Matricially free random variables
Lenczewski, Romuald
2008-01-01
We show that the operatorial framework developed by Voiculescu for free random variables can be extended to arrays of random variables whose multiplication imitates matricial multiplication. The associated notion of independence, called matricial freeness, can be viewed as a generalization of both freeness and monotone independence. At the same time, the sums of matricially free random variables, called random pseudomatrices, are closely related to Gaussian random matrices. The main results presented in this paper concern the standard and tracial central limit theorems for random pseudomatrices and the corresponding limit distributions which can be viewed as matricial generalizations of semicirle laws.
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2003-01-01
textabstractJeremy Bentham (1789) wrote that the moral worth of all action should be judged by the degree to which it contributes to the 'greater happiness of a greater number'. This philosophy is still object of much controversy (Smart & Williams 1973). The following objections have been raised. 1)
Anwer Khurshid
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.
Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health
Garaigordobil, Maite
2015-01-01
Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness; and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14–16 years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self
Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health
Maite eGaraigordobil
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: 1 To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; 2 To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills for health; 3 To identify predictor variables of happiness; and 4 To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14-16 years old. The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…, fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic, high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal. Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.;
2007-01-01
A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....
Conditional acceptability of random variables
Tasos C Christofides
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Acceptable random variables introduced by Giuliano Antonini et al. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 338:1188-1203, 2008 form a class of dependent random variables that contains negatively dependent random variables as a particular case. The concept of acceptability has been studied by authors under various versions of the definition, such as extended acceptability or wide acceptability. In this paper, we combine the concept of acceptability with the concept of conditioning, which has been the subject of current research activity. For conditionally acceptable random variables, we provide a number of probability inequalities that can be used to obtain asymptotic results.
WEAK UNCORRELATEDNESS OF RANDOM VARIABLES
Sofiya Ostrovska
2006-01-01
New measures of independence for n random variables, based on their moments, are studied. A scale of degrees of independence for random variables which starts with uncorrelatedness (for n = 2) and finishes at independence is constructed. The scale provides a countable linearly ordered set of measures of independence.
Voiculescu, Dan; Nica, Alexandru
1992-01-01
This book presents the first comprehensive introduction to free probability theory, a highly noncommutative probability theory with independence based on free products instead of tensor products. Basic examples of this kind of theory are provided by convolution operators on free groups and by the asymptotic behavior of large Gaussian random matrices. The probabilistic approach to free products has led to a recent surge of new results on the von Neumann algebras of free groups. The book is ideally suited as a textbook for an advanced graduate course and could also provide material for a seminar. In addition to researchers and graduate students in mathematics, this book will be of interest to physicists and others who use random matrices.
RANDOM VARIABLE WITH FUZZY PROBABILITY
吕恩琳; 钟佑明
2003-01-01
Mathematic description about the second kind fuzzy random variable namely the random variable with crisp event-fuzzy probability was studied. Based on the interval probability and using the fuzzy resolution theorem, the feasible condition about a probability fuzzy number set was given, go a step further the definition arid characters of random variable with fuzzy probability ( RVFP ) and the fuzzy distribution function and fuzzy probability distribution sequence of the RVFP were put forward. The fuzzy probability resolution theorem with the closing operation of fuzzy probability was given and proved. The definition and characters of mathematical expectation and variance of the RVFP were studied also. All mathematic description about the RVFP has the closing operation for fuzzy probability, as a result, the foundation of perfecting fuzzy probability operation method is laid.
Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Quoidbach, Jordi; Mauss, Iris B
2013-02-01
Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion variability versus stability across 2 distinct studies, populations, and scientifically validated approaches for quantifying variability in emotion across time. Study 1 used a daily experience approach in a U.S. community sample (N = 244) to examine positive emotion variability across 2 weeks (macrolevel). Study 2 adopted a daily reconstruction method in a French adult sample (N = 2,391) to examine variability within 1 day (microlevel). Greater macro- and microlevel variability in positive emotion was associated with worse psychological health, including lower well-being and life satisfaction and greater depression and anxiety (Study 1), and lower daily satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness (Study 2). Taken together, these findings support the notion that positive emotion variability plays an important and incremental role in psychological health above and beyond overall levels of happiness, and that too much variability might be maladaptive.
Weiss, Laura A; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
2013-09-20
The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group 'Customized Care'. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as "How do you want to live your life?". The intervention helps people to find their 'passion', i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Shortcomings of earlier intervention studies in positive
Ordered random variables theory and applications
Shahbaz, Muhammad Qaiser; Hanif Shahbaz, Saman; Al-Zahrani, Bander M
2016-01-01
Ordered Random Variables have attracted several authors. The basic building block of Ordered Random Variables is Order Statistics which has several applications in extreme value theory and ordered estimation. The general model for ordered random variables, known as Generalized Order Statistics has been introduced relatively recently by Kamps (1995).
Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health
Maite eGaraigordobil
2015-01-01
Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: 1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; 2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; 3) To identify predi...
Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health
Garaigordobil, Maite
2015-01-01
Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; (3) To identify pr...
Conditional variable importance for random forests
Strobl, Carolin; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Kneib, Thomas; Augustin, Thomas; Zeileis, Achim
2008-01-01
Random forests are becoming increasingly popular in many scientific fields because they can cope with "small n large p" problems, complex interactions and even highly correlated predictor variables...
Random Effect and Latent Variable Model Selection
Dunson, David B
2008-01-01
Presents various methods for accommodating model uncertainty in random effects and latent variable models. This book focuses on frequentist likelihood ratio and score tests for zero variance components. It also focuses on Bayesian methods for random effects selection in linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed models
Conditional variable importance for random forests
Augustin Thomas
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Random forests are becoming increasingly popular in many scientific fields because they can cope with "small n large p" problems, complex interactions and even highly correlated predictor variables. Their variable importance measures have recently been suggested as screening tools for, e.g., gene expression studies. However, these variable importance measures show a bias towards correlated predictor variables. Results We identify two mechanisms responsible for this finding: (i A preference for the selection of correlated predictors in the tree building process and (ii an additional advantage for correlated predictor variables induced by the unconditional permutation scheme that is employed in the computation of the variable importance measure. Based on these considerations we develop a new, conditional permutation scheme for the computation of the variable importance measure. Conclusion The resulting conditional variable importance reflects the true impact of each predictor variable more reliably than the original marginal approach.
Multiculturalism and subjective happiness as mediated by cultural and relational variables.
Le, Thao N; Lai, Mary H; Wallen, Judy
2009-07-01
A diverse ethnic context and an increasing immigrant youth population will soon become the reality across the entire U.S. demographic landscape. Research has suggested that a multicultural context positively influences ethnic minority and immigrant youth by fostering ethnic identity and psychosocial development. However, it is unknown whether and how perceived multiculturalism can affect positive youth outcomes such as life satisfaction and subjective happiness. This study explored perceived school multiculturalism among 338 ethnic minority and immigrant youth, and found a positive relation between perceived school multiculturalism and subjective happiness with full mediation by ethnocultural empathy for African Americans, Asians, males, and females. Although school multiculturalism was also predictive of ethnocultural empathy for Hispanics, ethnocultural empathy in turn, was not significantly predictive of subjective happiness. Taken together, these results suggest that one way to facilitate psychological growth and flourishing among ethnic minority youth is to encourage multiculturalism in school settings.
