation, in mediating social cognition and the internalization and maintenance of attachment patterns. The implications of these altered attachment patterns on personality disorders and their neurobiological and environmental roots for psychoanalytically based treatment models designed to ameliorate difficulties in interpersonal functioning through the medium of increased access to mature forms of mentalization is discussed.

  15. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment

  16. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  17. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  18. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences...... and competitive mentality towards others within SNSs. We further construct a theoretical model of members’ communal attachments within SNSs that is then empirically validated via an online survey of 787 active members of SNSs. Empirical findings suggest that members’ communal attachments play an instrumental role...

  19. ATTACHMENT, BORDERLINE PERSONALITY, AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. S...

  20. Histology of tooth attachment tissues and plicidentine in Varanus (Reptilia: Squamata), and a discussion of the evolution of amniote tooth attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Caldwell, Michael W; Lamoureux, Denis O; Budney, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Few recent studies have examined the histological basis for tooth attachment in squamates. In the past few years, a surge of interest in this topic has led to the intriguing suggestion that the major tissues derived from the tooth germ (enamel, dentine, cementum and alveolar bone), are conservative and are present in all amniotes. In this study, we describe the histology and development of the tooth attachment complex in Varanus rudicollis, the rough-neck monitor. We provide the first published evidence for the role of cementum and alveolar bone in tooth attachment in varanoid lizards. In Varanus, cementum is deposited on the external surface of the tooth root as well as at the base of the tooth, where it plays a role in the attachment of the tooth to the jawbone. Alveolar bone is also involved in tooth ankylosis. Our results support the hypothesis that the major tooth germ tissues are found in all amniotes. We provide insights into the structure and development of plicidentine, defined as infolding of the dentine around the tooth base. This feature is unique to varanoids among extant tetrapods and is the third tissue implicated in tooth attachment in Varanus. Plicidentine develops asymmetrically along the labial-lingual axis of a tooth. Varanus is characterized by the presence of both primary and higher-order lamellae, which anastomose to form a honeycomb-like surface that then interacts with the more basal attachment tissues.

  1. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  2. Attachment Theory and the Social Work Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Page

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory, as developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth, represented a major departure from the current theories of human development of the time, particularly in its rejection of the major tenets of psychoanalytic theory and its integration of core ideas from evolution theory and cybernetics (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991. Attachment theory posits that a foundational human instinct, the desire to achieve safety and protection through proximity to a protective figure, is responsible for the formation of a special class of life-long affectional bonds, referred to as “attachments.” Emotional security is derived to a great extent, according to the theory, from experience with caregivers who are consistently responsive to the developing infant’s expression of attachment behavior toward them. Forty years of empirical research has shown that attachment is a universal characteristic that predicts children’s development of cognitive and social competence, emotional regulation, and positive self-image (Weinfield, Sroufe, Egeland, & Carlson, 1999. Social work educators are currently challenged to better integrate the findings of attachment research into their curricula to reflect more the current state of developmental science.

  3. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-02-16

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  4. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  5. Structured attachment of bacterial molecular motors for defined microflow induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerdemann Mike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial rotational motor complexes that propel flagellated bacteria possess unique properties like their size of a few nanometres and the ability of selfreproduction that have led to various exciting applications including biohybrid nano-machines. One mandatory prerequisite to utilize bacterial nano motors in fluid applications is the ability to transfer force and torque to the fluid, which usually can be achieved by attachment of the bacterial cell to adequate surfaces. Additionally, for optimal transfer of force or torque, precise control of the position down to the single cell level is of utmost importance. Based on a PIV (particle image velocimetry evaluation of the induced flow of single bacteria,we propose and demonstrate attachment of arbitrary patterns of motile bacterial cells in a fast light-based two-step process for the first time to our knowledge. First, these cells are pre-structured by holographic optical tweezers and then attached to a homogeneous, polystyrene-coated surface. In contrast to the few approaches that have been implemented up to now and which rely on pre-structured surfaces, our scheme allows for precise control on a single bacterium level, is versatile, interactive and has low requirements with respect to the surface preparation.

  6. Eating disorders and attachment: a contemporary psychodynamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise

    2014-06-01

    A contemporary psychodynamic framework can add much to our understanding of eating disorders. Eating disorders are associated with complex comorbidities, high levels of mortality, and therapist countertransferences that can complicate psychological treatments. Mainstream models currently focus on cognitive, biological, or cultural factors to the near exclusion of attachment functioning, and the individual's dynamics. As such, standard models appear to exclude person-centred and developmental considerations when providing treatments. In this article, we describe a contemporary psychodynamic model that understands eating disorder symptoms as a consequence of vulnerability to social pressures to be thin and biological predispositions to body weight. Individual vulnerabilities are rooted in unmet attachment needs causing negative affect, and subsequent maladaptive defenses and eating disorder symptoms as a means of coping. We describe how this model can inform transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment that focuses on symptoms as well as specific attachment functions including: interpersonal style, affect regulation, reflective functioning, and coherence of mind. Two clinical examples are presented to illustrate case formulations and psychological treatments informed by these conceptualizations.

  7. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  8. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  9. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  10. Characterization of somatic embryo attached structures in Feijoa sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sandra M; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2010-06-01

    The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected by culture media composition. Histological and ultrastructural analysis indicated that the attached structures of somatic embryos displayed a great morphological diversity ranging from a few cells to massive and columnar structures. This contrast with the simple suspensors observed in zygotic embryos which were only formed by five cells. As well as the suspensor of zygotic embryos, somatic embryo attached structures undergo a process of degeneration in later stages of embryo development. Other characteristic shared by zygotic suspensors and somatic embryo attached structures was the presence of thick cell walls surrounding the cells. Elongated thin filaments were often associated with the structures attached to somatic embryos, whereas in other cases, tubular cells containing starch grains connected the embryo to the supporting tissue. These characteristics associated with the presence of plasmodesmata in the cells of the attached structures seem to indicate a role on embryo nutrition. However, cell proliferation in the attached structures resulting into new somatic embryos may also suggest a more complex relationship between the embryo and the structures connecting it to the supporting tissue.

  11. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  12. Attachment and Parental Practices as Predictors of Behavioral Disorders in Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to investigate how two parental systems (attachment and parental practices interact to predict internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in girls and boys. The Security Scale was administered to 289 children (mean age = 10.5 years, and 205 parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and an instrument addressing parental practices. The results indicate that poor maternal attachment predicts aggression and delinquency in boys, while problems of this nature among girls are predicted by parental rejection and low behavioral control. Poor paternal attachment was the only predictor for social withdrawal and anxiety/depression in boys. A tendency of association between poor maternal attachment and social withdrawal was observed among girls, while low behavioral control and high psychological control predicted anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to understanding the complex relationship among gender, parental systems, and behavioral disorders.

  13. Network growth models: A behavioural basis for attachment proportional to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Perera, Supun; Piraveenan, Mahendrarajah; Bliemer, Michiel; Latty, Tanya; Reid, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Several growth models have been proposed in the literature for scale-free complex networks, with a range of fitness-based attachment models gaining prominence recently. However, the processes by which such fitness-based attachment behaviour can arise are less well understood, making it difficult to compare the relative merits of such models. This paper analyses an evolutionary mechanism that would give rise to a fitness-based attachment process. In particular, it is proven by analytical and numerical methods that in homogeneous networks, the minimisation of maximum exposure to node unfitness leads to attachment probabilities that are proportional to node fitness. This result is then extended to heterogeneous networks, with supply chain networks being used as an example. PMID:28205599

  14. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  15. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  16. Electron attachment to the interhalogens ClF, ICl, and IBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T. M.; Wiens, J. P.; Sawyer, J. C.; Shuman, N. S.; Viggiano, A. A.; Khamesian, M.; Kokoouline, V.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    2016-05-01

    Electron attachment rate coefficients have been measured for the interhalogens ClF, ICl, and IBr over the range 300-900 K using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. The ClF case was also studied theoretically. ClF was found to attach electrons somewhat inefficiently with a rate coefficient of 7.5x 10-9 cm3/s at 300 K, doubling by 700 K. Even so, attachment to ClF is more efficient than seen earlier for F2 and Cl2, which brings up the interesting distinction that attachment to F2 and Cl2 is known to have p-wave threshold behavior, while in ClF the inversion symmetry is broken, allowing an s-wave component. The increase in the rate coefficient for attachment to ClF with temperature was found to be less pronounced than with F2 and Cl2. Ab initio potential energy curves were calculated for ClF and ClF-, and R-matrix theory was used to obtain the resonance widths and energies for the ground state curve crossing, which takes place near the equilibrium internuclear separation in ClF. A local complex potential model was used to calculate attachment cross sections and thermal rate coefficients. There is reasonable agreement between theory and experiment within the estimated 25% uncertainties in the data. Cl- is the only product ion from thermal electron attachment to ClF. Attachment to ICl is even less efficient by almost an order of magnitude than to ClF, namely, 9.5x 10-10 cm3/s at 300 K. Attachment to IBr is small enough that we place an upper limit of < 10-10 cm3/s at 300 K. Supported by AFOSR, DOE, and NSF.

