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Sample records for happiness studies perspective

  1. What Is Happy Death? From the Perspective of Happiness Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    This paper is to review what is happy death from the perspective of happiness education. To discuss this study logically, four research questions are addressed. First, what is the concept of human death? Second, what are life and death from the Eastern and the Western religious viewpoints? Third, what is happy death in terms of happiness…

  2. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  3. Integral Perspective on Happiness

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    Joonas Uotinen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A happiness science has emerged amidst, and spans, the social sciences. This research, despite the long philosophical tradition on happiness, is in its infancy and a robust theory of happiness is called for. I will review parts of the literature and some of the main happiness theories using Ken Wilber’s Integral approach. I will concentrate largely on Aristotle’s eudaimonia, as that has re-emerged into the centre of happiness discussions as a possible contender for the prevailing subjective happiness theories. The Integral approach seems to provide valuable insights into many happiness theories, juxtapose them in a comprehensible way, pinpoint deficiencies, and propose enhancements. Amongst other things, I will propose a new happiness theory combining John Kekes’ happiness theory with ecological ethics and I will conclude that enlightenment proves to be a good candidate for the ultimate good, or summum bonum, I will enlarge on Aristotle’s theory and propose that Wilber’s theory provides an ‘Integral road map towards eudaimonia enhanced – the enlightenment’. I will argue that eudaimonia and enlightenment, though superficially dissimilar, accord in surprising ways, to a great extent. I will discuss whether the discussion of happiness and morality is critically biased, and I will discuss the societal implications that Wilber’s conception of the human might have through its implications for happiness theories.

  4. PERSPECTIVES UPON CONSUMPTION AND HAPPINESS

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    Andreea Mihaela STROE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are described by economists as rational people when making a decision and when interacting with different types of framing problems. Theories explaining rational "consumer's rational behaviour" , assume that emotions can be controlled and even ignored so people be able to behave in a rational manner. An important issue was to establish the rational economic report between resources and needs and finding ways to optimize it. Rational consumer behaviour is considered to be one that ensures maximum consumer satisfaction with maximum efficiency at minimum cost. Each user asks himself at one point, if happiness is found in material goods and services. Economists would like that the consumers believe that in their attempt to explain buying behaviour. However, it is a matter of debate if psychological records tend to state otherwise. It is suggested that people buy goods and services hoping that they will substitute the factors that make them truly happy . It is debatable whether consumption is detrimental to human happiness and if the link between consumption and happiness extends to all buying experiences.

  5. The Pedagogy of Happiness and Death: From the Perspectives of Buddhism and Christianity

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    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the pedagogy of happiness and death from the perspectives of Buddhism and Christianity. To discuss this study logically, three research questions are addressed. First, what are the concepts of happiness and death? Second, what is the relevance between happiness and death? Last, what are the meanings of…

  6. From Comparison to Indices: A disabling perspective on the history of happiness

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    Y. Söderfeldt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Who should be considered the most unhappy, the blind or the deaf? The intensive debate over this issue in the early 19th century is the outset of our study of how during the last two hundred years disability and happiness have become inextricably connected. On the basis of our historical analysis we have identified characteristics that also can be found in current happiness interpretations, namely the persistent role played by activation, professional intervention, and alignment with normative behaviors. In order to highlight this intimate connection between past and present we subsequently focus on the contemporary preoccupation with the happiness of people with disabilities, exemplified by research on the so-called “disability paradox” and the development of happiness indices within the behavioral sciences. Our thesis is that applying perspectives from disability studies to happiness research uncovers processes of exclusion and other modalities of power previously overlooked. In our examples, we recognize a desire to lay bare the inside of disabled people’s minds and impose on them un/happy subjectivities. We furthermore argue that the way we think of, and treat, both disability and happiness, i. e. by systematization and professionalization, belongs to a rationalization process which risks colonizing the emotional realm of disabled people. Thus we suggest a research program that ‘dis/ables’ happiness studies and, aided by historical analysis, reconsiders the emotional dimension of disability.

  7. ECONOMICS OF HAPPINESS: A STUDY ON HAPPINESS INDICATORS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS

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    Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by marital status; happiness by age; happiness and money; happiness, sports and health; happiness, friendship, love relationships and sex life; and happiness, creativity and organization. The results show that money is not one of the major constraints to achieve happiness in this analysis group, that love relationships significantly increase the happiness of this study group, once sexual relationships don’t represent happiness increasing. It was also found that emotional / mental health of the participants has significance to turn them happier as creative tasks and planning actions to the future to reach the dreams and goals demonstrate to increase the happiness of this sample of university teachers.

  8. Do Social Computing Make You Happy? A Case Study of Nomadic Children in Mixed Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I describe a perspective on ambient, ubiquitous, and pervasive computing called the happiness perspective. By using the happiness perspective, the application domain and how the technology is used and experienced, becomes a central and integral part of perceiving ambient technology....... will use the perspective in a case study on field test experiments with nomadic children in mixed environments using the eBag system....

  9. Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study

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    Ip, Po-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…

  10. Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractJeremy Bentham (1789) wrote that the moral worth of all action should be judged by the degree to which it contributes to the 'greater happiness of a greater number'. This philosophy is still object of much controversy (Smart & Williams 1973). The following objections have been raised. 1)

  11. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

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    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  12. Religion and Happiness: A Study Among University Students in Turkey.

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    Francis, Leslie J; Ok, Üzeyir; Robbins, Mandy

    2017-08-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that higher levels of positive religious affect are associated with higher levels of personal happiness among a sample of 348 students studying at a state university in Turkey who completed the Ok Religious Attitude Scale (Islam), the Oxford Happiness Inventory, and the short-form Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. The data reported a small but statistically significant association between religiosity and happiness after taking sex and individual differences in personality into account.

  13. Undergraduate Student Happiness and Academic Performance: A Correlation Study

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    Langevin, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…

  14. Truly, Is Higher Education a Necessary Good or Evil? From the Perspective of Happiness Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss whether higher education is a necessary good or evil from the perspective of happiness education. To review the paper systematically, four research questions are addressed. First, what is the purpose of higher education? Second, is higher education a necessary good? Third, is higher education a necessary…

  15. The relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression

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    Bahrami, Susan; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Zahmatkesh, Monereh; Nematolahi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the important requirements for cultural, social and even economic development is having a book-loving nation. In order to achieve this, there is a need for purposeful and continuous programming. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression in Isfahan University of Medical Science. METHODS: This research was a kind of descriptive and correlation survey. Statistical population included all MSc and PhD students in the second semester of the Isfahan University of Medical Science (263 students). In this research, stratified and random sampling was used in which a sample of 100 students was selected. Data collection instruments were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Oxford Happiness Inventory and a researcher-made questionnaire to determine the amount of students’ study. Validity of this questionnaires was determined by structure and content related validity and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the first (r = 0.94), second (r = 0.91) and third (r = 0.85) questionnaire. Analysis of research findings was done through descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Findings showed that 68.8 percent of students study less than 5 hours and only 2.5 percent of students study more than 10 hours. 65 percent of students had high amount of happiness and 35 percent had medium amount of happiness. In 60 percent of students there was no symptom of depression and 7.5 had depression symptoms. Also, there was no significant relationship between happiness and studying but there was a significant and negative relationship between studying and depression and happiness and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of study and tendency for reading are among the most important indices of human growth in terms of potential abilities for achieving a perfect human life and to prevent one-dimensional thinking. Thus, finding ways to encourage students to study is

  16. The relationship between students' study habits, happiness and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Susan; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Zahmatkesh, Monereh; Nematolahi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    One of the important requirements for cultural, social and even economic development is having a book-loving nation. In order to achieve this, there is a need for purposeful and continuous programming. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between students' study habits, happiness and depression in Isfahan University of Medical Science. This research was a kind of descriptive and correlation survey. Statistical population included all MSc and PhD students in the second semester of the Isfahan University of Medical Science (263 students). In this research, stratified and random sampling was used in which a sample of 100 students was selected. Data collection instruments were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Oxford Happiness Inventory and a researcher-made questionnaire to determine the amount of students' study. Validity of this questionnaires was determined by structure and content related validity and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the first (r = 0.94), second (r = 0.91) and third (r = 0.85) questionnaire. Analysis of research findings was done through descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that 68.8 percent of students study less than 5 hours and only 2.5 percent of students study more than 10 hours. 65 percent of students had high amount of happiness and 35 percent had medium amount of happiness. In 60 percent of students there was no symptom of depression and 7.5 had depression symptoms. Also, there was no significant relationship between happiness and studying but there was a significant and negative relationship between studying and depression and happiness and depression. The amount of study and tendency for reading are among the most important indices of human growth in terms of potential abilities for achieving a perfect human life and to prevent one-dimensional thinking. Thus, finding ways to encourage students to study is considered essential to achieve a healthy and developed

  17. The Concept of Happiness in the New Testament and its Critique from the Perspective of the Holy Quran

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    Azam Parcham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  One of the questions that arises in religious discourse, is how to explain the concept and sources of joy in human life .  This article examines the different debates and the same discussions on the concept of happiness in New Testament and the Quran. However this study is a basic research, for this reason, it checks only sources of happiness and joy in higher level. And we do not discuss in this article about the culture of joy and tools of happiness in life .   In the New Testament, religious and spiritual happiness and reaching salvation are obtained through the belief in Christ's ransom. The man at first is born with original sin and Christ's sacrifice reconciles him with God. Thus, the grace of Christ plays the most important role in salvation and Christian joy. In the teachings of the New Testament, birth of Christ, the advent of Christ, faith in Christ, the ransom of Christ and the resurrection of Christ, the miracles of Jesus Christ and enduring the difficulties on the way of Christ all can create happiness and joy. And this joy will be complete by reaching the Divine Kingdom that is the purpose of the life of a Christian. In this view, man has no role in her fate and there is no talent in him to take him to perfection, God's grace reaches men solely through Christ and the law does not have any roles in human redemption .   From the perspective of the Quranic verses it's wrong to have such a conception about man. True spiritual joy in Islam is explained as: Human is the submissive slave of God and God is people's lord. Humans are completely free to reach perfection, redemption and happiness, and this freedom means subjugation to God. Human freedom increases by obeying God, and with having love toward the God's true servants one can reach the top grades. Having a free will can lead to the infallibility and infallibility can take the man to see the Devine Kingdom. Man can see the Devine Kingdom, and there he can realize that the human

  18. The Concept of Happiness in the New Testament and its Critique from the Perspective of the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Parcham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions that arises in religious discourse, is how to explain the concept and sources of joy in human life .  This article examines the different debates and the same discussions on the concept of happiness in New Testament and the Quran. However this study is a basic research, for this reason, it checks only sources of happiness and joy in higher level. And we do not discuss in this article about the culture of joy and tools of happiness in life .   In the New Testament, religious and spiritual happiness and reaching salvation are obtained through the belief in Christ's ransom. The man at first is born with original sin and Christ's sacrifice reconciles him with God. Thus, the grace of Christ plays the most important role in salvation and Christian joy. In the teachings of the New Testament, birth of Christ, the advent of Christ, faith in Christ, the ransom of Christ and the resurrection of Christ, the miracles of Jesus Christ and enduring the difficulties on the way of Christ all can create happiness and joy. And this joy will be complete by reaching the Divine Kingdom that is the purpose of the life of a Christian. In this view, man has no role in her fate and there is no talent in him to take him to perfection, God's grace reaches men solely through Christ and the law does not have any roles in human redemption .   From the perspective of the Quranic verses it's wrong to have such a conception about man. True spiritual joy in Islam is explained as: Human is the submissive slave of God and God is people's lord. Humans are completely free to reach perfection, redemption and happiness, and this freedom means subjugation to God. Human freedom increases by obeying God, and with having love toward the God's true servants one can reach the top grades. Having a free will can lead to the infallibility and infallibility can take the man to see the Devine Kingdom. Man can see the Devine Kingdom, and there he can realize that the human

  19. Moderator Roles of Optimism and Weight Control on the Impact of Playing Exergames on Happiness: The Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory Using A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Nguyen, Huynh Van; Huang, Han-Chung; Wong, May-Kuen; Yang, Ya-Hui; Huang, Tzu-Ling; Teng, Ching-I

    2018-04-30

    The literature on exergames has examined their impact on user-perceived psychological health (i.e., user-perceived happiness), but little is known about whether such an impact depends on user characteristics. Therefore, this study used the perspective of social cognitive theory (SCT) to identify potential moderators (i.e., whether the user is optimistic or attempting to control his or her weight) of the impact of playing exergames on user-perceived happiness. This large-scale randomized controlled trial recruited 337 college students (of whom 57.3% were female and all were aged 20-40 years) as participants. The participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Participants in the intervention group were asked to use an Xbox 360 to play 1 of 10 exergame programs for 30 minutes once a week for 2 weeks. Participants in the control group were not required to do so. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for the analyses. The analytical results indicate that playing exergames helped to maintain happiness levels and prevented them from decreasing. The maintained happiness was more prominent among participants who were trying to control their weight, but did not differ between participants who were highly optimistic and those who were less optimistic. This study is the first using SCT to explain the contingent effect of playing exergames on user happiness. Exergames can maintain happiness among users, and such maintenance can be the strongest among users who are trying to control their weight.

  20. Happiness and Social Exclusion of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan - A Social Sustainability Perspective

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    Wang, Jiun-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Happiness and social inclusion are important indicators of social sustainability, as recommended in the Sustainable Development Goals; however, little is known about the social sustainable development of ethnic minorities. To fill this knowledge gap, special attention is paid to understanding the issues of social exclusion and happiness in relation to the indigenous peoples in Taiwan. Methods Data used were drawn from a nationwide representativeness survey of the Taiwanese Indigenous People in 2007; it included 2,200 respondents. This study employed binary logistic regression to examine the effects of different domains of social exclusion on the likelihood of perceiving happiness; other exogenous factors, were controlled. Results The results show that among the respondents, mountain indigenous peoples, females, the elderly and those who are healthier, wealthier, highly educated, possessing western beliefs, and are more likely to be happy, compared to their counterparts. As expected, the results reveal that the likelihood of being happy is higher for those who have received medical benefits, as well as those persons without housing problems or financial difficulties, compared to their excluded counterparts. However, no significant association is found between happiness and some social exclusion domains, such as child and youth benefits, and unemployment benefits. Conclusions The disengagement of the indigenous peoples in mainstream society, with respect to the accessibility of welfare provisions, is a crucial element in regard to social exclusion and happiness. Several policy implications for the social sustainability of indigenous peoples can be inferred from these findings. For example, providing a mobile clinical tour, on-site health counseling, or homecare service can contribute to the removal of institutional and geographic barriers to medical welfare provisions for the mountain indigenes. Moreover, the government may devote more welfare resources

  1. Happiness and social exclusion of indigenous peoples in Taiwan--a social sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiun-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Happiness and social inclusion are important indicators of social sustainability, as recommended in the Sustainable Development Goals; however, little is known about the social sustainable development of ethnic minorities. To fill this knowledge gap, special attention is paid to understanding the issues of social exclusion and happiness in relation to the indigenous peoples in Taiwan. Data used were drawn from a nationwide representativeness survey of the Taiwanese Indigenous People in 2007; it included 2,200 respondents. This study employed binary logistic regression to examine the effects of different domains of social exclusion on the likelihood of perceiving happiness; other exogenous factors, were controlled. The results show that among the respondents, mountain indigenous peoples, females, the elderly and those who are healthier, wealthier, highly educated, possessing western beliefs, and are more likely to be happy, compared to their counterparts. As expected, the results reveal that the likelihood of being happy is higher for those who have received medical benefits, as well as those persons without housing problems or financial difficulties, compared to their excluded counterparts. However, no significant association is found between happiness and some social exclusion domains, such as child and youth benefits, and unemployment benefits. The disengagement of the indigenous peoples in mainstream society, with respect to the accessibility of welfare provisions, is a crucial element in regard to social exclusion and happiness. Several policy implications for the social sustainability of indigenous peoples can be inferred from these findings. For example, providing a mobile clinical tour, on-site health counseling, or homecare service can contribute to the removal of institutional and geographic barriers to medical welfare provisions for the mountain indigenes. Moreover, the government may devote more welfare resources to assist indigenous families and tribal

  2. A comparative study of a happiness intervention in medical-surgical nurses.

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    Appel, Linda; Labhart, Lana; Balczo, Pam; McCleary, Nancy; Raley, Mary; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2013-01-01

    An intervention study evaluating the impact of journaling on nurse happiness was conducted with 91 medical-surgical nurses. No differences in general happiness, percentage of time happy, and gratitude were detected among groups although journaling was qualitatively described as meaningful.

  3. Concepts of happiness across time and cultures.

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    Oishi, Shigehiro; Graham, Jesse; Kesebir, Selin; Galinha, Iolanda Costa

    2013-05-01

    We explored cultural and historical variations in concepts of happiness. First, we analyzed the definitions of happiness in dictionaries from 30 nations to understand cultural similarities and differences in happiness concepts. Second, we analyzed the definition of happiness in Webster's dictionaries from 1850 to the present day to understand historical changes in American English. Third, we coded the State of the Union addresses given by U.S. presidents from 1790 to 2010. Finally, we investigated the appearance of the phrases happy nation versus happy person in Google's Ngram Viewer from 1800 to 2008. Across cultures and time, happiness was most frequently defined as good luck and favorable external conditions. However, in American English, this definition was replaced by definitions focused on favorable internal feeling states. Our findings highlight the value of a historical perspective in the study of psychological concepts.

  4. Religion and happiness : a study among female undergraduate students In Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Yablon, Yaacov B.; Robbins, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that higher levels of positive \\ud religious affect are associated with higher levels of personal happiness \\ud among a sample of 284 Hebrew-speaking female undergraduate students \\ud who completed the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism, the \\ud Oxford Happiness Inventory, and the short-form Eysenck Personality \\ud Questionnaire Revised. The data reported a small but statistically \\ud significant association between religiosity and happiness after ta...

  5. Happiness Among College Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Study Among Iranian Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lesani; Mohammadpoorasl; Javadi; Ansari; Fakhari

    2016-01-01

    Background During the recent decades, happiness and psychological wellbeing have been among the most attractive issues for researchers in the fields of social sciences and health. Medical and paramedical students in comparison with other college students are less happy due to work circumstance in hospital and special education. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate happiness among college students of Qazvin Unive...

  6. Higher Education and Happiness: The Perspectives of the Bible and Tao Te Ching

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    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concepts and principles of happiness shown in the Bible and Tao Te Ching for implications in higher education. To review the paper systematically, three research questions are addressed. First, what are happiness concepts and principles in the Bible? Second, what are happiness concepts and principles in…

  7. Happiness Among College Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Study Among Iranian Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background During the recent decades, happiness and psychological wellbeing have been among the most attractive issues for researchers in the fields of social sciences and health. Medical and paramedical students in comparison with other college students are less happy due to work circumstance in hospital and special education. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate happiness among college students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in terms of socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional web-based study, all the students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who had course classes were invited to participate in the study and 541 students filled out the web-based questionnaire including questions for measuring happiness oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ, health status, stress experience in the past six months, cigarette and hookah smoking, physical activity rapid assessment of physical activity (RAPA, as well as socio-economic and demographic information. Results The mean happiness score was 114.59 ± 18.31. Socio-economic status, physical activity, and experience of stress in the last 6 months were related to the happiness score (P = 0.009, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively. However, gender, cigarette smoking, hookah smoking and body mass index were not significantly correlated with happiness. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that a happiness score among our sample study was slightly low and people with high happiness scores had a healthier lifestyle, i.e. more physical activity and less tobacco smoking. College students should be encouraged to do regular exercise as a way to increase the happiness level.

  8. The Effect of Quality of School Life on Sense of Happiness: A Study on University Students

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    Gökler, Riza; Gürgan, Ugur; Tastan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between quality of school life and happiness among university students. For this purpose, 326 students from five different faculties in Çankiri Karatekin University participated in the study. Participants filled in the "scale for quality of school life" and "scale for Oxford happiness-Compact…

  9. The Meaning of Happiness in Consumer Research: Results from an Inductive Exploratory Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Elin Brandi; Thomsen, Thyra Uth

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigate the meaning of happiness in a consumption context. We employ an inductive approach and present the results of an exploratory pilot study with eight consumers. The study is based on a Multi-Sensory-Sculpting (MSS) procedure in which we asked consumers to build sculptures...... that represent consumer happiness. Following the MSS guidelines, consumers were interviewed about the meanings of their sculpture in order to elicit embodied cognition about the topic at hand. In this paper we present the meanings of consumer happiness in the participants‟ accounts and discuss implications...... for consumer research. Further, we discuss the applicability of the MSS-procedure to the topic of consumer happiness, and how to optimize it for later studies on consumer happiness....

  10. The International scale interval study: improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhoven, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study is about survey questions on happiness using verbal response options, such as ‘very happy’ and ‘fairly happy’. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to 10

  11. Love, life and happiness: a study of partner relationships and well-being in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Love, life and happiness are the key elements of this dissertation. The long-term development of happiness, or more precisely, subjective well-being, and its determinants are studied in a young adult sample. That is where "life" comes in. When crossing the bridge from childhood to adulthood, people

  12. Effects of Happiness on All-Cause Mortality During 15 Years of Follow-Up: The Arnhem Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, T.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Giltay, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychological characteristics may be beneficial for physical health. However, prospective data on the effects of happiness on survival is scarce. In a population-based cohort study, the Arnhem Elderly Study, happiness was measured by two items, being: "I have many moments of happiness" and

  13. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    Full Text Available Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression.Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview.About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7, depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6, and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (<20 cigarettes/day OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.03; 1.84] and ≥ 20 cigarettes/day OR = 2.11[95% CI 1.31; 3.40]. Smoking by the partner was associated with decreased offspring happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression.Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  14. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  15. Can Seeking Happiness Make People Happy? Paradoxical Effects of Valuing Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Iris B.; Tamir, Maya; Anderson, Craig L.; Savino, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    Happiness is a key ingredient of well-being. It is thus reasonable to expect that valuing happiness will have beneficial outcomes. We argue that this may not always be the case. Instead, valuing happiness could be self-defeating because the more people value happiness, the more likely they will feel disappointed. This should apply particularly in positive situations, in which people have every reason to be happy. Two studies support this hypothesis. In Study 1, female participants who valued happiness more (vs. less) reported lower happiness when under conditions of low, but not high, life stress. In Study 2, compared to a control group, female participants who were experimentally induced to value happiness reacted less positively to a happy, but not a sad, emotion induction. This effect was mediated by participants’ disappointment at their own feelings. Paradoxically, therefore, valuing happiness may lead people to be less happy just when happiness is within reach. PMID:21517168

  16. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.

  17. Children’s perspectives on happiness and subjective wellbeing in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye

    2018-01-01

    Photo-elicited interviews indicate that children hardly ever mention educators when asked about elements in preschool that make them feel happy. Happiness is found to occur in activities in the ’underlife’ of the ECEC institution. Children challenge adult rules and norms in order to create status...... in the peer-group, while at the same time, they seek to construct social identity and maintain a positive relationship with their educators. A child that manages to balance both adult expectations and what is needed to participate in the underlife among peers, experiences happiness and thus, is in a good...

  18. Social Success and Happiness in Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance between social success and happiness in Korea from the perspective of Korean higher education. To review this study systematically, three research questions are stated. First of all, what is social success? Second, is social success able to provide happiness for us? Last, what is the relevance between social…

  19. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The randomized controlled trial is the “gold standard” for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis...

  20. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Park, Keeho

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  1. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Kye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  2. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  3. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  4. A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area, and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics

  5. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  6. Direct and indirect relationships between physical activity and happiness levels among older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine if physical activity (PA) is associated to happiness and to investigate if social functioning and health status mediate this association. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 323 men and women, age 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System, France. They received by mail a self-report questionnaire that asked for information about general health, PA, and happiness. In multinomial logistic regressions, the total volume of PA was associated to higher levels of happiness, but this association disappeared in the presence of social functioning. A structural equation modelling (SEM) showed an indirect association between PA and happiness, which was mediated by participants' health status and social functioning; in this SEM model, social functioning was the only variable directly associated to happiness. Complex associations among PA, health status, and social functioning appear to determine happiness levels in older adults.

  7. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  8. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context.

  9. Influences on happiness and subjective well-being of entrepreneurs and labour: KwaZulu-Natal case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadea, Darma; Ramroop, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Globally, individuals seek happiness, but not everybody is happy.  Economic reasoning suggests that rising incomes with expansions in GDP enhance the quality of life and subjective well-being.  This paper examines the influences on individual happiness, using ordinal logistic regression and chi-square analyses.  Based on the findings of a small case study, the chi-square test indicated that a significant relationship exists between gender, education, ethnicity, children, marital status, emplo...

  10. Work happiness among teachers: a day reconstruction study on the role of self-concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Maja; Bakker, Arnold B; Oerlemans, Wido G M

    2013-12-01

    Self-concordant work motivation arises from one's authentic choices, personal values, and interests. In the present study, we investigated whether self-concordant motivation may fluctuate from one work-related task to the next. On the basis of self-determination theory, we hypothesized that momentary self-concordance buffers the negative impact of momentary work demands on momentary happiness. We developed a modified version of the day reconstruction method to investigate self-concordance, work demands, and happiness during specific work-related tasks on a within-person and within-day level. In total, 132 teachers completed a daily diary on three consecutive work days as well as a background questionnaire. The daily diary resulted in 792 reported work activities and activity-related work demands, self-concordance, and happiness scores. Multilevel analysis showed that-for most work activities-state self-concordant motivation buffered the negative association of work demands with happiness. These findings add to the literature on motivation and well-being by showing that the levels of self-concordance and happiness experienced by employees vary significantly on a within-day level and show a predictable pattern. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings to increase employees' well-being. © 2013.

  11. Meanings of happiness among two ethnic groups living with advanced cancer in south London: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Jonathan; Morgan, Myfanwy; Edmonds, Polly; Speck, Peter; Siegert, Richard; Higginson, Irene J

    2013-05-01

    Happiness is a central component in quality of life but little is known about its meanings among people living with an advanced disease and those from diverse communities. This study explores and compares, for the first time, the centrality and interpretations of happiness across two cultural groups living with advanced cancer. Semi-structured interviews among 26 Black Caribbean and 19 White British cancer patients were conducted in hospital and home settings. Thirty eight participants volunteered views on happiness, which were related to four main themes: empty lives, a theme associated with lives devoid of contentment; happiness and the physical form principally, associated with the absence of distressing symptoms; 'love and affection' associated with family and friends; and 'realising personal meaning in life', most common among the Black Caribbean participants and related to God, prayer and the sacred world. The presence of cancer pain even when refractory did not preclude manifestations of happiness in this domain. We identified that happiness was central to many patients' quality of life during advanced cancer. Moreover, happiness was multidimensional and at times culturally patterned. We recommend that health and social care professionals increase their awareness and skills-set in relation to exploring happiness. Further, we recommend greater efforts are invested in cultural relativism to service the physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues that contribute towards moments of happiness among diverse communities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Happiness and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Jan E; Trettevik, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Previous sociological research has focused on macro forces that are associated with overall happiness with one's life, but it has neglected an analysis of happiness in immediate situations and the micro forces that may shape it. In this study, we examine social structural as well as individual factors that may influence happiness in situations that are morally challenging. Data are examined from an experiment in which satisfying self-interests may involve cheating to get ahead. The results reveal that while distal, structural factors influence happiness for those who do not cheat, proximal, individual factors influence happiness for those who cheat. We discuss how both macro and micro forces may shape happiness in situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustainable Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Unger, Cindie; Andsbjerg, Kjartan

    The world Happiness report 2012, commissioned by the united nations, noted that the tools of happiness research have the potential to recast the debate between economic growth and environmental protection. Moreover, it calls for an exploration of the established links between happiness...

  14. Conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction: An exploratory study in 14 national groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khilji, Imran Ahmed; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Poon, Wai-Ching; Sundaram, Suresh; Ho, Lok Sang; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Han, Gyuseog; Bae, Jaechang; Demir, Meliksah; Achoui, Mustapha; Pang, Joyce S.; Jiang, Ding-Yu; Lamers, S.M.A.; Turan, Yücel; Lepshokova, Zarina Kh.; Panyusheva, Tatiana; Natalia, Amerkhanova; Asano, Ryosuke; Igarashi, Tasuku; Tsukamoto, Saori

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between 4 conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction in a sample of 2715 university students across 14 national groups. The 4 conceptions were self-transcendence, self-directed hedonism, conservation, and self-enhancement, which emerged from a principal

  15. Prayer Lessons to Promote Happiness among Kindergarten School Children: A Cross-Country Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a one-year longitudinal experimental study with 3,782 kindergarten school children across 15 countries, this article examines the association between prayer and happiness. Results show that the post-test scores on the faces scale were higher for the participant group who had taken the prayer lessons vis-à-vis the comparison group.…

  16. A Study on the Effect of Self-Review Method on Women's Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourhosein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effectiveness of self-review technique on women’s happiness.Methods: This experimental study was conducted with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI was used to measure the dependent variable. In order to implement the research project, 22 individuals were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups in the pre-test phase based on acquisition of the lowest happiness scores. The 8-session self-review single intervention was presented to the experimental group. Repeated measures ANOVA was used in order to analyze the data.Results: The research findings indicated that the rate of happiness of individuals in the experimental group had significantly increased in the post-test and even follow-up stages (P < 0.01.Conclusion: In conclusion, the self-review method can be considered as a positive activity-based intervention.

  17. Time to get happy: associations of time perspective with indicators of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Griva, Fay; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined associations of time perspective (TP) with indicators of well-being including satisfaction with life, anxiety and depression, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Adult participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Life satisfaction was more strongly associated with the present hedonistic dimension, suggesting that the tendency to take risks and to fulfil one's desires may lead to experiencing pleasure in a 'seize the day' approach to life. The existence of depressive symptoms and elevated anxiety levels were associated with higher scores on the past present and the present fatalistic dimensions, suggesting that feeling hopeless, or dwelling on bad moments from the past may be largely related to feeling depressed and anxious. Considering the recently reported implications of TP in clinical and counseling settings, the present study contributes to the growing body of research that associates TP with mental health and psychological well-being.

  18. HAPPINESS AT WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Moccia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of work and organisational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. However, the different authors do not agree on the fundamental concept of happiness. The objectives of this paper are to present the enormous contribution of positive psychology and philosophy to the subject of happiness and its influence on labour and productivity, to review several scholars in this field, to highlight the differences among them, and, especially, to find a consensus on the fundamentals of happiness. In fact, the major difference among all the contributions is that there is no unanimity on the fundamental concept of happiness. Whereas some authors see happiness as “pleasure”, others prefer the concept of happiness as a mixture of “pleasure”, “engagement” and “meaning”, avoiding the definition of happiness, and hiding it behind the concept of well-being. However, if a consensus were reached, it would represent a concept that could be better managed from the psychological perspective

  19. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

  20. Influences on happiness and subjective well-being of entrepreneurs and labour: Kwazulu-Natal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, individuals seek happiness, but not everybody is happy.  Economic reasoning suggests that rising incomes with expansions in GDP enhance the quality of life and subjective well-being.  This paper examines the influences on individual happiness, using ordinal logistic regression and chi-square analyses.  Based on the findings of a small case study, the chi-square test indicated that a significant relationship exists between gender, education, ethnicity, children, marital status, employment relations, income and self-reported happiness. The study also found that, on average, happier people tended to be educated, married with children, and treated fairly at work.  But having too many children produced a decrement in individual happiness.   The ordinal regression results indicate that an individual’s education, gender, age distribution and work environment are influential in producing higher levels of happiness.  Entrepreneurs were found to have a significantly higher mean level of happiness than employees.  In the workplace, individuals who experienced personal growth and were able to contribute their ideas tended to be happier, relative to others who perceived themselves to be ‘restricted’.

  1. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-12-04

    The randomized controlled trial is the "gold standard" for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis showed that there were no differences between any of the groups. The reason for this result is that many participants switched groups mid-study because of their personal chocolate preferences. Although the CHUMP study was pleasurable, it demonstrated the difficulties associated with performing a truly blinded clinical trial.

  2. The Effect of Individual Factors, Socioeconomic and Social Participation on Individual Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Maryam; Mohamadian, Fathola; Ghajarieah, Mozhgan; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Happiness and exhilaration are the most essential demands of human innate psychological needs that affect both physical and mental health. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of individual factors, socioeconomic and social participation on individual happiness. In this study, we evaluated 15 to 54-year-old individuals to find the effects of individual factors, socioeconomic and social partnership (formal or informal) on human happiness. A random sampling method was used in the present study. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics including; frequency, percentage, Mean±SD. Correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA and logistic regression were also used as analytical statistics. There was a significant relationship between gender (p=0.001, r=0.144), marital status (p=0.001, r=0.174), happy parents (p=0.001, r=0.194), educational grade (p=0.001, r=0.189), employment status (p=0.001, r=0.180), income (p=0.001, r=0.264), car ownership (p=0.001, r=0.173), informal social participation (p=0.001, r=0.3) and formal social participation (p=0.001, r=0.231) with happiness. However, the relationship between home ownership (p=0.346, r=-0.015), and happiness was not significant. It seems that good and cordial relations with others, including family, relatives and friends (informal social participation) are the main sources and the most important factors of life satisfaction and human happiness. Higher income can increase happiness by enhancing the possibility to access the needs, desires, problems solving, enhancing the social support and self esteem and opportunities to perform one's favourite activities.

  3. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff ( N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group ( n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness.

  4. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention...

  5. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND HAPPINESS OF FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATING IN THE SPORT OLYMPIAD OF IRANIAN UNIVERSITIES: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hassan Bahrololoum

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at studying the relationship between happiness and emotional intelligence among female students participating in the 10th Sport Olympiad of Iranian universities held in Semnan province. To do this survey, 302 female students were randomly selected from the total population of female students participating in the 10th sport Olympiad of Iranian Universities. To collect data, the study used three standardized questionnaires: Oxford's Happiness Questionnaire; Brodberry's Emotional...

  6. Imperfectly Happy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bergsma (Ad)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is inspired by the utilitarian ideology that seeks the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers and tries to add to this cause considering three questions: 1) What is the quality of popular happiness advice? 2) Is unhappiness concentrated in people with mental disorders?

  7. Study of Association between Spiritual Well-Being and Happiness in Male Students in Firouzabad County, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh Doodman; Hajar Safari

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Currently, People worldwide are increasingly turning to spirituality and spiritual issues. Religion and spirituality are considered one of the determinants of happiness in psychology. This study was conducted to investigate the association between spiritual well-being and happiness in male students of Firouzabad County. Methods: Study samples were 200 students in Firouzabad professional schools who were selected by random cluster sampling. Research instruments we...

  8. Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, DC; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Aims:\\ud Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video g...