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Social Happiness and Social Participation
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction Social happiness is part of the social welfare component and depends more on social and economic determinants than on psychological and medical interventions. Meanwhile , it is one of the core concepts of sustainable development. Being happy is just one of the desirable wishes of life in every society . A nation is fresher and certainly wealthier when its citizens are happy. In this type of society , citizens have optimistic attitudes towards life and things around them. From 2000 onwards, variables such as happiness, hope in future , pleasure and satisfaction have been included as key variables in UN debates to determine level of development s in countries . This phenomenon is measured by the density of social networks and relationships , in many studies is associated with social health and happiness (Kawachi, 2008. Durkheim showed that suicide rates in populations with low levels of participation and social cohesion were more than cohesive communities (Halpern, 2005. Theorists argue that when people reach to a desired location or target , they become happy . According to Lerner, new communities are participatory societies in which modernization process is advanced , a move from traditional society to participatory society is inevitable. In t his view, economic participation means increased activity in the market and an increase in income, political participation means participation in elections , cultural participation means utilization of mass media and emotional involvement means empathy and psychological mobility (Lerner 1969: 86 . Materials & Methods This is quantitative study based on survey. We used Descriptive statistics and indicators such as dispersion and mean , standard deviation , minimum and maximum scores. For inferential statistics and to test the hypotheses, we used Pearson 's correlation coefficient and analysis of variance . A lso for explaining the social happiness variable , a stepwise multiple
Education, Happiness and Wellbeing
Michalos, Alex C.
2008-01-01
Answers to the questions "Does education influence happiness and if so, how and how much?" depend on how one defines and operationalizes "education", "influences" and "happiness". A great variety of research scenarios may be constructed from our three essential variables. What public policies one ought to adopt and implement regarding the…
Education, Happiness and Wellbeing
Michalos, Alex C.
2008-01-01
Answers to the questions "Does education influence happiness and if so, how and how much?" depend on how one defines and operationalizes "education", "influences" and "happiness". A great variety of research scenarios may be constructed from our three essential variables. What public policies one ought to adopt and implement regarding the…
无
2011-01-01
Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.
无
2011-01-01
China Central Television released the results of its recent happiness survey on January 12. The results show that almost 45 percent of more than 80,000 respondents—all Chinese—feel happy or very happy;about 11 percent are not happy. Recently,Beijing Review interviewed Hu Dayuan,Deputy Director of the China Center for Economic Research(CCER) at Peking University. Hu was a consultant on the survey and has done research on happiness for several years.
The Ziggurat Method for Generating Random Variables
George Marsaglia
2000-10-01
Full Text Available We provide a new version of our ziggurat method for generating a random variable from a given decreasing density. It is faster and simpler than the original, and will produce, for example, normal or exponential variates at the rate of 15 million per second with a C version on a 400MHz PC. It uses two tables, integers ki, and reals wi. Some 99% of the time, the required x is produced by: Generate a random 32-bit integer j and let i be the index formed from the rightmost 8 bits of j. If j < k, return x = j x wi. We illustrate with C code that provides for inline generation of both normal and exponential variables, with a short procedure for settting up the necessary tables.
Fast Generation of Discrete Random Variables
George Marsaglia
2004-07-01
Full Text Available We describe two methods and provide C programs for generating discrete random variables with functions that are simple and fast, averaging ten times as fast as published methods and more than five times as fast as the fastest of those. We provide general procedures for implementing the two methods, as well as specific procedures for three of the most important discrete distributions: Poisson, binomial and hypergeometric.
Richter, Luise; Unger, Cindie
2015-01-01
The project at hand aims at outlining if and how happiness measurements can constitute an alternative to the neoliberal measurements of prosperity dominating today. For this purpose, four cases, namely the UN 2013 World Happiness Report and the OECD 2013 Guidelines on measuring subjective well-being as one entity, the Happy Planet Index 2012 from the New Economics Foundation and the report on the Bhutanese Gross National Happiness measurements (2012), have been selected. These perspectives, w...
Landes, Xavier; Unger, Cindie; Andsbjerg, Kjartan
The world Happiness report 2012, commissioned by the united nations, noted that the tools of happiness research have the potential to recast the debate between economic growth and environmental protection. Moreover, it calls for an exploration of the established links between happiness...
Bragdon, Julie
2013-01-01
The author has been thinking a lot about happiness lately. This started in earnest when she watched researcher Shawn Achor's 7-minute TEDX talk, entitled "The Happy Secret to Better Work," with parents and staff. Afterward, she was compelled to buy his book to learn more. "The Happiness Advantage: The Seven Principles of Positive Psychology That…
Landes, Xavier; Unger, Cindie; Andsbjerg, Kjartan;
The world Happiness report 2012, commissioned by the united nations, noted that the tools of happiness research have the potential to recast the debate between economic growth and environmental protection. Moreover, it calls for an exploration of the established links between happiness and enviro...... and environmental sustainability. this report is an attempt to answer that call....
Oswald, Andrew J.; Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel
2009-01-01
Some firms say they care about the happiness and ‘well-being’ of their employees. But are such\\ud claims hype? Or might they be scientific good sense? This study provides evidence that happiness\\ud makes people more productive. First, we examine fundamental real-world shocks (bereavement and\\ud family illness) imposed by Nature. We show that lower happiness is associated with lower\\ud productivity. Second, within the laboratory, we design two randomized controlled trials. Some\\ud individuals ...
Probabilistic norms and statistical convergence of random variables
Mohamad Rafi Segi Rahmat
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The paper extends certain stochastic convergence of sequences of Rk -valued random variables (namely, the convergence in probability, in Lp and almost surely to the context of E-valued random variables.
2013-01-01
Background The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Methods and design Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group ‘Customized Care’. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as “How do you want to live your life?”. The intervention helps people to find their ‘passion’, i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Discussion
Complete Convergence for Weighted Sums of WOD Random Variables
ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Yu; SHEN Ai-ting
2016-01-01
In this article, we study the complete convergence for weighted sums of widely orthant dependent random variables. By using the exponential probability inequality, we establish a complete convergence result for weighted sums of widely orthant dependent ran-dom variables under mild conditions of weights and moments. The result obtained in the paper generalizes the corresponding ones for independent random variables and negatively dependent random variables.
Helm, D T
2000-09-01
Happiness has been defined either as a broad notion of how one feels about their life in general or as an emotional or affective state. Depending on the way researchers define the concept, there have been variable attempts at measurement. With decades of research, we have a better understanding of how to measure the happiness of others. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods appears to be most productive. If we assume that individuals with disabilities are made happy in the same way as are people without disabilities, then we have a good idea of how to proceed with practical and policy matters.
Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion
Abdul Ghafar Ismail; Nurfaradilla Haron
2014-01-01
The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, t...
Benford's Law and Continuous Dependent Random Variables
Becker, Thealexa; Miller, Steven J; Ronan, Ryan; Strauch, Frederick W
2011-01-01
Many systems exhibit a digit bias. For example, the first digit base 10 of the Fibonacci numbers, or of $2^n$, equals 1 not 10% or 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but about 30% of the time. This phenomenon, known as Benford's Law, has many applications, ranging from detecting tax fraud for the IRS to analyzing round-off errors in computer science. The central question is determining which data sets follow Benford's law. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, our work examines models for the decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent, which we handle by a careful analysis of the dependencies and tools from Fourier analysis to obtain quantified convergence rates.
Sources of happiness : What makes people happy?
Reynaldo Alarcón
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The present research had the following goals: (a to identify the favorite objects to reach the happiness; and (b , to determine if the favorite objects are associated with the gender, the married condition and the age of the participant. The sample was integrated by 163 middle classpeople: 81 men and 82 women, all from Lima City. They were requested to choose, from a listof 15 items, the three objects that they consider the most important for happiness. The favorite objects were: "to have good health"; "to have a good relationship with God" and "to have agood family". There were not significant differences in the object choosing according to gender,although there were differences according to age and married condition. The analysis of multiple regression informed that the more important considered objects explain 66% of the varianceof the variable happiness. The results are discussed and compared with similar works.