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  18. The Secure-Base Hypothesis: Global Attachment, Attachment to Counselor, and Session Exploration in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vera; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Janzen, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study explored J. Bowlby's (1988) secure-base hypothesis, which predicts that a client's secure attachment to the therapist, as well as the client's and the therapist's global attachment security, will facilitate in-session exploration. Volunteer clients (N = 59) and trainee counselors (N = 59) in short-term therapy completed the Experiences…

  19. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  20. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Maerk, T.D. [Intitut fuer Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitaet, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-10-01

    Highly monochromiatized electrons (with 30meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}} at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2eV.At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}}+{ital e}{r_arrow}O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with {ital s}-wave electron capture to (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}}. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  2. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  3. Attachment relationships as determinants of physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G; Hunter, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Childhood adversity alters the relational world of the child and inhibits the development of secure attachment bonds. The purpose of this article is to survey recent evidence that attachment insecurity has the potential to impair physical health throughout the lifespan. It is proposed that attachment insecurity contributes to disease risk through a range of mechanisms which include (1) disturbances in arousal and recovery within physiological systems that respond to stress; (2) physiological links between the mediators of social relationships, stress, and immunity; (3) links between relationship style and various health behaviors; and (4) disease risk factors that serve as external regulators of dysphoric affect, such as nicotine and alcohol. The evidence for these mechanisms, particularly the evidence that has accumulated since the model was first proposed in 2000, is presented and discussed.

  4. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  5. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  6. Personality disorders and romantic adult attachment: a comparison of secure and insecure attached child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias

    2006-04-01

    This study analyzed personality disorders in a group of 33 securely and 51 insecurely attached child molesters. A total of 51 child molesters were selected from a community based educational training program, and the other group was selected from a Belgian prison (n = 33). Research shows that adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure. It is remarkable that very little is known about differences between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. These findings have implications for the aetiology and treatment of child molesters. Future research is necessary to determine patterns of attachment in relationship to personality disorders.

  7. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  8. Space Station Freedom attached payloads and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, N.; Pyfer, B.; Smith, R. B., Jr.; Hunt, S. R.; Suddeth, D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) attaches external payloads to its main truss structure via Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE); this equipment also provides access to such SSF resources as electrical power, command/control, and data handling. In orbit, APAE payloads are installed and maintained by a teleoperated robot or by an astronaut in EVA. Commercialization of EPAE will be accomplished by private companies concerned with the development of materials processing, earth resources and ocean resources monitoring, telecommunications, and industrial services. Attention is given to APAE user-integration activity.

  9. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...... contact times using cells coming from either a planktonic or an immobilized state of growth. The results showed that the probability of detachment generally decreased when the contact time increased and that the highest difference between contact times was achieved when the cells were grown planktonic....

  10. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term “Child Attachment Interview” in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  11. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Separated 72 5.6 Divorced 76 5.9 Widowed 3 0.2 ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLE, HARDINESS, AND MOOD 131 D ow nl oa de d by [ Pa ul T . B ar to ne ] at 1 2: 35...Kobak, R. R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence : Work- ing models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child...Reassessing the dimensions of tem- peramental individuality across the lifespan: The revised dimensions of temperament survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent

  12. The milled surface as a precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvik, James S; Shor, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    The creation of paralleled, milled surfaces in natural or restored abutment teeth, coupled with removable partial denture castings that have optimal contact with these preparations, results in a path of insertion and removal that is controlled in a manner similar to one using conventional precision attachments. Because the milled surfaces are primarily extracoronal, little if any, additional tooth reduction is required for adequate mouth preparation. Avoiding additional tooth reduction minimizes later abutment fracture. The great increase in stability and resistance to rotational movements, when combined with conventional posterior clasping, provides a reasonable alternative to the precision attachment in providing maximal esthetics for the partially edentulous patients.

  13. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  14. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  15. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...... on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common...

  16. Assortativity in generalized preferential attachment models

    CERN Document Server

    Krot, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze assortativity of preferential attachment models. We deal with a wide class of preferential attachment models (PA-class). It was previously shown that the degree distribution in all models of the PA-class follows a power law. Also, the global and the average local clustering coefficients were analyzed. We expand these results by analyzing the assortativity property of the PA-class of models. Namely, we analyze the behavior of $d_{nn}(d)$ which is the average degree of a neighbor of a vertex of degree $d$.

  17. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  18. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2007-01-01

    A key proposition of attachment theory is that experience-based cognitive representations of attachment, often referred to as internal working models of attachment, influence the manner in which individuals process attachment-relevant social information (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980; Bretherton & Munholland, 1999; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985).…

  19. Role of Attachment in Response to Pet Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P.; Orsini, Lisa; Gavish, Roni; Packman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of attachment on grief severity following the death of a pet. Seventy-one participants who had lost a dog or cat within the past year completed a set of measures that included an attachment measure assessing individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance, strength of the past attachment to the pet, the…

  20. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  1. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  3. Attachment Disorder: An Emerging Concern for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kandis Cooke; Forrest, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Explains attachment theory and posits that, if proper bonding and subsequent attachment, usually between mother and child, does not occur, the child develops mistrust and deep-seated rage. Presents evidence of the problem of attachment disorders, lists symptoms of unattached children, examines treatment of attachment disorders, and discusses…

  4. Adult attachment and incidental memory for emotional words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanxin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dual task of attachment priming and memory recognition was proposed to explore the effect of adult attachment styles on the incidental memory for emotional words. Subjects completed an attachment priming task which intends to activate internal working model of attachment by describing attachment-related scenes, and then an incidental memory recognition test of words which differ in emotional meaning and relevance of attachment styles. Signal detection theory was used to compare the discriminability index and decision criterion of emotional words in subjects of different attachment style. Results showed that subjects with secure attachment styles performed better than insecure-attached subjects in the memory recognition test, in terms of higher hit rate, lower false alarm rate, and higher discriminability index. We extended the influence of attachment styles on cognition to lower level of incidental memory, not just on higher cognitive level with emotional arousal as suggested by previous research.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by rational hapten modification and heterogeneous antibody/coating antigen combinations for the detection of melamine in milk, milk powder and feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Biyun; Yang, Hong; Song, Juan; Chang, Huafang; Li, Shuqun; Deng, Anping

    2013-11-15

    The adulteration of food products with melamine has led to an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, rapid and reliable quantitative/screening methods. To enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of melamine in milk, milk powder and feed samples, rational hapten modification and heterogeneous antibody/coating antigen combinations were adopted. Three melamine derivatives with different length of carboxylic spacer at the end were synthesized and linked to carrier proteins for the production of immunogens and coating antigens. Monoclonal antibody against melamine was produced by hybridoma technology. Under optimal experimental conditions, the standard curves of the ELISAs for melamine were constructed in range of 0.1-100 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity was 10-300 times enhanced compared to those in the published literatures. The cross-reactivity values of the ELISAs also demonstrated the assays exhibited high specificity. Five samples were spiked with melamine at different concentrations and detected by the ELISA. The recovery rates of 72.8-123.0% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 0.8-18.9% (n=3) were obtained. The ELISA for milk sample was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9902 (n=6). The proposed ELISA was proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for melamine analysis.

  6. [Attachment behavior with respect to mothers and fathers and attachment representations in five and seven-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Lilith; Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Zweyer, Karen

    2007-01-01

    During preschool and early school age attachment quality can be assessed by different means: at the behavioral level by the Strange Situation (SS), at the representational level by semiprojective methods using story stems or pictures. Both methods gain access to different levels of a theoretically assumed inner working model of attachment, in which attachment at the behavioral level is supposed to be person specific, attachment at the representational level generalized. This study aimed at analyzing whether attachment behavior to mother and father is associated, and how it is linked to the generalized attachment representation. It was also examined whether in the case of no association between mother and father attachment behavior towards the major attachment figure is linked to the attachment representation. In the Duesseldorf study 67 children aged 5 years were observed in the SS with mother, 31 of them also in the SS with father. At the age of 6.5 years an attachment story completion task was conducted. When person specific attachment to mother and father was congruent (SS secure n=6, or insecure n=8) the attachment representation was consistent as well, when father and mother attachment were discrepant no association with attachment representation could be found. The findings did not confirm a stronger influence of the major attachment figure on the formation of the attachment representation.