  9. Komitmen Organisasional Dan Authentic Happiness: Studi Kasus Karyawan Pada Sebuah Organisasi Bisnis Retail Di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlywati, Sherlywati

    2015-01-01

    This research was initially exploring the relationship between the Authentic Happiness-The Source of Happines and Organizational Commitment. The concept of Authentic Happiness is derived from the Positive Psychology-Authentic Happiness proposed by Seligman. Meanwhile the concept of organizational commitment is taken from Meyer and Allens Organizational Commitment. The research questions are twofolds. Firstly, whether three sources of happiness are correlated with three dimen...

  10. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction questionnaires, the research hypotheses have been tested through Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling. The results show that there were significant relationships between meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. Results of structure equation modeling reveal that during two chain models, at first meaning and spirituality at work are linked to job happiness and positive effect. Then job happiness and positive effect cause reinforcement of job satisfaction. The results of this study showed that meaning and spirituality at work cause positive affective spillover from job happiness and positive affect to job satisfaction.

  11. Climate change, income and happiness: An empirical study for Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekulova, F.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present article builds upon the results of an empirical study exploring key factors which determine life satisfaction in Barcelona. Based on a sample of 840 individuals we first look at the way changes in income, notably income reductions, associated with the current economic situation in Spain,

  12. Happiness and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, Andrew J.; Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Some firms say they care about the happiness and ‘well-being’ of their employees. But are such\\ud claims hype? Or might they be scientific good sense? This study provides evidence that happiness\\ud makes people more productive. First, we examine fundamental real-world shocks (bereavement and\\ud family illness) imposed by Nature. We show that lower happiness is associated with lower\\ud productivity. Second, within the laboratory, we design two randomized controlled trials. Some\\ud individuals ...

  13. Happiness Function in an Islamic Economy: Triple Economic Growth, Fair Distribution and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد أحمد حسن الأفندي

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the characteristics of happiness function in an Islamic economy framework. It analyzed the nature and trend of the link between economic growth, equal distribution and level of human happiness. These interrelated concepts form the essence of this study problem. The study assumed four main possible tracks for the happiness function in an Islamic economy, which ultimately emphasized the wider concept of happiness that includes faith and moral values. It indicates that people’s happiness increases with the increase of material and non material resources. However, happiness increases even if material resources decline. That is a case which reflects impact of faith and moral values on people’s happiness. The study indicated the importance of conducting empirical and field studies to examine the effect of material and non- material potentials on happiness. Keywords: Happiness function, Material resources for Happiness, Nonmaterial resources for happiness, Economic growth, Equal distribution.

  14. Dissociating maternal responses to sad and happy facial expressions of their own child: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Dorothea; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Stein, Jenny; Poppinga, Sina; Fydrich, Thomas; Jaite, Charlotte; Kappel, Viola; Brunner, Romuald; Herpertz, Sabine C; Boedeker, Katja; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Maternal sensitive behavior depends on recognizing one's own child's affective states. The present study investigated distinct and overlapping neural responses of mothers to sad and happy facial expressions of their own child (in comparison to facial expressions of an unfamiliar child). We used functional MRI to measure dissociable and overlapping activation patterns in 27 healthy mothers in response to happy, neutral and sad facial expressions of their own school-aged child and a gender- and age-matched unfamiliar child. To investigate differential activation to sad compared to happy faces of one's own child, we used interaction contrasts. During the scan, mothers had to indicate the affect of the presented face. After scanning, they were asked to rate the perceived emotional arousal and valence levels for each face using a 7-point Likert-scale (adapted SAM version). While viewing their own child's sad faces, mothers showed activation in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex whereas happy facial expressions of the own child elicited activation in the hippocampus. Conjoint activation in response to one's own child happy and sad expressions was found in the insula and the superior temporal gyrus. Maternal brain activations differed depending on the child's affective state. Sad faces of the own child activated areas commonly associated with a threat detection network, whereas happy faces activated reward related brain areas. Overlapping activation was found in empathy related networks. These distinct neural activation patterns might facilitate sensitive maternal behavior.

  15. A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterschiffthaler, Martina T; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Dalton, Jeffrey A; Andrew, Christopher M; Williams, Steven C R

    2007-11-01

    The present study investigated the functional neuroanatomy of transient mood changes in response to Western classical music. In a pilot experiment, 53 healthy volunteers (mean age: 32.0; SD = 9.6) evaluated their emotional responses to 60 classical musical pieces using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (sad) through 50 (neutral) to 100 (happy). Twenty pieces were found to accurately induce the intended emotional states with good reliability, consisting of 5 happy, 5 sad, and 10 emotionally unevocative, neutral musical pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast was measured in response to the mood state induced by each musical stimulus in a separate group of 16 healthy participants (mean age: 29.5; SD = 5.5). Mood state ratings during scanning were made by a VAS, which confirmed the emotional valence of the selected stimuli. Increased BOLD signal contrast during presentation of happy music was found in the ventral and dorsal striatum, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, and auditory association areas. With sad music, increased BOLD signal responses were noted in the hippocampus/amygdala and auditory association areas. Presentation of neutral music was associated with increased BOLD signal responses in the insula and auditory association areas. Our findings suggest that an emotion processing network in response to music integrates the ventral and dorsal striatum, areas involved in reward experience and movement; the anterior cingulate, which is important for targeting attention; and medial temporal areas, traditionally found in the appraisal and processing of emotions. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Friendship, perceived mattering and happiness: a study of American and Turkish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melikşah; Ozen, Ayça; Doğan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well established that friendship is a consistent correlate of happiness, less is known about how friendship experiences might promote happiness. The current investigation addressed this gap by testing a mediational model proposing that perceived mattering explains the association of friendship quality with happiness among college students in Turkey and the United States. An alternative model suggesting friendship quality as the mediator was also tested to enhance confidence in the proposed model. SEM analyses revealed that perceived mattering mediated the association of friendship with happiness only in the American sample. In the Turkish sample, friendship quality mediated the association between mattering and happiness. Findings highlight the importance of cross-cultural research and suggest that the underlying processes and psychological mechanisms related to the friendship-happiness link might be different in different cultures.

  17. Organizational performance comparative study of Jakarta and Medan city happy planet index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdamenta Tarigan, Nuah

    2018-03-01

    Comparative Study of Organizational Performance relating to the Happy Planet Index between Jakarta and Medan is quite challenging, the performance of the organization here is related to organizational arrangements relating to the potential associated with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which is based on ISO 26000, how local leaders put the idea to build a city not only by the government budget each area, but also invite the participation of companies that have programs related to community empowerment is not a fund for cash, but the real form that is present in removing the great problems in society cities beyond than just its obligations but has become a conscious citizen that cares about its environment both natural and artificial. In the end of this research, we will see which one is the best based on the standard Happy Planet Index (HPI) which is phenomenal in the world now, connected again with 17 pieces of Sustainable Development Goals, particularly the goal of the 17th. The study was conducted by the research literature and implemented in a short time. However, a large study being conducted by the researcher.

  18. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail; Nurfaradilla Haron

    2014-01-01

    The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, t...

  19. Prayer, personality and happiness: a study among undergraduate students in Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Edwards, Bethan

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the association between prayer and happiness, a sample of 131 undergraduate students attending a university in Wales completed three measures: the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the abbreviated Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, and prayer frequency assessed on a 5-point scale. The data demonstrated a significant positive correlation between prayer frequency and happiness before controlling for individual differences in personality. After controlling for personali...

  20. Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Damien C; Williams, Glenn A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-09-01

    Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction - perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players.

  1. Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Damien C.; Williams, Glenn A.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. Method: A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. Results: The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction – perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Conclusions: Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players. PMID:25215196

  2. What Are People Saying When They Report They Are Happy Or Life Satisfied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Americo Baptista

    Full Text Available The study of happiness was dominated with the model of subjective well-being. With the advent of positive psychology the eudaimonic and hedonic models entered the field, but major surveys continue to use single-item measures of life satisfaction or happiness. We study the associations between life satisfaction and happiness, measured single-items with a graphic representation of a ladder and a thermometer, and three models of happiness: the subjective well-being, the eudaimonic and hedonic. The results showed that subjective well-being was the main predictor of life satisfaction and hedonic model also predicted a small amount of this variable. For happiness the predictors were the same but in reversed order, the main predictor was the hedonic model and a small variance was explained by subjective well-being. Contrary to our hypothesis the eudaimonic perspective of happiness was not a predictor in none of the models. These results underline the importance of the interaction between a cognitive or appraisal perspective and the hedonic perspectives for the study of happiness.

  3. Feeling Happy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Helen

    1976-01-01

    "Feeling happy" focuses on the syndrome of self-indulgence, self-actualization or self-fulfillment as antagonistic to the survival of marital agreement. Inspite of the obvious redeeming qualities of either spouse the unhappy partner opts for divorce. The article posits the familial advantages of responsiblity and commitment and reviews the older…

  4. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  5. Happy Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    Happy Nation er et stykke eksperimentel teknologiformidling, der er udformet som en skønlitterær roman. Værket tager udgangspunkt i et fremtidsscenarie, hvor virtual reality er blevet en hverdagsteknologi, hvis sansedel bliver understøttet af implantater, der kan foretage dyb hjernestimulation...

  6. Happy Pinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  7. Measuring happiness in large population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  8. Dogmatism and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Maryam; Khanahmadi, Mohammad; Farhud, Dariush

    2017-03-01

    Happiness is a drive and constructive force of life. A person feels wellbeing under different effective factors. Religious dogmatism that has an influence on the entire world is one of the depreciatory factors of happiness or wellbeing. The current study decided to analyze the relation between dogmatism and wellbeing, and according to a model, answer the following question: how does religious dogmatism decrease wellbeing? This study is a correlation research. Population of study includes all people with 30-50 yr old who live in Tehran, Iran, in 2015. Among all, 180 subjects were selected as in access sample. The Oxford happiness questionnaire and Rokeach dogmatism scale were used. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation test. There is a significant negative correlation between dogmatism and happiness (α=0.05). Dogmatism is one of the factors that have a negative effect on wellbeing. Religious dogmatism is the most dangerous factor against wellbeing. Dogmatic individuals have an inflexible cognitive system that emerges as a stable personality trait and decreases their adjustment with environment. Affective well-being and cognitive wellbeing are affected by individual adjustment. Therefore, in dogmatic individuals with low adjustment, the decrease of affective well-being and cognitive wellbeing is inevitable. This process will result in decrease of happiness and increase of aggression.

  9. A Comparative Study of Students' Happiness Levels and Thinking Styles in Physical Education and Sport Teaching, and Other Departments, in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingaz, Emre Ozan; Hazar, Muhsin; Baydar, Hacer Özge; Gökyürek, Belgin; Çakiroglu, Temel

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to compare the happiness and thinking styles of undergraduate students in the Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department and different departments, and to examine the relations between the students' happiness levels and their thinking styles. Using the correlational study design 661, undergraduate…

  10. Higher Education: Teach Happiness and Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine why a university should teach happiness and wisdom from religious perspectives. To explore this paper systematically, three research questions are addressed. First, why higher education institutions should teach happiness? Second, why higher education institutions should teach wisdom? Third, how ethical…

  11. Prayer and personal happiness : a study among secondary school students in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Fisher, John W.

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the association between prayer and happiness, a sample of 1,002 students, ranging in age from 12- to 18-years, attending ten non-government secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, completed three measures: the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the short form of the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, and a single-item measure of prayer affect assessed on a five-point scale. The data demonstrated a significant positive correlation between prayer affect and happine...

  12. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  13. Inner happiness among Thai elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Kittisuksathit, Sirinan; Thongthai, Varachai

    2008-09-01

    This study, based on data collected in 2005 from Chai Nat province, examines the level of happiness of the Thai elderly population and its relationship to various external and internal factors. It was found that mean happiness was slightly above a feeling of "neutral." According to multiple regression analyses, external factors including economic hardship, living arrangements, functional ability, perceived social environment, and consumerism significantly influence the level of happiness. The strongest predictor of happiness is, however, the internal factor-that is, a feeling of relative poverty when compared to their neighbors. Controlling for demographic and all external factors, the respondents who do not feel poor show the highest level of happiness compared to those who feel as poor as or poorer than their neighbors. This is self-interpreted as a feeling of contentment with what one has, which has been influenced by Thai culture, which is pervaded by Buddhism.

  14. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1.

  15. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  16. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  17. Volunteering predicts happiness among older Māori and non-Māori in the New Zealand health, work, and retirement longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Patrick L; Gavala, Jhanitra; Stephens, Christine; Kostick, Marylynne; McDonald, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the relationship between volunteer activity and happiness among a sample of older adult New Zealanders. It specifically sought to determine if ethnicity (Māori vs. non-Māori) and economic living standards (ELS) functioned as moderators of the relationship between volunteering and happiness. Data were garnered from the 2008 administration of the New Zealand Health, Work, and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Correlational and multiple regression procedures were employed to examine study hypotheses. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that the amount of volunteering per week was a unique predictor of the overall level of happiness. Moderation analyses indicated that ethnicity did not function as a moderator of the relationship between volunteering and happiness, but ELS did. Those with low ELS evidenced a stronger relationship between volunteering and happiness than those with high ELS. Results also indicated that Maori and those with low ELS volunteered more frequently than non-Māori and those with high ELS. This study provides evidence that volunteering is related to increased happiness, irrespective of ethnicity. It also provides further evidence that the relationship between volunteering and happiness is moderated by economic resources. Older individuals at the low end of the economic spectrum are likely to benefit more from volunteering than those at the high end.

  18. Dermatologists happiness and satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Arias, Leonel; Simón-Díaz, Pilar; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    To assess the level of happiness and satisfaction in the life and medical practice of dermatologists in Mexico. A descriptive study (online survey) was conducted focused on practicing dermatologists in our country. Questions included demographic characteristics, the Pemberton happiness index (with local validation) and questions that assessed the degree of personal satisfaction. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the central tendency and dispersion. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were performed; to compare categorical variables, contingency tables for chi-square test were used and when comparing quantitative variables with normal distribution, Student’s t t-test was used. 219 surveys were included, 72.6% female and 27.4% male, with an average age of 45.6 and an average of 16 years of medical practice. Most of them (64.8%) graduate from Mexico City; 93% were very satisfied with the specialty and 98.6% of them would choose the same once again, the most important reason is to encompass medical and surgical areas. The level of happiness by using the Pemberton scale was “high” (mode: 9.11; standard deviation: 1.73). This first study in Latin America on this subject in dermatologists showed high levels of satisfaction and happiness in both professional and personal areas. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud

  19. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Golparvar; Hassan Abedini

    2014-01-01

    Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job h...

  20. Healthy and Happy in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper revisits the standard finding in individual-level studies that happiness leads to longevity. It does so in a cross-country time-series analysis in which the use of a random effects estimator controls for most relevant time-invariant factors. The findings suggest that happiness...... is negatively associated with longevity at the national level, and suggests a potential indirect transmission channel, as national happiness is negatively associated with public health expenditures. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the results for public policy and future research....

  1. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  2. Feeding your piggy bank with intentions : A study on saving behaviour, saving strategies, and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francisco Vela, S.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Casais, M.

    2014-01-01

    The act of saving money can connect one’s present state to a meaningful future state, especially if we consider money not as a direct source of happiness, but as a resource for engaging in meaningful activities. To explore how design can contribute to making the act of saving more meaningful, we

  3. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  4. Death Penalty and Happiness in States. Was Jeremy Bentham right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Berg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Bentham is best known as the founding father of utilitarianism, a moral philosophy that values ‘happiness’ more than all other goals in life. According to this creed, policies should be directed at ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’. Besides formulating this general principle, Bentham wrote about several specific topics including the death penalty, which he passionately opposed. He did so, however, without applying his own utilitarian method. In this article the relationship between death penalty and happiness is studied empirically. Average happiness of citizens is compared in states with and without death penalty. Comparisons are made across 127 nation states in the early 2000s and among 47 federal states within the US over the years 1970-2000. The results show that Bentham, from the perspective of his own ethical philosophy, was too negative about the death penalty. It hardly undermines the happiness of nation states and it does not undermine the happiness of American states at all. If one opposes the death penalty, it should be done for non-utilititarian reasons.

  5. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  6. Is happiness choosing to give or to take money? : An experimental study of prosocial spending, active and passive choices and nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Moche, Hajdi

    2016-01-01

    Research within positive psychology has shown that spending money on other people (prosocial spending) makes you happier than spending it on yourself (proself spending). The present study tested and extended this idea. Also, how an active or a passive choice in spending affect happiness has been tested. Lastly, this study is the first one to test the effect of nudging on happiness by examining the role of choice, defaults in spending. Three measures of subjective well-being (SWB) was used bef...

  7. Measuring Happiness: From Fluctuating Happiness to Authentic–Durable Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrun, Michaël; Ricard, Matthieu; Després, Gérard; Drelon, Emilie; Gibelin, Eva; Gibelin, Marion; Loubeyre, Mélanie; Py, Delphine; Delpy, Aurore; Garibbo, Céline; Bray, Elise; Lac, Gérard; Michaux, Odile

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the theoretical distinction between self-centeredness and selflessness (Dambrun and Ricard, 2011), the main goal of this research was to develop two new scales assessing distinct dimensions of happiness. By trying to maximize pleasures and to avoid displeasures, we propose that a self-centered functioning induces a fluctuating happiness in which phases of pleasure and displeasure alternate repeatedly (i.e., Fluctuating Happiness). In contrast, a selfless psychological functioning postulates the existence of a state of durable plenitude that is less dependent upon circumstances but rather is related to a person’s inner resources and abilities to deal with whatever comes his way in life (i.e., Authentic–Durable Happiness). Using various samples (n = 735), we developed a 10-item Scale measuring Subjective Fluctuating Happiness (SFHS) and a 13-item scale assessing Subjective Authentic–Durable Happiness (SA–DHS). Results indicated high internal consistencies, satisfactory test–retest validities, and adequate convergent and discriminant validities with various constructs including a biological marker of stress (salivary cortisol). Consistent with our theoretical framework, while self-enhancement values were related only to fluctuating happiness, self-transcendence values were related only to authentic–durable happiness. Support for the distinction between contentment and inner-peace, two related markers of authentic happiness, also was found. PMID:22347202

  8. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Happiness and Memory: Affective Significance of Endowment and Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Liberman, V; Boehm, JK; Lyubomirsky, S; Ross, LD

    2009-01-01

    Three studies (two conducted in Israel and one in the United States) examined associations between self-rated dispositional happiness and tendencies to treat memories of positive and negative events as sources of enhanced or attenuated happiness through the use of "endowment" and "contrast." Although participants generally endorsed items describing happiness-enhancing tendencies more than happiness-diminishing ones, self-reported happiness was associated with greater endorsement of "positive ...

  10. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  11. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Böckerman

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905 and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980 are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001. Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986 on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  12. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Bryson, Alex; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905) and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980) are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001). Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986) on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  13. Adaptation amidst Prosperity and Adversity : Insights from Happiness Studies from around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals who are destitute report to be happy, while others who are very wealthy report to be miserable. There are many possible explanations for this paradox; the author focuses on the role of adaptation. Adaptation is the subject of much work in economics, but its definition is a psychological one. Adaptations are defense mechanisms; there are bad ones like paranoia, and healthy ones like humor, anticipation, and sublimation. Set point theory--which is the subject of much debate in ...

  14. Happiness and longevity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Richard G; Wadsworth, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study to our knowledge to examine the relationship between happiness and longevity among a nationally representative sample of adults. We use the recently-released General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset and Cox proportional hazards models to reveal that overall happiness is related to longer lives among U.S. adults. Indeed, compared to very happy people, the risk of death over the follow-up period is 6% (95% CI 1.01-1.11) higher among individuals who are pretty happy and 14% (95% CI 1.06-1.22) higher among those who are not happy, net of marital status, socioeconomic status, census division, and religious attendance. This study provides support for happiness as a stand-alone indicator of well-being that should be used more widely in social science and health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Nature of Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham H.

    1991-01-01

    Presents previously unpublished paper written by Abraham Maslow in November 1964. Maslow discusses the concept of happiness, suggesting that happiness is a lot more complicated than its standard, hedonistic definition as merely the absence of pain. (Author/ABL)

  16. Happiness and Arousal: Framing Happiness as Arousing Results in Lower Happiness Ratings for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Par eBjalkebring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control. In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions. Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  17. Happiness in Externs in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hosseini Kasnavieh

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that happiness was reported in a good level within the most externs. Moreover, other studies can be conducted investigating causes of happiness in order to facilitate the development of happiness.

  18. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....

  19. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  20. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  1. Concept analysis of nurses' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkara San, Eda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine and clarify the concept of nurses' happiness (NH), understand the different uses of the concept, explore the conditions that foster it, and consider the consequences of NH, including the phenomena that emerge as a result of NH occurrence. The author utilizes Walker and Avant's eight-stage concept analysis. Computer and manual searches were conducted of articles in the English language addressing NH from 1990 to present. EBSCO and PubMed are the electronic databases used to access literature for this paper. For both databases, the researcher has examined this new term by splitting the term nurses' happiness into its two root words, namely nurses and happiness. An inductive analysis of articles produced descriptive themes. Definitions of happiness and NH are analyzed. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences of NH are described. Model, borderline, contrary, and related cases for NH are also identified. This concept analysis helps in the understanding of the definition of NH, the attributes that contribute to the occurrence of NH in clinical practice, as well as the consequences of NH, and how it should be measured from a nursing perspective. Ozkara San. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The HAPPY study (Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year): design of a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijens, Sophie E M; Meems, Margreet; Kuppens, Simone M I; Broeren, Maarten A C; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Wijnen, Hennie A; Oei, S Guid; van Son, Maarten J M; Pop, Victor J M

    2014-09-08

    The HAPPY study is a large prospective longitudinal cohort study in which pregnant women (N ≈ 2,500) are followed during the entire pregnancy and the whole first year postpartum. The study collects a substantial amount of psychological and physiological data investigating all kinds of determinants that might interfere with general well-being during pregnancy and postpartum, with special attention to the effect of maternal mood, pregnancy-related somatic symptoms (including nausea and vomiting (NVP) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms), thyroid function, and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) on pregnancy outcome of mother and foetus. During pregnancy, participants receive questionnaires at 12, 22 and 32 weeks of gestation. Apart from a previous obstetric history, demographic features, distress symptoms, and pregnancy-related somatic symptoms are assessed. Furthermore, obstetrical data of the obstetric record form and ultrasound data are collected during pregnancy. At 12 and 30 weeks, thyroid function is assessed by blood analysis of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), as well as HCG. Also, depression is assessed with special focus on the two key symptoms: depressed mood and anhedonia. After childbirth, cord blood, neonatal heel screening results and all obstetrical data with regard to start of labour, mode of delivery and complications are collected. Moreover, mothers receive questionnaires at one week, six weeks, four, eight, and twelve months postpartum, to investigate recovery after pregnancy and delivery, including postpartum mood changes, emotional distress, feeding and development of the newborn. The key strength of this large prospective cohort study is the holistic (multifactorial) approach on perinatal well-being combined with a longitudinal design with measurements during all trimesters of pregnancy and the whole first year postpartum, taking into account two physiological possible

  3. Happiness and social participation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graney, M J

    1975-11-01

    This paper reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of 60 elderly women. Data about their happiness and social activities were collected using the Affect Balance Scale and nine measures of socially relevant activities, including three measures of media use, three of interpersonal interaction, and three of activities in voluntary associations. Direct relationships between happiness and social activity among elderly people were found in analysis of these data. This finding was not spurious according to longitudinal data: activity increments were associated with happiness and decrements with unhappiness. Although these findings describe the over-all picture, changes in activities may be more important to happiness among the most elderly persons interviewed than others.

  4. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  5. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait – extraversion – has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual – both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction. PMID:26161562

  6. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Kirkland

    Full Text Available Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction.

  7. Relation Between Physicians' Work Lives and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald; Vasappa, Rashmi

    2016-04-01

    Although we know much about work-related physician burnout and the subsequent negative effects, we do not fully understand work-related physician wellness. Likewise, the relation of wellness and burnout to physician happiness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how physician burnout and wellness contribute to happiness. We sampled 2000 full-time physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about workload, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the burnout and wellness subscales as predictor variables and physician happiness as the outcome variable. Our response rate was 22%. Career purpose, personal accomplishment, and perception of workload manageability had significant positive correlations with physician happiness. Distress had a significant negative correlation with physician happiness. A sense of career meaning and accomplishment, along with a lack of distress, are important factors in determining physician happiness. The number of hours a physician works is not related to happiness, but the perceived ability to manage workload was significantly related to happiness. Wellness-promotion efforts could focus on assisting physicians with skills to manage the workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or sharing workload among team members, improving feelings of work accomplishment, improving career satisfaction and meaning, and managing distress related to patient care.

  8. Chronic Illness as a Source of Happiness: Paradox or perfectly normal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I analyse the relation between happiness and chronic illness from the perspective of medical anthropology and disability studies. By looking at the disability paradox I deconstruct society’s view of people with a disability. I argue that the disability paradox is problematic as it

  9. The Upward Spiral of Adolescents' Positive School Experiences and Happiness: Investigating Reciprocal Effects over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjager, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-01-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined…

  10. The academic rewards of socially-oriented happiness: Interdependent happiness promotes academic engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; King, Ronnel B; Valdez, Jana Patricia M

    2017-04-01

    Interdependent happiness has been found to be positively associated with optimal psychological outcomes in collectivist cultures. However, the association between interdependent happiness and key academic outcomes has remained unexplored. The current study examined the association of interdependent happiness with key academic outcomes such as autonomous motivation, engagement, and achievement using both cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) approaches. Study 1 revealed that interdependent happiness positively predicted academic engagement (partly) via autonomous motivation. Study 2 showed that prior interdependent happiness positively predicted subsequent academic engagement even after controlling for autoregressor effects. In addition, reciprocal associations among the key variables were found. Taken together, results of the two studies suggest that interdependent happiness plays an adaptive role in the academic context especially in a collectivist cultural setting. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DESPERATELY SEEKING HAPPINESS: VALUING HAPPINESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Shallcross, Amanda J; Mauss, Iris B; Floerke, Victoria A; Gruber, June

    Culture shapes the emotions people feel and want to feel. In Western cultures, happiness is an emotion that many people want to feel. Although experiencing happiness is associated with increased well-being and psychological health, recent evidence suggests wanting to feel happy to an extreme degree, or, highly valuing happiness, leads to decreased well-being. To examine whether these effects of valuing happiness might extend to clinical outcomes, we examined the hypothesis that depression is associated with highly valuing happiness. To do so, we examined the relationship between valuing happiness and depression in two U.S. samples. As hypothesized, valuing happiness was associated with increased depressive symptoms in a community sample with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD), even when controlling for social desirability and neuroticism (Study 1). Furthermore, valuing happiness was elevated in a remitted MDD sample (vs. healthy controls), even when controlling for current depressive symptoms, general affect valuation, and extreme goal pursuit (Study 2). Taken together, these findings suggest that the culturally-pervasive value placed on attaining happiness can represent a risk factor for symptoms and a diagnosis of depression. More broadly, they indicate that a cultural approach can meaningfully extend our understanding of clinical phenomena.

  12. Anxious or Depressed and Still Happy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine cross-sectionally to what extent persons with higher symptom levels or a current or past emotional disorder report to be less happy than controls and to assess prospectively whether time-lagged measurements of extraversion and neuroticism predict future happiness independent of time-lagged measurements of emotional disorders or symptom severity. A sample of 2142 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with current or past emotional disorder according to DSM-IV criteria completed self-ratings for happiness and emotional well-being and symptom severity. Lagged measurements of personality, symptom severity and presence of anxiety and depressive disorder at T0 (year 0, T2 (year 2 and T4 (year 4 were used to predict happiness and emotional well-being at T6 (year 6 controlling for demographics. In particular persons with more depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and comorbid emotional disorders reported lower levels of happiness and emotional well-being. Depression symptom severity and to a lesser extent depressive disorder predicted future happiness and emotional well-being at T6. Extraversion and to a lesser extent neuroticism also consistently forecasted future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrent lagged measurements of emotional disorders and symptoms. A study limitation is that we only measured happiness and emotional well-being at T6 and our measures were confined to hedonistic well-being and did not include psychological and social well-being. In sum, consistent with the two continua model of emotional well-being and mental illness, a 'happy' personality characterized by high extraversion and to a lesser extent low neuroticism forecasts future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrently measured emotional disorders or symptom severity levels. Boosting positive emotionality may be an important treatment goal for persons

  13. Contextual correlates of happiness in European adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Eva Anna Christina; Lakerveld, Jeroen; McKee, Martin; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; Charreire, Hélène; Veenhoven, Ruut; Bárdos, Helga; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the associations of both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social neighborhood characteristics with happiness in European adults. In addition, we aimed to study how these associations differed among subgroups. Methods Participants (N = 6037) of the cross-sectional SPOTLIGHT survey reported on their level of happiness using a 5-point Likert scale, and on perceived physical and social environmental neighborhood characteristics. Objective physical environmental characteristics were assessed using a Google Street View-based neighborhood audit. Associations of 14 physical and social environmental characteristics with happiness were analyzed using multivariable multinomial regression analyses with clustered standard errors. Results Living in neighborhoods with higher levels of aesthetics and more water and green space was associated with being very happy. Individuals who perceived their neighborhood to be safer, more functional and more aesthetic were more likely to be very happy. The associations of functionality and aesthetics with happiness were strongest in the Ghent region (Belgium), the Randstad (the Netherlands) and Greater London (United Kingdom). Perceived absence of air pollution was only associated with higher levels of happiness in more highly educated participants. Individuals with a larger social network, more social cohesion and who trusted their neighbors were more likely to be very happy. The association between social networks and happiness was somewhat stronger in men than in women. In general, the associations between environmental characteristics and happiness had similar directions and sizes across socio-economic and socio-demographic subgroups. Conclusions This European study provided evidence that both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social characteristics of the neighborhood environment are associated with the happiness of its residents. PMID:29364899

  14. Contextual correlates of happiness in European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Eva Anna Christina; Lakerveld, Jeroen; McKee, Martin; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; Charreire, Hélène; Veenhoven, Ruut; Bárdos, Helga; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Mackenbach, Joreintje Dingena

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social neighborhood characteristics with happiness in European adults. In addition, we aimed to study how these associations differed among subgroups. Participants (N = 6037) of the cross-sectional SPOTLIGHT survey reported on their level of happiness using a 5-point Likert scale, and on perceived physical and social environmental neighborhood characteristics. Objective physical environmental characteristics were assessed using a Google Street View-based neighborhood audit. Associations of 14 physical and social environmental characteristics with happiness were analyzed using multivariable multinomial regression analyses with clustered standard errors. Living in neighborhoods with higher levels of aesthetics and more water and green space was associated with being very happy. Individuals who perceived their neighborhood to be safer, more functional and more aesthetic were more likely to be very happy. The associations of functionality and aesthetics with happiness were strongest in the Ghent region (Belgium), the Randstad (the Netherlands) and Greater London (United Kingdom). Perceived absence of air pollution was only associated with higher levels of happiness in more highly educated participants. Individuals with a larger social network, more social cohesion and who trusted their neighbors were more likely to be very happy. The association between social networks and happiness was somewhat stronger in men than in women. In general, the associations between environmental characteristics and happiness had similar directions and sizes across socio-economic and socio-demographic subgroups. This European study provided evidence that both objectively assessed and perceived physical and social characteristics of the neighborhood environment are associated with the happiness of its residents.

  15. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  16. The Meaning of Happiness in Consumer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandi Sørensen, Elin; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigate the meaning of happiness in a consumption context. We employ an inductive approach and present the results of an exploratory pilot study with eight consumers. The study is based on a Multi-Sensory-Sculpting (MSS) procedure in which we asked consumers to build sculptures...... that represent consumer happiness. Following the MSS guidelines, consumers were interviewed about the meanings of their sculpture in order to elicit embodied cognition about the topic at hand. In this paper we present the meanings of consumer happiness in the participants‟ accounts and discuss implications...... for consumer research. Further, we discuss the applicability of the MSS-procedure to the topic of consumer happiness, and how to optimize it for later studies on consumer happiness....

  17. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  18. Testing Happiness Hypothesis among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Máximo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We use a rich data set that allows us to test different happiness hypotheses employing four methodological approaches. We find that older people in Uruguay have a tendency to report themselves happy when they are married, when they have higher standards of health and when they earn higher levels of income or they consider that their income is suitable for their standard of living. On the contrary, they report lower levels of happiness when they live alone and when their nutrition is insufficient. We also find that education has no clear impact on happiness. We think that our study is a contribution to the study of those factors that can explain happiness among the elderly in Latin American countries. Future work will focus on enhanced empirical analysis and in extending our study to other countries.

  19. Economic Growth Evens Out Happiness: Evidence from Six Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Flèche, Sarah; Senik, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    In spite of the great U-turn that saw income inequality rise in Western countries in the 1980s, happiness inequality has fallen in countries that have experienced income growth (but not in those that did not). Modern growth has reduced the share of both the "very unhappy" and the "perfectly happy". Lower happiness inequality is found both between and within countries, and between and within individuals. Our cross-country regression results argue that the extension of various public goods helps to explain this greater happiness homogeneity. This new stylised fact arguably comes as a bonus to the Easterlin paradox, offering a somewhat brighter perspective for developing countries.

  20. Happiness: before and after the kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Margolis, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how having children influences parents' subjective well-being ("happiness") has great potential to explain fertility behavior. We study parental happiness trajectories before and after the birth of a child, using large British and German longitudinal data sets. We account for unobserved parental characteristics using fixed-effects models and study how sociodemographic factors modify the parental happiness trajectories. Consistent with existing work, we find that happiness increases in the years around the birth of a first child and then decreases to before-child levels. Moreover, happiness increases before birth, suggesting that the trajectories may capture not only the effect of the birth but also the broader process of childbearing, which may include partnership formation and quality. Sociodemographic factors strongly modify this pattern. Those who have children at older ages or who have more education have a particularly positive happiness response to a first birth; and although having the first two children increases happiness, having a third child does not. The results, which are similar in Britain and Germany, suggest that having up to two children increases happiness, and mostly for those who have postponed childbearing. This pattern is consistent with the fertility behavior that emerged during the second demographic transition and provides new insights into low and late fertility.

  1. Culture, Liberty and Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Ura, Karma

    2007-01-01

    The author's intention here is to explore mainly the relationship between culture and globalization, and also to a limited extent the ties and differences, if any, between cultural liberty and happiness. This paper attempts to relate the concept of cultural liberty to the idea of Gross National Happiness. The author underlines strongly that the culture discussed is not about the particular culture of Bhutan; it is about culture in general and in abstract. Likewise happiness referred to here i...

  2. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  3. Poor and distressed, but happy: situational and cultural moderators of the relationship between wealth and happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Borrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the relationship between wealth and happiness is mixed, hinting that there are situational or individual factors that account for the variability in results. This paper contends that wealth is in fact related to happiness. More specifically, it is proposed that poverty –as well as other adverse situations– has an undermining effect on happiness, and that this effect is attenuated by a collectivist orientation. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs using data on happiness, wealth and culture from 197 countries, supplemented by a meta-analysis of empirical studies that explore the relationship between wealth and perceptions of happiness, support the hypothesized relationship between adversity and happiness, and the moderating effect that collectivism has on such relationship.