Money, Age and Happiness: Association of Subjective Wellbeing with Socio-Demographic Variables
Pablo Vera-Villarroel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre felicidad y variables socio demográficas (edad, sexo, estatus socioeconómico, nivel educativo y su asociación con bienestar subjetivo en una muestra latinoamericana encontrando evidencia empírica controversial de su relación. Se encuestó un total de 520 persona (300 mujeres y 220 hombres con edades entre los 18 y 29 años, con una media de 21.26 años, y una desviación estándar de 2.47 quienes respondieron la escala de felicidad subjetiva. La variable felicidad fue categorizada, y los participantes fueron clasificados en dos grupos: felices y no felices. Se analizaron los datos con un Análisis de Componentes Principales y Regresiones Logísticas, los principales resultados muestran que las variables que mejor caracterizan los niveles de felicidad son la edad y estatus socioeconómico. Puntualmente, los resultados indican que una mayor edad predice bajos niveles de felicidad. Por otra parte, a un mayor estatus socioeconómico mayor felicidad reportada. No se encontraron diferencias entre los géneros de los participantes.
A. Bergsma (Ad)
2011-01-01
textabstractThis thesis is inspired by the utilitarian ideology that seeks the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers and tries to add to this cause considering three questions: 1) What is the quality of popular happiness advice? 2) Is unhappiness concentrated in people with mental disorders?
A. Bergsma (Ad)
2011-01-01
textabstractThis thesis is inspired by the utilitarian ideology that seeks the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers and tries to add to this cause considering three questions: 1) What is the quality of popular happiness advice? 2) Is unhappiness concentrated in people with mental disorders? 3
PROBABILITY INEQUALITIES FOR SUMS OF INDEPENDENT UNBOUNDED RANDOM VARIABLES
张涤新; 王志诚
2001-01-01
The tail probability inequalities for the sum of independent unbounded random variables on a probability space ( Ω , T, P) were studied and a new method was proposed to treat the sum of independent unbounded random variables by truncating the original probability space (Ω, T, P ). The probability exponential inequalities for sums of independent unbounded random variables were given. As applications of the results, some interesting examples were given. The examples show that the method proposed in the paper and the results of the paper are quite useful in the study of the large sample properties of the sums of independent unbounded random variables.
Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications
Shynk, John J
2012-01-01
Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app
Fuzzy random variables — I. definitions and theorems
Kwakernaak, H.
1978-01-01
Fuzziness is discussed in the context of multivalued logic, and a corresponding view of fuzzy sets is given. Fuzzy random variables are introduced as random variables whose values are not real but fuzzy numbers, and subsequently redefined as a particular kind of fuzzy set. Expectations of fuzzy
On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables
Saralees Nadarajah
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.
Moment inequalities for the partial sums of random variables
杨善朝
2001-01-01
This paper discusses the conditions under which Rosenthal type inequality is obtained from M-Z-B type inequality. And M-Z-B type inequality is proved for a wide class of random variables. Hence Rosenthal type inequalities for some classes of random variables are obtained.
Fuzzy random variables — I. definitions and theorems
Kwakernaak, Huibert
1978-01-01
Fuzziness is discussed in the context of multivalued logic, and a corresponding view of fuzzy sets is given. Fuzzy random variables are introduced as random variables whose values are not real but fuzzy numbers, and subsequently redefined as a particular kind of fuzzy set. Expectations of fuzzy rand
On order statistics from nonidentical discrete random variables
Yüzbaşı Bahadır
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, pf and df of single order statistic of nonidentical discrete random variables are obtained. These functions are also expressed in integral form. Finally, pf and df of extreme of order statistics of random variables for the nonidentical discrete case are given.
Fuzzy random variables — I. definitions and theorems
Kwakernaak, H.
1978-01-01
Fuzziness is discussed in the context of multivalued logic, and a corresponding view of fuzzy sets is given. Fuzzy random variables are introduced as random variables whose values are not real but fuzzy numbers, and subsequently redefined as a particular kind of fuzzy set. Expectations of fuzzy rand
Laws of large numbers for ratios of uniform random variables
Adler André
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Let {Xnn n ≥ 1} and {Yn, n ≥ 1} be two sequences of uniform random variables. We obtain various strong and weak laws of large numbers for the ratio of these two sequences. Even though these are uniform and naturally bounded random variables the ratios are not bounded and have an unusual behaviour creating Exact Strong Laws.
On complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables
Mi-Hwa Ko
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to establish the complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables satisfying the weak mean domination condition. The result is an improvement of complete convergence in Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund-type SLLN for negatively associated random variables in Kuczmaszewska (Acta Math. Hung. 128:116-130, 2010.
Richard A. Easterlin
2003-01-01
.... Life events in the nonpecuniary domain, such as marriage, divorce, and serious disability, have a lasting effect on happiness, and do not simply deflect the average person temporarily above or below...
Yampey, N
1980-12-01
The author points to the universal character of this complex psychic reality, i.e. happiness, and intends to define and describe its characteristics. Etymologically speaking, it means joy that is experienced through the object reached or the objective achieved, achievements which presuppose activity and effort. This psychological state is a pleasant, relative and dynamic one and shows itself up through the impulses that lead to spontaneous actions which are in harmony with the fundamental tendencies of the subject. They are not alien to running risks and to the will of victory. Some people believe happiness is attained at random, others think it is an art and a science to be developped by voluntary effort. Limited as it is by the order of universe and human constitution, its being a spiritual condition conveys a transcendency to it but by the same token it implies the sacrifice of immediate pleasure. Love between two people is its paramount paradigm. Love originates in sexual attraction but in its development and at its summit there is tenderness and companionship in a mutual relation between two people who share their genitality. Individual happiness is inseparable of collective happiness and on this idea stands social welfare. From the psychoanalytical point of view, the feeling of happiness relates itself to the personality as a whole and presupposes the cooperation in harmony of all the constituents of the self. It occurs when there is an experience of unity between Ego and World, Id or Ego Ideal, unity which is a consequence of having liberated oneself from the repressive instance. It is the result of a synthetic process, is essentially endogenous and is reached by the linking force of narcissistic libido. It is submitted to internal laws, that is why it possesses a passing condition. Enjoyment of happiness presupposes psychic integration and in this sense it is related to the modern health approach as stated by World Health Organization. In this conference
Ye, Dezhu; Ng, Yew-Kwang; Lian, Yujun
Culture is an important factor affecting happiness. This paper examines the predictive power of cultural factors on the cross-country differences in happiness and explores how different dimensions of cultural indices differ in their effects on happiness. Our empirical results show that the global leadership and organizational behavior effectiveness nine culture indices are all significantly related with happiness. Out of these nine indices, power distance (PDI) and gender egalitarianism (GEI) play the most important and stable role in determining subjective well-being (SWB). We further examine the relative importance of the various variables in contributing to the R-squared of the regression. The results show that PDI is the most important, accounting for 50 % of the contributions to R-squared of all variables, or equalling the combined contributions of income, population density and four other traditional variables. The contribution of GEI is 37.1 %, also well surpassing other variables. Our results remain robust even taking account of the different data for culture and SWB.
Easterlin, Richard A
2003-09-16
What do social survey data tell us about the determinants of happiness? First, that the psychologists' setpoint model is questionable. Life events in the nonpecuniary domain, such as marriage, divorce, and serious disability, have a lasting effect on happiness, and do not simply deflect the average person temporarily above or below a setpoint given by genetics and personality. Second, mainstream economists' inference that in the pecuniary domain "more is better," based on revealed preference theory, is problematic. An increase in income, and thus in the goods at one's disposal, does not bring with it a lasting increase in happiness because of the negative effect on utility of hedonic adaptation and social comparison. A better theory of happiness builds on the evidence that adaptation and social comparison affect utility less in the nonpecuniary than pecuniary domains. Because individuals fail to anticipate the extent to which adaptation and social comparison undermine expected utility in the pecuniary domain, they allocate an excessive amount of time to pecuniary goals, and shortchange nonpecuniary ends such as family life and health, reducing their happiness. There is need to devise policies that will yield better-informed individual preferences, and thereby increase individual and societal well-being.