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Association between Reactive Attachment Disorder and Attachment Narratives in Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Green, Jonathan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Liew, Ashley; Glaser, D.; Taylor, E.; Follan, M.; Young, D.; Barnes, J.; Gillberg, C.; Pelosi, A.; Arthur, J.; Burston, A.; Connolly, B.; Sadiq, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore attachment narratives in children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: We compared attachment narratives, as measured by the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, in a group of 33 children with a diagnosis of RAD and 37 comparison children. Results: The relative risk (RR) for children with RAD having…

  8. Bowlby's attachment theory: implications for health visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partis, M

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the current state of research in attachment theory. It also examines the relations between attachment, child care and development, and the significance of attachment to adult functioning and well-being. It seems likely that humans need close emotional relationships or bonds with others. This need applies particularly to infants, who look to parents or other care givers for love and security. The best-known psychological explanation of this need is attachment theory, which has been influential in increasing our understanding of the early mother-infant relationship, and in the formulation of guidelines for child care (Melhuish, 1998). Good-quality parental care may be difficult to define, and questions remain regarding the nature of child care and the consequences that it can have for later development. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible implications for health-visitor intervention within families, which are intended to improve the quality of the relationship between parents or care givers and the infant.

  9. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  10. Reactive Attachment Disorder in Maltreated Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Scheeringa, Michael; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Trapani, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) can be reliably identified in maltreated toddlers in foster care, if the two types of RAD are independent, and to estimate the prevalence of RAD in these maltreated toddlers. Methods: Clinicians treating 94 maltreated toddlers in foster care were interviewed regarding signs of…

  11. Hidden Regulators in Attachment, Separation, and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    This essay discusses the similarities between animal behavior and human attachment behavior demonstrated by infants and their mothers. The provision of warmth, the tactile and olfactory stimulation of the mother's physical interactions, and the oral sensory and absorptive consequences of nursing are found to provide specific and independent…

  12. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  13. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  14. Reactive attachment disorder as an evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbernie, Robin

    2010-05-01

    This paper suggests that the behaviours associated with the formal diagnosis of the "disinhibited" form of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) might be seen as a functional adaptation rather than a mental health problem, a facultative response enhancing the probability of survival that is triggered by certain conditions. Although disinhibited RAD is most commonly observed in institutionalised children, similar behaviours may also be a part of the emotional difficulties displayed by some fostered and adopted children (the latter includes those once institutionalised), and these may demonstrate not so much a discrete attachment disorder as either the need to fend for oneself following loss of dedicated caregiving or a lack of opportunity to build specific intimate relationships with dedicated caregivers. In many cases this may be inextricably mixed with the neurobiological and psychological seqelae of maltreatment. Indiscriminate attachment behaviour, from this proposed evolutionary perspective, is less a syndrome of mental ill-health than an astute survival manoeuvre following being orphaned, abandoned or fecklessly reared. Such a response, allied to the innate facility to access caregiving from different adults, could be expected to be initiated by specific events as are the other attachment configurations. Classing disinhibited RAD as an adaptation has implications for helping children brought up under extreme duress when their caregiving environment has changed for the better.

  15. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  16. What is preferential to preferential attachment?

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Preferential attachment --- where new nodes are added and attached to existing nodes with probability proportional to the existing nodes' degree --- has become the standard growth model for scale-free networks, where the asymptotic probability of a node having degree $k$ is proportional to $k^{-\\gamma}$. However, the motivation for this model is entirely {\\em ad hoc}. We use exact likelihood arguments and show that the optimal way to build a scale-free network is to preferentially attach to low degree nodes. Asymptotically, the optimal strategy is to attach the new node to one of the nodes of degree $k$ (in a network with $N$ nodes) with probability proportional to $\\frac{1}{N+\\zeta(\\gamma)(k+1)^\\gamma}$. The algorithm we propose to do this can be employed to generate optimally scale-free networks (maximum likelihood realisations) as well as a random sampling of the space of all scale-free networks with a given degree exponent $\\gamma$. While we focus on scale free networks, these methods can be applied to a ...

  17. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  18. Should Charity Donations Have Strings Attached?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commonly held belief among most people is that acts of charity are carried out with no thought of getting something in return, or of attaching conditions to those who receive donations. It’s perhaps for this rea- son that events surrounding the Henan Charity Federation’s recent decision to add an agenda to students’ financial aid caused such a public outcry.

  19. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  20. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  1. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists.

  2. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  3. An Application of Attachment Theory: Mentoring Relationship Dynamics and Ethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, mentoring relationships are conceptualized as close relationships that occur along a spectrum from highly functional to highly dysfunctional, with most occurring in between. A complex set of factors describe the functioning level of mentoring relationships: (a) the attachment styles of the mentors and mentees; (b)…

  4. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  5. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  6. STAG2 promotes error correction in mitosis by regulating kinetochore-microtubule attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyman, Marianna; Kabeche, Lilian; Compton, Duane A

    2014-10-01

    Mutations in the STAG2 gene are present in ∼20% of tumors from different tissues of origin. STAG2 encodes a subunit of the cohesin complex, and tumors with loss-of-function mutations are usually aneuploid and display elevated frequencies of lagging chromosomes during anaphase. Lagging chromosomes are a hallmark of chromosomal instability (CIN) arising from persistent errors in kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) attachment. To determine whether the loss of STAG2 increases the rate of formation of kMT attachment errors or decreases the rate of their correction, we examined mitosis in STAG2-deficient cells. STAG2 depletion does not impair bipolar spindle formation or delay mitotic progression. Instead, loss of STAG2 permits excessive centromere stretch along with hyperstabilization of kMT attachments. STAG2-deficient cells display mislocalization of Bub1 kinase, Bub3 and the chromosome passenger complex. Importantly, strategically destabilizing kMT attachments in tumor cells harboring STAG2 mutations by overexpression of the microtubule-destabilizing enzymes MCAK (also known as KIF2C) and Kif2B decreased the rate of lagging chromosomes and reduced the rate of chromosome missegregation. These data demonstrate that STAG2 promotes the correction of kMT attachment errors to ensure faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  7. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  8. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  9. Mentalization and attachment representations: a theoretical contribution to the understanding of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Natalie; Terradas, Miguel M

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an understanding of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) through psychoanalytic thought and mentalization theory. RAD is presented followed by a discussion on attachment and the need for a better understanding of this disorder. Theories from British psychoanalytic thinkers are used to describe what might be transpiring in the early relationship between mother and child. Particular attention is given to how children's internal objects are influenced by a compromised early mother-child relationship.

  10. CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore-microtubule attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Galjart, Niels; van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Medema, René H

    2006-01-11

    CLIP-170 is a microtubule 'plus end tracking' protein involved in several microtubule-dependent processes in interphase. At the onset of mitosis, CLIP-170 localizes to kinetochores, but at metaphase, it is no longer detectable at kinetochores. Although RNA interference (RNAi) experiments have suggested an essential role for CLIP-170 during mitosis, the molecular function of CLIP-170 in mitosis has not yet been revealed. Here, we used a combination of high-resolution microscopy and RNAi-mediated depletion to study the function of CLIP-170 in mitosis. We found that CLIP-170 dynamically localizes to the outer most part of unattached kinetochores and to the ends of growing microtubules. In addition, we provide evidence that a pool of CLIP-170 is transported along kinetochore-microtubules by the dynein/dynactin complex. Interference with CLIP-170 expression results in defective chromosome congression and diminished kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but does not detectibly affect microtubule dynamics or kinetochore-microtubule stability. Taken together, our results indicate that CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, possibly through direct capture of microtubules at the kinetochore.

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  13. Childhood attachment and abuse: long-term effects on adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, T; Janoff-Bulman, R

    1997-10-01

    The primary aim was to determine the relative contributions of early attachment and abuse history to adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution behaviors. Differences between abused and nonabused respondents were also assessed. A multi-scale questionnaire was completed by 879 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to answer the primary research question, and analyses also compared the 26.4% of respondents who reported childhood abuse with those who did not. Respondents who indicated they had been abused as children reported less secure childhood and adult relationships than their nonabused counterparts. They were also more depressed and more likely to use destructive behaviors in conflict situations. Although both adult romantic attachment and respondents' depression scores were best accounted for by childhood attachment to mother and father rather than abuse history, the opposite pattern of results emerged for conflict resolution behaviors. In this case, abuse history was the stronger predictor, and parental attachment did not account for any significant additional variance. Results suggest that the long-term impact of childhood abuse may be mediated by early attachment experiences, whereas the long-term impact of abuse on conflict resolution behaviors may be considerably more direct.