  4. Young professionals and the pursuit of happiness at work

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Ilona Inkeri

    2017-01-01

    Happiness has recently gained interest as an influential variable in managing the employment relationship, as studies have suggested benefits for productivity and performance. Knowledge on workplace happiness is, however, still relatively limited and more understanding is needed on employee perceptions and benefits of and expectations for happiness, as ...

  5. Sport and Recreation Are Associated with Happiness across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Shea M.; Conacher, Dan; Dithurbide, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary findings suggest sport participation is positively associated with happiness. However, it is unknown if this association is universal and how sport compares to other leisure activities in terms of an association with happiness. This study had 3 objectives: (a) to test if sport membership is associated with happiness, (b) to…

  6. The Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) health promotion and prevention study: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Reynolds, Charles F; Alegría, Margarita; Harvey, Philip; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-18

    Results of previous studies attest to the greater illness burden of common mental disorders (anxiety and depression) in older Latinos and the need for developing preventive interventions that are effective, acceptable, and scalable. Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) is a newly developed intervention that uses a community health worker (CHW) to lead a health promotion program in order to prevent common mental disorders among at-risk older Latinos. This pilot study tests the feasibility and acceptability of delivering HOLA to older, at-risk Latinos. HOLA is a multi-component, health promotion intervention funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). This prevention approach will be tested against a fotonovela, an enhanced psychoeducation control condition, in a sample of Latino elderly with minor or subthreshold depression or anxiety. A total of 60 older Latinos (aged 60+) will be randomized to receive HOLA or the fotonovela. The primary outcomes of interest are recruitment, adherence, retention, and acceptability. Data will also be collected on: preemption of incident and recurrent major depression, generalized anxiety, and social phobia; reduction in depression and anxiety symptom severity; physical functioning; sedentary behaviors; social engagement; and self-efficacy. The results of this study could have implications for other high-risk, highly disadvantaged populations. The development of a health promotion intervention designed to prevent common mental disorders could be a means of addressing multiple disparities (for example, mental health outcomes, mental health service use, stigma) among racial/ethnic minority elderly. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02371954 . Date of registration: 21 January 2015.

  7. Happiness: The Potential Power of Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Sosis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists have argued that they can determine to what extent human happiness levels are controlled by genes by comparing the average happiness levels of identical twins raised apart. If we discover that identical twins raised apart tend to be more hedonically similar than fraternal twins raised apart, this is interpreted as evidence for the thesis that genes have a strong influence on our happiness levels. If identical twins are hedonically dissimilar, as dissimilar as fraternal twins raised apart, this has been taken as evidence for the thesis that happiness levels are determined in large part by the environment. I shall show that that these interpretations of these studies rely on a set of false assumptions. There is no good evidence our genes determine how happy we can be.

  8. Subjective Happiness of Lebanese College Youth in Lebanon: Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Arabic Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnie, Lamia; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the subjective happiness of Lebanese college youth using a multi-item rather than a single-item subjective happiness measure. An Arabic translation of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) was administered to 273 Lebanese college youth from state- and private-run higher institutions of learning, as was the Arabic Adult…

  9. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent–child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood. PMID:24932068

  10. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  11. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  12. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  13. The Christian Understanding of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zwoliński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship with God allows man to find the sense of life. Christianity is a humanism – it positions man in the very centre of the world according him the highest place – of the being created after God’s image. The revelation of God’s Love endows man with a new way of enriching himself and others. Thus the desire for happiness gains a new perspective of the divine longing for good. Happiness which Christ promises exceeds the limits of our imagination. It is incon­ ceivable and incomprehensible to those living on earth. Heaven is beyond every word, beyond our conception for it bears the meaning which man cannot fully understand. It is the most supreme happiness, absolutely perfect and complete which no one has ever known. A Christian has to achieve in his life something more than the worldly aims. Whoever limits their life to the earth, focuses only on enjoying and using this life to the full; squeezing from it the last drop heedless of the needs of others.

  14. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature.

  15. The happiness paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Johan; Gonçalves, Bruno; Leemput, van de Ingrid; Ruan, Guangchen

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals in social networks experience a so-called Friendship Paradox: they are less popular than their friends on average. This effect may explain recent findings that widespread social network media use leads to reduced happiness. However the relation between popularity and happiness is

  16. A Sniff of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Jasper H B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373435754; Smeets, Monique A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141926600; Rowson, Matt J.; Bulsing, Patricia J.; Blonk, Cor G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Semin, Gün R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072830409

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that feelings of happiness transfer between individuals through mimicry induced by vision and hearing. The evidence is inconclusive, however, as to whether happiness can be communicated through the sense of smell via chemosignals. As chemosignals are a known medium for transferring

  17. Happiness, Sadness and Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duncan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policy-making that re-presents – as objects of concern and by means of statistics – the suffering or depression and the happiness of populations indicates an evolving form of governance that examines and reshapes subjectivity itself. Never before have states of subjectivity been acted upon, through surveys, statistical and policy analysis, and scientific disciplines, to the extent seen today. This article: Documents changing epistemic co-ordinates, especially in psychology and economics, that first occluded happiness in the interests of objectivity, but, in recent decades, marked out a renewed ‘science’ of happiness.Examines changes in the discursive formulation of depression, as a counterpart to happiness.Argues that, seen in terms of bio-power, contemporary concerns for happiness and depression are consistent – rather than incompatible – with one another. How can so many claim to be happy when so many, we are told, are depressed, anxious or suffering emotional pain? There is no underlying contradiction here, for two reasons: Happiness and depression are manifestations of the same political discourse (or aspects of a political subjectivity characterized by dis-inhibition, consumer self-indulgence and performance anxiety. And, just as we needed madness in order to understand ‘sanity,’ or the prison in order to view ourselves as ‘free,’ so we rely upon concerns about depression in order to understand and act upon ourselves as subjects capable of unlimited happiness.

  18. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  19. A sniff of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Smeets, Monique A M; Rowson, Matt J; Bulsing, Patricia J; Blonk, Cor G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Semin, Gün R

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that feelings of happiness transfer between individuals through mimicry induced by vision and hearing. The evidence is inconclusive, however, as to whether happiness can be communicated through the sense of smell via chemosignals. As chemosignals are a known medium for transferring negative emotions from a sender to a receiver, we examined whether chemosignals are also involved in the transmission of positive emotions. Positive emotions are important for overall well-being and yet relatively neglected in research on chemosignaling, arguably because of the stronger survival benefits linked with negative emotions. We observed that exposure to body odor collected from senders of chemosignals in a happy state induced a facial expression and perceptual-processing style indicative of happiness in the receivers of those signals. Our findings suggest that not only negative affect but also a positive state (happiness) can be transferred by means of odors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Studi Pengaruh Visual Merchandise untuk Anak Terhadap Perilaku Pembelian Paket HappyMeal di Restoran McDonald’s Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Listia Natadjaja; Rosaline Dewi F.; Deddy Setyawan

    2009-01-01

    In sales promotion context, premium offers such as toy merchandizes for kids are free incentives or discounted price to encourage sales. A common finding that toys on merchandize offered in Happy Meal packets influence their consumer behavior which are kids, besides kids are known as potential target market nowadays. This thesis is not only giving descriptive explanation about the visual influence on merchandise towards kid’s buying behavior on the purchase of Happy Meal packets, but also abo...

  1. Studi Pengaruh Visual Merchandise untuk Anak Terhadap Perilaku Pembelian Paket HappyMeal di Restoran McDonald’s Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In sales promotion context, premium offers such as toy merchandizes for kids are free incentives or discounted price to encourage sales. A common finding that toys on merchandize offered in Happy Meal packets influence their consumer behavior which are kids, besides kids are known as potential target market nowadays. This thesis is not only giving descriptive explanation about the visual influence on merchandise towards kid’s buying behavior on the purchase of Happy Meal packets, but also about correlation and simple linear regression analysis. The result indicates that visual elements on merchandises have strong and significant impact to kid’s buying behavior on Happy Meal packets. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Dalam konteks promosi penjualan, penawaran premi seperti merchandise mainan untuk anak, merupakan penawaran item gratis atau dalam harga yang lebih murah yang bertujuan menimbulkan suatu respons. Dalam kelanjutannya, diketahui bahwa visual merchandise mainan dalam paket HappyMeal mempengaruhi perilaku konsumen anak-anak. Disamping itu, anak-anak adalah pasar yang potensial dewasa ini. Skripsi ini tidak hanya memberikan pemaparan deskriptif mengenai pengaruh visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak, tetapi juga mengenai analisis hubungan korelasi dan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian mengidikasikan adanya pengaruh yang kuat dan signifikan antara visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak. Kata kunci: Pengaruh visual, Merchandise, Perilaku pembelian, McDonald’s.

  2. Valuing happiness is associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Although people who experience happiness tend to have better psychological health, people who value happiness to an extreme tend to have worse psychological health, including more depression. We propose that the extreme valuing of happiness may be a general risk factor for mood disturbances, both depressive and manic. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the extreme valuing of happiness and risk for, diagnosis of, and illness course for bipolar disorder (BD). Supporting our hypothesis, the extreme valuing of happiness was associated with a measure of increased risk for developing BD (Studies 1 and 2), increased likelihood of past diagnosis of BD (Studies 2 and 3), and worse prospective illness course in BD (Study 3), even when controlling for current mood symptoms (Studies 1-3). These findings indicate that the extreme valuing of happiness is associated with and even predicts BD. Taken together with previous evidence, these findings suggest that the extreme valuing of happiness is a general risk factor for mood disturbances. More broadly, what emotions people strive to feel may play a critical role in psychological health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. True happiness: The role of morality in the folk concept of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; De Freitas, Julian; Mott, Christian; Gruber, June; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Recent scientific research has settled on a purely descriptive definition of happiness that is focused solely on agents' psychological states (high positive affect, low negative affect, high life satisfaction). In contrast to this understanding, recent research has suggested that the ordinary concept of happiness is also sensitive to the moral value of agents' lives. Five studies systematically investigate and explain the impact of morality on ordinary assessments of happiness. Study 1 demonstrates that moral judgments influence assessments of happiness not only for untrained participants, but also for academic researchers and even in those who study happiness specifically. Studies 2 and 3 then respectively ask whether this effect may be explained by general motivational biases or beliefs in a just world. In both cases, we find evidence against these explanations. Study 4 shows that the impact of moral judgments cannot be explained by changes in the perception of descriptive psychological states. Finally, Study 5 compares the impact of moral and nonmoral value, and provides evidence that unlike nonmoral value, moral value is part of the criteria that govern the ordinary concept of happiness. Taken together, these studies provide a specific explanation of how and why the ordinary concept of happiness deviates from the definition used by researchers studying happiness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Chronic Illness as a Source of Happiness: Paradox or perfectly normal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hoppe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyse the relation between happiness and chronic illness from the perspective of medical anthropology and disability studies. By looking at the disability paradox I deconstruct society’s view of people with a disability. I argue that the disability paradox is problematic as it ignores the views of people with a disability. Moreover, such a paradox reinforces the idea that living with a chronic illness or disability is a devastating experience and that happiness and disability are mutally exclusive realities. Based on empiric examples of people who suffer from Multiple Sclerosis I demonstrate that people with a chronic illness can experience happiness in spite of illness, but also as a consequence of it. 

  5. What differs between happy and unhappy people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliterna-Lipovčan, Ljiljana; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the determinants (demographic, personal, behavioural, and social) by which happy and unhappy people differ. The primary sample from which the participants were chosen was a representative sample of Croatian citizens (N = 4000). On the basis of the distribution of overall happiness the sample of the highest (the happy group) and the lowest 10 % of participants (the unhappy group) were selected. The happy group (N = 400) represented the upper end of the happiness distribution, while the unhappy group (N = 400) represented the lower end of the distribution. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics (age, gender, income, and education), ratings of subjective health status, satisfaction with specific personal and national domains (IWI-International Wellbeing Index), trust in people, and trust in institutions. Frequency of various leisure activities, and involvement in the community life were also reported. The differences in examined variables were analysed between the two groups. Results showed that the happy individuals were younger, with higher income, and with higher education than unhappy ones. After controlling for age, income, and education level, the happy people were found to be more satisfied with personal and national wellbeing domains, of better subjective health status, reported higher trust in people and institutions, and were more engaged in leisure activities and community life than the unhappy ones.

  6. The history of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience.

  7. Does Happiness Promote Career Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated a relationship between happiness and workplace success. For example, compared with their less happy peers, happy people earn more money, display superior performance, and perform more helpful acts. Researchers have often assumed that an employee is happy and satisfied because he or she is successful. In this article,…

  8. Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states.

  9. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  10. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Cheng, H

    2000-10-01

    This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.

  11. "Happy Together" kunstihoones

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Kagu-Euroopa, Balti- ja Põhjamaade kunstnikke ühendav kunstiprojekt "Happy Together" Tallinna Kunstihoones 29.01.-01.03. 2009. a. Kuraatorid Mika Hannula, Minna Henriksson. Eestist osalevad Villu Jaanisoo ja Kristina Norman

  12. Happy Handwashing Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along!

  13. Happiness and Memory: Some Sociological Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hyman

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to consider, in an exploratory fashion, the relationship between happiness and memory. Both of these areas of investigation are relative newcomers to sociology, and have rarely, if at all, been studied in tandem. The article draws upon data from qualitative interviews with British adults that formed part of an empirical study of people’s experiences and perceptions of happiness. In doing so, it suggests that people identify their memories and reflections on the past as so...

  14. What Makes Super‐Aged Nations Happier? Exploring Critical Factors of Happiness Among Middle‐Aged Men and Women in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Nanako; Kawachi, Nobuyuki; Miyairi, Maya

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine multiple factors associated with happiness from the perspective of gender difference among a middle‐aged Japanese population. A total of 865 participants (male = 344, female = 521) aged 40–64 years were divided into two groups (high and low) by their self‐reported level of happiness. Logistic regression analysis by gender was carried out. In men, high levels of happiness were significantly correlated with living with spouse, occupation, enough sleep, leading a normal life, and regular checkups; while low levels of happiness were significantly correlated with smoking and having two or more diseases. In women, low levels of happiness were significantly correlated with caring for a family member. Our data suggested that the factors relevant to happiness levels might vary between men and women among middle‐aged people in Japan. To increase the nation's level of happiness, the Japanese government must implement extended social services and policymaking, to alleviate caregivers’ burdens, especially among Japanese women. PMID:29610701

  15. Leisure Travel and Happiness: An Empirical Study into the Effect of Holiday Trips on Individuals’ Subjective Wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nawijn (Jeroen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIndividuals in affluent societies generally have their basic human needs met. Consequently, these people seek greater happiness. One way to become happier is by choosing between certain types of leisure activities. This dissertation investigated how leisure travel affects individuals’

  16. Conceptions of Happiness and Unhappiness among Italian Psychology Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating the conceptions of happiness and unhappiness in a sample of Italian psychology undergraduates. Participants completed a questionnaire asking them to report the most important things that made them feel happy (happiness components) and those ones that made them feel unhappy (unhappiness components). Different measures of overall happiness and overall unhappiness were also obtained by asking respondents to assess to what extent each reported happiness and unhappiness component was present in their life, and by inviting them to provide a global judgment about their happiness and unhappiness. Results indicated that participants did not conceptualize happiness and unhappiness as perfect antonyms. Indeed, both investigated concepts encompassed a similar set of semantic components; however, the perceived salience of some of them - assessed in terms of frequency of citation and average ranking - significantly varied between happiness and unhappiness. With regard to the measurement of overall happiness and unhappiness, on average, respondents considered themselves as moderately happy and only slightly unhappy. However, a judgmental asymmetry was found when comparing global and specific evaluations of unhappiness. Theoretical and empirical implications of the study are discussed.

  17. A happy valve in a happy patient? Serotonergic antidepressants and the risk of valvular heart disease (SERVAL). A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Tine; Petrovic, Mirko; Audenaert, Kurt; Coeman, Mathieu; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the risk of valvular heart disease in humans in relation to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. A case-control study. We conducted a case-control study within this cohort in which patients with newly diagnosed cardiac valve regurgitation were age-matched to controls. Patient demographics, their cardiovascular risk factors and medication use were extracted in both series. Use of SSRIs, serotonin and noradreline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and other pro-serotonergic agents, their dose and treatment duration were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish the strength of the association between SSRI/SNRI use and valvular heart disease. Outpatient clinic of the cardiology department at the Ghent University Hospital, East-Flanders in Belgium. Total of 2911 persons 21-58 years of age who had undergone an echocardiogram in the period 2006-2010 and had no known cardiovascular disease or previous cardiac intervention. Two hundred and six echocardiographically proven cases of valvular regurgitation and 195 matched controls. Odd ratio of valvular disease associated with intake of serotonergic drugs. Of the 206 patients with newly diagnosed cardiac valve regurgitation, 11.6% were exposed to serotonergic agents compared to 4.1% in the 195 control patients, leading to an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-7.04). The analysis of doses and treatment durations revealed a dose-relationship pattern between SSRI/SNRI use and prevalent valvular heart disease. In this study, use of serotonergic antidepressants was associated with an increased rate of valvular regurgitation in humans.

  18. False memory and the associative network of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Minkyung; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-02-01

    This research examines the relationship between individuals' levels of life satisfaction and their associative networks of happiness. Study 1 measured European Americans' degree of false memory of happiness using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Scores on the Satisfaction With Life Scale predicted the likelihood of false memory of happiness but not of other lure words such as sleep . In Study 2, European American participants completed an association-judgment task in which they judged the extent to which happiness and each of 15 positive emotion terms were associated with each other. Consistent with Study 1's findings, chronically satisfied individuals exhibited stronger associations between happiness and other positive emotion terms than did unsatisfied individuals. However, Koreans and Asian Americans did not exhibit such a pattern regarding their chronic level of life satisfaction (Study 3). In combination, results suggest that there are important individual and cultural differences in the cognitive structure and associative network of happiness.

  19. Testing the Link Between Empathy and Lay Theories of Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Plaks, Jason E

    2016-09-20

    Happiness is a topic that ignites both considerable interest and considerable disagreement. Thus far, however, there has been little attempt to characterize people's lay theories about happiness or explore their consequences. We examined whether individual differences in lay theories of happiness would predict empathy. In Studies 1a and 1b, we validated the Lay Theories of Happiness Scale (LTHS), which includes three dimensions: flexibility, controllability, and locus. In Study 2, higher dispositional empathy was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, controllable, and internal. In Studies 3 and 4, higher empathy toward a specific target was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, uncontrollable, and external In conjunction, Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence that trait and state empathy are separable and can have opposing relationships with people's lay theories. Overall, these findings highlight generalized beliefs that may guide empathic reactions to the unhappiness of others. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. The promotion of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamut, Marian Kazimierz

    2002-01-01

    The human mind is capable of creating an internal world--the psychic sphere--including the phenomena characteristic of human nature, such as selfconsciousness, conscious experiences, conceptual thinking, symbolic language, dreams, art, creation of culture, sense of values, interest in the distant past and care about the distant future. According to the exceptionally concordant opinions of the sages and scholars of the East and the West it is just within this internal world that human happiness dwells. Happiness is a state of the spirit which consists in: internal peace, satisfaction with one's life, the joy of life, benevolence and cordiality towards oneself and towards others; sensitivity to the beauty of nature, culture and art; harmonious co-existence with the surroundings. The achievement and experiencing of the states of thus understood happiness depend mainly on ourselves and, similarly to the project of health promotion, require knowledge, willingness and possibilities. Happiness Promotion denotes the commendation and popularizing of a certain definite way of thinking and acting--showing the road which leads to the frequent experiencing of happy moments.

  1. The Happy Life Club™ study protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of a type 2 diabetes health coach intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Happy Life Club™ is an intervention that utilises health coaches trained in behavioural change and motivational interviewing techniques to assist with the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in primary care settings in China. Health coaches will support participants to improve modifiable risk factors and adhere to effective self-management treatments associated with T2DM. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial involving 22 Community Health Centres (CHCs in Fengtai District of Beijing, China. CHCs will be randomised into a control or intervention group, facilitating recruitment of at least 1320 individual participants with T2DM into the study. Participants in the intervention group will receive a combination of both telephone and face-to-face health coaching over 18 months, in addition to usual care received by the control group. Health coaching will be performed by CHC doctors and nurses certified in coach-assisted chronic disease management. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and again at 6, 12 and 18 months by means of a clinical health check and self-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c level. Secondary outcomes include metabolic, physiological and psychological variables. Discussion This cluster RCT has been developed to suit the Chinese health care system and will contribute to the evidence base for the management of patients with T2DM. With a strong focus on self-management and health coach support, the study has the potential to be adapted to other chronic diseases, as well as other regions of China. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01010526

  2. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schütz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies.Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale. In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS, life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale, and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales.Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit, communal (e.g., social affiliation, and spiritual (e.g., religion values when pursuing happiness.Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  3. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  4. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.

  5. Happiness economics: a new road to measuring and comparing happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the concept of happiness in economics. Of late there has come into life a branch of happiness economics and it is this field that will be our concern. Actually, not only economists are interested in quantifications of happiness but also researchers in other disciplines. Notably

  6. Does migration make you happy? A longitudinal study of internal migration and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.; Van Ham, M.; Findlay, A.M.; Gayle, V.

    2013-01-01

    Marie Curie programme under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / Career Integration Grant n. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighbourhood choice, neighbourhood sorting, and neighbourhood effects). The majority of quantitative studies on the consequences of

  7. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  8. Memory-experience gap in early adolescents' happiness reports

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut; Tadic, Maja; Braam, Huub; Vliet, Katja

    2014-01-01

    textabstractStudies among adult populations show that estimates of how happy one has felt in the past tend to be more positive than average happiness as assessed using time sampling techniques. This ‘memory-experience gap’ is attributed to cognitive biases, among which fading affect bias. In this paper we report a study among 352 pupils of a secondary school in the Netherlands. These youngsters reported subsequently: 1) how happy they had felt yesterday, 2) how happy they had felt during the ...

  9. Predictors of Happiness and Emotional Intelligence in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pulido Acosta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed predictors of happiness and emotional intelligence taking into account age, sex, culture and status and the relationship among these variables. 811 persons participated; 71.6% were Muslims and 28.4% Christians, with 46.1% males and 53.9% females. One questionnaire was used to evaluate happiness and another to evaluate emotional intelligence. The results indicate that predictors of happiness are age, culture, status and sex, while those of emotional intelligence are age, culture and sex. The study found that there is a statistically significant and direct correlation between happiness and emotional intelligence.

  10. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and

  11. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  12. Upbeat and happy: arousal as an important factor in studying attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M; Shore, David I

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of music-induced mood changes on different components of visual attention. Affective valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) were manipulated by having participants listen to one of four versions of a Mozart Sonata that varied in mode (major or minor) and tempo (fast or slow). Attention was measured in three domains-alerting, orienting, and executive control. Affective valence and arousal had an effect on executive control, but not on alerting or orienting. Individuals who experienced positive valence had less efficient control over their responses than those who experienced negative valence, but only when arousal levels were high. Positive and negative valence did not influence executive control measures when arousal levels were low. These findings demonstrate that affective valence and arousal interact with one another to influence the processing of items in visual attention.

  13. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  14. Hedonism and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractHedonism is a way of life, characterised by openness to pleasurable experience. There are many qualms about hedonism. It is rejected on moral grounds and said to be detrimental to long-term happiness. Several mechanisms for this 'paradox of hedonism' have been suggested and telling

  15. Culture and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dezhu; Ng, Yew-Kwang; Lian, Yujun

    Culture is an important factor affecting happiness. This paper examines the predictive power of cultural factors on the cross-country differences in happiness and explores how different dimensions of cultural indices differ in their effects on happiness. Our empirical results show that the global leadership and organizational behavior effectiveness nine culture indices are all significantly related with happiness. Out of these nine indices, power distance (PDI) and gender egalitarianism (GEI) play the most important and stable role in determining subjective well-being (SWB). We further examine the relative importance of the various variables in contributing to the R-squared of the regression. The results show that PDI is the most important, accounting for 50 % of the contributions to R-squared of all variables, or equalling the combined contributions of income, population density and four other traditional variables. The contribution of GEI is 37.1 %, also well surpassing other variables. Our results remain robust even taking account of the different data for culture and SWB.

  16. What makes workers happy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.; Wielers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article answers the question what makes workers happy? It does so by combining insights from micro-economics, sociology and psychology. Basis is the standard utility function of a worker that includes income and hours of work and is elaborated with job characteristics. In this way it is

  17. The Happy Farmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Fibæk, Maria; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    -employment in farming on perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results suggest that economic transformation is associated with a psychological cost, which may contribute to explaining earnings gaps between sectors and types of employment. We also investigate other determinants of happiness...

  18. Inter-regional metric disadvantages when comparing countries’ happiness on a global scale. A Rasch based consequential validity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Rojas-Gualdrón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurement confounding due to socioeconomic differences between world regions may bias the estimations of countries’ happiness and global inequality. Potential implications of this bias have not been researched. In this study, the consequential validity of the Happy Planet Index, 2012 as an indicator of global inequality is evaluated from the Rasch measurement perspective. Differential Item Functioning by world region and bias in the estimated magnitude of inequalities were analyzed. The recalculated measure showed a good fit to Rasch model assumptions. The original index underestimated relative inequalities between world regions by 20%. DIF had no effect on relative measures but affected absolute measures by overestimating world average happiness and underestimating its variance. These findings suggest measurement confounding by unmeasured characteristics. Metric disadvantages must be adjusted to make fair comparisons. Public policy decisions based on biased estimations could have relevant negative consequences on people’s health and well-being by not focusing efforts on real vulnerable populations.

  19. A Human-Needs-Based Dynamics to Simulate Technology Policy and Its Effects on Both Business Success and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeon Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how human needs are reflected in the market and how several technological and political policies affect the market share of government-supported industries, as well as the satisfaction of human desires and consequent happiness. In this paper, we seek to understand the dynamics of consumer decision-making processes in relation to technology products in the market. In this study, we present a new marketing model based on human needs, wants, and demands, and focus on both holistic and social perspectives. We have shown that human-based policy dynamics and sustainable human happiness can be realized by stimulating national policies for consumer happiness in the human-needs-based sector, e.g., the healthcare industry.

  20. The Obstacle to Happiness: Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barbaros YALCIN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether individuals’ early maladaptive schemas predict their happiness levels or not and to find out what early maladaptive schemas prevent individuals’ happiness. Method: Relational screening model was used in the study. The study group consisted of the 253 university students; 198 (%78.3 females and 55 (%21.7 males. “The Qxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form”, developed by Hills and Argyle (2002 and adapted into Turkish by Dogan and Cotok (2011, and “Young Schema Scale-Short Form 3”, developed by Young et al. (2003 and adapted into Turkish by Soygut, Karaosmanoglu, and Cakir (2009 were used to gather the data for the study. Results: According to the results obtained from the study, it was found out that there is a significantly negative relation between happiness and Vulnerability to Harm & Illness, Pessimism/Negativity, Failure, Social Isolation, Emotional Inhibition, Approval-Seeking and Insufficient Self-Control. Moreover, university students’ Pessimism/Negativity and Failure schemas were found to be the predictors of their happiness levels. Conclusion: Families, teachers and mental health workers should work together to resolve the Pessimism/Negativity and Failure early maladaptive schemas of university students’. It is considered as a preventive measure that the education system must be reviewed. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 7-13

  1. Will Happiness Improve the Psychological Integration of Migrant Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Chu, Chien-Chi; Meng, Fan-Cun; Li, Qin; Mo, Di; Li, Bin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2018-05-03

    Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method. The empirical evidence shows, first, that happiness has a significantly positive effect on the psychological integration of migrant workers and second, that the sense of life satisfaction in particular plays a more significant role. The acceleration of the social and political integration in migrant workers will enhance their psychological integration. Additionally, social, cultural and economic integration is found to influence migrant workers’ psychological integration by promoting happiness. Happiness between different generations of migrant workers was found to have a noticeably positive impact on their psychological integration; however, the happiness of the younger migrant workers was more perceivable than that of the other generations. Preferential policies should therefore be provided to improve the happiness of migrant workers.

  2. Happiness and memory: affective significance of endowment and contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Varda; Boehm, Julia K; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Ross, Lee D

    2009-10-01

    Three studies (two conducted in Israel and one in the United States) examined associations between self-rated dispositional happiness and tendencies to treat memories of positive and negative events as sources of enhanced or attenuated happiness through the use of "endowment" and "contrast." Although participants generally endorsed items describing happiness-enhancing tendencies more than happiness-diminishing ones, self-reported happiness was associated with greater endorsement of "positive endowment" items and less endorsement of "negative endowment" items, and also with less endorsement of items that involved contrasting the present with happier times in the past. Only in the American sample, however, was happiness associated with greater endorsement of items that involved contrasting the present with less happy times in the past. These data suggest that relatively unhappy people show somewhat conflicting memorial tendencies vis-à-vis happiness, whereas very happy people show simpler, and less conflicting, tendencies. These findings augment the existing literatures on the affective consequences of memory, which have been concerned more with mood than with temperament and/or have dealt only with a subset of the endowment and contrast tendencies explored in the present work.

  3. Will Happiness Improve the Psychological Integration of Migrant Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Mo, Di; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method. The empirical evidence shows, first, that happiness has a significantly positive effect on the psychological integration of migrant workers and second, that the sense of life satisfaction in particular plays a more significant role. The acceleration of the social and political integration in migrant workers will enhance their psychological integration. Additionally, social, cultural and economic integration is found to influence migrant workers’ psychological integration by promoting happiness. Happiness between different generations of migrant workers was found to have a noticeably positive impact on their psychological integration; however, the happiness of the younger migrant workers was more perceivable than that of the other generations. Preferential policies should therefore be provided to improve the happiness of migrant workers. PMID:29751489

  4. Performance of the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the Tremembé Epidemiological Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina G. César

    Full Text Available Depression is a major growing public health problem. Many population studies have found a significant relationship between depression and the presence of cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the population aged 60 years or over in the city of Tremembé, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey involving home visits was carried out in the city of Tremembé. The sample was randomly selected by drawing 20% of the population aged 60 years or older from each of the city's census sectors. In this single-phase study, the assessment included clinical history, physical and neurological examination, cognitive evaluation, and application of both the Cornell Scale and the Analogue Scale of Happiness for psychiatric symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as scores greater than or equal to 8 points on the Cornell Scale. RESULTS: A total of 623 subjects were evaluated and of these 251 (40.3% had clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale, with a significant association with female gender (p<0.001 and with lower education (p=0.012. One hundred and thirty-six participants (21.8% chose the unhappiness faces, with a significant association with age (p<0.001, female gender (p=0.020 and low socioeconomic status (p=0.012. Although there was a statistically significant association on the correlation test, the correlation was not high (rho=0.47. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in this sample and the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia should not be used as similar alternatives for evaluating the presence of depressive symptoms, at least in populations with low educational level.

  5. Identification of Domains for Malaysian University Staff Happiness Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Sulaiman Md.

    2014-01-01

    Without any doubt happiness among staff in any organization is pertinent to ensure continued growth and development. However, not many studies were carried out to determine the domains that will be able to measure the level of happiness among staff in universities. Thus, the aim of this study is to elicit the domains that explain the overall…

  6. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Effects of physical exercise programme on happiness among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, M; Sadeghi, R; Majlessi, F; Rahimi Foroushani, A

    2015-02-01

    This randomized-controlled trial investigated the effect of physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. Results of this study on 120 male and female volunteers showed that an 8-week group physical exercise programme was significantly effective in older adults' happiness. Findings showed that physical exercise programme is so beneficial for increasing older adults' happiness. Physical activity is associated with well-being and happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week long physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. This was a randomized control trial study. The participants consisted of a group of 120 male and female volunteers (mean ± SD age: 71 ± 5.86 years) in a convenience sampling among older adults in public parks in Nowshahr, Iran. We randomly allocated them into experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups. A validated instrument was used to measure well-being and happiness [Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI)]. Respondents were asked to complete the OHI before and 2 months after implementing PEP. The 8-week PEP was implemented with the intervention group. The statistical analysis of the data was conducted using paired t-test, Fisher's exact test and χ(2). Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in the happiness mean score between the case and control groups; however, after implementing PEP, happiness significantly improved among the experimental group (P = 0.001) and did not improve within the control group (P = 0.79). It can be concluded that PEP had positive effects on happiness among older adults. Planning and implementing of physical activity is so important for older happiness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using a smartphone to measure heart rate changes during relived happiness and anger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring heart rate differences associated with emotional states such as anger and happiness with a smartphone. Novice experimenters measured higher heart rates during relived anger and happiness (replicating findings in the literature) outside a

  9. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Buying time promotes happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  11. The Robustness of High Danish National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Denmark’s top position in various rankings of country happiness is well-documented. This study goes beyond the national average comparisons and investigates whether Denmark’s top position is also found when we disaggregate data in line with social categories often used within the social sciences....... The central measure is the empirical probability that a given population subgroup in Denmark has significantly higher happiness compared to another country’s similar subgroup in a given year. All five rounds of the European Social Survey are used but only the sixteen countries that were surveyed in each...... of the five rounds are included in this study. The results show that Denmark’s position at the top of the happiness scale is also robust when we look at population subgroups, but not in the sense that Denmark dominates all countries for all years. Instead, a modified version of robustness is necessary...

  12. Happy Handwashing Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-25

    This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along!  Created: 2/25/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 2/25/2010.

  13. Climate and happiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehdanz, Katrin [Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Maddison, David [Department of Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)

    2005-01-05

    Climate is an important input to many human activities. Climate affects heating and cooling requirements, health, clothing and nutritional needs as well as recreational activities. As such, it is to be expected that individuals will have a preference for particular types of climate. This paper analyses a panel of 67 countries attempting to explain differences in self-reported levels of happiness by reference to, amongst other things, temperature and precipitation. Various indices are used for each of these variables, including means, extremes and the number of hot, cold, wet and dry months. Using a panel-corrected least squares approach, the paper demonstrates that, even when controlling for a range of other factors, climate variables have a highly significant effect on country-wide self-reported levels of happiness. On the basis of these results, it is determined that differential patterns of anthropogenically induced climate change might alter dramatically the distribution of happiness between nations, with some countries moving towards a preferred climate and others moving further away. We find that high-latitude countries included in our dataset might benefit from temperature changes. Countries already characterized by very high summer temperatures would most likely suffer losses from climate change.