Designing neural networks that process mean values of random variables
Barber, Michael J. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Innovation Systems Department, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Clark, John W. [Department of Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Centro de Ciências Matemáticas, Universidade de Madeira, 9000-390 Funchal (Portugal)
2014-06-13
We develop a class of neural networks derived from probabilistic models posed in the form of Bayesian networks. Making biologically and technically plausible assumptions about the nature of the probabilistic models to be represented in the networks, we derive neural networks exhibiting standard dynamics that require no training to determine the synaptic weights, that perform accurate calculation of the mean values of the relevant random variables, that can pool multiple sources of evidence, and that deal appropriately with ambivalent, inconsistent, or contradictory evidence. - Highlights: • High-level neural computations are specified by Bayesian belief networks of random variables. • Probability densities of random variables are encoded in activities of populations of neurons. • Top-down algorithm generates specific neural network implementation of given computation. • Resulting “neural belief networks” process mean values of random variables. • Such networks pool multiple sources of evidence and deal properly with inconsistent evidence.
Limiting Behavior of Weighted Sums of NOD Random Variables
De Hua QIU; Ping Yan CHEN
2011-01-01
The strong laws of large numbers and laws of the single logarithm for weighted sums of NOD random variables are established.The results presented generalize the corresponding results of Chen and Gan [5]in independent sequence case.
Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2012-01-01
of the integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects......Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i.......e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization...
Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications
Yang Shanchao
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.
Some Limit Theorems for Negatively Associated Random Variables
Yu Miao; Wenfei Xu; Shanshan Chen; Andre Adler
2014-08-01
Let $\\{X_n,n≥ 1\\}$ be a sequence of negatively associated random variables. The aim of this paper is to establish some limit theorems of negatively associated sequence, which include the $L^p$-convergence theorem and Marcinkiewicz–Zygmund strong law of large numbers. Furthermore, we consider the strong law of sums of order statistics, which are sampled from negatively associated random variables.
One sided strong laws for random variables with infinite mean
Adler André
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper establishes conditions that secure the almost sure upper and lower bounds for a particular normalized weighted sum of independent nonnegative random variables. These random variables do not possess a finite first moment so these results are not typical. These mild conditions allow us to show that the almost sure upper limit is infinity while the almost sure lower bound is one.
Randomly weighted sums of subexponential random variables with application to ruin theory
Tang, Q.; Tsitsiashvili, G.
2003-01-01
Let {X k , 1 k n} be n independent and real-valued random variables with common subexponential distribution function, and let {k, 1 k n} be other n random variables independent of {X k , 1 k n} and satisfying a k b for some 0 < a b < for all 1 k n. This paper proves that the asymptotic relations P (
Randomly weighted sums of subexponential random variables with application to ruin theory
Tang, Q.; Tsitsiashvili, G.
2003-01-01
Let {X k , 1 k n} be n independent and real-valued random variables with common subexponential distribution function, and let {k, 1 k n} be other n random variables independent of {X k , 1 k n} and satisfying a k b for some 0 < a b < for all 1 k n. This paper proves that the asymptotic relations P (
Bjørnskov, Christian
2008-01-01
This paper revisits the standard finding in individual-level studies that happiness leads to longevity. It does so in a cross-country time-series analysis in which the use of a random effects estimator controls for most relevant time-invariant factors. The findings suggest that happiness...... is negatively associated with longevity at the national level, and suggests a potential indirect transmission channel, as national happiness is negatively associated with public health expenditures. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the results for public policy and future research....
Bjørnskov, Christian
2008-01-01
is negatively associated with longevity at the national level, and suggests a potential indirect transmission channel, as national happiness is negatively associated with public health expenditures. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the results for public policy and future research.......This paper revisits the standard finding in individual-level studies that happiness leads to longevity. It does so in a cross-country time-series analysis in which the use of a random effects estimator controls for most relevant time-invariant factors. The findings suggest that happiness...
Borrero, Silvio; Escobar, Ana Bolena; Cortés, Aura María; Maya, Luis Carlos
2013-01-01
Evidence on the relationship between wealth and happiness is mixed, hinting that there are situational or individual factors that account for the variability in results. This paper contends that wealth is in fact related to happiness. More specifically, it is proposed that poverty –as well as other adverse situations– has an undermining effect on happiness, and that this effect is attenuated by a collectivist orientation. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) using data on happiness, wealth and cultu...
LIU; Yan(刘艳); HU; Yijun(胡亦钧)
2003-01-01
We prove large deviation results on the partial and random sums Sn = ∑ni=1 Xi, n≥1; S(t) =∑N(t)i=1 Xi, t≥0, where {N(t);t≥0} are non-negative integer-valued random variables and {Xn;n≥1} areindependent non-negative random variables with distribution, Fn, of Xn, independent of {N(t); t≥0}. Specialattention is paid to the distribution of dominated variation.
A Note on the Sum of Correlated Gamma Random Variables
Paris, Jose F
2011-01-01
The sum of correlated gamma random variables appears in the analysis of many wireless communications systems, e.g. in systems under Nakagami-m fading. In this Letter we obtain exact expressions for the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of arbitrarily correlated gamma variables in terms of certain Lauricella functions.
Fausing, Bent
2012-01-01
This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...
Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom
2013-01-01
og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...
Baron, Christian
Happy Nation er et stykke eksperimentel teknologiformidling, der er udformet som en skønlitterær roman. Værket tager udgangspunkt i et fremtidsscenarie, hvor virtual reality er blevet en hverdagsteknologi, hvis sansedel bliver understøttet af implantater, der kan foretage dyb hjernestimulation...
Winter, Robin O.
2011-01-01
Family Medicine residency programs in the United States are required to promote resident well-being. This article describes how one residency does this by teaching the concepts of Positive Psychology and Authentic Happiness developed by Dr. Martin Seligman utilizing a multi-media curriculum. As part of this curriculum, residents listen to the song…
Fausing, Bent
2012-01-01
This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ The word “happiness” is used for different meanings, and these meanings all require different measures. This lemma is about happiness in the sense of subjective enjoyment of one’s life as a whole that is also called “life satisfaction.” Two “components” of
Optical variability of quasars: a damped random walk
Ivezic, Zeljko
2013-01-01
A damped random walk is a stochastic process, defined by an exponential covariance matrix that behaves as a random walk for short time scales and asymptotically achieves a finite variability amplitude at long time scales. Over the last few years, it has been demonstrated, mostly but not exclusively using SDSS data, that a damped random walk model provides a satisfactory statistical description of observed quasar variability in the optical wavelength range, for rest-frame timescales from 5 days to 2000 days. The best-fit characteristic timescale and asymptotic variability amplitude scale with the luminosity, black hole mass, and rest wavelength, and appear independent of redshift. In addition to providing insights into the physics of quasar variability, the best-fit model parameters can be used to efficiently separate quasars from stars in imaging surveys with adequate long-term multi-epoch data, such as expected from LSST.
Mohammad Reza Abedi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Happiness plays essential role on building prosperity and success in any society. Happiness is one of the essential factors to reach prosperity and success in people’s life and jobs but happiness is not always the same as capability, but they may be correlated while capability is a necessary for having a happy life and happiness feeds back on capability in different ways. People who feel happy could better contribute to society and help other people build better future. This study performs a review on recently completed studies on factors, which influence happiness, new definitions of happiness. The study concentrates more on empirical investigations on the concept of happiness.