  14. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  15. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy: Validation of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I F

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioural, cognitive-behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis by monitoring clients' verbal activity. These results also provide information regarding the ways in which differences in attachment status play out in therapy sessions and further the study of attachment in psychotherapy from a pre-treatment client factor to a process variable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Locator or ball attachment: a guide for clinical decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttel, Adrian E; Bühler, Nico M; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    Various attachments are available to retain overdentures on natural roots or implants. Technical aspects, the clinical handling, the capability to adapt or repair and the costs are parameters to be considered when choosing the appropriate attachment. Ball attachments and bars are clinically established and well documented. Ball attachments as prefabricated, unsplinted units are easily replaceable and show hygienic advantages, while bars show favorable stability. The Locator is a newer, popular clinical alternative to these established attachments. The ball attachment and the Locator are compared from a technical and clinical point of view.

  17. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it

  18. Conflict in close relationships: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Rholes, W S; Phillips, D

    1996-11-01

    This study investigated how perceptions of current dating partners and relationships change after people with different attachment orientations attempt to resolve a problem in their relationship. Dating couples were videotaped while they tried to resolve either a major or a minor problem. Confirming predictions from attachment theory, men and women who had a more ambivalent orientation perceived their partner and relationship in relatively less positive terms after discussing a major problem. Observer ratings revealed that more ambivalent women who tried to resolve a major problem displayed particularly strong stress and anxiety and engaged in more negative behaviors. Conversely, men with a more avoidant orientation were rated as less warm and supportive, especially if they discussed a major problem. These results are discussed in terms of how highly ambivalent and highly avoidant people differentially perceive and respond to distressing events.

  19. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  20. Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A foldable expandable pallet having a basic square configuration is disclosed. Each pallet is comprised of a plurality of struts, joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. Some of the struts have hinge fittings and are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage and transport to a space station. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the relatively widely spaced trusses of a space station platform. A pallet is attached to a truss at four points; one close fitting hole; two oversize holes; and a slot; to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as an instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

  1. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  2. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  3. Use of an Implant O-Ring Attachment for the Tooth Supported Mandibular Overdenture: A Clinical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Guttal, Satyabodh S.; Tavargeri, Anand K.; Nadiger, Ramesh K.; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2011-01-01

    Retention of a mandibular denture can be achieved by an implant-retained or natural tooth-retained bar and stud attachment in the anterior segment of the mandible. The same design principles holds true for both implant-retained and tooth-retained methods of anchoring the bar and stud attachment. A simple and cost effective treatment for more complex implant overdenture is the concept of conventional tooth-retained overdentures. When few firm teeth still remain in a compromised dentition, pres...

  4. Attachment of Thiobacillus thiooxidans to sulfur crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHAEFFER, W I; HOLBERT, P E; UMBREIT, W W

    1963-01-01

    Schaeffer, W. I. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), P. E. Holbert, and W. W. Umbreit. Attachment of Thiobacillus thiooxidans to sulfur crystals. J. Bacteriol. 85:137-140. 1963.-Electron micrographs of replicas of sulfur crystals before and after attack by Thiobacillus thiooxidans show that the microorganisms erode the crystal in the area immediately adjacent to the cell. When there are many cells, the entire crystal surface appears eroded.

  5. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  6. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  7. Child trauma, attachment and biofeedback mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, N; Zorcec, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the quality of attachment in early infancy and the effects of child trauma, as well as to introduce some innovative therapeutic approaches. For this reason, a group of 10 children manifesting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diagnosed by ICD-10, was selected. The mean age of the patients was 9 +/- 3.05 years, from both sexes (girls 3, boys 7). Mothers and children were examined by a battery of psychometric instruments Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition to the classical psychotherapeutic methods (supportive, behaviour and play therapy), the multimodal computerised biofeedback technique was introduced for both assessment and therapy. The results for the children showed a high level of anxiety and stress, somatisation and behavioural problems (aggressivity, impulsivity, non-obedience, and nightmares), complemented by hypersensitive and depressive mothers and miss-attachment in the early period of infancy. Consequently, the explanation of the early predisposition to PTSD was related to be the non-developed Right Orbitofrontal Cortex-ROFC. The latter resulted from insecure attachment confirmed in all the children examined. The therapeutic results obtained with biofeedback techniques are very encouraging.

  8. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  9. [Amputation and prosthesis attachment of the lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, I; Beirau, M; Ekkernkamp, A; Matthes, G

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 61,000 amputations are performed in Germany per year. In most cases the lower limbs are affected. The reasons for amputations are arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, severe infections, tumors and complex trauma to the extremities. A decision must be made concerning whether a salvage procedure or amputation is appropriate, specially after trauma. In cases where the need for amputation is clear, the site of amputation needs to be planned in advance with the aim of creating a stump which allows sufficient prosthetic attachment. Adjuvant pain therapy is mandatory, especially in order to avoid subsequent phantom pain. The type of prosthetic restoration is influenced by the grade of mobility and personal requirements of patients. Moreover, aftercare and adjusted rehabilitation are recommended.

  10. Kinetics of the Attachment of Intrinsic Factor-Bound Cobamides to Ileal Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathan, V. I.; Babior, Bernard M.; Donaldson, Robert M.

    1974-01-01

    To determine whether the molecular configuration of vitamin B12 influences the attachment of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex to ileal microvillous membrane receptor sites, we have examined the kinetics of uptake of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin by brush borders and microvillous membranes isolated from guinea pig ileum, and have compared this uptake with that of intrinsic factor alone and with that of intrinsic factor complexed with various analogs of cyanocobalamin. We first studied the kinetics of binding of cyanocobalamin and other cobamides to human gastric intrinsic factor. The binding of cyanocobalamin showed saturation kinetics and, at relatively high concentrations of cyanocobalamin, a Scatchard plot of binding was linear. The dissociation constant for the intrinsic factor-cyanocobalamin complex was 0.066 nM. When the binding of various vitamin B12 analogs to intrinsic factor was determined by competition experiments, the analogs could be separated into two categories: those with affinities similar to that of cyanocobalamin and those with affinities much lower than that of cyanocobalamin. The affinity of cyanocobalamin for intrinsic factor was not altered by various substitutions at the -CN position, while removal of a single amido group on the corrin ring of substitution of the dimethylbenzimidazole base greatly reduced affinity. Removal of the base totally abolished binding. These findings, confirming those reported by others, are consistent with the concept that the cyanocobalamin molecule fits into a “pocket” in the intrinsic factor molecule, with the nucleotide base facing inward and the -CN side of the planar corrin ring facing outward. We then investigated the attachment of intrinsic factor-bound cyanocobalamin to ileal receptor. Attachment to microvillous membranes showed saturation kinetics with a dissociation constant of 0.25 nM. Attachment was rapid and was 70% complete within 5 min; the second-order rate constant for attachment

  11. Parental Attachment and Eating Behaviors in Late Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Leigh Rush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Females demonstrating unhealthy eating behaviors in early adolescence may continue to exhibit them in later years, yet there is little empirical research including late adolescents. Attachment theories suggest that adolescents with eating disorders demonstrate insecure attachments to parents. This non-experimental descriptive study in 249 late adolescent females examined the relationship between eating behaviors and parental attachment, and explored the relationship between selected demographic variables and parental attachment. Participants responded to an electronically collected survey of demographic variables, self-reported eating behaviors, and completed the Parent Attachment Questionnaire. Participants reporting healthy eating behaviors had higher scores on two of the three maternal scales, indicating a greater level of attachment. Significantly higher scores were found for two maternal and two paternal attachment scales for selected sociodemographic variables. Quantifying parental attachment in late adolescent females enhances understanding of eating disorders in this population and may help to identify issues important to address in therapy.

  12. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness Scal

  13. Analyzing development of working models for disrupted attachments: the case of hidden family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Catherine C; Fischer, Kurt W; O'Connor, Erin E

    2003-06-01

    This article offers a developmental model of attachment theory rooted in dynamic skill theory. Dynamic skill theory is based on the assumption that people do not have integrated, fundamentally logical minds, but instead develop along naturally fractionated strands of a web. Contrary to traditional interpretations of attachment theory, dynamic skill theory proposes that individuals continue to modify their working models of attachments throughout the lifespan. In particular, working models of close relationships develop systematically through a series of skill levels such that the skills vary across strands in the web and will not automatically form a unified whole. The continual modification of working models is particularly pertinent for the consequences of hidden family violence for individuals' development. Dynamic skill theory shows how trauma can produce not developmental delay or fixation, as has been proposed previously, but instead the construction of advanced, complex working models.