  14. Climate and happiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehdanz, Katrin; Maddison, David

    2005-01-01

    Climate is an important input to many human activities. Climate affects heating and cooling requirements, health, clothing and nutritional needs as well as recreational activities. As such, it is to be expected that individuals will have a preference for particular types of climate. This paper analyses a panel of 67 countries attempting to explain differences in self-reported levels of happiness by reference to, amongst other things, temperature and precipitation. Various indices are used for each of these variables, including means, extremes and the number of hot, cold, wet and dry months. Using a panel-corrected least squares approach, the paper demonstrates that, even when controlling for a range of other factors, climate variables have a highly significant effect on country-wide self-reported levels of happiness. On the basis of these results, it is determined that differential patterns of anthropogenically induced climate change might alter dramatically the distribution of happiness between nations, with some countries moving towards a preferred climate and others moving further away. We find that high-latitude countries included in our dataset might benefit from temperature changes. Countries already characterized by very high summer temperatures would most likely suffer losses from climate change

  15. Memory-experience gap in early adolescents' happiness reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); M. Tadic (Maja); H. Braam (Huub); K. van Vliet (Katja)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractStudies among adult populations show that estimates of how happy one has felt in the past tend to be more positive than average happiness as assessed using time sampling techniques. This ‘memory-experience gap’ is attributed to cognitive biases, among which fading affect bias. In this

  16. Education Fever and Happiness in Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses relevance between education fever and happiness from the viewpoint of Korean higher education. To review this study systematically, three research questions are addressed. First, what is education fever from the viewpoint of the Korean people? Second, what are relations between education fever and happiness? Last, can…

  17. Social Network Sites, Individual Social Capital and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Arampatzi (Efstratia); M.J. Burger (Martijn); N.A. Novik (Natallia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCan online social contacts replace the importance of real-life social connections in our pursuit of happiness? With the growing use of social network sites (SNSs), attention has been increasingly drawn to this topic. Our study empirically examines the effect of SNS use on happiness for

  18. Social Factors Explaining Children's Subjective Happiness and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study happiness and depression in 737 12-year-old Finnish children were predicted by relationships with family members and other people, the number of close friends and their experiences of parental fighting and drinking. There were no differences in happiness between the genders, but the girls were more depressed than the boys. Low…

  19. Cross-cultural study of representations of happiness in Russian and American proverbs: search for points of contact with Hofstede''s dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    SHKURKO JULIA S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I present the results of research into cultural differences in the folk perceptions of happiness of the Russian and American people that enter into their actual happiness experiences. I started from the premise widely accepted in paremiology that proverbs are one of the important sources of such information. Based on this idea, I conducted a cross-cultural analysis of Russian and American proverbs on happiness. The research reveals differences in 1) emotional ratings of the h...

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Tagalog and German Subjective Happiness Scales and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G.; Eisma, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has recently been developed as a more complete measure for the assessment of molar subjective happiness. In the present study, we report on the translation and validation of German and Tagalog versions of the SHS and conduct an initial cross-cultural examination of subjective happiness. In Study 1, 960…

  1. How Education Enhances Happiness: Comparison of Mediating Factors in Four East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Educational philosophers contend that education enhances autonomy and thus happiness, but empirical studies rarely explore the positive influence of education on happiness. Based on the previous finding that being better connected to the outside world makes people happy, this study examines the possibility that how well an individual connects to…

  2. Folk Theories of Happiness: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Conceptions of Happiness in Germany and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Although happiness as a state of mind may be universal, its meaning takes culture-specific forms. Drawing on the concept of folk theories, this study attempted to uncover lay beliefs about the nature of happiness in Germany and South Africa. To that end, 57 German and 44 black South African students wrote free-format essays in response to the…

  3. Sudbury soils study : industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation presented the industry perspective of a soils study conducted by Vale Inco to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. A public advisory committee was also formed by Vale Inco to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. The study demonstrated to the mining company that multi-stakeholder risk assessments with community involvement are expensive and time-consuming. Risk assessment methods and standard practices are conservative, and may determine risks that aren't always attributable to the proponent. It was concluded that risk assessment progress and results must be clearly and frequently communicated with the public. The presentation emphasized that companies must take time to listen to the public and consider the priorities of communities in the region. tabs., figs

  4. The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja; King, Laura; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies show that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. The authors suggest a conceptual model to account for these findings, arguing that the happiness-success link exists not only because success makes people happy, but also because positive…

  5. Freedom and happiness in nations: Why the Finns are happier than the French

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Brulé (Gaël); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cross-national studies on happiness have revealed large differences, not only is average happiness higher in rich nations than in poor ones, but there are also sizable differences in happiness among rich nations. For instance, the Finns are happier than the French,

  6. The Importance of Scientific Research on Happiness and Its Relevance to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourner, Tom; Rospigliosi, Asher

    2014-01-01

    There has been much interest in happiness over the last decade fueled by developments in neuroscience and the measurement of happiness. Positive psychology has emerged as a recognised discipline within academia to provide a home for the findings of the new scientific study of happiness. In 2011, positive psychology was the most popular course at…

  7. Interaction Effects of Happiness and Physical Activity on Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchyan, Armen A; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A; Aleid, Yazeed S; Nagshbandi, Ahmed A; Almousa, Fahad; Papikyan, Satenik L; Gosadi, Ibrahim M

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Of the 406 students surveyed (208 boys, 198 girls), 86 (21.1%) had initiated smoking. We found an interaction between physical activity (PA) and happiness on smoking initiation (p-interaction = .012). Among boys with low levels of PA, lower levels of happiness were associated with a greater likelihood of smoking initiation (OR = 5.8, 95%CI = 1.9 - 17.5). Also, high levels of PA increased the chance of smoking initiation among male students with high levels of happiness (OR = 5.6, 95%CI = 2.1 - 14.5). Our results suggest that young men with low levels of happiness and low levels of PA, as well as high levels of PA and high levels of happiness, may be targeted as a priority population in tobacco control intervention programs.

  8. Measuring happiness in individuals with profound multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Joseph A; Circo, Deborah K

    2015-12-01

    This quantitative study assessed whether presentation of preferred items and activities during multiple periods of the day (and over multiple days) increased indices of happiness (over time/sustained) in individuals with PMD. A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to measure changes in indices of happiness of the participants. Participants were recruited from an adult day activity program specializing in providing assistance to individuals with disabilities. For Mary, baseline indices of happiness were 26.67% of intervals, increasing 6.76% during intervention to 33.43%. For Caleb, baseline indices of happiness were 20.84% of intervals, increasing 6.34% during intervention to 27.18%. For Mark, baseline indices of happiness were 40.00% of intervals, increasing 12.75% during intervention to 52.75%. Overall interobserver agreement was 82.8%, with interobserver agreement observations occurring during 63.04% of the observations. The results of the investigation demonstrated that presenting preferred items and activities increased the indices of happiness compared to baseline rates of indices of happiness. Results may have been more robust if the participants were assessed for overall responsiveness patterns prior to the initiation of measurement of indices of happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of Happiness in Undergraduate University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Deborah M.; MacLeod, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between happiness, and six other life domains: Academic Success, Financial Security, Familial Support, Living Environment, Self-Image and Social Relations. Participants were one hundred and ninety- two students from a small undergraduate university. The purpose of the study was to determine which life domain…

  10. Your position in society matters for how happy you are

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders; Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    in society (subjective position). The study drew on data from the European Social Survey. Two important findings emerged from the analysis. First, an individual's subjective position in society is a more important predictor of happiness than objective measures such as income, education and labour market......This article shows that people's perception of their position in society is strongly correlated with their level of happiness, and thus that differences in happiness levels among countries in different welfare state clusters are influenced by people's perceptions of their relative position...... position. Second, the link between individuals’ perceived position in society and their level of happiness is moderated by the welfare state. In the Nordic countries, people's perceptions of their position in society have less influence on happiness whereas in Eastern European countries we found a strong...

  11. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  12. Physical and mental decline and yet rather happy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Thinggaard, Mikael; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about whether the feeling of happiness follows the age-related decline in physical and mental functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze differences with age in physical and mental functions and in the feeling of happiness among Danes aged 45 years and older......-reported mobility, a cognitive composite score, and a depression symptomatology score including a question about happiness were assessed. T-score metric was used to compare across domains and age groups. Results: Overall, successively older age groups performed worse than the youngest age group (45-49 years.......9), and the total depression symptomatology score (men: 15.5, women: 17.4). Conversely, the T-score difference in happiness was small (men: 5.6, women: 6.0). Conclusion: Despite markedly poorer physical and mental functions with increasing age, in this Danish sample age did not seem to affect happiness...

  13. Fordyce Happiness Program and Happiness in Mothers of Children with a Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hemati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial deformities and aesthetic and functional anomalies in children may be a cause of real distress in families. Problems faced by parents in coping with a child’s anomaly can be upsetting and lead parents to exhibit over-severe behavior. The present study was conducted in order to study the effect of happiness program on the happiness of the mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate.   Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 64 mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate enrolled by convenience random sampling were assigned to an intervention or control group based on a simple random sampling. Then, a program of happiness training was implemented consisting of 10 sessions of 2 hours each. A demographic questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were completed prior to and 2 months after the last session of intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, consisting of a paired t-test, independent t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS version 20.   Results: The independent t-test indicated a significant difference in mean happiness score after training between the intervention and control groups (P0.05.   Conclusion: In light of the efficacy of happiness training on the promotion of happiness in the mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate, this model is recommended as a healthcare intervention to decrease stress in mothers following the birth of an infant with a cleft lip and palate.

  14. Fordyce Happiness Program and Happiness in Mothers of Children with a Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Zeinab; Mosavi Asl, Fatemeh-Sadat; Abbasi, Samira; Ghazavi, Zohre; Kiani, Davood

    2016-11-01

    Facial deformities and aesthetic and functional anomalies in children may be a cause of real distress in families. Problems faced by parents in coping with a child's anomaly can be upsetting and lead parents to exhibit over-severe behavior. The present study was conducted in order to study the effect of happiness program on the happiness of the mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate. In this semi-experimental study, 64 mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate enrolled by convenience random sampling were assigned to an intervention or control group based on a simple random sampling. Then, a program of happiness training was implemented consisting of 10 sessions of 2 hours each. A demographic questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were completed prior to and 2 months after the last session of intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, consisting of a paired t-test, independent t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS version 20. The independent t-test indicated a significant difference in mean happiness score after training between the intervention and control groups (Phappiness score between before and after training in the intervention group, although the difference was not statistically significant for the control group (P>0.05). In light of the efficacy of happiness training on the promotion of happiness in the mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate, this model is recommended as a healthcare intervention to decrease stress in mothers following the birth of an infant with a cleft lip and palate.

  15. The Contribution of Marital Happiness to Global Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1981-01-01

    Data from six U.S. national surveys compared the estimated contributions to global happiness and marital happiness and satisfaction with each of seven aspects of life, ranging from work to friendships. Findings indicated that Americans depend very heavily on their marriages for their psychological well-being. (Author)

  16. Happiness and Sustainability Together at Last! Sustainable Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable happiness is "happiness that contributes to individual, community and/or global well-being without exploiting other people, the environment or future generations" (O'Brien, 2010a, n.p.). It underscores the interrelationship between human flourishing and ecological resilience. At the national and international levels,…

  17. Neural and Genetic Correlates of the Social Sharing of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Umemura, Tomohiro; Hori, Reiko; Shibata, Eiji; Kobayashi, Fumio; Suzuki, Kohta; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Ohira, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Happiness is regarded as one of the most fundamental human goals. Given recent reports that positive feelings are contagious (e.g., the presence of a happy person enhances others' happiness) because of the human ability to empathize (i.e., sharing emotions), empathic ability may be a key factor in increasing one's own subjective level of happiness. Based on previous studies indicating that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene [HTR2A rs6311 guanine (G) vs. adenine (A)] is associated with sensitivity to emotional stimuli and several mental disorders such as depression, we predicted that the polymorphism might be associated with the effect of sharing happiness. To elucidate the neural and genetic correlates of the effect of sharing happiness, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a “happy feelings” evocation task (emotional event imagination task), during which we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend experiencing a positive-valence event (presence or absence). We recruited young adult women for this fMRI study because empathic ability may be higher in women than in men. Participants felt happier (p happiness (neutral/presence condition) than those with the AA genotype. In a follow-up study with a vignette-based questionnaire conducted in a relatively large sample, male and female participants were presented with the same imagined events wherein their valence and the presence of a friend were manipulated. Results showed genetic differences in happiness-related empathy regardless of sex (p happiness by modulating the activity of the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network. PMID:29311795

  18. Industry and Happiness. Democracy and Responsibility: Female Workers Utopian Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter; Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2000-01-01

    Abstract An action research project, 'Industry and Happiness', with female workers from the danish fishing industry is presented and discussed. Future creating workshops and socalled research workshops were central. The aim was to develop ideas and concrete perspectives for a democratization...... in (danish) industrial work. The unusual experiences include problems as well as innovation. Reflections are made on the central concept of 'social imagination'...

  19. Happiness and Childbearing across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aassve, Arnstein; Goisis, Alice; Sironi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Using happiness as a well-being measure and comparative data from the European social survey we focus in this paper on the link between happiness and childbearing across European countries. The analysis motivates from the recent lows in fertility in many European countries and that economic wellbeing measures are problematic when considering…

  20. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  1. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  2. Impact of economic development on quality of life and human happiness: a study on urban socio economic classes of suburban Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Banerjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes that for a nation to revitalize in terms of development, not only does it need to evaluate in terms of GDP growth rate, but also has to consider the Quality of Life of its citizen and their human happiness. There is strong correlation between macro-economic development parameters like health, education, GDP growth rate and Quality of Life Index, expressed through HDI. It also has correlation with subjective quality of life based on the perception of urban socio economic classes, as measured in this study. The subjective quality of life is studied through five parameters like Quality of house, education, health care, transportation and recreation facilities. Human happiness is evaluated through the perception of respondents towards change in their financial conditions and consumption expenditure influencing their quality of life. This empirical research through spearman’s rank correlation tried to establish the relationship between macro-economic indicators with the quality of life parameters as perceived by people. The study was conducted in Mumbai, and its suburban areas .with a sample of 850 respondents taken through structured questionnaire, during 2012-13. It was observed from A. T. Kearney’s GRDI report that India was ranking between first five positions, consistently in terms of Modern Trade Retail Business since 2000. The managerial implication of the study highlights the association of quantitative economic development with larger aspect of human development, for the policy makers to understand the various areas which needs to be taken care to cater towards revitalizing the development of the nation

  3. The pursuit of happiness measurement: a psychometric model based on psychophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, Cipresso; Silvia, Serino; Giuseppe, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Everyone is interested in the pursuit of happiness, but the real problem for the researchers is how to measure it. Our aim was to deeply investigate happiness measurement through biomedical signals, using psychophysiological methods to objectify the happiness experiences measurements. The classic valence-arousal model of affective states to study happiness has been extensively used in psychophysiology. However, really few studies considered a real combination of these two dimensions and no study further investigated multidimensional models. More, most studies focused mainly on self-report to measure happiness and a deeper psychophysiological investigation on the dimensions of such an experience is still missing. A multidimensional model of happiness is presented and both the dimensions and the measures extracted within each dimension are comprehensively explained. This multidimensional model aims at being a milestone for future systematic study on psychophysiology of happiness and affective states.

  4. A longitudinal experimental study comparing the effectiveness of happiness-enhancing strategies in Anglo Americans and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2011-11-01

    Growing evidence suggests that well-being interventions can be effective. However, it is unclear whether happiness-increasing practices are equally effective for individuals from different cultural backgrounds. To investigate this question, Anglo Americans and predominantly foreign-born Asian Americans were randomly assigned to express optimism, convey gratitude, or list their past experiences (control group). Multilevel analyses indicated that participants in the optimism and gratitude conditions reported enhanced life satisfaction relative to those in the control condition. However, Anglo Americans in the treatment conditions demonstrated larger increases in life satisfaction relative to Asian Americans, while both cultural groups in the control condition showed the least improvement. These results are consistent with the idea that the value individualist cultures place on self-improvement and personal agency bolsters the efforts of Anglo Americans to become more satisfied, whereas collectivist cultures' de-emphasis of self-focus and individual goals interferes with the efforts of Asian Americans to pursue enhanced well-being.

  5. Happiness, health, and religiosity among Lebanese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the associations between, and sex-related differences in happiness, health, and religiosity. A sample (N = 476 of Lebanese undergraduates took part in the study (215 men and 261 women. They answered Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Love of Life Scale, as well as five self-generated rating scales. Men obtained a significantly higher mean score on happiness and mental health than did their female counterparts, whereas women obtained a significantly higher mean score on religiosity. All the Pearson correlations between the study scales were significant and positive but one (between the self-rating scales of physical health and religiosity among men. Principal components analysis yielded one salient component separately in men and women, and labeled “Happiness, health, and religiosity.” The predictors of happiness as assessed with the OHI were love of life and SWLS, and happiness self-rating scale. Based on the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as felt happiness, reported higher mental and physical health, and being more religious.

  6. Happiness and health in psychiatry: what are their implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Happiness is a lasting state and is associated with the absence of negative emotions, the presence of positive emotions, life satisfaction, social engagement and objectives in life. Researchers have demonstrated the benefits of happiness in many aspects of life, but few studies have been conducted within psychiatry.Objectives To develop a critical literature review of studies on happiness and health in order to bring some further and useful information to psychiatry updating the article “Happiness: a review” published in 2007 in Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica.Methods Computational searching was undertaken of digital data basis (PubMed and SciELO using the keywords “happiness” and “health”. One hundred twenty-seven papers published between 2004 and 2014 were found, but only 76 had the keywords in the title or abstract and with this were selected.Results Personality traits, such as self-direction; being married; being involved in physical and leisure activities; higher educational backgrounds and intelligence quotient; religiosity, volunteering and altruism; good physical and mental health; were positively related to happiness.Discussion Analysis of the concept of happiness and its associated emotions may be more complex than describing the symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Despite this, the study of happiness brings several positive implications for psychiatry.

  7. Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness and Some Personality Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Z. Levit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-oriented conception of happiness (POCH worked out by the author of the article is based on the ideas of systemic approach. The model also serves as valuable personality theory integrating essential elements of the conceptions of Z. Freud, C. Jung, A. Maslow, C. Rogers, and some other scientists. We show how to solve some problems of modern psychology within POCH, and outline perspectives of further investigations. For the first time in world psychology, such concepts as “Egoism” and “Personal Uniqueness” are represented as multilevel systems. Their productive interaction at the higher levels helps a person achieve full-fledged, happy life.

  8. Why are you happy with impulse buying? Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is an ideal condition needed by everyone. In the real life, happiness comes not only from the harmony in the home but also from the exciting environment or atmosphere outside the home, such as impulse buying. When someone makes impulse buying, she could feel the happiness be-cause she gets something she wants. This means that when someone makes a purchase, she will experience happiness. This study aimed to examine the variables that affect impulse buying which may also affect the happiness. It is assumed that the experience and the pleasant shopping atmosphere affect the impulse buying and, as a result, the impulse buying affects happiness. The samples in this study were 150 women making purchases of fashion products at malls in Surabaya. The hypothesis testing was conducted by using Structural Equation Modelling. The test results indicated the hypothesis 1 stating that the experiential marketing influenced the impulse buying and hypothesis 2 stating that the shopping enjoyment affected the impulse buying were accepted. Further, hypothesis 3 were also accepted, stating that the impulse buying influenced happiness.

  9. Happy New Year 2018!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Early in the new year, the Staff Association wishes you and your loved ones its best wishes for a happy and healthy New Year 2018, as well as individual and collective success. May it be filled with satisfaction in both your professional and private life. A Difficult start The results of the election of the new Staff Council were published on 20th November 2017 in Echo N° 281. The process of renewing the Staff Council proceeded very well: candidates in numbers, from all departments, ranks and categories (staff, fellows and associates); and the turnout rate in this election is up compared to previous elections ... something to be celebrated and congratulated. In accordance with the statutes of the Staff Association, the new Staff Council shall, at its first meeting, elect an Executive Committee comprising a “Bureau” with four statutory posts: President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer. However, while the composition of the Executive Committee was easily established...

  10. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness. PMID:26500814

  11. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18-80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness.

  12. Happiness, Dispositions and the Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2016-01-01

    I argue that happiness is an exclusively categorical mental state. Daniel Haybron’s inclusion of dispositions into his emotional state theory rests of a confusion of constituents of happiness in the narrow psychological sense with objects of prudential concern, to which obviously belong “mood...... propensities” and other dispositional states. I further argue that while it is probably correct to require of a constituent of happiness that it must in some sense be “deep” and belong to, or directly impact on, a persons’ self, the importance of depth may be overrated by the emotional state theory, which also...

  13. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Parenthood and Happiness: Effects of Work-Family Reconciliation Policies in 22 OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Simon, Robin W; Andersson, Matthew A

    2016-11-01

    The recent proliferation of studies examining cross-national variation in the association between parenthood and happiness reveal accumulating evidence of lower levels of happiness among parents than nonparents in most advanced industrialized societies. Conceptualizing parenting as a stressor buffered by institutional support, we hypothesize that parental status differences in happiness are smaller in countries providing more resources and support to families. Our analyses of the European Social Surveys (ESS) and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) reveal considerable variation in the parenthood gap in happiness across countries, with the U.S. showing the largest disadvantage of parenthood. We also find that more generous family policies, particularly paid time off and childcare subsidies, are associated with smaller disparities in happiness between parents and non-parents. Moreover, the policies that augment parental happiness do not reduce the happiness of nonparents. Our results shed light on macro-level causes of emotional processes, with important implications for public policy.

  15. Don't worry, be happy: cross-sectional associations between physical activity and happiness in 15 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Justin; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Kelly, Paul; Chau, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-31

    Mental health disorders are major contributors to the global burden of disease and their inverse relationship with physical activity is widely accepted. However, research on the association between physical activity and positive mental health outcomes is limited. Happiness is an example of a positive construct of mental health that may be promoted by physical activity and could increase resilience to emotional perturbations. The aim of this study is to use a large multi-country dataset to assess the association of happiness with physical activity volume and its specificity to intensity and/or activity domain. We analysed Eurobarometer 2002 data from 15 countries (n = 11,637). This comprised one question assessing self-reported happiness on a six point scale (dichotomised: happy/unhappy) and physical activity data collected using the IPAQ-short (i.e. walking, moderate, vigorous) and four domain specific items (i.e. domestic, leisure, transport, vocation). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between happiness and physical activity volume adjusted for sex, age, country, general health, relationship status, employment and education. Analyses of intensity and domain specificity were assessed by logistic regression adjusted for the same covariates and physical activity volume. When compared to inactive people, there was a positive dose-response association between physical activity volume and happiness (highly active: OR = 1.52 [1.28-1.80]; sufficiently active: OR = 1.29 [1.11-1.49]; insufficiently active: OR = 1.20 [1.03-1.39]). There were small positive associations with happiness for walking (OR = 1.02 [1.00-1.03]) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (OR = 1.03 [1.01-1.05). Moderate-intensity physical activity was not associated with happiness (OR = 1.01 [0.99-1.03]). The strongest domain specific associations with happiness were found for "a lot" of domestic (OR = 1.42 [1.20-1.68]) and "some" vocational (OR = 1.33 [1.08-1.64]) physical

  16. Sentimento de felicidade em idosos: uma abordagem epidemiológica, ISA-Camp 2008 Happiness in the elderly: an epidemiological approach in the ISA-Camp 2008 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Guimarães Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi detectar fatores associados à felicidade na população idosa. O estudo é do tipo transversal, de base populacional, com dados de 1.431 idosos do ISA-Camp 2008. A amostragem foi probabilística, por conglomerado e em dois estágios. Foram estimadas as prevalências do sentimento de felicidade por todo o tempo, segundo variáveis sociais, demográficas, de comportamentos e condições de saúde. Os idosos que se sentem felizes por maior tempo são os casados, os que trabalham, são ativos ou insuficientemente ativos no lazer, ingerem bebida alcoólica ocasionalmente, consomem frutas, legumes e verduras todos os dias, não são obesos, apresentam um tempo de sono The objective was to identify factors associated with happiness in the elderly. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in 1,431 elderly under the ISA-Camp 2008 project. The survey used a two-stage probabilistic cluster sample. Prevalence of happiness was measured over time according to socio-demographics variables, health behaviors, and health conditions. High prevalence of happiness was associated with: marital status (married, active working, activity and insufficient leisure-time activity, occasional consumption of alcoholic beverages, daily consumption of fruit, vegetables, and leafy vegetables, normal body mass index, and sleeping less than 10 hours/night and sleeping well. The highest prevalence of long-term happiness was observed among elderly with no reported illness, with better self-rated health, and with less disability. Happiness was strongly related to health indicators, suggesting the adequacy of complementary use of this indicator for evaluating health promotion programs in the elderly.

  17. The association between self-esteem and happiness differs in relationally mobile vs. stable interpersonal contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Does a change in the nature of surrounding social context affect the strength of association between self-esteem and happiness? This paper aims to answer this question from a socio-ecological perspective, focusing on the role of relational mobility. Recent research has shown that this association is stronger in societies that are higher in relational mobility, where there is a greater freedom of choice in interpersonal relationships and group memberships. In this study, we tested if this hypothesis could be applied to situational differences within the same physical setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested if the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for first-year students at a Japanese university who had just entered the college and thus were in a relatively higher mobility context, than the second-year students at the same university whose relationships tended to be more stable and long-standing. The results showed, as predicted, that the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for the first-year students than for the second-year students. Implications for the theory and research on social change are discussed.

  18. The association between self-esteem and happiness differs in relationally mobile vs. stable contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eSato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Does a change in the nature of surrounding social context affect the strength of association between self-esteem and happiness? This paper aims to answer this question from a socio-ecological perspective, focusing on the role of relational mobility. Recent research has shown that this association is stronger in societies that are higher in relational mobility, where there is a greater freedom of choice in interpersonal relationships and group memberships. In this study, we tested if this hypothesis could be applied to situational differences within the same physical setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested if the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for first-year students at a Japanese university who had just entered the college and thus were in a relatively higher mobility context, than the second year students at the same university whose relationships tended to be more stable and long-standing. The results showed, as predicted, that the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for the first-year students than for the second-year students. Implications for the theory and research on social change are discussed.

  19. Happiness as stable extraversion : internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire among undergraduate students\\ud \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Edwards, Bethan

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was developed by Hills and Argyle (2002) to provide a more accessible equivalent measure of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The aim of the present study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, and construct validity of this new instrument alongside the Eysenckian dimensional model of personality. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was completed by a sample of 131 undergraduate students together with the abbreviated form of the Revise...

  20. Happiness matters : exploring the linkages between personality, personal happiness, and work-related psychological health among priests and sisters in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Crea, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This study responds to the challenge posed by Rossetti’s work to explore the antecedents and consequences of individual differences in happiness among priests and religious sisters. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was completed together with measures of personality and work-related psychological health by 95 priests and 61 religious sisters. Overall the data demonstrated high levels of personal happiness among priests and religious sisters, but also significant signs of vulnerability. Pers...

  1. Relationship between Personality Traits and Happiness in Patients with Thalassemia

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    Babollah Bakhshipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determining the relationship between personality traits and happiness in patients with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods: The design of this study was descriptive (correlational study. The target population of this study was all under-treated patients with major thalassemia in Amirkola thalassemia center in 2011. Among these patients, 150 patients were sampled using simple random sampling method and Morgan's table. The data were analyzed by means of calculating Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis. The patients were asked to complete NEO-five factor Inventory (short form and Oxford happiness inventory. Results: Based on the results, the coefficient of regression analysis of NEO personality factors (big five and happiness was 0.45, which shows a linear relationship between personality factors of NEO and happiness in patients with thalassemia. Thus, there is a statistically significant relationship among personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and happiness. Conclusion: Among personality traits, extroversion, flexibility, agreeableness and conscientiousness had positive statistically meaningful relationship with happiness i.e. patients with lower scores in neuroticism, were happier.

  2. Happy creativity: Listening to happy music facilitates divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Simone M; Ferguson, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Creativity can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century. It provides us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The question as to what facilitates creative cognition-the ability to come up with creative ideas, problem solutions and products-is as old as the human sciences, and various means to enhance creative cognition have been studied. Despite earlier scientific studies demonstrating a beneficial effect of music on cognition, the effect of music listening on creative cognition has remained largely unexplored. The current study experimentally tests whether listening to specific types of music (four classical music excerpts systematically varying on valance and arousal), as compared to a silence control condition, facilitates divergent and convergent creativity. Creativity was higher for participants who listened to 'happy music' (i.e., classical music high on arousal and positive mood) while performing the divergent creativity task, than for participants who performed the task in silence. No effect of music was found for convergent creativity. In addition to the scientific contribution, the current findings may have important practical implications. Music listening can be easily integrated into daily life and may provide an innovative means to facilitate creative cognition in an efficient way in various scientific, educational and organizational settings when creative thinking is needed.

  3. Religiosity, health and happiness: significant relations in adolescents from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Religious Commitment and its Relation to Happiness among Muslim Students: The Educational Level as Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Meguellati; Mohd Nor, Mohd Roslan; Amel, Bouketir; Bin Seman, Haji Mohammad; MohdYusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between religiosity and level of happiness in an Islamic context among Muslim students studying at Malaysian universities. The determinants of happiness included in this research are positive attitudes, self-esteem, and other-esteem. Religiosity has long been considered as the main determinant in increasing happiness, and educational level strengthens its relationship. For this purpose, the researchers sampled 230 Muslim students aged 17-40 years studying at Malaysian universities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The study found a positive and significant correlation between religious commitment and level of happiness. Religious commitment also shows positive and significant correlations with positive attitudes, self-esteem, and other-esteem. The study also concludes that educational attainment moderates the relationship between religious commitment and happiness. Thus, religious commitment plays a very important role in increasing levels of happiness.

  5. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  6. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog-owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as "for the dog", however, owners represented their dog's needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of "happiness", but these were "contingent" on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the "significant other" of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing.

  7. Examining Relationships Among Well-being, Leisure Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Argan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between well-being and happiness has received an increasing interest worldwide due to its positive impact on people’s lives. The aim of this study was to propose a theoretical model to examine the relationships among wellbeing, leisure satisfaction, life satisfaction and happiness. The results from a survey of 1230 respondent in Turkey indicate that there were significant relationships among national well-being, personal well-being, leisure satisfaction, life satisfaction and happiness. The results support the hypothesized relationships, suggesting that well-being as antecedents, directly affecting leisure, life satisfaction and indirectly affecting happiness. Consistent with previous empirical studies, the findings of this study suggest that leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction are the moderators of dimension of happiness, and significantly mediates the effect of national well-being on happiness.

  8. Emotional Self-Efficacy, Emotional Empathy and Emotional Approach Coping as Sources of Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Tarık Totan; Tayfun Doğan; Fatma Sapmaz

    2013-01-01

    Among the many variables affecting happiness, there are those that arise from emotional factors. In this study, the hypothesis stating that happiness is affected by emotional self-efficacy, emotional empathy and emotional approach coping has been examined using the path model. A total of 334 university students participated in this study, 229 of whom were females and 105 being males. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, Emotional Self-efficacy Scale, Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy ...

  9. Association between religiosity and happiness among a group of Muslim undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraian, Ali; Gholami, Abdullah; Javadpour, Ali; Omidvar, Benafsheh

    2013-06-01

    The association between religiosity and happiness has been the focus of much recent research. The majority of them report a positive correlation between a religious attitude and behavior and the level of happiness. However, different findings have been reported. The aim of the current study was to test link between religiosity and happiness among a group of undergraduate Muslim students. Two hundred and seventy-one health-related students agreed to participate and completed Oxford Happiness Index and a religious belief questionnaire. It was found that higher score on religious belief was significantly linked to the level of happiness (r = .256, P = .01). The result confirms that individuals with a more religious attitude experience more happiness. The result of this study should be considered in programs designed to improve overall well-being of university students.

  10. Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, David

    2011-01-01

    Research on happiness casts doubt on the notion that increases in income generally bring greater happiness. This finding can be taken to imply that economic migration might fail to result in increased happiness for the migrants: migration as a means of increasing one's income might be no more effective in raising happiness than other means of…

  11. Neural and Genetic Correlates of the Social Sharing of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is regarded as one of the most fundamental human goals. Given recent reports that positive feelings are contagious (e.g., the presence of a happy person enhances others' happiness because of the human ability to empathize (i.e., sharing emotions, empathic ability may be a key factor in increasing one's own subjective level of happiness. Based on previous studies indicating that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene [HTR2A rs6311 guanine (G vs. adenine (A] is associated with sensitivity to emotional stimuli and several mental disorders such as depression, we predicted that the polymorphism might be associated with the effect of sharing happiness. To elucidate the neural and genetic correlates of the effect of sharing happiness, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a “happy feelings” evocation task (emotional event imagination task, during which we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend experiencing a positive-valence event (presence or absence. We recruited young adult women for this fMRI study because empathic ability may be higher in women than in men. Participants felt happier (p < 0.01 and the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network, which spans the medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, temporal poles, and precuneus, was significantly more active (p < 0.05 in the presence condition than in the absence condition regardless of event valence. Moreover, participants with the GG (p < 0.01 and AG (p < 0.05 genotypes of HTR2A experienced happier feelings as well as greater activation of a part of the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network (p < 0.05 during empathy for happiness (neutral/presence condition than those with the AA genotype. In a follow-up study with a vignette-based questionnaire conducted in a relatively large sample, male and female participants were presented with the same

  12. Happiness and Social Policy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research on Happiness can inform welfare choices and policies an dhelp to promote job creation, social inclusion and to some degree a higher level of equality. The book embraces the relationship between happiness, social policy and welfare state analysis.......Research on Happiness can inform welfare choices and policies an dhelp to promote job creation, social inclusion and to some degree a higher level of equality. The book embraces the relationship between happiness, social policy and welfare state analysis....

  13. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  14. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez; Gloria Esthela González Quirarte; Rosario del Carmén Realpozo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A...

  15. Predicting the Happiness of Adolescents Based on Coping Styles and Religious Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariddanesh, Marjan; Rezaei, Ali Mohammad

    2017-10-11

    The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani's Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson's correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P happiness (r = -0.184, P happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.

  16. Predicting Couples’ Happiness Based on Spiritual Intelligence and Lovemaking Styles: The Mediating Role of Marital adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA KERMANI MAMAZANDI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to predict couples’ happiness based on spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles with the mediating role of marital adjustment. Therefore 360 male and female, married students living in Tehran University dormitory were randomly selected and were asked to answer the items of Sternberg’s Love Questionnaire, King’s Spiritual Intelligence Scale, Oxford’s Happiness Questionnaire and Spanier’s Marital Adjustment Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (path analysis was used for data analysis. The results  of path analysis showed  that spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles have direct effects on couples’ happiness, and the spiritual intelligence did not have an indirect effect on couples’ happiness whereas lovemaking styles had indirect effects on couples’ happiness through martial satisfaction. Altogether the results of this research show that marital adjustment has a mediating role in predicting couples’ happiness based on spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles.