Generating variable and random schedules of reinforcement using Microsoft Excel macros
Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C
2008-01-01
.... The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random...
黄妃红
2008-01-01
@@ 这是《时代》周刊一篇报道的标题,我开始把它译为"快乐的离婚",一位老师指点,"离婚快乐"更好一些,它的结构类似"Happy Newyear".我承认后一种翻译更为精到,而且移风易俗--但问题正出在这里,我害怕当我友善地向一位手持离婚证正从民政部门出来的陌生女子道声"Happy Divorce"的时候,会换来一记清脆的耳光.
王楠
2008-01-01
@@ 在旧金山入关的时候,海关得知我们的目的地地是拉斯维加斯,几乎对我们每一个人说了一句:"Happy Gambling!"是的,我们要去的就是这样一座城市,位居全球四大赌城之首的拉斯维加斯.
Pet peeves and happiness: how do happy people complain?
Kowalski, Robin M; Allison, Brooke; Giumetti, Gary W; Turner, Julia; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Frazee, Laura; Stephens, Justin
2014-01-01
The present study was designed to investigate the relationships among mindfulness, happiness, and the expression of pet peeves. Previous research has established a positive correlation between happiness and mindfulness, but, to date, no research has examined how each of these variables is related to complaining in the form of pet peeves. Four hundred ten male and female college students listed the pet peeves they had with a current or former relationship partner. They also completed measures of happiness, positive and negative affect, depression, mindfulness, relationship satisfaction, and satisfaction with life. Pet peeves were negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction, well-being, and mindfulness. Consistent with hypotheses, support was found for the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between happiness and pet peeves.
Bayesian nonparametric centered random effects models with variable selection.
Yang, Mingan
2013-03-01
In a linear mixed effects model, it is common practice to assume that the random effects follow a parametric distribution such as a normal distribution with mean zero. However, in the case of variable selection, substantial violation of the normality assumption can potentially impact the subset selection and result in poor interpretation and even incorrect results. In nonparametric random effects models, the random effects generally have a nonzero mean, which causes an identifiability problem for the fixed effects that are paired with the random effects. In this article, we focus on a Bayesian method for variable selection. We characterize the subject-specific random effects nonparametrically with a Dirichlet process and resolve the bias simultaneously. In particular, we propose flexible modeling of the conditional distribution of the random effects with changes across the predictor space. The approach is implemented using a stochastic search Gibbs sampler to identify subsets of fixed effects and random effects to be included in the model. Simulations are provided to evaluate and compare the performance of our approach to the existing ones. We then apply the new approach to a real data example, cross-country and interlaboratory rodent uterotrophic bioassay.
Applying Free Random Variables to Random Matrix Analysis of Financial Data
Burda, Z; Jurkiewicz, J; Nowak, M A; Papp, G; Zahed, I
2006-01-01
We apply the concept of free random variables to correlated Wishart random matrix models. We give a comprehensive rederivation of various spectral densities for a number of financial covariance matrices involving stocks returns without and with exponentially weighted moving averages. We show through simple models how to identify the pertinent underlying correlations. We extend our results to Levy-Wishart random matrix models whereby the risk factors are heavy tailed.
Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar D. Kamvar
2012-01-01
Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers' pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers' choices reflect those differences. In some cases, happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases, happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is determined by one's temporal focus, such that individuals tend to choose more exciting options when focused on ...
Schuh, Daniela Schneid; Goulart, Maíra Ribas; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Sica, Caroline D’Azevedo; Borges, Raphael; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos
2017-01-01
Background: Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. Objectives: To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. Methods: This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school’s multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. Conclusion: The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population. PMID:28699973
The Benford phenomenon for random variables. Discussion of Feller's way
Valadier, Michel
2012-01-01
This paper is devoted to the first digit of a random variable. We will discuss some arguments starting from Feller (1966) and rely specially on Engel-Leuenberger (2003), D\\"umbgen-Leuenberger (2008), Gauvrit-Delahaye (2008--2009), Berger (2010). Some "disaster"appears. We will not discuss papers relying on Fourier Analysis.
An infinite-dimensional weak KAM theory via random variables
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-08-31
We develop several aspects of the infinite-dimensional Weak KAM theory using a random variables\\' approach. We prove that the infinite-dimensional cell problem admits a viscosity solution that is a fixed point of the Lax-Oleinik semigroup. Furthermore, we show the existence of invariant minimizing measures and calibrated curves defined on R.
Limit theorems for multi-indexed sums of random variables
Klesov, Oleg
2014-01-01
Presenting the first unified treatment of limit theorems for multiple sums of independent random variables, this volume fills an important gap in the field. Several new results are introduced, even in the classical setting, as well as some new approaches that are simpler than those already established in the literature. In particular, new proofs of the strong law of large numbers and the Hajek-Renyi inequality are detailed. Applications of the described theory include Gibbs fields, spin glasses, polymer models, image analysis and random shapes. Limit theorems form the backbone of probability theory and statistical theory alike. The theory of multiple sums of random variables is a direct generalization of the classical study of limit theorems, whose importance and wide application in science is unquestionable. However, to date, the subject of multiple sums has only been treated in journals. The results described in this book will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers who ...
Rehdanz, Katrin [Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Maddison, David [Department of Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)
2005-01-05
Climate is an important input to many human activities. Climate affects heating and cooling requirements, health, clothing and nutritional needs as well as recreational activities. As such, it is to be expected that individuals will have a preference for particular types of climate. This paper analyses a panel of 67 countries attempting to explain differences in self-reported levels of happiness by reference to, amongst other things, temperature and precipitation. Various indices are used for each of these variables, including means, extremes and the number of hot, cold, wet and dry months. Using a panel-corrected least squares approach, the paper demonstrates that, even when controlling for a range of other factors, climate variables have a highly significant effect on country-wide self-reported levels of happiness. On the basis of these results, it is determined that differential patterns of anthropogenically induced climate change might alter dramatically the distribution of happiness between nations, with some countries moving towards a preferred climate and others moving further away. We find that high-latitude countries included in our dataset might benefit from temperature changes. Countries already characterized by very high summer temperatures would most likely suffer losses from climate change.
Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars
Dubath, P; Süveges, M; Blomme, J; López, M; Sarro, L M; De Ridder, J; Cuypers, J; Guy, L; Lecoeur, I; Nienartowicz, K; Jan, A; Beck, M; Mowlavi, N; De Cat, P; Lebzelter, T; Eyer, L
2011-01-01
We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light-curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi-stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10-fold cross-validation experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100%, depending on the variability type. The main mis-classification case...
Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars
Dubath, P.; Rimoldini, L.; Süveges, M.; Blomme, J.; López, M.; Sarro, L. M.; De Ridder, J.; Cuypers, J.; Guy, L.; Lecoeur, I.; Nienartowicz, K.; Jan, A.; Beck, M.; Mowlavi, N.; De Cat, P.; Lebzelter, T.; Eyer, L.
2011-07-01
We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light-curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi-stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10-fold cross-validation (CV) experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100 per cent, depending on the variability type. The main mis-classification cases, up to a rate of about 10 per cent, arise due to confusion between SPB and ACV blue variables and between eclipsing binaries, ellipsoidal variables and other variability types. Our training set and the predicted types for the other Hipparcos periodic stars are available online.
"Happiness in Life Domains: Evidence from Bangladesh Based on Parametric and Non-Parametric Models"
Minhaj Mahmud; Yasuyuki Sawada
2015-01-01
This paper applies a two layer approach to explain overall happiness both as a function of happiness in different life-domains and conventional explanatory variables such as income, education and health etc. Then it tests the happiness-income relationship in different happiness domains. Overall, the results suggest that income explains a large part of the variation in total happiness and that income is closely related with domain-specific happiness, even with non-economic domains. This is als...