  14. Reactive attachment disorder in the general population: a hidden ESSENCE disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Pritchett, Jennifer; Marshall, Emma; Davidson, Claire; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  15. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the General Population: A Hidden ESSENCE Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive attachment disorder (RAD is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  16. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social-cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders - a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent "wear and tear" effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined.

  17. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  18. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  19. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010). Hazan a Shaver (1987) applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Fe...

  20. Disrupted caring attachments: implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    Caring attachments or social supports are the positive psychological and physical contacts and relationships between people. These attachments have been associated with improved health, well-being, and longevity. It is also true that disrupted caring attachments are associated with impaired health and well-being. This paper reviews the general medical and elder medical findings of disrupted caring attachments and negative health outcomes. The implications of these findings for dementia sufferers, caregivers, and long-term care staff are examined.

  1. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Debbané; George Salaminios; Patrick Luyten; Deborah Badoud; Marco Armando; Alessandra Solida Tozzi; Peter Fonagy; Benjamin Brent

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to the psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also con...

  2. Adult attachment and emotional awareness impairment: a multimethod assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fantini-Hauwel, C.; Boudoukha, A.H.; Arciszewski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the relationships between adult attachment and various aspects of emotional awareness, including alexithymia and level of emotional awareness. Participants were 112 university students who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ), and the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found that alexithymia was positively related to the avoidant attachment style and negatively with the anxious attachment style. Anxio...

  3. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on Bowlby’s attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity.Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew’s attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the re...

  4. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development.

  5. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  7. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  8. Is Imprinting an Appropriate Model for Human Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Leiderman, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of animal imprinting studies were generalized to attempt prediction of development of attachment in 28 polymatrically reared Kenyan Gusii infants, ages 6 to 30 months. While results provide evidence against a sensitive phase for attachment, an association was found between age of attachment and developmental level/caregiving history.…

  9. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia

    1999-01-01

    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  10. The Development of an Assessment Protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheperis, Carl J.; Doggett, R. Anthony; Hoda, Nicholas E.; Blanchard, Tracy; Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Holdiness, Sacky H.; Schlagheck, Robyn

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a battery of semi-structured interviews, global assessment scales, attachment-specific scales, and behavioral observations to help mental health counselors identify Reactive Attachment Disorder, a syndrome associated with extreme attachment problems. (Contains 25 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  11. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; De Yoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2010-04-20

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  12. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  13. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  14. Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…

  15. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  16. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  17. Predictive Implications of Secure Mother-Infant Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Judith Lynn

    The general proposition of attachment theory is that attachment is grounded in an independent, biologically based system. The quality of primary attachment relationships strongly influences a child's early personality organization, particularly the concept of self and others. The theory emphasizes the primary status and biological function of…

  18. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  19. Fathers in Attachment Theory and Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…

  20. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  1. Associations between Attachment Security and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…

  2. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; DeYoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2011-07-05

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  3. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This fa

  4. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  5. Separation-Individuation, Adult Attachment Style, and College Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Edgerton, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between separation- individuation, adult attachment styles, and college adjustment. Results reveal that college adjustment was positively associated with secure adult attachment and counterindicated by fearful and preoccupied attachments. Implications for counseling practice and directions for future research are…

  6. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  7. 49 CFR 583.9 - Attachment and maintenance of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment and maintenance of label. 583.9 Section 583.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... Attachment and maintenance of label. (a) Attachment of the label. (1) Except as provided in (a)(2),...

  8. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  9. 12 CFR 1511.8 - Notice of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of attachment. 1511.8 Section 1511.8....8 Notice of attachment. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a... or other notice of attachment in any particular case or class of cases....

  10. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  11. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  12. 3D microstructural architecture of muscle attachments in extant and fossil vertebrates revealed by synchrotron microtomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Firm attachments binding muscles to skeleton are crucial mechanical components of the vertebrate body. These attachments (entheses are complex three-dimensional structures, containing distinctive arrangements of cells and fibre systems embedded in the bone, which can be modified during ontogeny. Until recently it has only been possible to obtain 2D surface and thin section images of entheses, leaving their 3D histology largely unstudied except by extrapolation from 2D data. Entheses are frequently preserved in fossil bones, but sectioning is inappropriate for rare or unique fossil material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the first non-destructive 3D investigation, by propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRµCT, of enthesis histology in extant and fossil vertebrates. We are able to identify entheses in the humerus of the salamander Desmognathus from the organization of bone-cell lacunae and extrinsic fibres. Statistical analysis of the lacunae differentiates types of attachments, and the orientation of the fibres, reflect the approximate alignment of the muscle. Similar histological structures, including ontogenetically related pattern changes, are perfectly preserved in two 380 million year old fossil vertebrates, the placoderm Compagopiscis croucheri and the sarcopterygian fish Eusthenopteron foordi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are able to determine the position of entheses in fossil vertebrates, the approximate orientation of the attached muscles, and aspects of their ontogenetic histories, from PPC-SRµCT data. Sub-micron microtomography thus provides a powerful tool for studying the structure, development, evolution and palaeobiology of muscle attachments.

  13. Processes involved in client-nominated relationship building incidents: Client attachment, attachment to therapist, and session impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Drapeau, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Thirty volunteer clients of trainee therapists nominated an incident that was critical in the development of their therapeutic relationship. Clients completed the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECRS), and the Session Impacts Scale (SIS). Clients reported an increase in attachment security with their therapists, along with perceptions of support and relief and increasing exploration following the relationship building incident. While clients' avoidant attachment was unrelated to attachment to the therapist prior to the incidents, in subsequent sessions avoidance was related to a change in secure attachment to therapist. Finally, client attachment to therapist but not general attachment was significantly related to in-session exploration. Findings are discussed in light of attachment theory and convergence with findings from the field of social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Attachment and continuing bonds in bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Simonič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the attachment in a relationship being one of the factors which co-form the grieving process after conjugal loss. In this integrative study about the grieving process after the loss of a partner due to sudden or expected death one or two years after the loss, the author determined that the relationship between partners represents an important indicator of the grieving process. Due to the sensitive nature of the process, the method used was a case study (seven participants were interviewed and a circular research process. The functioning of grieving persons in different areas of life was assessed with a semi-structured interview, specifically designed for this research, and with an adapted version of the Attachment Test, a part of Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc and Žvelc, 2000. It was ascertained that particular contents in the grieving process are specifically connected with the type of relationship prior to death (ambivalent and closely connected/dependent relationship and the experiencing of the present position in relation to the deceased partner. Due to the fact that knowledge about possible maintenance/continuance of the bond between the partners has only recently become the locus of empirical research, the present study could not yet fully evaluate what kind of experience of current relationship position towards the partner contributes to healthy separation and individuation processes, i.e. grieving. Although the findings are limited to the specific context of each individual participant, the case study ascertained certain patterns in the relation between the grieving process and the attachment between partners, which indicates that there is a possibility of these in the wider population.

  15. Adult attachment status and psychological disorder: the predictive validity of adult attachment in violent, personality-disordered patients

    OpenAIRE

    McGauley, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of attachment in a group of violent, personality-disordered patients in a high secure hospital. The research examines the mental representation of attachment and the perception of parenting, as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and the Parental Bonding Instrument, in this patient group and examines whether these differ from those of non-violent psychiatric patients. A prospective study examines whether the attachment measures predict change across a rang...

  16. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was li...

  17. Reaching kids with reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Linda

    2008-01-01

    These kids are real. The behavior is real. The work is long and hard, but with patience and perseverance, changes are made. Reactive attachment disorder is a terrible thing. We must never give up on these kids. Every now and then, a success story comes along. The child goes home and in the wake of his or her leaving are letters addressed in uneven script to staff: Deer mister C. I am doing good. School is good. Thank you for helpin me. I luv you.

  18. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Marie; van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise D; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial

  19. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  20. Attachment anxiety and reciprocity as moderators of interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, M B; Borgaro, S

    1995-02-01

    In integrating the interpersonal domains of attraction, perceived reciprocity, and attachment security, the prediction was made that positive interpersonal feedback (reciprocity) would lead to a greater increase in attraction ratings for anxiously versus securely attached individuals and, correspondingly, negative interpersonal feedback would cause a greater diminution in attraction ratings for anxiously versus securely attached individuals, with neutral feedback having no differential effect. For a sample of 154 college students, these predictions as well as an unanticipated gender finding were supported. The findings and clinical implications concerning the susceptibility of anxiously attached individuals to positive interpersonal cues are discussed in terms of a compromised sense of the availability and responsiveness of attachment figures.