  17. Social Development and Happiness in Nations : Presentation at conference "Taking stock: Measuring social development" December 14-15 2011, International Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe term "social development" is used rhetorically in pleas for less focus on "economic development". In that context it is commonly assumed that social development will add to human happiness and more so than economic development does. These claims are checked in an analysis of 141

  18. Study and Comparing 3 Groups of Active, Passive, and Ecotourist Old Age People on Their Mental Health and Happiness Living in Illam City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirbeigi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Doing exercise and participating in recreational activities such as hiking, walking, mountaineering with friends or family members are the best activities for the elderly people resulting in the improvement and reinforcement of their mental health and happiness.

  19. Education Studies: Issues & Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Derek; Mufti, Emmanuel; Robinson, John

    2006-01-01

    This major text for Education Studies students provides a critical account of key issues in education today. The text features: (1) A critical analysis of key issues in Education Studies to encourage students' thinking about education in the broadest terms; (2) Themed sections with introductions to link the issues discussed in each chapter; (3)…

  20. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  1. Happiness and Ethical Values in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss relations between happiness and ethical values in higher education, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness and ethical values. To examine the paper logically, four research questions are addressed. First, what are general concepts of happiness and ethical values? Second, why higher…

  2. Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…

  3. Comparison of place attachment influence on the level of happiness of people living near residential parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhakim, I.; Kurniawan, E. B.; Wardhani, D. K.

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown that living close to a park is associated with high levels of happiness. However, there is a possible difference in the level of happiness between living close to a park (0-400 meters radius) compared to living far from the park (400-1.000 meters radius). Therefore, this study aims to compare the influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness for people living near a park, especially residential parks in some housing areas in Malang City. Place Attachment in this study defined as a bond between an individual and a particular setting. The study demonstrates a positive influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness of people living near the park. Respondents who live close to a park (R = 0.441; Happiness Level = 97.8%; Average Happiness = 6.833) tend to have a higher level of happiness compared to respondents who live far from a park (R = 0.326; Happiness Level = 69.9%; average Happiness = 4.148). This result shows the urgency to reconsider the provision standard of residential parks in Indonesia which only suggests one residential park for every 1,000 meters radius.

  4. Associations of perceived interparental relationship, family harmony and family happiness with smoking intention in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Tzu Tsun; Wang, Man Ping; Leung, Lok Tung; Wu, Yongda; Chen, Jianjiu; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin

    2017-10-06

    To examine the associations of perceived interparental relationship, family harmony and family happiness with smoking intention in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional surveys of 15 753 primary (grades 4-6) and 38 398 secondary (grades 7-12) never-smoking students from 71 to 75 randomly selected primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong, 2012-2013. Outcome variable was smoking intention which denoted any affirmative response to smoke within the coming year or when a cigarette was offered by a good friend. Exposure variables were perceived interparental relationship and family harmony each measured on a five-point scale from 'very good' to 'very bad' and perceived family happiness on a four-point scale from 'very happy' to 'not happy at all'. Potential confounders included age, sex, family structure, perceived family affluence, parental smoking and sibling smoking. In primary students, the adjusted ORs (AORs) (95% CI) of smoking intention generally increased with more negative perception of the family relationship: up to 3.67 (1.91 to 7.05) for interparental relationship, 7.71 (4.38 to 13.6) for family harmony and 5.40 (3.41 to 8.55) for family happiness. For secondary students, the corresponding AORs (95% CI) were 2.15 (1.64 to 2.82) for interparental relationship, 2.98 (2.31 to 3.84) for family harmony and 2.61 (1.80 to 3.79) for family happiness. All p for trend happiness were associated with higher odds of smoking intention with dose-response relationships in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Children's perception of their family relationship may be an important intervening point for preventing youth from initiating smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Reading the near-death experience from an African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-14

    Sep 14, 2015 ... evidence for life after death, but a study of NDE from an African perspective implies that. NDE could serve .... brain through blood circulation will no longer be available as a result. .... eternal repose and happiness. It is rather a ...

  6. DESPERATELY SEEKING HAPPINESS: VALUING HAPPINESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Brett Q.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Mauss, Iris B.; Floerke, Victoria A.; Gruber, June

    2014-01-01

    Culture shapes the emotions people feel and want to feel. In Western cultures, happiness is an emotion that many people want to feel. Although experiencing happiness is associated with increased well-being and psychological health, recent evidence suggests wanting to feel happy to an extreme degree, or, highly valuing happiness, leads to decreased well-being. To examine whether these effects of valuing happiness might extend to clinical outcomes, we examined the hypothesis that depression is ...

  7. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-11-01

    Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women's happiness. This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions.

  8. Relationship between happiness and tobacco smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataeiasl, Maryam; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Dadashzadeh, Hossein; Augner, Christoph; Anbarlouei, Masoumeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has described negative relationship between happiness and habitual smoking among adolescents. No study of this relationship has been conducted among Iranian adolescents. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between happiness and cigarette or hookah smoking among a sample of high school students. A sample of 1,161 10th-grade students in Tabriz (northwest Iran) was selected by multi-stage proportional cluster sampling. Participants completed a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire including information on cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, happiness score, substance abuse, self-injury, general risk-taking behavior, attitudes towards smoking, socioeconomic information, and demographic characteristics. An ordinal logistic regression model was used for data analysis. It was found that 5.9 and 5.0% of students were regular cigarette smokers and regular hookah smokers, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, higher happiness scores were found to protect students against more advanced stages of cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99; p=0.013). However, no significant relationship was found between happiness scores and hookah smoking status (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.02; p=0.523). Happiness scores were associated with less advanced stages of habitual cigarette smoking among high school students. Our findings underscore the necessity of conducting longitudinal or interventional studies aiming to determine the effects of enhancing happiness on preventing the transition through the stages of cigarette and hookah smoking.

  9. Investigating Happiness and its Related Factors in Married Women Referred to Health Centers of Shahroud City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooky, Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Happiness is one of the most important factors affecting women's mental health. Several factors contribute to happiness in different societies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of happiness in married women and its related factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with stratified sampling proportional to different age groups of married women in selected health centers (based on socioeconomic status). Subjects were 379 married women. The Oxford Happiness Inventory (scale: 0-87) was used to measure happiness. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Inventory including 47 questions (scale: 47-235) and demographic information questionnaires were also used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, T-test, One-way ANOVA and Regression were used to analyze data. Results: The mean of happiness was 45.11 ± 14.40. Marital satisfaction was 164.68 ± 28.33 and 64% of the participants had a relative marital satisfaction. Univariate analysis of happiness showed significant effects of husband and wife education, husband job, economic status, stress in past six months, marital satisfaction and having social activates, but was not statistically significant for other factors (P happiness with marital satisfaction, economic status and social activity. Conclusions: Regarding lower level of happiness of married women in Shahroud comparing to some other studies in Iran and abroad, leisure time programs, training life skills especially stress management skills, increasing marital satisfaction and improving economic status should be considered. PMID:25593738

  10. Protean career: perspectives of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinova Ye.Yu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes different approaches to study of models of constructing the employment career in current environment. The changes having taken place in interrelationsbetween employees and organizations over recent 15 years led to changes in their mutual expectations including the ones concerning the career development. Boundaryless career based on career mobility and protean career based on subjective understanding of career success are regarded as alternatives to traditional careers. The main attributes of “new careers” are: an increased independence in employee-organization dyads, low level of mutual obligations, freedom of choice, self-actualization, priority of career loyalty and self-management in contrast to organization loyalty. Changes in career conceptualizing inevitably led to revision of career competences. Traditional professional competences give way to career meta-competences like adaptiveness, capacity for education, self-management, taking responsibility. At the same time empirical studies displaya prematurity of statements about the expressed loss of interest to traditional careers.

  11. Psychotic-like experiences and happiness in the English general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-11-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes but how they affect happiness in individuals with PLE is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the association between PLEs and happiness, and the factors that may influence this association. Nationally representative data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey including adults aged ≥ 16 years was analyzed. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to assess past 12-month PLE. Individuals who endorsed at least one of the following were considered to have any PLE: thought control, paranoia, strange experiences, auditory hallucinations. Happiness (3-point scale) was assessed with a validated question with higher scores indicating lower levels of happiness. The association between PLE and happiness was assessed by multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Mediation analysis was also performed. Among the 7363 individuals included in the analysis, the prevalence of any PLE increased with decreasing levels of happiness [very happy (2.3%), fairly happy (5.4%), not too happy (14.9%)]. This was also shown in the multivariable analysis adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events (from very happy to not too happy: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.86-3.12). Mediation analysis showed that anxiety disorders explained the largest proportion of the association (38.8%) followed by depressive episode (28.5%), insomnia (21.9%), disability (16.5%), pain (12.5%), social support (10.0%), and physical health conditions (6.0%). The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Interventions to identify and address conditions that may have a negative impact on happiness in individuals with PLE may be important to improve their well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and functional associations of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex with subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Takahashi, Haruka K; Nakagawa, Eri; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is one of the most fundamental human goals, which has led researchers to examine the source of individual happiness. Happiness has usually been discussed regarding two aspects (a temporary positive emotion and a trait-like long-term sense of being happy) that are interrelated; for example, individuals with a high level of trait-like subjective happiness tend to rate events as more pleasant. In this study, we hypothesized that the interaction between the two aspects of happiness could be explained by the interaction between structure and function in certain brain regions. Thus, we first assessed the association between gray matter density (GMD) of healthy participants and trait-like subjective happiness using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Further, to assess the association between the GMD and brain function, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the task of positive emotion induction (imagination of several emotional life events). VBM indicated that the subjective happiness was positively correlated with the GMD of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Functional MRI demonstrated that experimentally induced temporal happy feelings were positively correlated with subjective happiness level and rACC activity. The rACC response to positive events was also positively correlated with its GMD. These results provide convergent structural and functional evidence that the rACC is related to happiness and suggest that the interaction between structure and function in the rACC may explain the trait-state interaction in happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Compassion, Mindfulness, and the Happiness of Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto P; Kirsch, Janae L; Nelson, Carlie

    Decreased well-being of healthcare workers expressed as stress and decreased job satisfaction influences patient safety, patient satisfaction, and cost containment. Self-compassion has garnered recent attention due to its positive association with well-being and happiness. Discovering novel pathways to increase the well-being of healthcare workers is essential. This study sought to explore the influence of self-compassion on employee happiness in healthcare professionals. A total of 400 participants (mean age = 45 ± 14, 65% female) healthcare workers at a large teaching hospital were randomly asked to complete questionnaires assessing their levels of happiness and self-compassion, life conditions, and habits. Participants completed the Happiness Scale and Self-Compassion Scales, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire as well as variables associated with well-being: relationship status, the number of hours spent exercising a week, attendance at a wellness facility, and engagement in a regular spiritual practice. Self-compassion was significantly and independently associated with perceived happiness explaining 39% of its variance after adjusting for age, marital status, gender, time spent exercising, and attendance to an exercise facility. Two specific subdomains of self-compassion from the instrument used, coping with isolation and mindfulness, accounted for 95% of the self-compassion effect on happiness. Self-compassion is meaningfully and independently associated with happiness and well-being in healthcare professionals. Our results may have practical implications by providing specific self-compassion components to be targeted in future programs aimed at enhancing well-being in healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Culture, interpersonal perceptions, and happiness in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Koo, Minkyung; Akimoto, Sharon

    2008-03-01

    The authors examined cultural differences in interpersonal processes associated with happiness felt in social interactions. In a false feedback experiment (Study 1a), they found that European Americans felt happier when their interaction partner perceived their personal self accurately, whereas Asian Americans felt happier when their interaction partner perceived their collective self accurately. In Study 1b, the authors further demonstrated that the results from Study 1a were not because of cultural differences in desirability of the traits used in Study 1a. In Studies 2 and 3, they used a 2-week event sampling method and replicated Study 1. Unlike Asian Americans, African Americans were not significantly different from European Americans in the predictors of happiness in social interactions. Together, this research shows that interpersonal affirmation of important aspects of the self leads to happiness and that cultural differences are likely to emerge from the emphasis placed on different aspects of the self.

  15. Happy oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  16. The relationship between happiness and intelligent quotient: the contribution of socio-economic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Ambler, G; Strydom, A; Rai, D; Cooper, C; McManus, S; Weich, S; Meltzer, H; Dein, S; Hassiotis, A

    2013-06-01

    Happiness and higher intelligent quotient (IQ) are independently related to positive health outcomes. However, there are inconsistent reports about the relationship between IQ and happiness. The aim was to examine the association between IQ and happiness and whether it is mediated by social and clinical factors. Method The authors analysed data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey in England. The participants were adults aged 16 years or over, living in private households in 2007. Data from 6870 participants were included in the study. Happiness was measured using a validated question on a three-point scale. Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test and both categorical and continuous IQ was analysed. Happiness is significantly associated with IQ. Those in the lowest IQ range (70-99) reported the lowest levels of happiness compared with the highest IQ group (120-129). Mediation analysis using the continuous IQ variable found dependency in activities of daily living, income, health and neurotic symptoms were strong mediators of the relationship, as they reduced the association between happiness and IQ by 50%. Those with lower IQ are less happy than those with higher IQ. Interventions that target modifiable variables such as income (e.g. through enhancing education and employment opportunities) and neurotic symptoms (e.g. through better detection of mental health problems) may improve levels of happiness in the lower IQ groups.

  17. Parent-child discrepancies in the assessment of children's and adolescents' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Wilson, Ellie L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we assessed parent-child agreement in the perception of children's general happiness or well-being in typically developing children (10- and 11-year-olds, n = 172) and adolescents (15- and 16-year-olds, n = 185). Despite parent and child reporters providing internally consistent responses in the General Happiness single-item scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, their perceptions about children's and adolescents' general happiness did not correlate. Parents of 10- and 11-year-olds significantly overestimated children's happiness, supporting previous literature on the parents' positivity bias effect. However, parents of 15- and 16-year-olds showed the reverse pattern by underestimating adolescents' happiness. Furthermore, parents' self-reported happiness or well-being (reported 6 months later) significantly correlated with their estimations of children's and adolescents' happiness. Therefore, these results suggest a potential parents' "egocentric bias" when estimating their children's happiness. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications for research into child-parent relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Concept of Happiness and Moral Development of "Filipinas" in the Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallari, Shedy Dee C.; Ebreo, Edleen P.; Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined salient themes of female individuals who are inside the academic setting on their concept of happiness and moral development. The idea of studying the Filipina Female Concept of Happiness came from two areas of study--Female Psychology and Positive Psychology. The researchers were intrigued by the idea that since the female…

  19. The Self-Justifying Desire for Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2004-01-01

    In Happiness, Tabensky equates the notion of happiness to Aristotelian eudaimonia. I shall claim that doing so amounts to equating two concepts that moderns cannot conceptually equate, namely, the good for a person and the good person or good life. In §2 I examine the way in which Tabensky deals...... with this issue and claim that his idea of happiness is as problematic for us moderns as is any translation of the notion of eudaimonia in terms of happiness. Naturally, if happiness understood as eudaimonia is ambiguous, so will be the notion of a desire for happiness, which we find at the core of Tabensky......'s whole project. In §3 I shall be concerned with another aspect of the desire for happiness; namely, its alleged self-justifying nature. I will attempt to undermine the idea that this desire is self-justifying by undermining the criterion on which Tabensky takes self-justifiability to rest, i.e. its...

  20. Does solar activity affect human happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the direct influence of solar activity (represented by sunspot numbers) on human happiness (represented by the Twitter-based Happiness Index). We construct four models controlling for various statistical and dynamic effects of the analyzed series. The final model gives promising results. First, there is a statistically significant negative influence of solar activity on happiness which holds even after controlling for the other factors. Second, the final model, which is still rather simple, explains around 75% of variance of the Happiness Index. Third, our control variables contribute significantly as well: happiness is higher in no sunspots days, happiness is strongly persistent, there are strong intra-week cycles and happiness peaks during holidays. Our results strongly contribute to the topical literature and they provide evidence of unique utility of the online data.

  1. Does a Culture of Happiness Increase Rumination Over Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Lucy; Kuppens, Peter; Kingston, Rosemary; Bastian, Brock

    2017-07-17

    Promoting happiness within society is good for health, but could the overpromotion of happiness have a downside? Across 2 studies, we investigate 2 emotion norms associated with an emphasis on happiness-the importance of (a) seeking positive emotion, and (b) avoiding negative emotion-and whether these norms have implications for how people respond to, and seek to regulate, their negative emotional experiences. In Study 1, we used an experimental design to show that emphasizing the importance of happiness increased rumination in response to failure. In Study 2, we drew on cross-sectional evidence to investigate the other side of this equation, finding that emphasizing the importance of not experiencing negative emotional states (e.g., depression and anxiety) was also associated with increased rumination, and that this had downstream consequences for well-being. Together, the findings suggest that the overpromotion of happiness, and, in turn, the felt social pressure not to experience negative emotional states, has implications for maladaptive responses to negative emotional experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Happy Face Superiority Effect in Change Detection Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate which affective component guides cognitive processing of emotional facial expressions. According to the threat hypothesis, processing of angry faces is prioritized by the human cognitive system, because rapid detection of threat has a large adaptive value. The negativity hypothesis presumes that distressing emotional experiences of other people attract attention, regardless of whether they represent danger or not. The emotionality hypothesis proposes that positive emotional facial expressions can capture attention as effective as negative ones, while the happy face superiority hypothesis predicts that happy faces are prioritized. In the present study, which was conducted on 24 participants, change detection paradigm was used, because that procedure enables insight into the later stage of information processing. The results obtained show that happy facial expressions are heavily prioritized by the human cognitive system. In explanation of these results, that clearly support the happy face superiority hypothesis, we propose that angry expressions are initially prioritized by our cognitive system, because we benefit from early detection of potential threat in the environment, but in later cognitive processing, happy expressions are given the priority, because smiling is a valuable mechanism for forming and maintaining cooperative relationships. Besides the theoretical relevance, the present study is also valuable methodologically, because we demonstrated that change detection paradigm can be efficiently used for the research of emotional facial expressions processing.

  3. Effectiveness of Gestalt Therapy on Happiness of Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiman Saadati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Gestalt therapy on the happiness of elderly people. Methods & Materials: This is an experimental study with a pre-test- post-test design and control group. Sample of the study selected from elderly members of Shad Senior Social Club. 50 older members were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and by Abbreviated Mental Test Score. 28 participants selected and divided into 2 equal groups randomly. Oxford Happiness Scale was administered to both. Gestalt therapy sessions for the intervention group were administered in 90 minutes weekly meetings for 8 successive weeks. The post-test data collected after the last session. Data analyzed by using t-test for independent groups. Results: T-test results showed that the mean difference between the two groups were significant (P<0.01 and Gestalt therapy increased the happiness of intervention group significantly. Happiness scores of intervention group in all sub-scales were also significantly higher in post-test compared to control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that Gestalt therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and happiness in older people. Implementation of Gestalt therapy sessions in nursing homes, and retirement centers are recommended.

  4. Which patient will feel down, which will be happy? The need to study the genetic disposition of emotional states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; Bartels, M.; Veenhoven, R.; Baas, F.; Martin, N.G.; Mosing, M.; Movsas, B.; Ropka, M.E.; Shinozaki, G.; Swaab, D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In quality-of-life (QL) research, the genetic susceptibility of negative and positive emotions is frequently ignored, taken for granted, or treated as noise. The objectives are to describe: (1) the major findings of studies addressing the heritable and environmental causes of variation in

  5. Which patient will feel down, which will be happy? the need to study the genetic disposition of emotional states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.G. Sprangers (Mirjam); M. Bartels (Meike); R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Baas (Frank); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Mosing (Miriam); B. Movsas (Benjamin); M.E. Ropka (Mary); G. Shinozaki (Gen); D. Swaab (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In quality-of-life (QL) research, the genetic susceptibility of negative and positive emotions is frequently ignored, taken for granted, or treated as noise. The objectives are to describe: (1) the major findings of studies addressing the heritable and environmental causes of

  6. Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-Being (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.; Van Ham, M.; Findlay, A.; Gayle, V.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of modelling studies on consequences of internal migration focus almost exclusively on the labour market outcomes and the material well-being of migrants. We investigate whether individuals who migrate within the UK become happier after the move than they were before it and whether the

  7. A diary study on the happy worker: how job resources generate positive emotions and generate personal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xanthopoulou, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    This diary study tests the broaden-and-build theory in the work context and expands it by examining job resources as potential antecedents of positive emotions on a daily basis. We hypothesized that general perceptions of job resources (autonomy, supervisory coaching, and the psychological climate

  8. Which patient will feel down, which will be happy? The need to study the genetic disposition of emotional states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Bartels, Meike; Veenhoven, Ruut; Baas, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; Ropka, Mary E.; Shinozaki, Gen; Swaab, Dick; Abertnethy, Amy P.; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Chauhan, Cynthia; Cleeland, Charles S.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Hall, Per; Halyard, Michele Y.; Klepstad, Pål; Miaskowski, Christine; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Patrick, Donald L.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Shi, Quiling; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In quality-of-life (QL) research, the genetic susceptibility of negative and positive emotions is frequently ignored, taken for granted, or treated as noise. The objectives are to describe: (1) the major findings of studies addressing the heritable and environmental causes of variation in

  9. Subjective happiness among mothers of children with disabilities: The role of stress, attachment, guilt and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Liora; Klein Jacoby, Ayelet; Gabis, Lidia

    2016-08-01

    Parenting a child with disabilities might affect the happiness of the mothers. Hence we adapted Wallander, Varni, Babani, Banis, and Wilcox's (1989) disability-stress-coping model to examine the impact of risk factors (specific stressors related to the child's disability) on the mother's adaptation (happiness). Intrapersonal factors (attachment) and social-ecological factors (social support) were hypothesized to predict adaptation. Both constitute 'risk-resistant' factors, which are mediated by the mother's perceived general stress and guilt. 191 mothers of a child with a developmental disability (ages 3-7) answered questionnaires on happiness, specific and general stress, attachment, guilt and social support. Attachment avoidance was directly and negatively associated with mothers' happiness. General stress was negatively associated with happiness, and mediated the association between anxious attachment, support, and specific stress with happiness. Guilt was negatively associated with happiness, and served as a mediator between attachment anxiety and support and happiness. The findings of the current research show direct and indirect associations of risk factors with happiness and the role of general stress and feelings of guilt as mediators. This study stresses the importance of attachment and social support to happiness and sheds light on the unique role of guilt in promoting or inhibiting happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Which patient will feel down, which will be happy? The need to study the genetic disposition of emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Bartels, Meike; Veenhoven, Ruut; Baas, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; Ropka, Mary E; Shinozaki, Gen; Swaab, Dick

    2010-12-01

    In quality-of-life (QL) research, the genetic susceptibility of negative and positive emotions is frequently ignored, taken for granted, or treated as noise. The objectives are to describe: (1) the major findings of studies addressing the heritable and environmental causes of variation in negative and positive emotional states and (2) the major biological pathways of and genetic variants involved in these emotional states. Literature overview. The heritability estimates for anxiety and depression are 30-40%. Related traits as neuroticism and loneliness are also highly heritable. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is the 'final common pathway' for most depressive symptoms. The many findings of investigated genes are promising but not definitive. Heritability estimates of positive emotional states range between 40 and 50%. Life satisfaction and mental health share common genetic factors with optimism and self-esteem. The prefrontal cortex is a candidate brain area for positive emotional states. Biological and genetic research into positive emotional states is scarce. Genetically informative studies may provide insights into a wide variety of complex questions that traditional QL studies cannot deliver. This insight in turn will help us to design more effective supportive programs that could moderate the outcomes of genetically based predispositions.

  11. Thomas Aquinas on the Beatitudes : Reading Matthew, Disputing Grace and Virtue, Preaching Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Anton

    2018-01-01

    What is happiness and how do we attain it? Saint Thomas Aquinas (ca. 1226-1274) devoted much time to these questions. In studying them he always returned to the beatitudes as they are found in Matthew 5:1-10. They function as the framework for his theology of human happiness. This study presents

  12. Psychometric Reanalysis of Happiness, Temperament, and Spirituality Scales with Children in Faith-Based Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation performed an investigation of the psychometric properties of six instruments used in the 2012 Happiness Project research study. The project revisited the 2010 study conducted by Holder, Coleman, and Wallace. Holder et al. (2010) investigated the relationships among variables relating to student happiness and spirituality while…

  13. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual's regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han ( N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese ( N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective.

  14. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective. PMID:27833582

  15. [What Makes Happy Doctors? Job Satisfaction of General Practitioners in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania - a Representative Cross-sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, C; Höck, J; Hornung, A; Kundt, G; Drewelow, E; Völker, S; Kreiser, B; Riedel, J; Altiner, A

    2015-12-01

    Studies provide evidence for the importance of general practitioners (GPs) job satisfaction for a secure and high quality health care provision. This study focuses on job satisfaction of GPs in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MV), a rural area threatened by a lack of GPs. We investigate how satisfied GPs are with their job and which factors influence their job satisfaction. All 1 133 GPs working in MV in December 2011 were asked to complete a 57-item-questionnaire. The response rate reached 50.1%. The sample is representative for GPs in MV. Levels of job satisfaction are high and correlate with age and sex: females and GPs below 50 years of age are more satisfied. Factors contributing to high job satisfaction include a good doctor-patient relationship, fair pay, and the variety of reasons for doctor-patient consultations in primary care. Although all GPs were dissatisfied with bureaucracy, this factor has little impact on GPs' overall job satisfaction. In light of the imminent lack of GPs, in future it will be important to improve factors that have been demonstrated to increase job satisfaction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Income Inequality and Happiness: An Inverted U-Shaped Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghuo; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers. This hypothesis is tested in a longitudinal dataset on the United States and a cross-national dataset on several European countries. In both datasets, the Gini coefficient (a common index of a society's income inequality) and its quadratic term were significant predictors of personal happiness. Further examinations of the quadratic relationships showed that the signal effect was only presented in the European data, while the jealousy effect was presented in both datasets. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between income inequality and personal happiness.

  17. Income Inequality and Happiness: An Inverted U-Shaped Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghuo Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers. This hypothesis is tested in a longitudinal dataset on the United States and a cross-national dataset on several European countries. In both datasets, the Gini coefficient (a common index of a society’s income inequality and its quadratic term were significant predictors of personal happiness. Further examinations of the quadratic relationships showed that the signal effect was only presented in the European data, while the jealousy effect was presented in both datasets. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between income inequality and personal happiness.

  18. Social connections and happiness among the elder population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-C; Chang, W-C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social connections and happiness among members of the elder population of Taiwan. Longitudinal panel data collected in three waves from 1999 to 2007 that are selected from national samples of Taiwanese older people were used for the analysis (n = 4731 persons). Happiness was defined as a dichotomous variable. Social connection variables included living arrangements, contacts with children/grandchildren/parents/relatives/friends, telephone contacts, providing instrumental and informational support, receiving instrumental and emotional support, and social participation. We controlled for the variables demographics, physical and mental health, economic satisfaction, and lifestyle. A generalized linear model (GLM) was applied in the analysis. Happiness remained stable over time. Receiving more emotional support and participating in social events were related to happiness at the beginning, while the effect of social participation was offset over time. Living arrangements, telephone contacts, providing social support, and receiving instrumental support were not significant. The quality of social relationships experienced is possibly more important than the quantity of social interaction for older people, and having social relationships outside the informal social network may increase happiness.

  19. Beyond Disease: Happiness, Goals, and Meanings among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Bassi, Marta; Allegri, Beatrice; Cilia, Sabina; Falautano, Monica; Goretti, Benedetta; Grobberio, Monica; Minacapelli, Eleonora; Pattini, Marianna; Pietrolongo, Erika; Valsecchi, Manuela; Amato, Maria Pia; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Patti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The experience of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their caregivers is usually investigated in terms of emotional distress and health-related quality of life, while well-being indicators remain largely underexplored. In addition, findings are often interpreted from the clinical perspective, neglecting socio-cultural aspects that may crucially contribute to individuals' functioning. At the methodological level, most studies rely on scaled instruments, not allowing participants to freely express their needs and resources. Based on the bio-psycho-social perspective endorsed by the International Classification of Functioning, well-being indicators were investigated among 62 persons with MS (PwMS), their 62 caregivers and two control groups, matched by age and gender. Participants completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation instrument (EHHI). EHHI provides information on participants' happiness, goals and meanings through scaled and open-ended questions, contextualized within major life domains. No relevant differences emerged among PwMS and caregivers, compared with the respective control groups, as concerns life domains associated with happiness, goals and meaning. Participants across groups prominently mentioned family, highlighting its intrinsic value and its relevance as a sharing context; health did not represent a major theme for PwMS; community, society and religion/spirituality issues were substantially neglected by all participants. PwMS and caregivers reported lower levels of positive affect than their control groups, while no substantial differences emerged for negative affect, happiness and meaningfulness levels in life and across most domains. Results suggest that the experience of MS is associated with well-being in relevant life domains, such as family and close relationships. Although PwMS and caregivers identified a lower number

  20. Beyond Disease: Happiness, Goals, and Meanings among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Delle Fave

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS and their caregivers is usually investigated in terms of emotional distress and health-related quality of life, while well-being indicators remain largely underexplored. In addition, findings are often interpreted from the clinical perspective, neglecting socio-cultural aspects that may crucially contribute to individuals' functioning. At the methodological level, most studies rely on scaled instruments, not allowing participants to freely express their needs and resources. Based on the bio-psycho-social perspective endorsed by the International Classification of Functioning, well-being indicators were investigated among 62 persons with MS (PwMS, their 62 caregivers and two control groups, matched by age and gender. Participants completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, and the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation instrument (EHHI. EHHI provides information on participants' happiness, goals and meanings through scaled and open-ended questions, contextualized within major life domains. No relevant differences emerged among PwMS and caregivers, compared with the respective control groups, as concerns life domains associated with happiness, goals and meaning. Participants across groups prominently mentioned family, highlighting its intrinsic value and its relevance as a sharing context; health did not represent a major theme for PwMS; community, society and religion/spirituality issues were substantially neglected by all participants. PwMS and caregivers reported lower levels of positive affect than their control groups, while no substantial differences emerged for negative affect, happiness and meaningfulness levels in life and across most domains. Results suggest that the experience of MS is associated with well-being in relevant life domains, such as family and close relationships. Although PwMS and caregivers identified a

  1. Prioritizing Positivity: An Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I.; Algoe, Sara B.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit. PMID:25401290

  2. Genetic Variations in the Human Cannabinoid Receptor Gene Are Associated with Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude

  3. Genetic variations in the human cannabinoid receptor gene are associated with happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level. As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater

  4. Genetic variations in the human cannabinoid receptor gene are associated with happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude

  5. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmei Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In some occasions, people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and highly related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s affective motivation. However, as a multi-ethnic country, not much is known about the subcultural differences in mixed emotions in China. Thus, we examined the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and affective motivation may play in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61 and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46. Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese had a stronger association between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions in a pleasant emotional event. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation in a pleasant emotional event had higher level of mixed emotions than who had hedonic motivation. No significant difference was found in the mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggested that the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences in mixed emotions require a comprehensive understanding not only in cross-cultural context but also from subcultural perspective.

  6. Healthy food choices are happy food choices: Evidence from a real life sample using smartphone based assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Deborah R; Villinger, Karoline; König, Laura M; Ziesemer, Katrin; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2017-12-06

    Research suggests that "healthy" food choices such as eating fruits and vegetables have not only physical but also mental health benefits and might be a long-term investment in future well-being. This view contrasts with the belief that high-caloric foods taste better, make us happy, and alleviate a negative mood. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of food choice and well-being, we investigated in-the-moment eating happiness by assessing complete, real life dietary behaviour across eight days using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment. Three main findings emerged: First, of 14 different main food categories, vegetables consumption contributed the largest share to eating happiness measured across eight days. Second, sweets on average provided comparable induced eating happiness to "healthy" food choices such as fruits or vegetables. Third, dinner elicited comparable eating happiness to snacking. These findings are discussed within the "food as health" and "food as well-being" perspectives on eating behaviour.

  7. More than one way to be happy: a typology of marital happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy; Volling, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    This study utilized observational and self-report data from 57 happily married couples to explore assumptions regarding marital happiness. Suggesting that happily married couples are not a homogeneous group, cluster analyses revealed the existence of three types of couples based on their observed behaviors in a problem-solving task: (1) mutually engaged couples (characterized by both spouses' higher negative and positive problem-solving); (2) mutually supportive couples (characterized by both spouses' higher positivity and support); and (3) wife compensation couples (characterized by high wife positivity). Although couples in all three clusters were equally happy with and committed to their marriages, these clusters were differentially associated with spouses' evaluations of their marriage. Spouses in the mutually supportive cluster reported greater intimacy and maintenance and less conflict and ambivalence, although this was more consistently the case in comparison to the wife compensation cluster, as opposed to the mutually engaged cluster. The implications of these typologies are discussed as they pertain to efforts on the part of both practitioners to promote marital happiness and repair marital relations when couples are faced with difficulties. © FPI, Inc.

  8. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so, how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION Positive psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning (Sheldon et. all. 2000). Happiness is not the same as optimal functioning but is a closely related phenomenon. Happiness is a major manifestation of optimal functioning, since we are hard-wired to feel

  9. Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Paola; Caetano, Antonio; Silva, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) constitutes an instrument for assessing subjective happiness. This study aims to present the validation of the SHS in a Portuguese adult population. A large representative sample (1,017 participants), from five different age groups was considered. Configurational invariance of the unidimensional structure of…

  10. The Mediating and Moderating Role of Subjective Happiness in the Relationship between Vengeance and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to investigate the mediator and moderator effects of subjective happiness on the relationship between forgiveness and vengeance in Turkish university students. A questionnaire containing the Turkish version of Vengeance Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Forgiveness Scale were completed by 298…

  11. Happiness, Work Engagement, and Perception of Organizational Support of Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempfling, Michele Sheets

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the work engagement, subjective happiness, or perceived organizational support of student affairs professionals. In this study, 299 professionals in the American College Personnel Association were surveyed utilizing the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Subjective Happiness Scale, and the Survey of Perceived…

  12. Predicting South Korean University Students' Happiness through Social Support and Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adversity and coping experiences of 198 South Korean university students and takes a cultural lens in understanding how social and individual factors shape their happiness. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that Korean students' perceptions of social support significantly predicted their happiness,…

  13. Psychometric Analysis of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ; Peterson et al. in "J Happiness Stud" 6(1):25-41, 2005) in Taiwanese students. The participants were 578 undergraduate students (M[subscript age] = 18.64, SD = 1.02) and completed the OHQ, satisfaction with life scale…

  14. Happiness and Depression in the Traditionally Bullied and Cyberbullied 12-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the overall happiness, school-related happiness, and depression of traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old Finnish students. Among the more than 700 participants, traditional bullying (26%) was more frequent than cyberbullying (18%). Receiving insulting text messages or being the subject of offensive comments on…

  15. Happiness Through Vacationing: Just a Temporary Boost or Long-Term Benefits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nawijn (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDoes vacationing add to our happiness in the long run? This question was addressed in a study of 3,650 Dutch citizens who reported their leisure travel every 3 months during 2 years and rated their happiness at the end of each year. Participants who had been on vacation appeared to be

  16. Competitive societies are happy if the women are less competitive than the men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Janssen, O.