Relation Between Physicians' Work Lives and Happiness.
Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald; Vasappa, Rashmi
2016-04-01
Although we know much about work-related physician burnout and the subsequent negative effects, we do not fully understand work-related physician wellness. Likewise, the relation of wellness and burnout to physician happiness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how physician burnout and wellness contribute to happiness. We sampled 2000 full-time physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about workload, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the burnout and wellness subscales as predictor variables and physician happiness as the outcome variable. Our response rate was 22%. Career purpose, personal accomplishment, and perception of workload manageability had significant positive correlations with physician happiness. Distress had a significant negative correlation with physician happiness. A sense of career meaning and accomplishment, along with a lack of distress, are important factors in determining physician happiness. The number of hours a physician works is not related to happiness, but the perceived ability to manage workload was significantly related to happiness. Wellness-promotion efforts could focus on assisting physicians with skills to manage the workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or sharing workload among team members, improving feelings of work accomplishment, improving career satisfaction and meaning, and managing distress related to patient care.
Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain
Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando
2013-01-01
This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…
Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain
Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando
2013-01-01
This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…
Ho, Henry C Y; Mui, Moses; Wan, Alice; Ng, Yin-Lam; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S
2016-01-01
Long working hours and stressful urban lifestyles pose major challenges to family communication and well-being in Hong Kong. A community-based family intervention derived from a positive psychology framework, by using cooking and dining as a platform, was developed for improving family communication and well-being. Social workers and teachers from 31 social service units and schools in collaboration with an academic partner organized and conducted the intervention programs for 2,070 individuals from 973 families in a deprived district in Hong Kong. The participants were randomly assigned into the intervention or control group in a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT). The core intervention covered one of five positive psychology themes: joy, gratitude, flow, savoring, and listening. Assessments at pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 4 and 12 weeks post-intervention showed improved family communication and well-being with sustainable effects up to 12 weeks. Positive changes in family happiness and family health were greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The savoring intervention had the most improved outcomes among the five themes. We concluded that this large-scale brief cRCT developed and conducted in real-world settings provided evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based family intervention. This study was registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01796275).
Quantification of Happiness Inequality
W.M. Kalmijn (Wim)
2010-01-01
textabstractHappiness is considered to be an important aspect of human life and this is reflected in a growing interest of social sciences during the past decennia. Happiness research is only possible if happiness can be measured and quantified. The measurement of happiness, more specifically the
Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables
Ahmed, Sajid
2016-01-13
Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.
Moment inequalities for the partial sums of random variables
YANG; Shanchao
2001-01-01
［1］Yang Shanchao, Moment inequality of partial sum for a class of random variables and its application, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 998, 43(7): 823.［2］Bryc, W., Smolenski, W., Moment conditions for almost sure convergence of weakly correlated variables, Proceedings of Amer, Math. Society, 993, 9(2): 629.［3］Peligrad, M., Invariance principles for mixing sequences of random variables, Ann. Probab., 982, 0(4): 968.［4］Peligrad, M., Convergence rates of the strong law for stationary mixing sequences, Z Wahr Verw Gebiete, 985, 70: 307.［5］Peligrad, M., On the central limit theorem for ρ-mixing sequences of random variables, Ann. Probab., 987, 5(4): 387.［6］Collomb, G., Propriétés de convergence presque compléte du prédicteur à noyau, Z Wahr Verw Gebiete, 984, 66: 44.［7］Matula, P., A note on the almost sure convergence of sums of negatively dependence random variables, Statist. Probab. Lett., 992, 5(3): 209.［8］Shao Qiman, Maximal inequalities for partial sums of ρ-mixing sequences, Ann. Probab., 995, 23(2): 948.［9］Shao Qiman, A moment inequality and its applications, Acta Mathematica Sinica (in Chinese), 988, 3(6): 736.［10］Shao Qiman, Complete convergence for ρ-mixing sequence, Acta Mathematica Sinica (in Chinese), 989, 32(3): 377.［11］Su Chun, Zhao Lincheng, Wang Yuebao, Moment inequalities for NA sequence and weak convergence, Science in China (Series A)(in Chinese), 996, 26(2): 09.［12］Zhang Lixin, Rosenthal type inequality for B-value strong mixing field and its application, Science in China (Series A)(in Chinese), 998, 28(4): 328.［13］Yang Shanchao, Moment inequality for mixing sequences and nonparametric estimation, Acta Mathemation Sinica (in Chinese), 997, 40(2): 27.［14］Joag-Dev, K., Proschan, F., Negative association of random variables with applications, Ann. Statist., 983, (1): 286.
Measuring Happiness: From Fluctuating Happiness to Authentic–Durable Happiness
Dambrun, Michaël; Ricard, Matthieu; Després, Gérard; Drelon, Emilie; Gibelin, Eva; Gibelin, Marion; Loubeyre, Mélanie; Py, Delphine; Delpy, Aurore; Garibbo, Céline; Bray, Elise; Lac, Gérard; Michaux, Odile
2012-01-01
On the basis of the theoretical distinction between self-centeredness and selflessness (Dambrun and Ricard, 2011), the main goal of this research was to develop two new scales assessing distinct dimensions of happiness. By trying to maximize pleasures and to avoid displeasures, we propose that a self-centered functioning induces a fluctuating happiness in which phases of pleasure and displeasure alternate repeatedly (i.e., Fluctuating Happiness). In contrast, a selfless psychological functioning postulates the existence of a state of durable plenitude that is less dependent upon circumstances but rather is related to a person’s inner resources and abilities to deal with whatever comes his way in life (i.e., Authentic–Durable Happiness). Using various samples (n = 735), we developed a 10-item Scale measuring Subjective Fluctuating Happiness (SFHS) and a 13-item scale assessing Subjective Authentic–Durable Happiness (SA–DHS). Results indicated high internal consistencies, satisfactory test–retest validities, and adequate convergent and discriminant validities with various constructs including a biological marker of stress (salivary cortisol). Consistent with our theoretical framework, while self-enhancement values were related only to fluctuating happiness, self-transcendence values were related only to authentic–durable happiness. Support for the distinction between contentment and inner-peace, two related markers of authentic happiness, also was found. PMID:22347202
On the behavior of the product of independent random variables
SU; Chun; CHEN; Yu
2006-01-01
For two independent non-negative random variables X and Y, we treat X as the initial variable of major importance and Y as a modifier (such as the interest rate of a portfolio).Stability in the tail behaviors of the product compared with that of the original variable X is of practical interests. In this paper, we study the tail behaviors of the product XY when the distribution of X belongs to the classes L and S, respectively. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the distribution of the product XY is in the same class as X when X belongs to class L or S, in other words, classes L and S are stable under some mild conditions on the distribution of Y. We also show that if the distribution of X is in class L(γ) (γ＞ 0) and continuous, then the product XY is in L if and only if Y is unbounded.