  1. Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice.

  2. Membrane-DNA attachment sites in Streptococcus faecalis cells grown at different rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, L C; Rigney, D; Daneo-Moore, L; Higgins, M L

    1982-10-01

    The M-band technique was used to assess the number of attachment points of DNA to the cell membrane of Streptococcus faecalis grown at three different rates. Cells were X irradiated in liquid nitrogen and then analyzed simultaneously for the introduction of double-strand breaks into the chromosome and the degree of removal of DNA from the cell membrane (M band). Consideration of the data from these experiments and of the topology of the bacterial chromosome resulted in a reevaluation of former quantitative models. Our results are consistent with a semiquantitative model in which the bacterial chromosome is organized around a core structure. We interpret our data to mean that the core is attached to the membrane and that the complexity of the core changes more drastically with growth rate than does the number of membrane-DNA attachment points. An alternative model in which RNA hybridizes with DNA containing single- and double-strand breaks is also discussed. In any event, the complexity of these interactions precludes a reliable estimate of the number of membrane-DNA attachment sites.

  3. Preferential Attachment Model with Degree Bound and its Application to Key Predistribution in WSN

    CERN Document Server

    Ruj, Sushmita

    2016-01-01

    Preferential attachment models have been widely studied in complex networks, because they can explain the formation of many networks like social networks, citation networks, power grids, and biological networks, to name a few. Motivated by the application of key predistribution in wireless sensor networks (WSN), we initiate the study of preferential attachment with degree bound. Our paper has two important contributions to two different areas. The first is a contribution in the study of complex networks. We propose preferential attachment model with degree bound for the first time. In the normal preferential attachment model, the degree distribution follows a power law, with many nodes of low degree and a few nodes of high degree. In our scheme, the nodes can have a maximum degree $d_{\\max}$, where $d_{\\max}$ is an integer chosen according to the application. The second is in the security of wireless sensor networks. We propose a new key predistribution scheme based on the above model. The important features ...

  4. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  5. Cutting Gordian Knots: Reducing Prejudice Through Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Prot, Sara; Cikara, Mina; Lam, Ben C P; Anderson, Craig A; Jelic, Margareta

    2015-11-01

    The positive role of secure attachment in reducing intergroup biases has been suggested in prior studies. We extend this work by testing the effects of secure attachment primes on negative emotions and aggressive behaviors toward outgroup members across four experiments. Results from Studies 1A and 1B reveal that secure attachment prime, relative to neutral, can reduce negative outgroup emotions. In addition, Studies 1B and 3 results rule out positive mood increase as an alternative explanation for the observed effects. Results from Studies 2 and 3 reveal that secure attachment primes can reduce aggressive behavior toward an outgroup member. The effect of secure attachment primes on outgroup harm was found to be fully mediated by negative emotions in Studies 2 and 3. An interaction between secure attachment primes and ingroup identification in Study 2 indicated that the positive effects of secure attachment in reducing outgroup harm may be especially beneficial for highly identified ingroup members.

  6. Attachment and Emotion Regulation Strategies in Predicting Adult Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pascuzzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested a 10-year longitudinal model examining the role of adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies on adult symptoms of psychopathology. Fifty individuals completed a measure of attachment security to parents and peers at age 14, measures of romantic attachment and emotion regulation at age 22, and a measure of psychopathology at age 24. Results revealed that attachment insecurity to parents in adolescence was associated with greater symptoms of psychopathology in adulthood, and emotion-focused strategies partially mediated this association. Anxious romantic attachment was also related to psychopathology, an association that was fully mediated by emotion-focused strategies. The long-term mechanism involved in the association between earlier attachment and future adaptation will be discussed.

  7. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of

  8. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  9. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema: Effects on Emotion Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panoraia Andriopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of secure schema activation on selective attention towards attachment-related and emotional information. Seventy two participants were randomly allocated into two conditions–subliminal priming of mental representations of supportive attachment figures (a Picasso sketch of a mother holding a baby and looking into his eyes and a no priming condition followed by an administration of a dot probe task that included positive and negative attachment-related and emotion words. The results showed that the activation of the secure prime in conjunction with chronic attachment orientations affected the processing of positive and negative attachment-unrelated emotional information. Results highlight relationships between higher-order processes of the attachment system (attachment schema activation with early stage information processing (selective attention as assessed by the dot probe task. Methodological issues are discussed with reference to the priming method used and the traditional version of the dot-probe task.

  10. Points d’attache : Derrida, Cixous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hughes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Les manuscrits échangés entre Hélène Cixous et Jacques Derrida portent les traces de leur amitié, dont le dialogue traverse des décennies d’écriture littéraire et philosophique. Sur les manuscrits du Prénom de Dieu, de Voiles, et de « Circonfession » – qui ont circulé entre les deux auteurs – on peut lire les marginalia, la ponctuation élargie, et la mise en page reconstituée comme des points d’attache entre manuscrit, écrivain, et lecteur. Nous sommes amenés à considérer la surface de l’objet manuscrit comme un lieu de rencontres perpétuelles qui réactivent l’écriture en archive et au-delà – sujet qui regagne en urgence quant aux nouvelles technologies comme les logiciels de traitement de texte et les disques durs. Ces objets textuels servent aussi bien à lier les deux écrivains à la scène de l’écriture, le lecteur étant pris à témoin, qu’à renouer les attaches entre Cixous et Derrida, les solidifiant à travers l’écriture – même de manière posthume.

  11. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  12. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles.

  13. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  14. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  15. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  16. The relation of insecure attachment states of mind and romantic attachment styles to adolescent aggression in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Erin M; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell

    2010-09-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners' romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system.

  17. Pathways to self-esteem in late adolescence: the role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students (M age = 18.6 years, S.D. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour, and self-esteem. Structural equation modelling revealed that parental attachment had mostly direct effects on self-esteem. Among females, the links between peer attachment and self-esteem, however, were entirely mediated by empathy and prosocial behaviour. The findings from this study suggest that although close supportive relationships with parents and peers are related to adolescent self-esteem, these links are complex.

  18. "Semi-straight sort of sex": class and gay community attachment explored within a framework of older homosexually active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, M J; Kippax, S; Smith, G

    1998-01-01

    Gay Community Attachment has proved a significant predictor of successful behavior change among gay-identifying men in response to HIV/AIDS. Related work at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, indicated that attachment to gay community is not a simple issue; rather, complex issues of sexual identity formation, the constraints of social inequality and localized sexual cultures inhibit the process of attachment and, therefore, successful HIV prevention. This paper discusses some of the findings from close-focus (qualitative) research on older homosexually active men which explore in depth the dynamic whereby these men attached themselves to gay community in terms of an analysis of class, generation, and the interplay with self-construction and masculinity.

  19. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  20. Relationship jealousy and its relation to emotional attachment and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Temnik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to study the emotion of relationship jealousy in context of emotional attachment and sexuality. Two main theories that try to explain the nature of this complex emotional state are the evolutionary paradigm and the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis. According to evolutionary psychologists, jealousy is an evolved adaptation, activated by threats to a valuable relationship, functioning to protect it from partial or total loss. The "double-shot" hypothesis on the other hand emphasises the importance of different beliefs men and women hold about emotional vs. sexual infidelity. Slovenian data suggests that (a emotional infidelity is the primary jealousy trigger in both sexes; (b jealousy is influenced by the socio-cultural context (the degree of sexual permissiveness and sex role egalitarity seem to be of special importance, but not by characteristics of the individuals` early life situation; (c marital status influences the tendency towards sexual or emotional jealousy in romantic relationships; (d this tendency also depends on whether the individual comes from a rural or urban environment. Because the results seem to be affected by the linguistic formulation of jealousy and each infidelity type, special attention should be directed towards a precise conceptualisation of these terms. Beliefs about the typical relationship between the emotional and sexual aspect of human relations as well as participants` self-reports indicate that men find it a lot easier to separate both types of attachment than women. In Slovenia, the degree of sexual permissiveness as well as the degree of sex role egalitarity seem to be relatively high and comparable to certain other European countries. The results support the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis, but not the evolutionary theory of jealousy as a sex-specific innate module.