    2002-01-01

    Societies are less happy to the extent that their members are more competitive. A 42-nation regression study, based on aggregated indicators of female competitiveness, male competitiveness, four components of happiness, and national development restricts this negative cultural link between overall

  17. THE STRUCTURE OF HAPPINESS REPRESENTATION FOR RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Zhdanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotional state of students exerts direct impact on their ability and readiness to cope with challenges when studying, gives rise to the success of educational process and its effectiveness. In this regard, the search of methods and determination of the tasks of psychological diagnostics is brought into focus. Above all, the teacher should consider mentality and valuable attitudes of representatives of various cultures, including their understanding of happiness and personal well-being in the activity against the background of the increasing scales of the international and interethnic mobility.The development of Russian psychology has recently acquired the direction of positive psychology, the focus of which is happiness and positive functioning of the individual. Modern research reveals significant differences in the indicators of happiness and satisfaction with life between representatives of different cultures. However, the diagnostic tools used in such studies are based primarily on the model of happiness image that has been developed in American psychology. In this connection, the question arises as to what extent the image of happiness in American culture correlates with the image of happiness in Russian culture.The aim of this work is to study the representation of happiness between representatives of American and Russian culture, the definition of invariable and variable components in the structure of representation.Methodology and research methods. The study included several stages. At the first stage, the theoretical analysis and development of the ontology of the subject area “Psychology of Happiness” was carried out. At the second stage, an empirical study of the representations of American and Russian respondents was carried out. The main method of data collection was a narrative interview; a method of early personal memories was used to obtain the narrative of happiness. Subsequent processing of verbal

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Maladaptive Primary Schemas and Happiness in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davood Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maladaptive Primary Schemas are fighting for their survival. On the other hand, several variables can relate to adolescents’ identity. One of these variables is happiness. This research was conducted to determine the relationship between happiness and maladaptive primary schemas in male and female adolescents and also comparing the level of happiness and use of this schemas in students. Methods: This research was a correlational study, which its sample size was estimated to be 212 subjects, who were selected using random sampling. Data collection tools were Young Schema Questionnaire and Oxford Happiness Inventory. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient and spontaneous regression. Results: There was significant relationships between happiness and distrust/abuse and obedience schemas in males and entitlement/grandiosity schemas and unrelenting standards in females. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that boys who have obedience schema have higher level of happiness compared to those who do not have this schema, and boys who have distrust/abuse schema have lower level of happiness. Also, girls who have entitlement/grandiosity schema have higher level of happiness.

  19. The Predictive Role of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Parenting Styles in Happiness of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Firoozi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the contribution of the variables of parenting style and emotional intelligence to happiness of high school students. The sample of the study was 345 students in Noorabad Mamasani, chosen through multi-stage random cluster sampling. For the purpose of data collection, three questionnaires were used, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire by Petrides and Furnham and Parenting Style Questionnaire by Baumrind. In order to compare happiness in terms of the variable of gender, independent-samples t-test was used. The findings showed that happiness was significantly different in males and females. Moreover, the results of analysis of regression showed that parenting styles and the components of emotional intelligence had a significant effect on happiness in both males and females. In addition, authoritative parenting style, self-awareness and permissive parenting style, respectively, accounted for 50% of happiness in males. However, in females, social skills and authoritative parenting style accounted for only 17% of happiness. Generally speaking, the findings suggest that the adopted parenting styles and their emotional intelligence play a very important role in explaining happiness.

  20. Factors associated with happiness in the elderly persons living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; de Oliveira, Nathalia Alves; de Morais, Daiene; de Paula Pessoa, Rebeca Mendes; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina I; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with happiness in a sample of Brazilian older adults. A study was conducted with 263 elderly people in the area of coverage of a family health unit located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The Subjective Happiness Scale was used to measure happiness, the final score of which determined one of three outcomes: not happy, intermediate, and happy. Disability, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychological, cognitive, and physical factors were considered for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Statistically significant differences were found among the three groups regarding satisfaction with life, disability, social phobia, anxiety, depression, and frailty (p≤0.05). In the multinomial regression analysis, being "not happy" was significantly associated with satisfaction with life (RRR: 0.53), depression (RRR: 1.46), social phobia (RRR: 1.24), and age (RRR: 1.06). The present findings indicate that psychological factors and age influence the levels of happiness in older adults living in the community. Furthermore, better screening, diagnosis, and treatment of mental health disorders could increase the feeling of happiness among older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analyzing Personal Happiness from Global Survey and Weather Data: A Geospatial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Fan; Tang, Jia-Hong; Fu, Yang-chih; Fan, I-chun; Hor, Maw-Kae; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have shown that personal subjective happiness is associated with various macro- and micro-level background factors, including environmental conditions, such as weather and the economic situation, and personal health behaviors, such as smoking and exercise. We contribute to this literature of happiness studies by using a geospatial approach to examine both macro and micro links to personal happiness. Our geospatial approach incorporates two major global datasets: representative national survey data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and corresponding world weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). After processing and filtering 55,081 records of ISSP 2011 survey data from 32 countries, we extracted 5,420 records from China and 25,441 records from 28 other countries. Sensitivity analyses of different intervals for average weather variables showed that macro-level conditions, including temperature, wind speed, elevation, and GDP, are positively correlated with happiness. To distinguish the effects of weather conditions on happiness in different seasons, we also adopted climate zone and seasonal variables. The micro-level analysis indicated that better health status and eating more vegetables or fruits are highly associated with happiness. Never engaging in physical activity appears to make people less happy. The findings suggest that weather conditions, economic situations, and personal health behaviors are all correlated with levels of happiness.

  2. Do You Live Happily? Exploring the Impact of Physical Environment on Residents’ Sense of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-lin; Zhang, Heng

    2018-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization, human beings have been exploring the source of happiness. Capitalists believed that economic growth would bring us happiness, but a small, poor Buddhist country—Bhutan—has dispelled the myth with the concept of Gross National Happiness. Today, the concept of happiness has evolved from the field of psychology to all disciplines. Many researchers are exploring how environmental psychology/behavioral psychology influences residents’ sense of happiness. The goal of this study is to explore how various environmental factors influence residents’ sense of happiness. Through statistical analysis of 473 samples, the results showed that factors like green area, community layout, aesthetics, transportation service and social service significantly influenced residents’ sense of happiness. Among all the factors, transportation service and social service simultaneously influence “satisfied” and “joyful”, the two factors related to residents’ sense of happiness; community layout and aesthetics are significantly correlated to “satisfied” green area and business service significantly influences “joyful”. The results of this study can be used as reference for professionals as they make relevant decisions.

  3. Poor and distressed, but happy: situational and cultural moderators of the relationship between wealth and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero, Silvio; Bolena Escobar, Ana; Cortés, Aura María; Maya, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between wealth and happiness is mixed, hinting that there are situational or individual factors that account for the variability in results. This paper contends that wealth is in fact related to happiness. More specifically, it is proposed that poverty - as well as other adverse situations- has an undermining effect on happiness, and that this effect is attenuated by a collectivist orientation. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) using data on happiness, wealth and cult...

  4. Simple and Multivariate Relationships Between Spiritual Intelligence with General Health and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Mohammad-Elyas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined simple and multivariate relationships of spiritual intelligence with general health and happiness. The employed method was descriptive and correlational. King's Spiritual Quotient scales, GHQ-28 and Oxford Happiness Inventory, are filled out by a sample consisted of 384 students, which were selected using stratified random sampling from the students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Data are subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics including correlations and multivariate regressions. Bivariate correlations support positive and significant predictive value of spiritual intelligence toward general health and happiness. Further analysis showed that among the Spiritual Intelligence' subscales, Existential Critical Thinking Predicted General Health and Happiness, reversely. In addition, happiness was positively predicted by generation of personal meaning and transcendental awareness. The findings are discussed in line with the previous studies and the relevant theoretical background.

  5. Wealth and Happiness Revisited: Growing wealth of nations does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Hagerty; R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2003-01-01

    textabstract“Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?” Intuition says 'yes' but theories of relative utility caution that the answer may be ‘no’. The theory of relative utility holds that rises in income will produce at best short-lived gains in happiness. If people’s happiness

  6. God image and happiness in chronic pain patients: the mediating role of disease interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; Büssing, Arndt; Corveleyn, Jozef; Hutsebaut, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    The present study explored the role of the emotional experience of God (i.e., positive and negative God images) in the happiness of chronic pain (CP) patients. Framed in the transactional model of stress, we tested a model in which God images would influence happiness partially through its influence on disease interpretation as a mediating mechanism. We expected God images to have both a direct and an indirect (through the interpretation of disease) effect on happiness. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, pain condition, God images, disease interpretation, and happiness. One hundred thirty-six CP patients, all members of a national patients' association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed meaningful associations among God images, disease interpretation, and happiness. Path analyses from a structural equation modeling approach indicated that positive God images seemed to influence happiness, both directly and indirectly through the pathway of positive interpretation of the disease. Ancillary analyses showed that the negative influence of angry God images on happiness disappeared after controlling for pain severity. The results indicated that one's emotional experience of God has an influence on happiness in CP patients, both directly and indirectly through the pathway of positive disease interpretation. These findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and can stimulate further pain research investigating the possible effects of religion in the adaptation to CP.

  7. Keeping Happy in Cromwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Allen

    2004-01-01

    An article in the December 15, 2003, issue of "Time" magazine--"Does Kindergarten Need Cops?"--described what it called an "alarming trend" of violence, profanity and "other outrageous acts" by children in kindergarten and first grade. The article, based on a regional study conducted by Partnership for…

  8. Plentiful forest, happy people?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Nathan, Iben

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities. Drawing on Vietnam as a case study and the priva...

  9. Congruence of happy and sad emotion in music and faces modifies cortical audiovisual activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Chugani, Carla D; Sinsoongsud, Piti; Muzik, Otto; Behen, Michael E; Chugani, Harry T; Chugani, Diane C

    2011-02-14

    The powerful emotion inducing properties of music are well-known, yet music may convey differing emotional responses depending on environmental factors. We hypothesized that neural mechanisms involved in listening to music may differ when presented together with visual stimuli that conveyed the same emotion as the music when compared to visual stimuli with incongruent emotional content. We designed this study to determine the effect of auditory (happy and sad instrumental music) and visual stimuli (happy and sad faces) congruent or incongruent for emotional content on audiovisual processing using fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal contrast. The experiment was conducted in the context of a conventional block-design experiment. A block consisted of three emotional ON periods, music alone (happy or sad music), face alone (happy or sad faces), and music combined with faces where the music excerpt was played while presenting either congruent emotional faces or incongruent emotional faces. We found activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) to be differentially modulated by music and faces depending on the congruence of emotional content. There was a greater BOLD response in STG when the emotion signaled by the music and faces was congruent. Furthermore, the magnitude of these changes differed for happy congruence and sad congruence, i.e., the activation of STG when happy music was presented with happy faces was greater than the activation seen when sad music was presented with sad faces. In contrast, incongruent stimuli diminished the BOLD response in STG and elicited greater signal change in bilateral FG. Behavioral testing supplemented these findings by showing that subject ratings of emotion in faces were influenced by emotion in music. When presented with happy music, happy faces were rated as more happy (p=0.051) and sad faces were rated as less sad (p=0.030). When presented with sad music, happy faces were rated as less

  10. Stranger Harassment ("Piropo") and Women's Self-Objectification: The Role of Anger, Happiness, and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Garófano, Alba; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2018-03-01

    According to objectification theory, women's habitual exposure to sexually objectifying situations can lead them to internalize a third-person perspective of themselves in physical terms, leading women to adopt an observer's viewpoint of themselves as a body or collection of body parts that is valued principally for use or consumption by others (i.e., self-objectification). The frequency and/or intensity of situations of female objectification have generally been studied as precedents of self-objectification. Our research analyzes whether direct exposure to a particular objectifying situation, as in the case of verbal stranger harassment (called piropos in Spain), could have these same effects. We tested the consequences of exposure to piropos (vs. a control situation) on body surveillance and body shame in a sample of 329 Spanish women. The impact of verbal harassment on women's anger, anxiety, happiness, and sense of empowerment was also analyzed. The results of a moderated mediation analysis showed that exposure to piropos increased body shame through body surveillance but only in women who reacted to the piropo with happiness, empowerment, or low levels of anger. The negative effects that objectifying situations (e.g., stranger harassment) may have on women, and the importance of women's reactions and perceptions of such situations are discussed.

  11. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: 1 To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; 2 To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills for health; 3 To identify predictor variables of happiness; and 4 To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14-16 years old. The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…, fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic, high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal. Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  12. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness; and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14–16 years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  13. Happy birthday, Jack Steinberger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    Even if he’s recently stopped coming to CERN on his bike, Jack Steinberger and his piercing blue eyes are still regular visitors to our corridors. As he celebrates his 95th birthday, we pay tribute to one of CERN’s greatest scientists.   Jack Steinberger in 2008, pictured on the occasion of the "Accelerating Nobel" exhibition. (Image: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN) Jack emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1934 to escape the persecution of the Jews. He later went on to study under Enrico Fermi in Chicago and in the 1950s, he contributed to the development of bubble chambers. Using this new detection apparatus, he was involved in the myriad discoveries and results that led to the construction of the Standard Model. In 1961, while at Columbia University (New York), he took part in the first experiment with a high-energy neutrino beam, which gave rise to the discovery of the muon neutrino. This discovery was awarded the&a...

  14. Promoting Happiness and Life Satisfaction in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kelly; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Theodore, Lea A.; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in positive psychology, including happiness, well-being, and life satisfaction, are reviewed. The preponderance of the research literature on the promotion of positive psychology tends to focus on broad social competences. However, there is an emerging body of evidence that supports employing specific techniques that are more amenable to…

  15. Caring and Agency: Noddings on Happiness in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    In this short essay I express my own deep sympathy with Nel Noddings's ethic of care and applaud her stubborn resistance in "Happiness and Education" to what John Dewey would have called false dualisms, such as those between intelligence and emotion, theory and practice, or vocation and academic studies.However, I question whether…

  16. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Telescopes (UTs) and will in due time also include four moving 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), the first one of which successfully passed its first tests in January of this year (see ESO PR 01/04). With unprecedented optical resolution and unsurpassed surface area, the VLT produces extremely sharp images and can record light from the faintest and most remote objects in the Universe. It works at the limit of modern technology, regularly allowing the scientists to peer into new and unknown territories in the immense Universe. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. For this reason, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes were positioned in a quasi-trapezoidal configuration. The light beams from these telescopes, at this moment two-by-two, can be combined in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It provides the European scientific community with a ground-based telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present or being planned, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Seven of the planned ten first-generation astronomical instruments are now in operation at the VLT. They cover all major observing modes required to tackle current "hot", front-line research topics: * the multi-mode instrument FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) and its twin, FORS2, * the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) cryogenic infrared imager and spectrometer, * the UVES (Ultra-violet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph) high-dispersion spectrograph, * the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility producing images as sharp as if taken in space [2], * the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) four-channel multiobject spectrograph and imager - allowing to obtain low-resolution spectra of up to 1000 galaxies at a time * the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) that offers the unique capability to study

  17. Hardiness as a mediator between perceived stress and happiness in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, A; Abu Talib, M; Yaacob, S N; Ismail, Z

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of the study of happiness and stress in nurses has been emphasized. In this sense, the intelligent use of hardiness is enable nurses to cope better with stress and contribute to being happier. This study aimed to examine the relationship among hardiness, perceived stress, and happiness in nurses. Moreover, we examined the mediator role of hardiness on the relationship between perceived stress and happiness in nurses. Our study revealed that hardi-attitude nurses evaluate situations as less stressful which results in a higher happiness. This study showed hardiness as being a protective factor against perceived stress and a facilitating factor for happiness in nurses. The findings could be important in training future nurses so that hardiness can be imparted, thereby giving them the ability to control their stress. Nursing is a stressful occupation with high levels of stress within the health professions. Given that hardiness is an important construct to enable nurses to cope better with stress and contribute to being happier; therefore, it is necessary we advance our knowledge about the aetiology of happiness, especially the role of hardiness in decreasing stress levels and increasing happiness. The present study sought to investigate the role of hardiness as a mediator between perceived stress and happiness. The participants, comprising 252 nurses from six private hospitals in Tehran, completed the Personal Views Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and answer the research hypotheses. As expected, hardiness partially mediated between perceived stress and happiness among nurses, and nurses with low levels of perceived stress were more likely to report greater hardiness and happiness. In addition, nurses with high levels of hardiness were more likely to report happiness. This study showed hardiness as being a protective factor against perceived stress and

  18. Association between age, distress, and orientations to happiness in individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Müller, Rachel; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ipsen, Catherine; Ravesloot, Craig

    2015-02-01

    To determine how age and distress are associated in individuals with disabilities, and how happiness and its components (meaning, pleasure, and engagement) mediate or moderate this relationship. These were cross-sectional analyses of survey data from 508 community-dwelling adults with a variety of self-reported health conditions and functional disabilities. Measures included the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire and items from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System. Greater distress was associated with lower global happiness in both mediation and moderation models. The mediation model showed that middle-aged participants (age: 45-64) scored lowest in global happiness, and the effect of age on distress was partially mediated by happiness. None of the happiness components mediated the relationship of age on distress. The moderation model showed a significant interaction effect for age and global happiness on distress, where younger participants low on happiness were significantly more distressed. Of the three happiness components, only meaning was significantly associated with distress. There was a significant interaction between age and meaning, where participants who were younger and scored low on the meaning scale reported significantly higher distress. Findings from this study lay groundwork for the development of clinical interventions to address distress in individuals with functional disabilities. Middle-aged and younger people with disabilities may be particularly affected by lower levels of happiness and might benefit from psychological interventions that focus on increasing overall well-being and providing meaning and purpose in life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  20. Design for happiness : A telehomecare product case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Van Dijk, M.B.; Schoone-Harmsen, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a design approach is introduced for designing products to increase happiness. Happiness reflects the degree to which people’s concerns are fulfilled. Based on this fact, a framework of all human concerns was created. After that, the framework was applied to a telehomecare case.

  1. "Happiness and Education": Tilting at Windmills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores the question: Is Nel Noddings a visionary who sees past the constraints of contemporary education or is she, like Don Quixote, madly tilting at windmills in her description and defense of happiness as an educational aim? Viewing the educational aim of happiness as an ideal raises substantial challenges for the practicality of…

  2. Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…

  3. Are Happiness and Life Satisfaction Different Across Religious Groups? Exploring Determinants of Happiness and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamaba, Kayonda Hubert; Soni, Debbie

    2017-09-26

    This study explores whether different religions experience different levels of happiness and life satisfaction and in case this is affected by country economic and cultural environment. Using World Value Survey (from 1981 to 2014), this study found that individual religiosity and country level of development play a significant role in shaping people's subjective well-being (SWB). Protestants, Buddhists and Roman Catholic were happier and most satisfied with their lives compared to other religious groups. Orthodox has the lowest SWB. Health status, household's financial satisfaction and freedom of choice are means by which religious groups and governments across the globe can improve the SWB of their citizens.

  4. Two Aspects of the Good:Analysis on the Virtue and Happiness, from the Perspective of Utilitarianism and Deontology%善之二维:德性与幸福--功利主义和道义论辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚明

    2015-01-01

    Good is the eternal theme of all kinds of ethical and political theories.However, different the-ories have different interpretation of good.As utilitarianism said, happiness is the final pursuit and deontolo-gist said that virtue is the most important aspect of the good.And the distinction of the utilitarian and the de-ontology shows the two dimension of the human nature, which consist of the natural potentiality and the moral potentiality.Whatever, happiness and virtue are very important for human being, which is the combination of animal being and moral being.%对“善”的追求是任何一种理论的目的之所在,而对“善”所包涵的具体内容,不同的思想流派则有着各异的解读。在功利主义者看来,幸福和快乐是一切学说和理论的终极目的;而在义务论者眼中,德性构成了“善”的主导内容。功利主义者和义务论者的分歧体现了对“善”之具体内涵的不同侧重,也展现了对人之自然属性或道德属性的不同逻辑推演。无论如何,人作为自然属性与道德属性的结合体,幸福与德性也成为任何一种理论与学说都必须认真对待的问题。

  5. Money Buys Happiness When Spending Fits Our Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Sandra C; Gladstone, Joe J; Stillwell, David

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to decades of research reporting surprisingly weak relationships between consumption and happiness, recent findings suggest that money can indeed increase happiness if it is spent the "right way" (e.g., on experiences or on other people). Drawing on the concept of psychological fit, we extend this research by arguing that individual differences play a central role in determining the "right" type of spending to increase well-being. In a field study using more than 76,000 bank-transaction records, we found that individuals spend more on products that match their personality, and that people whose purchases better match their personality report higher levels of life satisfaction. This effect of psychological fit on happiness was stronger than the effect of individuals' total income or the effect of their total spending. A follow-up study showed a causal effect: Personality-matched spending increased positive affect. In summary, when spending matches the buyer's personality, it appears that money can indeed buy happiness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Self-rumination and Happiness: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Subjective Vitality

    OpenAIRE

    SARIÇAM, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study is to examine the mediating and moderating role of subjective vitality in relationship between rumination and subjective happiness. The participants were 420 university students. In this research, the Self-rumination Scale-SRS, the Subjective Vitality Scale and the Short Form of Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The relationships between rumination, subjective vitality, and happiness were examined using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression a...

  7. The Role of Positive Psychological Capital and the Family Function in Prediction of Happiness in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F rashidi kochi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role of positive psychological capital and family functioning in predicting happiness among adolescence. Correlational research method was recruited to analyze the data. The sample comprised of 290 high Scholl students that selected by the convenience sampling method. In this research Snyder’s hope, Nezami and Colleagues self-efficacy, Scheier and Carver's optimism, McMaster's family functioning and Connor and Davidson's Resiliency and Oxford happiness questionnaire used to collect data. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were used to analyze data. The finding showed that there was a significant positive relationship between family function components and positive psychological capital with happiness. The results of stepwise regression showed that roles, Resiliency, self-efficacy, optimism and emotion expression had significant and important role in predicting happiness. Totally, explained 35% of the variance happiness. In conclusion, these findings indicate the importance roles of family and positive psychological capital in adolescence's happiness.

  8. Felicidad y actividad física en personas mayores (Happiness and physical activity in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Lorenzo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this study was to explore the relationship between past and present happiness and physical activity among people over 65 years old. Participants voluntarily completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the the Spanish version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Happiness Scale. The results show that the participants are less happy now than they were in the past. Furthermore, the current practice of physical activity leads to an increase in happiness, the happiest individuals being those who are the most active at this stage of life. Finally, being involved in physical activity at some point in the life cycle (past, present, or continuously is associated with a higher level of happiness than that associated with a sedentary lifestyle. The mechanisms involved in the protective role of happiness remain to be determined. The protective role of physical activity has to be taken into account in the design of programs and interventions promoting active and positive aging.

  9. Why is happy-sad more difficult? Focal emotional information impairs inhibitory control in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Hannah J; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat

    2015-02-01

    This study compared the relative difficulty of the happy-sad inhibitory control task (say "happy" for the sad face and "sad" for the happy face) against other card tasks that varied by the presence and type (focal vs. peripheral; negative vs. positive) of emotional information in a sample of 4- to 11-year-olds and adults (N = 264). Participants also completed parallel "name games" (direct labeling). All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to happy-sad compared to other versions, and the relative difficulty of happy-sad increased with age. The happy-sad name game even posed a greater challenge than some opposite games. These data provide insight into the impact of emotions on cognitive processing across a wide age range. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Dynamical models of happiness with fractional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyun; Yang, Jianying

    2010-03-01

    This present study focuses on a dynamical model of happiness described through fractional-order differential equations. By categorizing people of different personality and different impact factor of memory (IFM) with different set of model parameters, it is demonstrated via numerical simulations that such fractional-order models could exhibit various behaviors with and without external circumstance. Moreover, control and synchronization problems of this model are discussed, which correspond to the control of emotion as well as emotion synchronization in real life. This study is an endeavor to combine the psychological knowledge with control problems and system theories, and some implications for psychotherapy as well as hints of a personal approach to life are both proposed.

  11. Impaired detection of happy facial expressions in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-10-17

    The detection of emotional facial expressions plays an indispensable role in social interaction. Psychological studies have shown that typically developing (TD) individuals more rapidly detect emotional expressions than neutral expressions. However, it remains unclear whether individuals with autistic phenotypes, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and high levels of autistic traits (ATs), are impaired in this ability. We examined this by comparing TD and ASD individuals in Experiment 1 and individuals with low and high ATs in Experiment 2 using the visual search paradigm. Participants detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness and their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. In Experiment 1, reaction times were shorter for normal angry expressions than for anti-expressions in both TD and ASD groups. This was also the case for normal happy expressions vs. anti-expressions in the TD group but not in the ASD group. Similarly, in Experiment 2, the detection of normal vs. anti-expressions was faster for angry expressions in both groups and for happy expressions in the low, but not high, ATs group. These results suggest that the detection of happy facial expressions is impaired in individuals with ASD and high ATs, which may contribute to their difficulty in creating and maintaining affiliative social relationships.

  12. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Therapy on Happiness among Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemi

    2013-12-01

    Background & aim: infertility and the attitude of the society toward it, makes women and even men deal with many emotional disturbances. Infertile women tolerate more stress than fertile women. Stress can reduce the amount of happiness and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of stress management skills training (cognitive-behavioral on happiness of infertile women. Methods: In this clinical-trial study, the cases of infertile women who were referred to the Infertility Center of Shiraz in the summer of 2011were studied. A total of 24 infertile women with high stress scores were selected by purposive sampling and divided into two experimental and control groups. The stress management training (cognitive-behavioral was instructed during 10 weekly sessions on the target group. Using Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, a pre-test and a post-test was completed. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and ANCOVA. Results: The difference between the mean happiness was significant after controlling of the pretest variables in the two groups. The mean scored happiness of the experimental group significantly increased compared to the control group in the post-test (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The results indicated that the control effectiveness of stress management therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy on happiness levels of infertile women. Key words: Happiness, Cognitive- Behavioral, Stress Management, Infertility

  13. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Habiballah Ahmadi Forooshany

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78, who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results: Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05 and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05. Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05. These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individuals disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.

  14. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-12-28

    Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

  15. The effects of happiness and sadness on Children's snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2018-04-01

    Children appear to engage in emotional eating (i.e., eating in response to negative and positive emotions), but existing research has predominantly relied on parent-report and child-report, which may not necessarily reflect children's actual emotional eating behaviors. This study examined the effects of happiness and sadness on children's observed snack consumption and examined whether child characteristics (i.e., weight, gender, and age) interact with mood to predict snack consumption. To elicit mood, children (N = 91; M ages  = 6.8 years; 48 boys) were randomly assigned to one of the three mood induction conditions (happy, sad, or neutral); children's snack consumption was observed and measured after mood induction. Findings showed that children in the sad condition consumed more energy from chocolate, followed by children in the happy condition, and then the neutral condition. However, the reverse pattern was observed for goldfish crackers: children in the neutral condition consumed more energy from this savory snack than children in the happy condition, followed by children in sad condition. Child weight status and gender did not interact with mood to predict snack consumption. Child age did interact with mood: older children consumed more chocolates in the sad condition compared to younger children. Child age was not related to snack consumption in the happy and neutral conditions. This study suggests that emotional eating in response to positive and negative emotions is evident during early childhood, but that this is behavior is developing during this period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-centeredness and selflessness: happiness correlates and mediating psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrun, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test central assumptions from the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model. According to this model, while self-centered psychological functioning induces fluctuating happiness, authentic-durable happiness results from selflessness. Distinct mediating processes are supposed to account for these relationships: afflictive affects (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, frustration) in the case of the former, and both emotional stability and feelings of harmony in the case of the latter. We tested these hypotheses in two studies based on heterogeneous samples of citizens ( n  = 547). Factor analyses revealed that self-centeredness (assessed through egocentrism and materialism) and selflessness (assessed through self-transcendence and connectedness to other) were two distinct psychological constructs. Second, while self-centeredness was positively and significantly related to fluctuating happiness, selflessness was positively and significantly related to authentic-durable happiness. Finally, distinct psychological processes mediated these relationships (study 2). On one hand, the relationship between self-centeredness and fluctuating happiness was fully mediated by afflictive affects. On the other hand, emotional stability and the feeling of being in harmony partially mediated the relation between selflessness and authentic-durable happiness.

  17. Self-centeredness and selflessness: happiness correlates and mediating psychological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test central assumptions from the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model. According to this model, while self-centered psychological functioning induces fluctuating happiness, authentic–durable happiness results from selflessness. Distinct mediating processes are supposed to account for these relationships: afflictive affects (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, frustration) in the case of the former, and both emotional stability and feelings of harmony in the case of the latter. We tested these hypotheses in two studies based on heterogeneous samples of citizens (n = 547). Factor analyses revealed that self-centeredness (assessed through egocentrism and materialism) and selflessness (assessed through self-transcendence and connectedness to other) were two distinct psychological constructs. Second, while self-centeredness was positively and significantly related to fluctuating happiness, selflessness was positively and significantly related to authentic–durable happiness. Finally, distinct psychological processes mediated these relationships (study 2). On one hand, the relationship between self-centeredness and fluctuating happiness was fully mediated by afflictive affects. On the other hand, emotional stability and the feeling of being in harmony partially mediated the relation between selflessness and authentic–durable happiness. PMID:28507820

  18. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Contested Histories and Happiness: Leprosy literature in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Tanaka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century, the Japanese government passed a series of laws targeting people diagnosed with Hansen’s Disease (leprosy. As a result, many patients were quarantined in public leprosaria, often for life. In order to cope with both the diagnosis of a heavily stigmatized illness and a lifetime in isolation, patients began to write. The works produced by sufferers became so popular that by the mid-1930s their writing was referred to as a distinct literary genre, “leprosy literature.” Studies of leprosy literature have focused on its depiction of human rights violations, struggles with the illness, and the difficulty of life in quarantine. However, patient writing in the 1930s also reveals the multiple ways in which patients found happiness within the institution. In this sense, leprosy literature is also a site of translation, revealing the negotiations of hospital life involving hospital and medical authorities, patients, leprosy relief groups, and government policies. Residents of the leprosaria represent happiness in multiple ways depending on their conception of their illness and life in the leprosaria. For some patients, the institution itself was a source of happiness in that their illness was stigmatized to the degree that life outside the hospital became unbearable. Other writers chafed at life in the hospital; the translation of happiness in their writing is a more complex process. This paper takes these diverse processes of translation as its starting point and examines the multiple ways in which patients conceived of health and happiness within the confines of hospital life. 

  20. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  1. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  2. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.

  3. Happy-People-Pills for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    It is argued that we have a moral duty to create, and make available, advanced pharmacological agents to boost the happiness of those in the normal, i.e., the non-depressed, range of happiness. Happiness, conceived as a propensity to positive moods, is a quantitative trait with a sizeable genetic component. One means to boost the happiness of those in the normal range is to test the efficacy of antidepressants for enhancement. A second possibility is to model new pharmacologicals based on the genetics of the happiest amongst us, that is, the hyperthymic. The suggestion, in other words, is to “reverse engineer” the hyperthymic: to investigate what makes the hyperthymic genetically and physiologically different and then put what they have into pill form. To the ‘Brave New World’ objection, that there is more to wellbeing than happiness and that taking happy-people-pills will require the sacrifice of these other aspects of wellbeing, it is countered that contemporary social science research supports the view that happiness promotes achievement in the ‘higher’ endeavors of humanity, including work, love and virtue. In other words, happiness promotes acquisition of traits valued by perfectionists. Those born with genes for hyperthymia, on average, tend to be doubly blessed: they are happier and achieve more than the rest of the population. Happy-people-pills are a means to allow everyone else to share in this good

  4. A System for Personality and Happiness Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yago Saez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a platform for estimating personality and happiness. Starting from Eysenck's theory about human's personality, authors seek to provide a platform for collecting text messages from social media (Whatsapp, and classifying them into different personality categories. Although there is not a clear link between personality features and happiness, some correlations between them could be found in the future. In this work, we describe the platform developed, and as a proof of concept, we have used different sources of messages to see if common machine learning algorithms can be used for classifying different personality features and happiness.

  5. Government and Happiness in 130 Nations: Good Governance Fosters Higher Level and More Equality of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in…

  6. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  7. Effects of Self-Reported Wisdom on Happiness : Not Much More Than Emotional Intelligence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; McKenna, Bernard; Rooney, David

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom and emotional intelligence are increasingly popular topics among happiness scholars. Despite their conceptual overlap, no empirical research has examined their interrelations and incremental predictive validities. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate associations between

  8. Modelling the Happiness Classification of Addicted, Addiction Risk, Threshold and Non-Addicted Groups on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmaz, Fatma; Totan, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model the happiness classification of university students--grouped as addicted, addiction risk, threshold and non-addicted to internet usage--with compatibility analysis on a map as happiness, average and unhappiness. The participants in this study were 400 university students from Turkey. According to the results of…

  9. Greater perceptual sensitivity to happy facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Stephen; Ekstrom, Tor; Chen, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Perception of subtle facial expressions is essential for social functioning; yet it is unclear if human perceptual sensitivities differ in detecting varying types of facial emotions. Evidence diverges as to whether salient negative versus positive emotions (such as sadness versus happiness) are preferentially processed. Here, we measured perceptual thresholds for the detection of four types of emotion in faces--happiness, fear, anger, and sadness--using psychophysical methods. We also evaluated the association of the perceptual performances with facial morphological changes between neutral and respective emotion types. Human observers were highly sensitive to happiness compared with the other emotional expressions. Further, this heightened perceptual sensitivity to happy expressions can be attributed largely to the emotion-induced morphological change of a particular facial feature (end-lip raise).

  10. Happiness in the neonatal intensive care unit: Merits of ethnographic fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has focused on the destructive effects of distress on professionals who work in ethically complex wards such as neonatal intensive units (NICUs. This article examines the accounts of health professionals, including nurses, pediatricians and assistant nurses, of their work at a NICU in Iceland. The aim is to understand how health professionals, who work under stressful conditions in an ethically sensitive ward, can counteract the negative sides of work too such a degree that they experience happiness. The collection of data was based on the ethnographic fieldwork, and the methods used were participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The professionals evaluated their wellbeing in line with conventional definitions of happiness. Working with children and opportunities to help others, engage in social relations and experience professional pride contributed to their happiness at work. Nonetheless, they did not dismiss the difficult experiences, and when confronted with these the professionals negotiated their meanings and the goals and priorities of work. In contrast to the findings of much quantitative and survey-based research, the professionals attributed constructive meanings to stress and argued that the positive experiences at work buffered the negative ones. Research on happiness would benefit from multifaceted methodological and theoretical perspectives. Thanks to its openness to the unforeseen, controversial, contradictory, and ambiguous aspects of human life, ethnography can contribute to happiness research and research on job satisfaction.