Schuh, Daniela Schneid; Goulart, Maíra Ribas; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Sica, Caroline D'Azevedo; Borges, Raphael; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos
2017-06-01
Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school's multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population. As escolas tornaram-se essenciais para a promoção de saúde e de intervenções para obesidade, propiciando o desenvolvimento de consciência crítica para a construção e promoção de dieta saudável, atividade física e monitoramento do status nutricional na infância e adolescência. Descrever um protocolo de estudo para avaliar a eficiência de uma intervenção projetada para aprimorar o conhecimento sobre escolhas alimentares no ambiente escolar. Estudo clínico randomizado em cluster
Feicht, T; Wittmann, M; Jose, G; Mock, A; von Hirschhausen, E; Esch, T
2013-01-01
Background. As distress in society increases, including work environments, individual capacities to compete with stress have to be strengthened. Objective. We examined the impact of a web-based happiness training on psychological and physiological parameters, by self-report and objective means, in an occupational health setting. Methods. Randomized controlled trial with 147 employees. Participants were divided into intervention (happiness training) and control groups (waiting list). The intervention consisted of a seven-week online training. Questionnaires were administered before, after, and four weeks after training. The following scales were included: VAS (happiness and satisfaction), WHO-5 Well-being Index, Stress Warning Signals, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Recovery Experience Questionnaire, and Flourishing Scale. Subgroup samples for saliva cortisol and alpha-amylase determinations were taken, indicating stress, and Attention Network Testing for effects on attention regulation. Results. Happiness (P = 0.000; d = 0.93), satisfaction (P = 0.000; d = 1.17), and quality of life (P = 0.000; d = 1.06) improved; perceived stress was reduced (P = 0.003; d = 0.64); mindfulness (P = 0.006; d = 0.62), flourishing (P = 0.002; d = 0.63), and recovery experience (P = 0.030; d = 0.42) also increased significantly. No significant differences in the Attention Network Tests and saliva results occurred (intergroup), except for one saliva value. Conclusions. The web-based training can be a useful tool for stabilizing health/psychological well-being and work/life balance.
Predicting Factors of Happiness in Mobarekeh Steal
Himidtaher Neshat Doost
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict factors of happiness in the Mobarekeh Steal Companypersonel. Subjects were consisted of 400 individuals who were randomly selected from stuffs (6200 individualsof Mobarekeh Steal Company. The measures were consisted of Oxford Happiness Questionnaire anddemographic questionnaire.The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between personnelhappiness with life satisfaction, optimism, family satisfaction, wife happiness, sport, job satisfaction, socialrelations, deep faith to God, art, studying, traveling, psychological problems, and history of physical illnesses (P< 0.01.The results of stepwise regression showed that in total, life satisfaction, sport, optimism, wife happiness andhistory of psychiatric disorders of personnel significantly predicted 54% of their happiness.
On the Linear Combination of Exponential and Gamma Random Variables
Samuel Kotz
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The exact distribution of the linear combination ÃŽÂ± X + ÃŽÂ² Y is derived when X and Y are exponential and gamma random variables distributed independently of each other. A measure of entropy of the linear combination is investigated. We also provide computer programs for generating tabulations of the percentage points associated with the linear combination. The work is motivated by examples in automation, control, fuzzy sets, neurocomputing and other areas of computer science.
Minossi, Vanessa; Pellanda, Lucia Campos
2015-03-10
The prevalence of childhood obesity increased worldwide in recent decades and is associated with risk factors for the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. Strategies for health promotion directed at an early age, with recommendation for healthy habits, can achieve good results. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative, simple and cost effective educational program to improve eating habits, physical activity and the knowledge about healthy habits in children, as well as in their families, as compared to routine outpatient care. The study is designed as a randomized clinical trial. Sample size is estimated to include 37 children, aged between 7 and 11 years, and their guardians, randomized for an intervention or a control group. The intervention will consist of 11-weekly group meetings of nutritional education and distribution of explanatory material, with orientation about healthy food and family habits and physical activity. Recreational, simple and low cost resources, carefully designed for the presentation of contents to the children and parents, will be used in all meetings. The control group will receive standard outpatient care based in individual clinical practice guidelines. The primary outcomes will be changes in dietary habits, knowledge and physical activity of children and adults. The secondary outcomes will be changes of body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and laboratory tests, in children and adults. The Happy Heart Study offers a playful and low-cost approach for the prevention and control of obesity and cardiovascular disease in children. Although this program is being planned for implementation in Brazil, the method can be adapted to many other countries. Protocol registered on the site ensaiosclinicos.gov.br: RBR-8ttw64.
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; King, Ronnel B; Valdez, Jana Patricia M
2017-04-01
Interdependent happiness has been found to be positively associated with optimal psychological outcomes in collectivist cultures. However, the association between interdependent happiness and key academic outcomes has remained unexplored. The current study examined the association of interdependent happiness with key academic outcomes such as autonomous motivation, engagement, and achievement using both cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) approaches. Study 1 revealed that interdependent happiness positively predicted academic engagement (partly) via autonomous motivation. Study 2 showed that prior interdependent happiness positively predicted subsequent academic engagement even after controlling for autoregressor effects. In addition, reciprocal associations among the key variables were found. Taken together, results of the two studies suggest that interdependent happiness plays an adaptive role in the academic context especially in a collectivist cultural setting. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silvio Borrero
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Evidence on the relationship between wealth and happiness is mixed, hinting that there are situational or individual factors that account for the variability in results. This paper contends that wealth is in fact related to happiness. More specifically, it is proposed that poverty –as well as other adverse situations– has an undermining effect on happiness, and that this effect is attenuated by a collectivist orientation. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs using data on happiness, wealth and culture from 197 countries, supplemented by a meta-analysis of empirical studies that explore the relationship between wealth and perceptions of happiness, support the hypothesized relationship between adversity and happiness, and the moderating effect that collectivism has on such relationship.
Moderate Deviations for Random Sums of Heavy-Tailed Random Variables
Fu Qing GAO
2007-01-01
Let{Xn ;n ≥ 1}be a sequence of independent non-negative random variables with commondistribution function F having extended regularly varying tail and finite mean μ = E(X1) and let{N(t);t≥0}be a random process taking non-negative integer values with finite mean λ(t) = E(N(t))x) uniformly for x ∈[γb(t),∞) are obtained,where γ 0 and b(t) can be taken to be a positive functionwith lim t→∞ b(t)/λ(t) = 0.
Bias in random forest variable importance measures: illustrations, sources and a solution
Strobl, Carolin; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten
2007-01-01
Variable importance measures for random forests have been receiving increased attention as a means of variable selection in many classification tasks in bioinformatics and related scientific fields...
Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables
Jardak, Seifallah
2014-09-01
Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.
Analysis of Secret Key Randomness Exploiting the Radio Channel Variability
Taghrid Mazloum
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A few years ago, physical layer based techniques have started to be considered as a way to improve security in wireless communications. A well known problem is the management of ciphering keys, both regarding the generation and distribution of these keys. A way to alleviate such difficulties is to use a common source of randomness for the legitimate terminals, not accessible to an eavesdropper. This is the case of the fading propagation channel, when exact or approximate reciprocity applies. Although this principle has been known for long, not so many works have evaluated the effect of radio channel properties in practical environments on the degree of randomness of the generated keys. To this end, we here investigate indoor radio channel measurements in different environments and settings at either 2.4625 GHz or 5.4 GHz band, of particular interest for WIFI related standards. Key bits are extracted by quantizing the complex channel coefficients and their randomness is evaluated using the NIST test suite. We then look at the impact of the carrier frequency, the channel variability in the space, time, and frequency degrees of freedom used to construct a long secret key, in relation to the nature of the radio environment such as the LOS/NLOS character.
The use of hypnosis in therapy to increase happiness.
Ruysschaert, Nicole
2014-01-01
In their journey through life, most people are looking for happiness. Definitions of happiness and the concepts of a pleasant, good, meaningful, and a full life are reviewed. Next, Seligman's (2002) concept of "authentic happiness" and a happiness formula, S+C+V (Set + Circumstances + Variables), are discussed. An integration of happiness, as a goal, and hypnosis, as a facilitative approach, are presented. Hypnotic techniques with case examples are given. Hypnosis is presented as an efficient companion intervention to work on these variables in a creative way and to pave the way to a happy and full life. The following results are presented: (1) hypnosis allows for increased executive attention with control of emotions, (2) focusing on positive imagery contributes to strengthening "happy pathways," and (3) emotions about the past, present, and future are subject to change.