  1. Change in attachment to the therapy group generalizes to change in individual attachment among women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Gick, Mary; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Attachment to groups is analogous to attachment to individuals, and may play an important role in group functioning and in group psychotherapy outcomes. This study examined whether attachment to the therapy group can change during treatment, and whether such change predicts improvements in treatment outcomes, including individual attachment, up to 1 year posttreatment. Eighty-seven women with binge eating disorder (BED) attended Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants were assigned to one of two conditions in which groups were homogeneously composed of women with either higher or lower individual attachment anxiety. Outcomes were assessed pre, post, 6 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Attachment to the group was assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of GPIP. Group attachment insecurity decreased significantly during treatment. Reductions in group attachment avoidance predicted decreases in individual attachment insecurity at 1 year posttreatment. Study condition did not moderate these associations. These results indicate that women with BED who receive GPIP are able to generalize improvements in group attachment security to their individual attachment relationships outside of therapy up to 1 year post group treatment.

  2. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  3. Role of Fimbriae, Flagella and Cellulose on the Attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 to Plant Cell Wall Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michelle S. F.; White, Aaron P.; Rahman, Sadequr

    2016-01-01

    Cases of foodborne disease caused by Salmonella are frequently associated with the consumption of minimally processed produce. Bacterial cell surface components are known to be important for the attachment of bacterial pathogens to fresh produce. The role of these extracellular structures in Salmonella attachment to plant cell walls has not been investigated in detail. We investigated the role of flagella, fimbriae and cellulose on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and a range of isogenic deletion mutants (ΔfliC fljB, ΔbcsA, ΔcsgA, ΔcsgA bcsA and ΔcsgD) to bacterial cellulose (BC)-based plant cell wall models [BC-Pectin (BCP), BC-Xyloglucan (BCX) and BC-Pectin-Xyloglucan (BCPX)] after growth at different temperatures (28°C and 37°C). We found that all three cell surface components were produced at 28°C but only the flagella was produced at 37°C. Flagella appeared to be most important for attachment (reduction of up to 1.5 log CFU/cm2) although both cellulose and fimbriae also aided in attachment. The csgD deletion mutant, which lacks both cellulose and fimbriae, showed significantly higher attachment as compared to wild type cells at 37°C. This may be due to the increased expression of flagella-related genes which are also indirectly regulated by the csgD gene. Our study suggests that bacterial attachment to plant cell walls is a complex process involving many factors. Although flagella, cellulose and fimbriae all aid in attachment, these structures are not the only mechanism as no strain was completely defective in its attachment. PMID:27355584

  4. Quantifying the attachment strength of climbing plants: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Danninger, Elisabeth; Harder, Deane; Speck, Thomas; Kraft, Oliver; Schwaiger, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    In order to grow vertically, it is essential for climbing plants to firmly attach to their supporting structures. In climbing plants, different strategies for permanent attachment can be distinguished. Besides twining stems and tendrils, many plants use attachment pads or attachment roots for this purpose. Using a novel custom-built tensile testing setup, the mechanical properties of different permanent attachment structures of self-clinging plant species were investigated, namely the attachment pads of Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata), the attachment roots of ivy (Hedera helix) and the clustered attachment roots of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans). Force-displacement measurements of individual attachment pads as well as of complete structures consisting of several pads or roots were conducted for both natural and laboratory growth conditions. The shapes of the curves and the maximum forces determined indicate clear differences in the detachment process for the different plants and structures tested. Based on these findings, it is argued that the attachment structures are displacement-optimized rather than force-optimized.

  5. Finger muscle attachments for an OpenSim upper-extremity model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available We determined muscle attachment points for the index, middle, ring and little fingers in an OpenSim upper-extremity model. Attachment points were selected to match both experimentally measured locations and mechanical function (moment arms. Although experimental measurements of finger muscle attachments have been made, models differ from specimens in many respects such as bone segment ratio, joint kinematics and coordinate system. Likewise, moment arms are not available for all intrinsic finger muscles. Therefore, it was necessary to scale and translate muscle attachments from one experimental or model environment to another while preserving mechanical function. We used a two-step process. First, we estimated muscle function by calculating moment arms for all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles using the partial velocity method. Second, optimization using Simulated Annealing and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms found muscle-tendon paths that minimized root mean square (RMS differences between experimental and modeled moment arms. The partial velocity method resulted in variance accounted for (VAF between measured and calculated moment arms of 75.5% on average (range from 48.5% to 99.5% for intrinsic and extrinsic index finger muscles where measured data were available. RMS error between experimental and optimized values was within one standard deviation (S.D of measured moment arm (mean RMS error = 1.5 mm < measured S.D = 2.5 mm. Validation of both steps of the technique allowed for estimation of muscle attachment points for muscles whose moment arms have not been measured. Differences between modeled and experimentally measured muscle attachments, averaged over all finger joints, were less than 4.9 mm (within 7.1% of the average length of the muscle-tendon paths. The resulting non-proprietary musculoskeletal model of the human fingers could be useful for many applications, including better understanding of complex multi-touch and gestural movements.

  6. The rooting of the mind in the body: new links between attachment theory and psychoanalytic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Target, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between psychoanalysis and attachment theory is complex indeed. A brief review of the psychoanalytic literature as it concerns attachment theory and research, and of the attachment literature as it pertains to psychoanalytic ideas, demonstrates an increasing interest in attachment theory within psychoanalysis. Some of the difficulties that attachment theory faces in relation to psychoanalytic ideas are traced to its links to the now dated cognitive science of the 1960s and 1970s. Today, however, a second-generation cognitive neuroscience seeks neurobiologically plausible accounts in which links with brain and body are seen as shaping mind and consciousness, which increasingly are seen as "embodied", as emerging from or serving the needs of a physical being located in a specific time, place, and social context. This idea has also been at the core of much psychoanalytic thinking, which has historically affirmed the rootedness of symbolic thought in sensory, emotional, and enacted experience with objects. Now neurobiological advances supporting the concept of embodied cognition offer an opportunity to forge powerful links between the hitherto separate domains of attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Speculations about the nature of language are presented that emphasize the origin of internal working models (and of representations in general) in early sensorimotor and emotional experiences with a caregiver. It is argued that language and symbolic thought may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically embodied, built on a foundation of gestures and actions, and are thus profoundly influenced by the experience of early physical interaction with the primary object. Finally, the clinical and research implications of these ideas are discussed.

  7. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  8. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  9. The Neurobiology of Attachment to Nurturing and Abusive Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that childhood experiences interact with our genetics to change the structure and function of the brain. Within the range of normal experiences, this system enables the brain to be modified during development to adapt to various environments and cultures. Experiences with and attachment to the caregiver appear particularly important, and recent research suggests this may be due, in part, to the attachment circuitry within the brain. Children have brain circuitry to ensure attachment to their caregivers. Attachment depends on the offspring learning about the caregiver in a process that begins prenatally and continues through most of early life. This attachment serves two basic functions. First, attachment ensures the infant remain in the proximity of the caregiver to procure resources for survival and protection. Second, attachment "quality programs" the brain. This programming impacts immediate behaviors, as well as behaviors that emerge later in development. Animal research has uncovered segments of the attachment circuitry within the brain and has highlighted rapid, robust learning to support this attachment. A child attaches to the caregiver regardless of the quality of care received, even if the caregiver is abusive and neglectful. While a neural system that ensures attachment regardless of the quality of care has immediate benefits, this attachment comes with a high cost. Traumatic experiences interact with genetics to change the structure and function of the brain, compromising emotional and cognitive development and initiating a pathway to pathology. Neurobiological research on animals suggests that trauma during attachment is processed differently by the brain, with maternal presence dramatically attenuating the fear center of the brain (amygdala). Thus, the immaturity of the brain combined with the unique processing of trauma may underlie the enduring effects of abuse, which remain largely hidden in early life but emerge as

  10. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may

  11. Growth fluctuation in preferential attachment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    In the Yule-Simon process, creation and selection of words follows the preferential attachment mechanism, resulting in a power-law growth in the cumulative number of individual word occurrences as well as the power-law population distribution of the vocabulary. This is derived using mean-field approximation, assuming a continuum limit of both the time and number of word occurrences. However, time and word occurrences are inherently discrete in the process, and it is natural to assume that the cumulative number of word occurrences has a certain fluctuation around the average behavior predicted by the mean-field approximation. We derive the exact and approximate forms of the probability distribution of such fluctuation analytically, and confirm that those probability distributions are well supported by the numerical experiments.