  11. Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fisher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A previous study on university students reported that personal, communal, and environmental spiritual well-being contributed to happiness over and above personality but that relating with God did not. In this study, happiness was assessed using a modified Oxford Happiness Inventory. Personality scores were obtained using forms of Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. Four domains of spiritual well-being were determined using Fisher’s Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Relationship with God was reflected by the Transcendental domain of spiritual well-being in this instrument. Studies with 466 university students from Australia, Northern Ireland, and England, 494 people attending churches in Ballarat, and 1002 secondary school students in Victoria showed that relating with God accounts for variance on happiness, over and above personality, and age.

  12. Infertile individuals' marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health: a causal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (phappiness was directly related to mental health, (phappiness and mental health was significant (phappiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.

  13. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  14. The picture of happiness in Alzheimer's disease: living a life congruent with personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    It is generally understood that happiness is an important goal of dementia care, though evaluation has been challenging. Concerns about cognitive and communicative limitations have led to the use of proxy reports to assess positive affect. However, proxy reports have been shown to differ from appraisals obtained by the person with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article reports on a qualitative study of happiness in a sample of 12 persons with mild to moderate AD using photo-elicitation and individual interviews for data collection. Results demonstrate people with mild to moderate AD can provide meaningful evaluations of happiness, and that lifelong values continue to be important in the presence of AD. This study suggests photographs may offer a novel approach to obtain a contextualized understanding of happiness and other values in this population which may lead to the development of person centered interventions aimed to improve the individual's quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of material and experiential discretionary purchases on consumer happiness: moderators and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca; Millar, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Experiential purchases are differentiated from material purchases in terms of objective; experiential purchases serve the purpose of acquiring a life experience, while material purchases serve the purpose of acquiring an object. Research has demonstrated that experiential purchases are associated with more happiness than material purchases. The current study investigated two explanations for this relationship that focused on the how the purchase influenced the self and how the purchase influenced interpersonal relationships. In addition, the study explored whether social economic status would influence the strength of the relationship between the type of purchase and happiness. Participants were required to recall either a recent experiential or material purchase and rate their happiness with the purchase. Then participants completed scales designed to measure the purchase's impact on the self and interpersonal relationships. Last, participants completed a scale to measure social economic status. It was found that Impacts on the Self mediated the relationship between purchase type and happiness and Socioeconomic Status moderated the relationship.

  16. Social skills, friendship and happiness: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melikşah; Jaafar, Jas; Bilyk, Nicholas; Ariff, Mohammad Raduan Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between social skills, friendship quality, and happiness, and tested a mediational model positing that friendship quality would mediate the relationship between social skills and happiness among American and Malaysian college students. Although American students reported significantly higher levels of psychosocial well-being than Malaysian students, the study variables were positively associated with each other in both cultures. More importantly, findings supported the proposed model in both groups. Results suggest that part of the reason why social skills are associated with positive psychological well-being is because of friendship experiences. Overall, the findings of the present study reinforce, extend and cross-culturally generalize the presumed benefits of social skills in positive well-being elaborated by Segrin and Taylor (2007). The authors also provided suggestions for future research.

  17. Transition economy and happiness - the Czech Republic compared with the Netherlands in the 1990-2004 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ophem, van J.A.C.; Kohout, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the subject Transition economy and happiness - a case study of the Czech Republic in a comparison with The Netherlands in the 1990-2004 period. The paper addresses the following two questions: 1. How has the level of happiness changed since 199 0 in the Czech Republic and in The

  18. Relationships between Psychological Well-Being, Happiness, and Educational Satisfaction in a Group of University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbatir, Rasim Erol

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on music students' psychological well-being and happiness. The purpose was to assess the psychological well-being, happiness and educational satisfaction among a group of university music students. Students participated voluntarily and filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale…

  19. The Survey of Relationship Between Religious Orientation and Happiness Among the Elderly Man and Woman in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Ghaderi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to survey relationship between religious orientation and happiness in elderly man and woman in Tehran. Methods & Materials: The present study was descriptive and causal- Comparative. In order to survey the relationship between religious orientation and happiness among the elderly men and women in Tehran 389 aged people above 60 years including 247 men and 142 women were selected by multi stage cluster sampling. The research instruments were Allport religion orientation questionnaire and happiness inventory of Oxford. Results: The result showed that religion orientation and happiness in elderly man and woman (P<0/01 have significant positive relationship. The amount of happiness among these who had religion internal orientation were further that who had external religions orientation (P<0.01. The relationship between religion external orientation and happiness in both elderly men and women was not significant. The amount of happiness among old women was significantly further that old men (P<0.01. The elderly woman in two internal and external religion orientation in general earn higher markers than elderly men (P<0.01. Conclusion: The result shows that there is positive relationship between religion orientation and happiness among elderly men and women. We conclude that people with internal religion orientation were happier in both genders. On the confirm of most studies in the field of religion psychology we could conclude that the elderly women are more religious than elderly men. More research in the field of studied varieties can represent brighter data.

  20. Different Things Make Different People Happy: Examining Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being by Gender and Parental Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives.…

  1. Motivation Counts: Autonomous But Not Obligated Sharing Promotes Happiness in Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Wu; Zhen Zhang; Zhen Zhang; Rui Guo; Julie Gros-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that prosocial sharing is emotionally rewarding, which leads to further prosocial actions; such a positive feedback loop suggests a proximal mechanism of human’s tendency to act prosocially. However, it leaves open a question as to how the emotional benefits from sharing develop in young children and whether sharing under pressure promotes happiness as well. The current study directly compared 3- and 5-year-old Chinese children’s happiness when sharing was autonomous...

  2. The Effectiveness of Making and Collection of Family Albums on Autobiographical memory and Happiness in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Masomeh Zabeti Arani; Anahita Anahita Khodabakhshi-koolaee

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective: Aging is a sensitive period of human life and attention to the problems and needs of this stage is a social necessity. Among the common problems in this period, insufficiency in their memory performance and lack of happiness due to lack of social activities .Therefore, the aim of current research is to evaluate the effectiveness of making and collection of family albums on autobiographical memory and happiness in elderly. Methods: The current study is a semi-exper...

  3. Stakeholder Perspectives on the Link between Business Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stakeholder Perspectives on the Link between Business Studies and Quality Education: Botswana's Experience. ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... International instruments such as the Millennium Development Goals' (MDG's) and ...

  4. Positive thinking elevates tolerance: Experimental effects of happiness on adolescents' attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Capelos, Tereza; Lorimer, Jessica; Stocks, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Inducing emotional reactions toward social groups can influence individuals' political tolerance. This study examines the influence of incidental fear and happiness on adolescents' tolerant attitudes and feelings toward young Muslim asylum seekers. In our experiment, 219 16- to 21-year-olds completed measures of prejudicial attitudes. After being induced to feel happiness, fear, or no emotion (control), participants reported their tolerant attitudes and feelings toward asylum-seeking young people. Participants assigned to the happiness condition demonstrated more tolerant attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people than did those assigned to the fear or control conditions. Participants in the control condition did not differ from participants in the fear condition. The participants in the happiness condition also had more positive feelings toward asylum-seeking young people than did participants in the control condition. The findings suggest that one way to increase positive attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people is to improve general emotional state.

  5. Frustrated Achievers or Satisfied Losers? Inter- and Intragenerational Social Mobility and Happiness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available How and to what extent is rank mobility associated with happiness of the Chinese population? Does mobility provide insight into the vast numbers of frustrated workers in times of economic growth? To date, few studies have examined the consequences of social mobility on happiness in transitional societies. The present analysis investigates the association of both inter- and intragenerational rank mobility with happiness in China using data from the General Social Survey's 2003, 2006, and 2008 waves. We examine two general mechanisms, social adaptation and social comparison, by statistically decomposing the independent contributions of social origin, social destination, and mobility. We find there is a significant positive association between short-distance intragenerational downward mobility and happiness, while not any intergenerational mobility pattern has been found to be significant. Apparently, we have a group of satisfied losers. Our findings favor social comparison explanations.

  6. Subjective Happiness Optimizes Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Filipino High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; Valdez, Jana Patricia; Cabrera, Ian Kenneth; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe

    2017-10-30

    Subjective happiness has been found to be associated with key psychological outcomes. However, there is paucity of research that assessed how subjective happiness is related to a number of positive student outcomes in the educational setting. The objective of the study was to assess the associations of subjective happiness with academic engagement, flourishing, and school resilience among 606 Filipino high school students (m age = 13.87; n boys = 300, n girls = 305, n missing = 1) in the Philippine context. Results of path analysis demonstrated that subjective happiness positively predicted behavioral engagement (β = .08, p < .01), emotional engagement (β = .08, p < .01), flourishing (β = .17, p < .01), and school resilience (β = .18, p < .01) even after controlling for gender. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Visual search for emotional expressions: Effect of stimulus set on anger and happiness superiority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Ruth A; Becker, Stefanie I; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports of preferential detection of emotional expressions in visual search have yielded inconsistent results, even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression-related perceptual confounds. The current study investigated inconsistent reports of anger and happiness superiority effects using face stimuli drawn from the same database. Experiment 1 excluded procedural differences as a potential factor, replicating a happiness superiority effect in a procedure that previously yielded an anger superiority effect. Experiments 2a and 2b confirmed that image colour or poser gender did not account for prior inconsistent findings. Experiments 3a and 3b identified stimulus set as the critical variable, revealing happiness or anger superiority effects for two partially overlapping sets of face stimuli. The current results highlight the critical role of stimulus selection for the observation of happiness or anger superiority effects in visual search even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression related perceptual confounds and are drawn from a single database.

  8. Parents transmit happiness along with associated values and behaviors to their children : A lifelong happiness dividend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, B.; Muffels, R.J.A.; Wagner, G.

    2014-01-01

    There are strong two-way links between parent and child happiness (life satisfaction), even for ‘children’ who have grown up, moved to their own home and partnered themselves. German panel evidence shows that transmission of (un)happiness from parents to children is partly due to transmission of

  9. The cross-national pattern of happiness. Test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); J.J. Ehrhardt (Joop)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT. Predictions about level and dispersion of happiness in nations are derived from three theories of happiness: comparison-theory, folklore-theory and livability-theory. The predictions are tested on two cross national data-sets: a comparative survey among university students in

  10. Can technology make us happy? : ethics, spectator's happiness and the value of achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spahn, A.; Søraker, J.H.; Rijt, van der J.-W.; Boer, de J.; Wong, P.-H.; Breij, P.

    2015-01-01

    The chapter introduces a distinction between a person-related and a circumstance directed type of happiness in order to investigate in which way modern technology can contribute to human happiness. This distinction is elaborated as the difference between ‘achiever’s happiness’ and ‘spectator’s

  11. Daily happiness and stock returns: Some international evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiao; Shen, Dehua; Teglio, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the relations between the daily happiness sentiment extracted from Twitter and the stock market performance in 11 international stock markets. By partitioning this happiness sentiment into quintiles from the least to the happiest days, we first show that the contemporary correlation coefficients between happiness sentiment and index return in the 4 and most-happiness subgroups are higher than that in least, 2 and 3-happiness subgroups. Secondly, the happiness sentiment can provide additional explanatory power for index return in the most-happiness subgroup. Thirdly, the daily happiness can granger-cause the changes in index return for the majority of stock markets. Fourthly, we find that the index return and the range-based volatility of the most-happiness subgroup are larger than those of other subgroups. These results highlight the important role of social media in stock market.

  12. Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesani, Azadeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Javadi, Maryam; Esfeh, Jabiz Modaresi; Fakhari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between happiness and fruit and vegetable intake as well as eating breakfast in students. In this cross-sectional web-based study, all students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who attended course classes were invited to participate in the study. Five hundred forty-one students filled out the web-based questionnaire which included questions related to measurement of happiness, breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption and socio-economic and demographic information. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationship between happiness and breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption by adjustments for covariates. Measure of happiness was positively associated with eating breakfast, number of meals eaten daily and the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption (P values were breakfast every day, more than 8 servings of fruit and vegetables daily, and had 3 meals in addition to 1-2 snacks per day had the highest happiness score. Healthier behavior pattern was associated with higher happiness scores among medical students.

  13. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marzyeh; Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Rostamian, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students' attachment styles and demographic characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people ( P = 0.03). No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style ( P = 0.001), male gender ( P = 0.005), and scholar achievement ( P = 0.047) were associated with higher happiness score. The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  14. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  15. Impaired recognition of happy facial expressions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Sponheim, Scott R; Goghari, Vina M

    2014-08-01

    The ability to accurately judge facial expressions is important in social interactions. Individuals with bipolar disorder have been found to be impaired in emotion recognition; however, the specifics of the impairment are unclear. This study investigated whether facial emotion recognition difficulties in bipolar disorder reflect general cognitive, or emotion-specific, impairments. Impairment in the recognition of particular emotions and the role of processing speed in facial emotion recognition were also investigated. Clinically stable bipolar patients (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 50) judged five facial expressions in two presentation types, time-limited and self-paced. An age recognition condition was used as an experimental control. Bipolar patients' overall facial recognition ability was unimpaired. However, patients' specific ability to judge happy expressions under time constraints was impaired. Findings suggest a deficit in happy emotion recognition impacted by processing speed. Given the limited sample size, further investigation with a larger patient sample is warranted.

  16. Identification of emotions in mixed disgusted-happy faces as a function of depressive symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Romero, Nuria; Maurage, Pierre; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-12-01

    Interpersonal difficulties are common in depression, but their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The role of depression in the identification of mixed emotional signals with a direct interpersonal value remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify this question. A sample of 39 individuals reporting a broad range of depression levels completed an emotion identification task where they viewed faces expressing three emotional categories (100% disgusted and 100% happy faces, as well as their morphed 50% disgusted - 50% happy exemplars). Participants were asked to identify the corresponding depicted emotion as "clearly disgusted", "mixed", or "clearly happy". Higher depression levels were associated with lower identification of positive emotions in 50% disgusted - 50% happy faces. The study was conducted with an analogue sample reporting individual differences in subclinical depression levels. Further research must replicate these findings in a clinical sample and clarify whether differential emotional identification patterns emerge in depression for different mixed negative-positive emotions (sad-happy vs. disgusted-happy). Depression may account for a lower bias to perceive positive states when ambiguous states from others include subtle signals of social threat (i.e., disgust), leading to an under-perception of positive social signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional Self-Efficacy, Emotional Empathy and Emotional Approach Coping as Sources of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık Totan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many variables affecting happiness, there are those that arise from emotional factors. In this study, the hypothesis stating that happiness is affected by emotional self-efficacy, emotional empathy and emotional approach coping has been examined using the path model. A total of 334 university students participated in this study, 229 of whom were females and 105 being males. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, Emotional Self-efficacy Scale, Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale, The Emotional Approach Coping Scale and personal information form have been used as data acquisition tools. As a result of path analysis, it was determined that the predicted path from emotional empathy to emotional approach coping was insignificant and thus it was taken out of the model. According to the modified path model, it was determined that there is a positive relationship between emotional self- efficacy and emotional empathy, that emotional self-efficacy positively affects emotional approach coping and happiness, that emotional empathy also positively affects happiness and that emotional approach coping also positively affects happiness.

  18. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Progressive taxation, income inequality, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kushlev, Kostadin; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later. Data from the General Social Survey (1972-2014; N = 59,599) with U.S. residents (hereafter referred to as "Americans") showed that during years with higher progressive taxation rates, less wealthy Americans-those in the lowest 40% of the income distribution-tended to be happier, whereas the richest 20% were not significantly less happy. Mediational analyses confirmed that the association of progressive taxation with the happiness of less wealthy Americans can be explained by lower income inequality in years with higher progressive taxation. A separate sample of Americans polled online (N = 373) correctly predicted the positive association between progressive taxation and the happiness of poorer Americans but incorrectly expected a strong negative association between progressive taxation and the happiness of richer Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The happy victimizer phenomenon: Not found here

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s attribution of emotions to a moral transgressor is an important research topic in the psychology of moral and emotional development. This is especially because of the so-called Happy Victimizer Phenomenon (HVP where younger children attribute positive emotions to a moral transgressor described in a story. In the two studies that we have conducted (children aged 5, 7 and 9, 20 of each age; 10 of each age in the second study we have tested the possible influence of the fear of sanctions and the type of transgression (stealing and inflicting body injuries on the attribution of emotions. Children were presented with stories that described transgressions and they were asked to answer how the transgressor felt. The fear of sanctions did not make a significant difference in attribution but the type of transgression did - more negative emotions were attributed for inflicting body injuries than for stealing. Positive emotions were explained with situational-instrumental explanations in 84% of cases while negative emotions were explained with moral explanations in 63,5%. Girls attributed more positive emotions (61% than boys (39%. However, our main finding was that, for the aforementioned age groups, we did not find the HVP effect although it has regularly been registered in foreign studies. This finding denies the generalizability of the phenomenon and points to the significance of disciplining styles and, even more so, culture for children’s attribution of emotions to moral transgressors.

  2. Religiosity and Spirituality as Predictors of Subjectively Perceived Happiness in University Students in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Babinčák

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research projects discuss the existence of weak to moderately strong positive relation between religiosity/spirituality on the one hand and subjective well-being, life satisfaction or quality of life on the other hand (see Kelley & Miller, 2007. Variables related to religiosity and spirituality of a person may be perceived in two ways: as protective factors of attaining subjective well-being or as barriers limiting its attainment. The objective of this study is verification of mutual relationship between the indicators of religiosity and spirituality with regard to subjectively perceived happiness and verification of predictive strength of these indicators with regard to subjective happiness. The sample of research participants consisted of 194 university students aged 18 to 26. The research used 4 tools: The Expressions of Spirituality Inventory-Revised (MacDonald, 2000, The Salience in Religious Commitment Scale (Roof & Perkins, 1975, Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999 and The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002. Using multiple hierarchical linear regression (stepwise, we obtained 2 dimensions of spirituality as significant predictors of subjective happiness – Existential Well-Being and Experiential/Phenomenological Dimension. Demographic data and confession types were not proved as predictors of happiness.

  3. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30-60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding.

  4. Predictors of happiness among retired from urban and rural areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Miranda Amorim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compared differences in degree of happiness, social support, activities performed, and health and economic situation among retirees from urban and rural areas in Minas Gerais State in Brazil. The influences of these predictors over individuals’ level of happiness were also analyzed. We included 279 retired individuals living in Abre Campo (a municipality with a population fewer than 20,000 inhabitants, which is considered a rural area and in Belo Horizonte (a municipality with a population of almost 2.5 million inhabitants, which is considered an urban area. Participants responded to a questionnaire that included scales of happiness, social support, diversity of activities, and issues about satisfaction with health and economic situation. Retirees from the urban area had a higher happiness level than retirees from the rural area (β= 0.16. The most important predictors of happiness were health (β= 0.42, social support (β= 0.26, and economic situation (β= 0.15, but no moderation effects of urban and rural areas were found. Our findings support the implementation of actions to offer financial planning before retirement and to stimulate social support and health promotion for retirees, particularly given the importance of these factors in perception of happiness.

  5. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P.; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E.; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30–60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding. PMID:26858677

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS IN TRANSDISCIPLINARY ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Munin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to substantiate the measurement of the transition state of the territorial community to the sustainable development by the multiplicative demographic index (MDI of the social happiness. Methods. There is the authorial concept of a geocentric approach to solving the problem of transdisciplinarity in the synthesis of the information stored in a variety of disciplines and fields of knowledge, including demography. The basis for this decision is the relation between the intangible intervals and frequencies, which measure the qualitative changes of matter and energy flows, that is, the information that permeates the Earth's geosphere. Results. As a result of the interpretation of transdisciplinarity we found an attractor of social happiness in the form of a "square" pyramid of the population in the selected area. By calculating the corresponding values of MDI we estimated the degree of closeness to the attractor of the current state of social happiness in the world, in some of the key countries and CIS countries. Conclusion. Within the meaning of the calculation, the MDI is also an assessment of the variety of the informational links, both within the community and the environment. The "rectangular" community has the maximum diversity of a given population. Since the resource costs to meet the needs of community members by tangible matter and energy is determined by its number, then for an equal number of members, the attractive should be recognized as the most effective. Consequently, social happiness, in the transdisciplinary aspect, can serve as a measure of the state of transition of the territorial community to sustainable development.

  7. Determinants of happiness and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira; Duarte, Cátia; Ferreira, Ricardo J O; Pinto, Ana Margarida; Geenen, Rinie; da Silva, Jose A P

    2018-04-06

    Besides increasing longevity, the ultimate goal of medical care is to improve patients' enjoyment of life, a concept akin to happiness. This study examined the determinants of happiness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this observational, cross-sectional study, patients were assessed on disease activity, disease impact, personality, QoL and happiness. Structural equation modelling estimation was used to analyse the associations between these dimensions, pursuing three hypotheses: H 1 -disease activity and perceived impact of disease are negatively associated with overall QoL and happiness in patients with RA; H 2 -'positive' personality traits are related to happiness both directly and indirectly through perceived disease impact; H 3 -happiness has a mediating effect in the relation between impact of disease and QoL. Data from 213 patients were analysed. Results supported all driving hypotheses. Happiness was positively related to 'positive' personality and, to a lesser extent, negatively related to impact of disease. Impact of disease, in turn, was positively related to disease activity and mitigated by 'positive' personality traits. Impact of disease had a much stronger relation with QoL than with happiness. Happiness mitigated the negative effect of disease impact on QoL. Optimisation of QoL and happiness of people with RA requires effective control of the disease process and also improvement of the disease impact domains. Personality seems to play a pivotal mediating role in these relations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Country roads, take me home… to my friends: How intelligence, population density, and friendship affect modern happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    We propose the savanna theory of happiness, which suggests that it is not only the current consequences of a given situation but also its ancestral consequences that affect individuals' life satisfaction and explains why such influences of ancestral consequences might interact with intelligence. We choose two varied factors that characterize basic differences between ancestral and modern life - population density and frequency of socialization with friends - as empirical test cases. As predicted by the theory, population density is negatively, and frequency of socialization with friends is positively, associated with life satisfaction. More importantly, the main associations of life satisfaction with population density and socialization with friends significantly interact with intelligence, and, in the latter case, the main association is reversed among the extremely intelligent. More intelligent individuals experience lower life satisfaction with more frequent socialization with friends. This study highlights the utility of incorporating evolutionary perspectives in the study of subjective well-being. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Happiness in texting times: SMS as a method to track national levels of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eHevey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing national levels of happiness has become an important research and policy issue in recent years. We examined happiness and satisfaction in Ireland using phone text messaging to collect large-scale longitudinal data from 3,093 members of the general Irish population. For six consecutive weeks participants’ happiness and satisfaction levels were assessed. For four consecutive weeks (weeks 2 to 5 a different random third of the sample got feedback on the previous week's mean happiness and satisfaction ratings. Text messaging proved a feasible means of assessing happiness and satisfaction, with almost three quarters (73% of participants completing all assessments. Those who received feedback on the previous week’s mean ratings were eight times more likely to complete the subsequent assessments than those not receiving feedback. Providing such feedback data on mean levels of happiness and satisfaction did not systematically bias subsequent ratings either towards or away from these normative anchors. Texting is a simple and effective means to collect population level happiness and satisfaction data.

  10. On the economics of happiness: the influence of income and non-income factors on happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for individual happiness and a better life for all is an important economic objective in countries as different as South Africa and France or Zimbabwe and Bhutan. Economists have focused attention on the effects of consumption, income and economic growth or development on well-being and whether economic growth can be the sole basis for delivering prosperity (Dutt & Radcliff , 2009; Jackson, 2010.  The search for happiness is an important individual and national economic goal.  In the Benthamite utilitarian tradition, happiness is the sum of all pleasures and pains. People often obtain or perceive their happiness from what they have in comparison with others.  At the macroeconomic level, more happiness may come from a sustained growth in GDP that enables households to enjoy an improved quality of life, with rising income, consumption and employment opportunities.  At the microeconomic or individual level, more income may also enable people to live happier and fuller lives relative to those who are poor.  But this accounts for only a small contribution to happiness. Life circumstances, such as marital status, health, having children and the nature of the working environment statistically make a greater contribution to happiness than income.

  11. Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Happiness among Mothers of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Studies show that parents of children with autism disorders are more exposed to the stress of having disabled children than the parents of children with other psychological disorders. All the problems of these children can endanger the quality of life and happiness of their families. The more the ability of people for coping, so the present study with the aim of studying Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Happiness among Mothers of Autistic Children was done. Methods: The aim of the present study was to examine effectiveness of cognitive group therapy on quality of life and happiness among mothers of autistic children in Shiraz. This study was an experimental study with pretest and posttest with control group design. At first the Quality of Life Questionnaire and Happiness Inventory were administered to mothers of autistic children and after analyzing the data 30 mothers of autistic children who gained lower scores on these tests were selected based on simple random sampling and assigned two groups; experimental and control. The experimental group underwent treatment method for 12 sessions with two month follow up study, but the control group did not receive any treatment. Finding; Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and showed that there was a significant positive correlation between cognitive group therapy and improvement in quality of life and happiness in mothers with autistic children. Follow up studies showed that cognitive group therapy had a significant effect on in quality of life and happiness in the control sample. Conclusion: The results showed that the intervention which has been done could improve the quality of life and its dimensions in parents of children with autism, resulting in the increasing happiness of the  parents. Hence, this method of therapy can be used as therapy, either alone or in conjunction with other forms of mental health treatment

  12. Happiness surveys: exclusive guides for policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther Tichy

    2014-01-01

    Happiness is increasingly named as a target of policy measures. Apart from the confusing fact that the attention-grabbing catchword ‘happiness’ refers to ‘life satisfaction’ in most cases, this approach appears preferable to alternatives as utility functions, magic polygons or to the opaque decisions of politicians. A life-satisfaction-oriented policy would prove welfare-improving, focusing on fair distribution of income and wealth, social goals and institutional goals such as health,...

  13. Eastern and western happiness in work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.

  14. Happy degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    to a brief historical overview of the role of work, including turning points in the 1930s in the United States, when work sharing was displaced by work creation through consumerism, and, in the post-war economy when GDP became the dominant economic indicator. The paper proposes the aim of a happy...... and sustainable degrowth for affluent countries, implying the transfer of some activities from the professional economy to the less ‘labor’ productive amateur economy. This will tend to reduce overall labor productivity and hence resource throughput, but increase satisfaction and happiness. A key element...

  15. Why has happiness inequality increased? Suggestions for promoting social cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Becchetti; Riccardo Massari; Paolo Naticchioni

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on happiness inequality, an issue rather neglected in the literature. We analyze the increase in happiness inequality observed in Germany between 1991 and 2007 by means of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) database. We make use of a recent methodology that allows decomposing the change in happiness inequality into the composition and the coefficient effect for each covariate. We find that the increase in happiness inequality is mainly driven by changes in the compositi...

  16. Income inequality and happiness: Is there a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Alois, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses fixed effects regressions to examine the relationship between happiness and income inequality in 30 countries. It has three major findings. First, happiness and income inequality are correlated in the expected direction; high income inequality correlates with a smaller share of happy people and a higher share of unhappy people. Second, different regions have characteristics that strongly mediate the effect of income inequality on happiness. Third, the correlation between incom...

  17. Happiness as a guide to labor market policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Ritzen

    2015-01-01

    Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and unemployment benefits can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivi...

  18. Health, Wealth and Happiness: Why pursue a Higher Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, Joop; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    1997-01-01

    We explore the effect of schooling on health, wealth and happiness for a cohort of Dutch individuals born around 1940. We also use observations on childhood IQ and family background. The most fortunate group is the group with a non-vocational intermediate level education: they score highest on health, wealth and happiness. We find that IQ affects health, but not wealth or happiness. Family background level increases wealth, but neither health nor happiness. With a father who worked independen...

  19. Internal consistency, reliability, and temporal stability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form: Test-retest data over two weeks

    OpenAIRE

    MCGUCKIN, CONOR

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form is a recently developed eight-item measure of happiness. This study evaluated the internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form among 55 Northern Irish undergraduate university students who completed the measure on two occasions separated by two weeks. Internal consistency of the measure on both occasions was satisfactory at both Time 1 (alpha = .62) and Time 2 (alpha = ....

  20. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildirim; Hacer Belen

    2018-01-01

    Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females) completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect ...

  1. Self-Reported Wisdom and Happiness: An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bergsma (Ad); M. Ardelt (Monika)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPossible tensions between wisdom and happiness have been extensively debated in philosophy. Some regard wisdom as the 'supreme part of happiness', whereas other think that a more accurate and wiser view on reality might reduce happiness. Analyzing a Dutch internet survey of 7037

  2. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  3. Reconsidering Happiness in the Context of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Bingham, Charles

    2018-01-01

    That happiness leads to lack of harm and suffering, representing both a good and a means to good, is promoted, for example, by educational philosophers such as Nel Noddings. But happiness should not be seen as an unproblematic goal, for education or otherwise. In this article, we critically investigate the importance of happiness in the…

  4. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results…

  5. Happiness, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, and Distress in Individuals with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ravesloot, Craig; Ipsen, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the construct of happiness is related to pain intensity, pain interference, and distress in individuals with physical disabilities. This study involves cross-sectional analyses of 471 individuals with a variety of health conditions reporting at least mild pain. The first hypothesis that happiness mediates the relationship between pain intensity and two outcomes, pain interference and distress, was not supported. The second hypothesis was supported by a good fitting model (χ2(10) = 12.83, P = 0.23, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.025) and indicated that pain intensity significantly mediated the effect of happiness on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.13, P Happiness showed a significant direct effect on pain intensity (β = -0.20, P happiness components meaning, pleasure, and engagement fitted well (χ2(4) = 9.65, P = 0.05, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.055). Pain intensity acted as a significant mediator but only mediated the effect of meaning on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.07, P = 0.05) and on distress (indirect effect via pain interference: β = -0.04, P = 0.05). Only meaning (β = -0.10, P = 0.05), but neither pleasure nor engagement, had a significant direct effect on pain intensity. Participants who reported greater happiness reported lower pain interference and distress through happiness' effects on pain intensity. Experiencing meaning and purpose in life seems to be most closely (and negatively) associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and distress. Findings from this study can lay the groundwork for intervention studies to better understand how to more effectively decrease pain intensity, pain interference, and distress.

  6. The happy victimizer phenomenon: Thinking or knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simunović Vojin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The attribution of emotions to transgressors has received considerable attention of researchers since the end of the1980s. A common research finding in the Western countries (the USA, Germany, and Portugal is that children younger than 8 years attribute positive emotions to transgressors (which is called “the happy victimizer phenomenon”, HVP. On the other hand, a research study conducted in Belgrade, Serbia, did not find the HVP even among 5-year-old children. It was established that children from Belgrade focused more on the moral side of the transgression than on the instrumental side (i.e. the things that the transgressor achieved by the transgression. The goal of our research was to evaluate whether Serbian children actually reason in this way or simply repeat what they have learned. In order to verify this hypothesis, Piaget’s method of “a pair of stories” (instead of presenting the stories one by one was used in two studies. In the first study, the degree of injury inflicted to the other child was varied (as one aspect of the moral side of the transgression. In the second study, the type of intention (good or bad was varied (as another aspect of the moral side of the transgression. In both studies, the sample consisted of 40 children, with two age groups (5- and 7-year-old children that included 20 children each (10 boys and 10 girls. The conclusion of both studies was that subjects attributed negative emotions to transgressors in accordance with the moral instead of instrumental understanding of the transgression. These findings imply that children’s responses do not represent moral knowledge, but reflect authentic moral reasoning.

  7. Physical activity predicts quality of life and happiness in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol Ann; Toohey, Monica; Ferguson, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations between physical activity, health-related quality of life and happiness in young people with cerebral palsy. A total of 70 young people with cerebral palsy (45 males, 25 females; mean age 13 years 11 months, SD 2 years 0 month) took part in a cross-sectional, descriptive postal survey assessing physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents), functional ability (Gross Motor Function Classification System), quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0) and happiness (single Likert-scale item). Relationships between physical activity, quality of life and happiness were examined using backward stepwise linear regression. Physical activity significantly predicted physical quality of life (R(2 )= 0.64, β = 6.12, p = 0.02), social quality of life (R(2 )= 0.28, β = 9.27, p happiness (R(2 )= 0.08, β = 0.9, p = 0.04). Physical activity was not associated with emotional or school quality of life. This study found a positive association between physical activity, social and physical quality of life, and happiness in young people with cerebral palsy. Findings underscore the potential benefits of physical activity for the wellbeing of young people with cerebral palsy, in addition to its well-recognised physical and health benefits. Physical activity is a key predictor of quality of life and happiness in young people with cerebral palsy. Physical activity is widely recognised as having physical health benefits for young people with cerebral palsy; however, this study also highlights that it may have important benefits for wellbeing, quality of life and happiness. This emphasises the need for clinical services and intervention studies aimed specifically at increasing physical activity amongst children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

  8. Emotional intelligence, happiness, hope and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional Intelligence Scale, Subjective-happiness Scale, Adult Trait-hope Scale and the Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect data from the participants. Statistical analysis involved the use of Simple Linear and Standard Multiple regression. Findings indicated that, emotional intelligence did not have a significant ...

  9. Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, L.E.; Gärling, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Fujii, S.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that

  10. Investigating the role of organizational happiness inteachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to collect the required data, the Oxford Happiness questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaire have been used. In order to analyze the data and examine the hypotheses, descriptive statistic indices including mean and standard deviation as well as inferential statistics such as Pearson's ...

  11. A Cognitive Approach to the "Happy Victimiser"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The happy victimiser phenomenon has puzzled many researchers in the field of moral development. After having learnt and internalised what is morally right and wrong, young children tend to attribute positive feelings to observed models of their age who explicitly harm other children. This has been mainly explained as a lack of moral motivation or…

  12. Kindheit - Gluck - Kommerz (Childhood - Happiness - Commerce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses changes in the history of childhood. Argues that the change was not caused by reform pedagogics, but by a movement to popular culture. Describes the functioning of a commercialized children's culture and its definition of happiness. Analyzes possible concepts of education within the framework of such learning environments. (CAJ)

  13. Is it good to make happy people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachels, Stuart

    1998-04-01

    Would it be good, other things being equal, for additional people to exist whose lives would be worth living? I examine and reject several arguments for the answer that it would not be good; then I offer opposing arguments that I believe are more successful. Thus, I agree with utilitarians who say that it is better for there to be more happy people. Next I argue for the stronger claim that the happiness of potential people is as important as that of adults. Potential quality of life, then, matters in a host of bioethical issues: abortion, commercial surrogacy, the treatment of defective newborns, and so on. What is the practical upshot of all this? I reject the idea that we must do whatever is necessary to prolong life worth living. But I also reject the view that the side-effects of overpopulation always outweigh the value of realizing potential happiness. So I advocate a middle position, which I do not identify precisely. Even from this middle position, however, potential happiness is more important that is commonly assumed in bioethics.

  14. "Happiness Education": A Pedagogical-Political Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Alex; Souza de Freitas, Ana Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The topic of "happiness education" has received considerable attention in recent years in educational discourse, not just in academia but also in the public sphere. This movement understands that there is a "widespread incidence of psychological harm caused by damage to the child's sense of self-worth" (Smith (2008) "The…

  15. Income inequality and happiness in 119 nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Berg (Maarten); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractINCOME INEQUALITY AND HAPPINESS IN 119 NATIONS All modern nations reduce income differences to some extent, and as a result there is an ongoing discussion about what degree of income inequality is acceptable. In this discussion libertarians oppose egalitarians and a principled consensus

  16. Happiness in Canada Since World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roderick

    2004-01-01

    Where data exist, measures of average happiness in industrialized countries typically show little or no upward trend over time, despite substantial growth in real per capita incomes. This paper examines the existing Canadian data to see if they support this generalization. The Canadian data have some overall positive trend. Some simple regressions…

  17. Teaching Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Considers many ways to teach Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Explores the ironic implications of Macomber's experience and compares it with the experience of Sammy in another initiation story, John Updike's "A&P." Describes how he leads the discussion about this story, and ends the discussion by…

  18. Indonesian EFL Students' Perspective on Writing Process: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermilinda Abas, Imelda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Indonesian students' perspective on the writing process. The pilot study involved two male Indonesian postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The Indonesian students were selected based on the following criteria: (1) had enough knowledge in English writing, indicated by the completion of…

  19. Sozial Studies: How Travel Abroad Empowers a Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The personal experiences and values of individual teachers can tend to restrict the ability to promote a "global perspective" in the social studies, the subject area most suited to that concept. One antidote to this instructional myopia is the prospect of overseas travel, in the form of study tours, the type of which have been shown to…

  20. A blessing I can't afford: factors underlying the paradox of happiness about unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Dillaway, Chloe; Mevs-Korff, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    An unresolved paradox in the measurement and interpretation of unintended pregnancy is that women frequently report feeling happy about pregnancies they also classify as unintended (i.e. they have incongruent intentions and feelings). This study explores the underlying reasons why women profess such happiness and how these relate to their motivations to avoid pregnancy. Between September 2013 and February 2014, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 women (8 white, 19 Latina) selected from a longitudinal study measuring prospective pregnancy intentions and feelings among 403 women in Austin, Texas. Women were selected for interview on the basis of wanting no more children and consistently professing either happiness (n = 17) or unhappiness (n = 10) at the prospect of pregnancy. Interviews were coded and analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. We found that it is possible for women to express happiness at the idea of pregnancy while simultaneously earnestly trying to prevent conception. Happiness at the idea of an unintended pregnancy was explained as the result of deep and heartfelt feelings about children taking precedence over practical considerations, the perception that the psychosocial stress resulting from another child would be low, and the ability to rationalize an unintended pregnancy as the result of fate or God's plan. The major exception to the sincerity of professed happiness was that conveyed as a result of social pressure despite truly negative feelings, predominantly expressed by foreign-born Latina women. Overall, equating incongruence with ambivalence about avoiding conception may undermine the sincerity of women's intentions and their desires for highly-effective contraception. At the same time, unintended pregnancies that are greeted with happiness may have different implications for maternal and child health outcomes compared to pregnancies that are greeted with unhappiness. Identifying which unintended

  1. Felicidad y constitucionalismo = Happiness and constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Lorca Martín de Villodres

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la felicidad, y su oportuna vinculación con la justicia, ha sido puesta de manifiesto desde el pensamiento filosófico clásico griego. Sin embargo, recientemente puede apreciarse claramente el creciente protagonismo y la inusitada actualidad que ha alcanzado el tema de la búsqueda de la felicidad en el discurso político, lo que obliga a meditar sobre ella como principio rector o directriz orientadora del Estado Social, y a saber detectar su presencia —explícita o implícita— en los textos constitucionales. Sólo en una sociedad democrática, y desde el desarrollo efectivo de los derechos fundamentales y de los derechos sociales, particularmente, será posible alcanzar una vida digna, y a partir de ahí, obtener el basamento adecuado para la búsqueda de la felicidad. La felicidad, pues, no es sólo un objetivo individual, es también un asunto público que ha de venir propiciado desde el propio Estado, en cuanto que desde los poderes públicos pueden establecerse las bases adecuadas para su consecución. En la CE de 1978 podemos encontrar preceptos para entender implícitamente incluida la felicidad como directriz orientadora del Estado en sus políticas públicas, y poder sostener así la presencia de una teoría eudemonista en nuestro Estado Social. Percibir la existencia de una notable preocupación por la felicidad de los ciudadanos en el desarrollo de las políticas públicas actuales supone, en cualquier caso, un afortunado retorno hacia el ámbito de lo humano, una nueva oportunidad para preocuparnos por el ser persona. Happiness has been linked to justice since ancient times, particularly since the beginning of Greek Classical Thought. However, nowadays the importance of happiness can surprisingly be found again in political speech, which makes us think about it, and obviously it is worth doing. Happiness could be considered as a main principle of the Social State. This idea obliges us to look carefully into

  2. Happiness on the street: Overall happiness among homeless people in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, Sonia; Guillén, Ana Isabel; Vázquez, José Juan

    2015-07-01

    This article tests a hypothesized model of overall happiness among homeless people in Spain. The research was conducted based on a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 235), all adults, who had spent the night before the interview in a shelter for homeless people, on the street or in other places not initially designed for sleeping, or who were in supervised accommodation for homeless people at the time of the interview. Information was gathered using a structured interview. The results obtained show that around half of the homeless people in Madrid said that they were happy. A positive meta-stereotype and a better perceived general health were associated with a higher overall happiness, while feelings of loneliness were associated with a lower overall happiness. Happiness also showed a significant effect on future expectations. Disabilities and handicaps had a significant effect on perceived general health, which was in turn associated with overall happiness among homeless people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Health or Happiness? A Note on Trading Off Health and Happiness in Rationing Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, E J; van Exel, N J A; Brouwer, W B F

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluations typically value the effects of an intervention in terms of quality-adjusted life-years, which combine length and health-related quality of life. It has been suggested that economic evaluations should incorporate broader outcomes than health-related quality of life. Broader well-being, for instance measured as happiness, could be a better measure of the overall welfare effects in patients because of treatment. An underexplored question is whether and how people trade off information on health and broader outcomes from treatment in rationing decisions. This article presents the results of a first experiment aimed at exploring such trade-offs between health and happiness. We used a Web-based questionnaire in a representative sample of the public from the Netherlands (N = 1015). People made choices between two groups of patients differing in terms of their health and happiness levels before treatment and gains from treatment. The results showed that about half the respondents were willing to discriminate between patient groups on the basis of their health and happiness levels before and after treatment. In the trader group, health gains were considered somewhat more important than happiness gains. Our findings suggest that both health and happiness levels of patients may play a role in priority setting. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Burden and happiness in head and neck cancer carers: the role of supportive care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Maguire, Rebecca; Balfe, Myles; Hyland, Philip; Timmons, Aileen; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; Butow, Phyllis; Sharp, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between unmet supportive care needs and carer burden and happiness, in head and neck cancer (HNC). Two hundred eighty-five HNC informal carers were sent a postal questionnaire between January and June 2014, which included the supportive care needs survey for partners and caregivers of cancer survivors (SCNS-P&C) and the CarerQol, which assesses burden and happiness. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association of (i) carer characteristics, (ii) carer situation, and (iii) unmet supportive care needs, with carer burden and happiness One hundred ninety-seven carers completed the questionnaire (response rate = 69 %), 180 of whom were included in the analysis. The majority were female (76 %), not in paid employment (68 %) and caring for their spouse (67 %). On average, carers reported relatively low levels of burden and relatively high levels of happiness. Carer factors explained 42 % of variance in levels of burden and 24 % of variance in levels of happiness. Healthcare service needs were associated with carer burden (β = .28, p = .04), while psychological needs (β = -.38, p = .028), health care service needs (β = -.30, p = .049), information needs (β = .29, p = .028), carer comorbidity (β = -.18, p = .030), and gender (β = -.16, p = .045) were associated with happiness. Our results indicate that different aspects of carer characteristics and unmet needs are associated with carer burden and happiness. Efforts directed at reducing unmet healthcare service needs in particular are merited given their associations with both aspects of carer quality of life.

  5. Superior recognition performance for happy masked and unmasked faces in both younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aging literature it has been shown that even though emotion recognition performance decreases with age, the decrease is less for happiness than other facial expressions. Studies in younger adults have also revealed that happy faces are more strongly attended to and better recognized than other emotional facial expressions. Thus, there might be a more age independent happy face advantage in facial expression recognition. By using a backward masking paradigm and varying stimulus onset asynchronies (17–267 ms the temporal development of a happy face advantage, on a continuum from low to high levels of visibility, was examined in younger and older adults. Results showed that across age groups, recognition performance for happy faces was better than for neutral and fearful faces at durations longer than 50 ms. Importantly, the results showed a happy face advantage already during early processing of emotional faces in both younger and older adults. This advantage is discussed in terms of processing of salient perceptual features and elaborative processing of the happy face. We also investigate the combined effect of age and neuroticism on emotional face processing. The rationale was previous findings of age related differences in physiological arousal to emotional pictures and a relation between arousal and neuroticism. Across all durations, there was an interaction between age and neuroticism, showing that being high in neuroticism might be disadvantageous for younger, but not older adults’ emotion recognition performance during arousal enhancing tasks. These results indicate that there is a relation between aging, neuroticism, and performance, potentially related to physiological arousal.

  6. Happy oil companies; Heureux petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maincent, G

    2009-08-27

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  7. The Relationships Among Socio-Demographics, Perceived Health, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Lord, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores explore the relationships among socio-demographics, perceived health, and happiness in a patient population of 221 adults recruited from 39 primary care practices in Alabama. We also explored whether the relationship between socio-demographics and happiness is mediated by perceived health. The dependent variable, happiness, was dichotomized as happy versus unhappy. Independent variables or correlates of happiness included race (Black or White), age (happiness and its correlates. Our findings suggest that adequate health literacy and better perceived health are associated with an increase in the likelihood of happiness. In addition, the relationship between perceived sufficient income and happiness is mediated by perceived health; whereas, individuals with sufficient income are more likely to have better perceived health, and as a result more likely to be happy. Other individual factors, such as gender, age, and race were not significantly associated with being happy or having higher perceived health in any of the models. Results suggest that policies aimed at increasing health literacy, promoting health, and reducing income disparities may be associated with greater happiness. PMID:28757904

  8. Children's Moral Emotion Attribution in the Happy Victimizer Task: The Role of Response Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Rodríguez-Cano, Sonia; Dellaria, Giulia; Smith, Gary; Wilson, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in the happy victimizer tradition indicated that preschool and early elementary school children attribute positive emotions to the violator of a moral norm, whereas older children attribute negative (moral) emotions. Cognitive and motivational processes have been suggested to underlie this developmental shift. The current research investigated whether making the happy victimizer task less cognitively demanding by providing children with alternative response formats would increase their attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation. In Study 1, 93 British children aged 4-7 years old responded to the happy victimizer questions either in a normal condition (where they spontaneously pointed with a finger), a wait condition (where they had to wait before giving their answers), or an arrow condition (where they had to point with a paper arrow). In Study 2, 40 Spanish children aged 4 years old responded to the happy victimizer task either in a normal or a wait condition. In both studies, participants' attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation was significantly higher in the conditions with alternative response formats (wait, arrow) than in the normal condition. The role of cognitive abilities for emotion attribution in the happy victimizer task is discussed.

  9. Happiness and its relation to psychological well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heizomi, Haleh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Safaian, Abdolrasul

    2015-08-01

    In the present decade, adolescents' mental problems are known as critical problems which have many destructive consequences. This study aimed to measure students' happiness and psychological well-being status in a sample of high school students. The cross sectional study consisted of 403 randomly selected high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Numerous variables including general health status, happiness, self-efficacy, perceived stress, hopefulness and life satisfaction were measured by using self-reported written questionnaires. Significant relation observed between happiness and psychological well-being (r=0.48). Those students with good relationship and those who had reported to enjoy attending social events indicated better mental health status. No causal inferences were investigated due to the non-experimental nature of the study. The findings also revealed that students with higher happiness score have a better school performance. Integration of happiness promotion initiatives into the comprehensive school health programs is recommended to have pleasant environments for a healthy population of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced amygdala and ventral striatal activity to happy faces in PTSD is associated with emotional numbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Felmingham

    Full Text Available There has been a growing recognition of the importance of reward processing in PTSD, yet little is known of the underlying neural networks. This study tested the predictions that (1 individuals with PTSD would display reduced responses to happy facial expressions in ventral striatal reward networks, and (2 that this reduction would be associated with emotional numbing symptoms. 23 treatment-seeking patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were recruited from the treatment clinic at the Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, Westmead Hospital, and 20 trauma-exposed controls were recruited from a community sample. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during the presentation of happy and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. PTSD participants rated happy facial expression as less intense than trauma-exposed controls. Relative to controls, PTSD participants revealed lower activation to happy (-neutral faces in ventral striatum and and a trend for reduced activation in left amygdala. A significant negative correlation was found between emotional numbing symptoms in PTSD and right ventral striatal regions after controlling for depression, anxiety and PTSD severity. This study provides initial evidence that individuals with PTSD have lower reactivity to happy facial expressions, and that lower activation in ventral striatal-limbic reward networks may be associated with symptoms of emotional numbing.

  11. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73) who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40) of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively) of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62), whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20). Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the importance of that some healthy

  12. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straten Annemieke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73 who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40 of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62, whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20. Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the

  13. Leadership, Organizational, and Institutional Studies: Reconciling and Teaching Competing Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership, organizational, and institutional theories provide competing explanations on the nature of leadership and role of leaders. Part of the problem is that each theory is often studied in isolation, leading to incomplete perspectives on the essence of leadership in value driven contexts. A holistic paradigm that blends the three dominant…

  14. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite

  15. The influence of regional deprivation index on personal happiness using multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil Hun Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the happiness index of community residents, by considering personal and regional aspects, and to use as evidence of efforts for improvement of the happiness index. METHODS: The study was conducted based on information from 16,270 participants who met the data requirement among those who participated in the 2011 South Gyeongsang Community Health Survey. Of the factors that can influence the happiness index, socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, morbidity, and healthcare use, social contact, and participation in social activities were classified as personal factors; for regional factors, data from the 2010 census were used to extrapolate the regional deprivation indices at the submunicipal-level (eup, myeon, and dong in South Gyeongsang Province. The happiness index for each characteristic was compared to that for others via t-test and ANOVA, and multilevel analysis was performed, using four models: a basic model for identification of only random effects, model 1 for identification of personal factors, model 2 for identification of regional factors, and model 3 for simultaneous consideration of both personal and regional factors. RESULTS: The mean happiness index was 63.2 points (64.6 points in males and 62.0 points in females, while the mean deprivation index was -1.58 points. In the multilevel analysis, the regional-level variance ratio of the basic model was 10.8%, confirming interregional differences. At the personal level, higher happiness indices were seen in groups consisting of males with high educational level, high income, high degree of physical activity, sufficient sleep, active social contact, and participation in social activities; whereas lower happiness indices were seen in people who frequently skipped breakfast, had unmet healthcare needs, and had accompanying diseases, as well as those with higher deprivation index. CONCLUSIONS

  16. The influence of regional deprivation index on personal happiness using multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kil Hun; Chun, Jin-Ho; Sohn, Hae Sook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the happiness index of community residents, by considering personal and regional aspects, and to use as evidence of efforts for improvement of the happiness index. The study was conducted based on information from 16,270 participants who met the data requirement among those who participated in the 2011 South Gyeongsang Community Health Survey. Of the factors that can influence the happiness index, socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, morbidity, and healthcare use, social contact, and participation in social activities were classified as personal factors; for regional factors, data from the 2010 census were used to extrapolate the regional deprivation indices at the submunicipal-level (eup, myeon, and dong) in South Gyeongsang Province. The happiness index for each characteristic was compared to that for others via t-test and ANOVA, and multilevel analysis was performed, using four models: a basic model for identification of only random effects, model 1 for identification of personal factors, model 2 for identification of regional factors, and model 3 for simultaneous consideration of both personal and regional factors. The mean happiness index was 63.2 points (64.6 points in males and 62.0 points in females), while the mean deprivation index was -1.58 points. In the multilevel analysis, the regional-level variance ratio of the basic model was 10.8%, confirming interregional differences. At the personal level, higher happiness indices were seen in groups consisting of males with high educational level, high income, high degree of physical activity, sufficient sleep, active social contact, and participation in social activities; whereas lower happiness indices were seen in people who frequently skipped breakfast, had unmet healthcare needs, and had accompanying diseases, as well as those with higher deprivation index. The study confirmed that the happiness index of community

  17. Facilitating Effects of Emotion on the Perception of Biological Motion: Evidence for a Happiness Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah; Kim, Jejoong

    2017-06-01

    It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect. Point-light walkers with three emotion types (anger, happiness, and neutral) were used, and the threshold to detect BM within noise was measured in Experiment 1. Participants showed higher performance in detecting happy walkers compared with the angry and neutral walkers. Follow-up motion velocity analysis revealed that physical difference among the stimuli was not the main factor causing the effect. The results of the emotion recognition task in Experiment 2 also showed a happiness superiority effect, as in Experiment 1. These results show that emotional valence (happiness) of the stimuli can facilitate the processing of BM.

  18. The Relationship between Happiness and Fear of Childbirth in Nulliparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Sadat Seyed Ahmadi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being. Happy individuals tend to interpret and process feeling in a positive way. Accordingly, the response to the pain may alter due to the effects of subjective elements on the pain perception. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the level of contentment and fear of childbirth (FOC in nulliparous women referring to the healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 370 nulliparous women who were selected through multistage sampling method from urban healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran, 2014. Data collected using demographic and obstetric questionnaire, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ (an instrument for measuring the FOC. Data analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent samples t-test, regression, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Tukey honest significant difference (HSD, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient tests with SPSS software version 11.5. Results: The mean levels of happiness and FOC were 123.97±18.82 and 45.80±7.57, respectively. There was a significant correlation between happiness and FOC (P

  19. Evaluation of a seven-week web-based happiness training to improve psychological well-being, reduce stress, and enhance mindfulness and flourishing: a randomized controlled occupational health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feicht, T; Wittmann, M; Jose, G; Mock, A; von Hirschhausen, E; Esch, T

    2013-01-01

    Background. As distress in society increases, including work environments, individual capacities to compete with stress have to be strengthened. Objective. We examined the impact of a web-based happiness training on psychological and physiological parameters, by self-report and objective means, in an occupational health setting. Methods. Randomized controlled trial with 147 employees. Participants were divided into intervention (happiness training) and control groups (waiting list). The intervention consisted of a seven-week online training. Questionnaires were administered before, after, and four weeks after training. The following scales were included: VAS (happiness and satisfaction), WHO-5 Well-being Index, Stress Warning Signals, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Recovery Experience Questionnaire, and Flourishing Scale. Subgroup samples for saliva cortisol and alpha-amylase determinations were taken, indicating stress, and Attention Network Testing for effects on attention regulation. Results. Happiness (P = 0.000; d = 0.93), satisfaction (P = 0.000; d = 1.17), and quality of life (P = 0.000; d = 1.06) improved; perceived stress was reduced (P = 0.003; d = 0.64); mindfulness (P = 0.006; d = 0.62), flourishing (P = 0.002; d = 0.63), and recovery experience (P = 0.030; d = 0.42) also increased significantly. No significant differences in the Attention Network Tests and saliva results occurred (intergroup), except for one saliva value. Conclusions. The web-based training can be a useful tool for stabilizing health/psychological well-being and work/life balance.

  20. PENGARUH MATERIALISM HAPPINESS, MATERIALISM CENTRALITY DAN MATERIALISM SUCCESS TERHADAP IMPULSIVE BUYING DAN EFEKNYA PADA COMPULSIVE BUYING BEHAVIOR (Studi empiris pada mahasiswa yang berbelanja pakaian di department store di Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    DITASARI, VALENTINA

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh dimensi materialisme (materialism happiness, centrality, dan success) terhadap impulsive buying dan efeknya pada compulsive buying behavior. Penelitian ini menggunakan responden mahasiswa dan mahasiswi yang berada di beberapa Universitas di Yogyakarta sebagai obyek penelitian. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah responden yang pernah dan cenderung sering melakukan pembelian atau berbelanja pakaian di Departement Store yang ada di Yogyakarta. ...

  1. Generative perspectives for the study of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Simões Santana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematization of the evolution of generative linguistic studies. The paper initially describes the main arguments that support generative cognitivism and which ones distinguish it from the empiricist tradition. Following, some grammar models emerged from the generative theory are presented. Convergences and divergences between theoretical generative studies and the psycholinguistic studies are also referenced. Findings of psycholinguistics based on methods that consider real time speaker linguistic coding and interference of prosodic patterns suggest that the theoretical generative studies should improve research methods in order to make more grounded predictions.

  2. Effectiveness of Teach-Back Self-Management Training Program on Happiness of Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Rahnama, Mozhgan; Afshari, Mahdi; Asadi Bidmeshki, Elahe

    2016-10-01

    Self-management training is one of the ways to empower patients to cope with disease. The aim of this before-and-after quasi-experimental study was to determine effects of a teach-back self-management training method on breast cancer patient happiness. Fifty breast cancer patients who visited the Park-e Neshat Limited Surgery Clinic in Kerman, Iran were randomly divided into intervention and control groups after convenience sampling and checking for inclusion eligibility. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory before and after teach-back training and analyzed using SPSS 23. Findings showed no significant difference between mean happiness scores in the two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention, the mean happiness score in the intervention group increased from 37.2 to 62.9, while it decreased from 41.4 to 29.8 in the control group. These changes were statistically significant (phappiness levels in breast cancer patients. Therefore, the use of this method is recommended to improve self-management and increase happiness. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Role of tempo entrainment in psychophysiological differentiation of happy and sad music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Roy, Mathieu; Rainville, Pierre; Dalla Bella, Simone; Peretz, Isabelle

    2008-04-01

    Respiration rate allows to differentiate between happy and sad excerpts which may be attributable to entrainment of respiration to the rhythm or the tempo rather than to emotions [Etzel, J.A., Johnsen, E.L., Dickerson, J., Tranel, D., Adolphs, R., 2006. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses during musical mood induction. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61(1), 57-69]. In order to test for this hypothesis, this study intended to verify whether fast and slow rhythm, and/or tempo alone are sufficient to induce differential physiological effects. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal responses, facial muscles activity, blood pressure, heart and respiration rate) were then measured in fifty young adults listening to fast/happy and slow/sad music, and to two control versions of these excerpts created by removing pitch variations (rhythmic version) and both pitch and temporal variations (beat-alone). The results indicate that happy and sad music are significantly differentiated (happy>sad) by diastolic blood pressure, electrodermal activity, and zygomatic activity, while the fast and slow rhythmic and tempo control versions did not elicit such differentiations. In contrast, respiration rate was faster with stimuli presented at fast tempi relative to slow stimuli in the beat-alone condition. It was thus demonstrated that the psychophysiological happy/sad distinction requires the tonal variations and cannot be explained solely by entrainment to tempo and rhythm. The tempo entrainment exists in the tempo alone condition but our results suggest this effect may disappear when embedded in music or with rhythm.

  4. HappyFace as a monitoring tool for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367045; Yahyapour, Ramin

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the informa- tion and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are al- ways under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the dif- ferent HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repos- itory, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, ...

  5. Exploring constructs of well-being, happiness and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Oleg N; Landhuis, C Erik

    2018-01-01

    Existing definitions of happiness, subjective well-being, and quality of life suggest conceptual overlap between these constructs. This study explored the relationship between these well-being constructs by applying widely used measures with satisfactory psychometric properties. University students ( n = 180) completed widely used well-being measures including the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. We analyzed the data using correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analysis. All included well-being measures demonstrated high loadings on the global well-being construct that explains about 80% of the variance in the OHQ, the psychological domain of Quality of Life and subjective well-being. The results show high positive correlations between happiness, psychological and health domains of quality of life, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Social and environmental domains of quality of life were poor predictors of happiness and subjective well-being after controlling for psychological quality of life. Together, these data provide support for a global well-being dimension and interchangeable use of terms happiness, subjective well-being, and psychological quality of life with the current sample and measures. Further investigation with larger heterogeneous samples and other well-being measures is warranted.

  6. Study abroad: perspectives on transitions to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Irish immrama literary style seems the most appropriate way to represent student narratives based on their study abroad experiences in Ireland. The chapters containing the\\ud immrama of students are an ethnographic experiment in which the reflexivity students demonstrated through the interview process is presented in narrative form. This writing style provides the context for the examination of issues related to academic aspirations, professional, and personal wandering, and how study abr...

  7. The feasibility study: a health economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Gannon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The remit of research funding bodies is to prioritise funding for research that is of relevance and of high quality. This in turn will aim to raise the quality of healthcare and benefit to patients. Researchers are faced with increasing demands and expectations from the public purse and patients. The emphasis is to improve the quality of their research, with the ultimate aim of improving population health. While guidelines on feasibility study methods concentrate heavily on trials, there appears less guidance on application of health economics within feasibility studies, yet these are a less costly way to determine first of all if a full randomised controlled trial (RCT is feasible. A feasibility study assesses if the study can be done in a small RCT type study. Since by definition, a feasibility study does not evaluate the outcome, researchers often omit the health economics aspects but do however include statistical analysis. This leaves a gap in interpretation for policy makers and potential funders. It also means that any resulting publication does not include relevant information and therefore comparison across studies in terms of difficulty in collecting cost data is not possible. The main aim of this commentary therefore, is to demonstrate a suggested health economics analysis within a feasibility study and to recommend to researchers to include these aspects from the conception of their intervention. This paper proposes a number of points, with rationale for each point, to indicate the health economics data and the potential benefits required for coherent interpretation of the feasibility of future economic evaluations in a full trial. Economic evaluation is necessary if implementation into standard care is anticipated. Therefore, collection and summary analysis of relevant data is good practice at each point of the intervention development. Current guidelines for economic evaluation, for example, The Medical Research Guidelines in the

  8. The protective effect of job satisfaction in health, happiness, well-being and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satuf, Cibele; Monteiro, Samuel; Pereira, Henrique; Esgalhado, Graça; Marina Afonso, Rosa; Loureiro, Manuel

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the possible effects of job satisfaction on mental and physical health, happiness, subjective well-being and self-esteem. A total of 971 Portuguese-speaking adults participated in this study. Most participants reported high rates of satisfaction with their colleagues, the nature of their work and leadership, while reporting dissatisfaction with regard to salaries and promotions. Results indicated the existence of the protector effect of job satisfaction for health, happiness, subjective well-being and self-esteem, in addition to reinforcing the importance of maintaining a positive evaluation of one's work. As a practical implication, the results may suggest that the effects of personnel management policies which emphasize job satisfaction could potentially lead to improvements in levels of health, happiness, subjective well-being and workers' self-esteem, all of which are factors that can potentially improve organizational performance. The study also considered its limitations and the possibility for future investigation.

  9. Adaptation in very old age: exploring the role of resources, beliefs, and attitudes for centenarians' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela; Rott, Christoph

    2006-06-01

    When individuals reach very old age, accumulating negative conditions represent a serious challenge to their capacity to adapt and are likely to reduce the quality of life. By examining happiness and its determinants in centenarians, this study investigated the proposal that psychological resilience may come to an end in extremely old age. Data from the population-based Heidelberg Centenarian Study indicated high levels of happiness. Basic resources (i.e., job training, cognition, health, social network, extraversion) explained a substantial proportion of variance in happiness, but some resource effects were mediated through self-referent beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy) and attitudes toward life (e.g., optimistic outlook). Results challenge the view that psychological resilience reaches a critical limit or that the self-regulatory adaptation system loses its efficiency in very advanced age. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The gender gap in relation to happiness and preferences in married couples after childbirth: evidence from a field experiment in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Akpalu, Bright; Mahama, Emmanuel; Ayipah, Emmanuel Kwesi; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Hodgson, Abraham; Shibanuma, Akira; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-03-15

    How does the gap in preferences between married couples affect their happiness after childbirth? Are couples that share similar preferences happier? In recent years, gender, marriage, and happiness have been considered to be key issues in public health research. Although much research has examined the happiness status of married couples, practically no study has explored the gender gap in relation to happiness and the preferences of married couples after childbirth. Therefore, our study was conducted to assess the association between the preference gap and the happiness status among married couples in the afterbirth period. We conducted a field experiment in rural communities in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. Participants were 80 married couples who had experienced childbirth within 2 years prior to the survey. As preference indicators, we measured trust, reciprocity, altruism, and risk lovingness through an economic experiment. Then, we assessed how, for a couple, the gap between these preferences affected their happiness. Wives' happiness was positively associated with the absolute value of the gap in risk lovingness between a couple (OR = 4.83, p = 0.08), while husbands' happiness was negatively associated with the gap in trust (OR = -3.58, p = 0.04) or altruism (OR = -3.33, p = 0.02). Within a couple, wives felt greater happiness than their husbands if there was a wider gap in trust (OR = 6.22, p = 0.01), reciprocity (OR = 2.80, p = 0.01), or risk lovingness (OR = 3.81, p = 0.07). The gender gaps in the preference indicators were found to be closely associated with the happiness levels between married couples after childbirth. For the further improvement of maternal and child health, we must consider the gender gaps between couples in relation to happiness and preferences.

  11. Uncertainty, Risk Taking and Marital Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Jones, William

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: By analysing the effect of internal and external risks on marital happiness this paper concludes that social welfare is maximised by employment status and limiting the negative effect of children. Muslim, Christian and Sikh marriages were predominantly found to be unhappier as a parent in the household specialised in domestic labour and didn’t enter the workforce. ‘Non-religious’ groups have higher levels of female employment and consequently happier marriages. The discussion sugges...

  12. Eastern and western happiness in work behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Kubátová

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivatio...

  13. Efficacy of rajayoga meditation on positive thinking: an index for self-satisfaction and happiness in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M G, Ramesh; B, Sathian; E, Sinu; S Rai, Kiranmai

    2013-10-01

    Psychological studies have shown that brief period of mindfulness meditation significantly improves critical cognitive skills. But, there are no studies which have assessed the effects of Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga Meditation (BKRM) practice on positive thinking and happiness in life. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis is BKRM enhances positive thinking and that essential to attain higher levels of self-satisfaction and happiness in life. This study is a cross sectional comparative study which was done between Rajayoga meditators and non-meditators. This study was conducted at BKRM Centres at Manipal and Udupi in Karnataka, India. Fifty subjects were selected for this study, which included those practising BKRM in their normal routine life (n=25) and non-meditators (n=25) who were aged 42.95+/15.29 years. Self-reported Oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ) was administered to all subjects and their happiness scores and status were assessed and compared. Items related to self-satisfaction in life were selected from the OHQ and compared between meditators and non-meditators. Participants completed self-reported OHQ, from which data of happiness status and self-satisfaction in relation to meditation duration and frequency were analyzed by descriptive statistics and test of hypothesis. Mean happiness scores of BKRM were significantly higher (phappiness status were significantly higher (phappiness score and self-satisfaction score. BKRM helps in significantly increasing self-satisfaction and happiness in life by enhancing positive thinking. Irrespective of age and years of short-term or long-term meditation practice, enhanced positive thinking increases self-satisfaction and happiness in life.

  14. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  15. a qualitative study of providers' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma management is challenging to patients as well as to the eye care providers.The study is aimed at describing the challenges faced by providers using qualitative methods. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with selected Ophthalmologists and resident doctors in ophthalmology at centres ...

  16. Parents’ Perspectives on Radicalization: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sikkens (Elga); M.R.P.J.R.S. van San (Marion); S. Sieckelinck (Stijn); M. de Winter (Micha)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Radicalization of young people might be influenced by the way parents react towards the development of political or religious ideals. However, these reactions have hardly been explored. This study aimed to discover how parents reacted to the development of extreme ideals, and

  17. Natural selection and the elusiveness of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2004-09-29

    The quest for happiness has expanded from a focus on relieving suffering to also considering how to promote happiness. However, both approaches have yet to be conducted in an evolutionary framework based on the situations that shaped the capacities for happiness and sadness. Because of this, the emphasis has almost all been on the disadvantages of negative states and the benefits of positive states, to the nearly total neglect of 'diagonal psychology', which also considers the dangers of unwarranted positive states and the benefits of negative emotions in certain situations. The situations that arise in goal pursuit contain adaptive challenges that have shaped domain-general positive and negative emotions that were partially differentiated by natural selection to cope with the more specific situations that arise in the pursuit of different kinds of goals. In cultures where large social groups give rise to specialized and competitive social roles, depression may be common because regulation systems are pushed far beyond the bounds for which they were designed. Research on the evolutionary origins of the capacities for positive and negative emotions is urgently needed to provide a foundation for sensible decisions about the use of new mood-manipulating technologies.

  18. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Lobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1 individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2 health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3 dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.

  19. Changes and Perspectives in Food Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dumoulin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food Studies represent the bases for multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, food engineering, food management, and how to use these scientific bases in a food worldwide context. Teaching and learning must be adapted to the new students, to the new tools, considering the cost of studies and equipment. The international availability of raw materials, the diversity of cultures, tastes and habits must be taken into account in the controlled food processes. Food engineering must be taught with reference to nutrition, health and security, but also to packaging, logistics, international rules, management of water, energy, wastes and cost. So how do we teach the present and future food engineers, to help them to acquire and build their own knowledge, to develop curiosity, an open mind and team work? How do we teach them to use, in an efficient way, computers, data bases, the internet, but also to learn and practice in the lab, on pilot equipment, in the plant during long internships? How do we give them the desire to conceive, to create, to manage, to communicate and to continue to learn during their professional life? International networks of universities, with associated people from research and industry, with teachers in elementary and secondary schools, with students, represent a main factor for reciprocal knowledge and exchanges, to preserve and use diversity to develop new ideas for teaching and learning. The objectives are to contribute to the development of our society, to feed in an harmonized way the world made of human beings, consumers, and workers in industry, research and universities.

  20. Threat advantage: perception of angry and happy dynamic faces across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Claudia; Mesquita, Batja; Yik, Michelle; Cragwall, Caroline; Gallagher, Ashleigh H

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested whether the perception of angry faces is cross-culturally privileged over that of happy faces, by comparing perception of the offset of emotion in a dynamic flow of expressions. Thirty Chinese and 30 European-American participants saw movies that morphed an anger expression into a happy expression of the same stimulus person, or vice versa. Participants were asked to stop the movie at the point where they ceased seeing the initial emotion. As expected, participants cross-culturally continued to perceive anger longer than happiness. Moreover, anger was perceived longer in in-group than in out-group faces. The effects were driven by female rather than male targets. Results are discussed with reference to the important role of context in emotion perception.