  12. My Story has No Strings Attached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    cards can even be “gardening” tools. Sowing is the name used in Chile’s retail industry to call the data management strategy that consists of extending the credit limit of low income customers depending on their payment behavior. Data on previous transactions and behavior replaces collateral. Credit......In the retail industry, consumer credit is sometimes seen as a dangerous parasite that can become bigger than its host. Credit cards are marketing devices that aim at easing the attachment between consumers and goods. Credit cards are also value meters that trace every single transaction. Credit...... cards are not only used by the persons whose names are on the cards; People borrow and loan their cards, or, more precisely, their cards’ credit limits. Credit cards do not trace behavior but hidden networks. Can social relations act as parasites on credit – uninvited guests whose host is already...

  13. Handcrafting Attachment: A User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Lowry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Management, above all, is the controlling element responsible for coordinating the three basic business functions; production, marketing, and finance.  Mechanisms exist to facilitate the finance function with influence coming from outside regulatory bodies such as the AICPA, IIA, SEC, and other regulators.  Integrating the finance function into organizations, then, becomes somewhat generic (although some would argue this point.  Coordinating the functions of marketing and production is a much more difficult endeavor because it lacks the standardization seen in finance.  This paper suggests employing a more user-focused approach as a means to improving the overall quality of products, and eventually, the success of the organization.  Specifically, this paper explores the role of the human brain in the calculus of choice, discusses the role of consumer involvement as it leads to product attachment, and offers suggestions for employing contextual research to improve product design and quality.

  14. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  15. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail: vaibhav@tifr.res.in; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  16. Fibronectin and vitronectin promote human fetal osteoblast cell attachment and proliferation on nanoporous titanium surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Chacon, D. M.; Alvarado-Velez, M.; Acevedo-Morantes, C.Y.; Singh, S. P.; Gultepe, E.; Nagesha, D; Sridhar, S; Ramirez-Vick, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in osteoconduction of implant biomaterials require focusing on the bone-implant interface, which is a complex multifactorial system. Surface topography of implants plays a crucial role at this interface. Nanostructured surfaces have been shown to promote serum protein adsorption and osteoblast adhesion when compared to microstructured surfaces for bone-implant materials. We studied the influence of the serum proteins fibronectin and vitronectin on the attachment and proliferation...

  17. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  18. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universitá di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Universitá di Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it [ISOF, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, C.N.R., via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-14

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  19. 49 CFR Attachment 4 - State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 Attachment 4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL..., Attach. 4 Attachment 4—State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements 1. OBM Revised Circular No. A... have been requested, as specified in Attachment 1....

  20. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  1. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  2. Attachment styles and clinical communication performance in trainee doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Ian; McCallum, Rachel; Peters, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between trainee doctors' attachment style and their performance in qualifying clinical and communication skills assessments. Participants were 190 undergraduate medical students whose performance was assessed by examiners across two areas (communication and clinical skills) during their qualifying Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Simulated patients also rated communication skills. Participants' attachment style was rated across two dimensions, avoidance and anxiety, using the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ). Lower levels of attachment avoidance and anxiety significantly predicted higher performance in both communication and clinical skills. Trainee doctors' attachment styles are associated with patient communication and clinical performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of attachment on consultations between doctors and patients within clinical settings. Attachment theory can inform our understanding why, for some student doctors, interacting with patients may be particularly challenging and require additional support by medical educators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment and Reflective Functioning in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoud, Deborah; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Germond, Charlotte; Luyten, Patrick; Perroud, Nader; Debbané, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Insecure attachment and impairments in reflective functioning (RF) are thought to play a critical role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In particular, the mentalization-based model argues that insecure attachment indirectly accounts for increased BPD features, notably via disruption of RF capacities. Although the mediation relationship between attachment, RF, and BPD is supported by previous evidence, it remains to be directly tested in adults with BPD. In the current study, a sample of 55 female adult BPD patients and 105 female healthy controls completed a battery of self-report measures to investigate the interplay between attachment, RF capacities, and BPD clinical status. Overall, the results showed that BPD patients predominantly reported insecure attachment, characterized by negative internal working models of the self as unlovable and unimportant to others, and decreased RF abilities. Our findings further indicated that actual RF capacities mediated the relationships between adult insecure attachment and BPD clinical status.

  4. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  5. Electron Attachment to DNA and RNA Nucleobases: An EOMCC Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Chintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    We report a benchmark theoretical investigation of both adiabatic and vertical electron affinities of five DNA and RNA nucleobases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil using state-of-the-art equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) method. We have calculated the vertical electron affinity values of first five electron attached states of the DNA and RNA nucleobases and only the first electron attached state is found to be energetically accessible in gas phase. An analysis of the natural orbitals shows that the first electron attached states of uracil and thymine are valence-bound type and undergo significant structural changes on attachment of excess electron, which is reflected in the deviation of the adiabatic electron affinity from the vertical one. On the other hand, the first electron attached state of cytosine, adenine and guanine are dipole-bound type and their structure remain unaffected on attachment of an extra electron, which results in small deviation of adiabatic electron affinity fro...

  6. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  8. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema Affects the Emotional Face Processing Bias in Attachment Anxiety: An fMRI Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingting; Chen, Xu; Hu, Jia; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Our study explored how priming with a secure base schema affects the processing of emotional facial stimuli in individuals with attachment anxiety. We enrolled 42 undergraduate students between 18 and 27 years of age, and divided them into two groups: attachment anxiety and attachment secure. All participants were primed under two conditions, the secure priming using references to the partner, and neutral priming using neutral references. We performed repeated attachment security priming combined with a dual-task paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' reaction times in terms of responding to the facial stimuli were also measured. Attachment security priming can facilitate an individual's processing of positive emotional faces; for instance, the presentation of the partner's name was associated with stronger activities in a wide range of brain regions and faster reaction times for positive facial expressions in the subjects. The current finding of higher activity in the left-hemisphere regions for secure priming rather than neutral priming is consistent with the prediction that attachment security priming triggers the spread of the activation of a positive emotional state. However, the difference in brain activity during processing of both, positive and negative emotional facial stimuli between the two priming conditions appeared in the attachment anxiety group alone. This study indicates that the effect of attachment secure priming on the processing of emotional facial stimuli could be mediated by chronic attachment anxiety. In addition, it highlights the association between higher-order processes of the attachment system (secure attachment schema priming) and early-stage information processing system (attention), given the increased attention toward the effects of secure base schema on the processing of emotion- and attachment-related information among the insecure population. Thus, the following study has applications in providing

  9. Hubungan Attachment Terhadap Ayah Dengan Kecerdasan Emosi Pada Remaja Laki-Laki

    OpenAIRE

    Asyava, Tengku Shella

    2011-01-01

    Ainsworth (1969) Attachment is the emotional bond that formed an individual with specific other people, they tied Dalan eternal attachment all the time. . Attachments will survive long enough in human life span that begins with the attachment of children to the mother or substitute mother figure (the father) This study aims to determine the relationship attachment (secure attachment, anxious attachment and avoidant attachment) with father male adolescent emotional intelligence male. Sampling ...

  10. The role of brand attachment strength in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Charles; Papagiannidis, Savvas; Alamanos, Eleftherios; Bourlakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust and brand equity in the context of Higher Education Institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n=605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is strong...

  11. The Role of Brand Attachment Strength in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust, and brand equity in the context of higher education institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n = 605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is str...

  12. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Senija Tahirovic; Adela Bajric

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992). Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) describe th...

  13. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  14. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical practice and future researches.

  15. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical...

  16. 10 Inventions on keyboard attachments-A TRIZ based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    Although the primary objective of the keyboard to input data into the computer, the advanced keyboards keep various other things in mind, such as, how to use the same keyboard for various other purposes, or how to use the same keyboard efficiently by using various other attachments to the keyboard. This objective led to various inventions on keyboard attachments, some of which are illustrated below in this article. This article illustrates 10 inventions on various keyboard attachments from US...

  17. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Paul DJ Murphy; S Jeffrey Bailey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dim...

  18. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  19. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  20. Tooth Supported Overdenture Retained with Custom Attachments: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Siddharth; Aras, Meena A; Chitre, Vidya

    2014-12-01

    Overdenture is a favored treatment modality for elderly patients with few remaining teeth. Roots maintained under the denture base preserve the alveolar ridge, provide sensory feedback and improve the stability of the dentures. Furthermore, the use of copings and precision attachments on the remaining teeth enhances the retention of the denture. This clinical report describes a novel method of fabricating a tooth supported overdenture retained with custom made ball attachments using orthodontic separators as a female component. Customized ball attachments with orthodontic separators are a simple and cost effective alternative treatment to the use of prefabricated attachments for enhancing the retention of tooth supported overdentures.