吕静
2003-01-01
All human happiness is biological happiness. That is strictly scientific. At the risk of being misunderstood. I must make it clearer: all human happiness is sensuous happiness. The spiritualists will misunderstand me. I am sure; the spiritualists and materialists must forever misunderstand each other, because they don’t talk the same language, or mean by the same word different things. Are we, too, in this problem
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR m-NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM VARIABLES
Hu Yijun; Ming Ruixing; Yang Wenquan
2007-01-01
M-negatively associated random variables, which generalizes the classical one of negatively associated random variables and includes m-dependent sequences as its particular case, are introduced and studied. Large deviation principles and moderate deviation upper bounds for stationary m-negatively associated random variables are proved.Kolmogorov-type and Marcinkiewicz-type strong laws of large numbers as well as the three series theorem for m-negatively associated random variables are also given.
Strong Law of Large Numb ers for Array of Rowwise AANA Random Variables
CHEN Zhi-yong; LIU Ting-ting; WANG Xue-jun; LI Xiao-qin
2014-01-01
In this article, the strong laws of large numbers for array of rowwise asymptot-ically almost negatively associated(AANA) random variables are studied. Some suﬃcient conditions for strong laws of large numbers for array of rowwise AANA random variables are presented without assumption of identical distribution. Our results extend the corresponding ones for independent random variables to case of AANA random variables.
Probability Inequalities for Extended Negatively Dep endent Random Variables and Their Applications
TANG Xiao-feng
2014-01-01
Some probability inequalities are established for extended negatively dependent (END) random variables. The inequalities extend some corresponding ones for negatively associated random variables and negatively orthant dependent random variables. By using these probability inequalities, we further study the complete convergence for END random variables. We also obtain the convergence rate O(n−1/2 ln1/2 n) for the strong law of large numbers, which generalizes and improves the corresponding ones for some known results.
Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.
Baroun, Khader A
2006-12-01
The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.
Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…
Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....
Landes, Xavier
2013-01-01
Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....
Williams Syndrome and Happiness.
Levine, Karen; Wharton, Robert
2000-01-01
Discussion of Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder with a variety of medical and developmental features, focuses on frequent outward expression of happiness. Analysis of the unique expression of happiness in individuals with Williams syndrome is followed by discussion of this happiness in the context of other dimensions of the syndrome,…
Dilemmas in Teaching Happiness
Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian
2009-01-01
There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…
ZHENG Lu-lu; XU Chen; HUANG Xu-feng; WANG Xue-jun
2014-01-01
A general result on the strong convergence rate and complete convergence for arrays of rowwise extended negatively dependent random variables is established. As ap-plications, some well-known results on negatively dependent random variables can be easily extended to the case of arrays of rowwise extended negatively dependent random variables.
Random spatial processes and geostatistical models for soil variables
Lark, R. M.
2009-04-01
Geostatistical models of soil variation have been used to considerable effect to facilitate efficient and powerful prediction of soil properties at unsampled sites or over partially sampled regions. Geostatistical models can also be used to investigate the scaling behaviour of soil process models, to design sampling strategies and to account for spatial dependence in the random effects of linear mixed models for spatial variables. However, most geostatistical models (variograms) are selected for reasons of mathematical convenience (in particular, to ensure positive definiteness of the corresponding variables). They assume some underlying spatial mathematical operator which may give a good description of observed variation of the soil, but which may not relate in any clear way to the processes that we know give rise to that observed variation in the real world. In this paper I shall argue that soil scientists should pay closer attention to the underlying operators in geostatistical models, with a view to identifying, where ever possible, operators that reflect our knowledge of processes in the soil. I shall illustrate how this can be done in the case of two problems. The first exemplar problem is the definition of operators to represent statistically processes in which the soil landscape is divided into discrete domains. This may occur at disparate scales from the landscape (outcrops, catchments, fields with different landuse) to the soil core (aggregates, rhizospheres). The operators that underly standard geostatistical models of soil variation typically describe continuous variation, and so do not offer any way to incorporate information on processes which occur in discrete domains. I shall present the Poisson Voronoi Tessellation as an alternative spatial operator, examine its corresponding variogram, and apply these to some real data. The second exemplar problem arises from different operators that are equifinal with respect to the variograms of the
Automatic Probabilistic Program Verification through Random Variable Abstraction
Barsotti, Damián; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.3
2010-01-01
The weakest pre-expectation calculus has been proved to be a mature theory to analyze quantitative properties of probabilistic and nondeterministic programs. We present an automatic method for proving quantitative linear properties on any denumerable state space using iterative backwards fixed point calculation in the general framework of abstract interpretation. In order to accomplish this task we present the technique of random variable abstraction (RVA) and we also postulate a sufficient condition to achieve exact fixed point computation in the abstract domain. The feasibility of our approach is shown with two examples, one obtaining the expected running time of a probabilistic program, and the other the expected gain of a gambling strategy. Our method works on general guarded probabilistic and nondeterministic transition systems instead of plain pGCL programs, allowing us to easily model a wide range of systems including distributed ones and unstructured programs. We present the operational and weakest pr...
Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables
Jardak, Seifallah
2012-11-01
The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.
Haines, Jess; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M
2013-11-01
Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist across risk factors for childhood obesity. To examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention to improve household routines known to be associated with childhood obesity among a sample of low-income, racial/ethnic minority families with young children. Randomized trial. The intervention was delivered in the families' homes. The study involved 121 families with children aged 2 to 5 years who had a television (TV) in the room where he or she slept; 111 (92%) had 6-month outcome data (55 intervention and 56 control). The mean (SD) age of the children was 4.0 (1.1) years; 45% were overweight/obese. Fifty-two percent of the children were Hispanic, 34% were black, and 14% were white/other. Nearly 60% of the families had household incomes of $20,000 or less. The 6-month intervention promoted 4 household routines, family meals, adequate sleep, limiting TV time, and removing the TV from the child's bedroom, using (1) motivational coaching at home and by phone, (2) mailed educational materials, and (3) text messages. Control subjects were mailed materials focused on child development. Change in parent report of frequency of family meals (times/wk), child sleep duration (hours/d), child weekday and weekend day TV viewing (hours/d), and the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept from baseline to 6 months. A secondary outcome was change in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants had increased sleep duration (0.75 hours/d; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.44; P = .03), greater decreases in TV viewing on weekend days (-1.06 hours/d; 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.15; P = .02), and decreased body mass index (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to 0.00; P = .05). No significant intervention effect was found for the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept or family meal frequency. Our results suggest that promoting
Lr Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise Negatively Sup eradditive Dep endent Random Variables
ZHU Hua-yan; SHEN Ai-ting; ZHANG Ying
2016-01-01
Let {Xnk, k≥1, n≥1} be an array of rowwise negatively superadditive depen-dent random variables and {an, n ≥ 1} be a sequence of positive real numbers such that an ↑ ∞. Under some suitable conditions, Lr convergence of a1n 1max≤j≤n ied. The results obtained in this paper generalize and improve some corresponding ones for negatively associated random variables and independent random variables. fl fl fl fl jP k=1 Xnk fl fl flfl is stud-ied. The results obtained in this paper generalize and improve some corresponding ones for negatively associated random variables and independent random variables.
Radio Variability and Random Walk Noise Properties of Four Blazars
Park, Jong-Ho
2014-01-01
We present the results of a time series analysis of the long-term radio lightcurves of four blazars: 3C 279, 3C 345, 3C 446, and BL Lacertae. We exploit the data base of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) monitoring program which provides densely sampled lightcurves spanning 32 years in time in three frequency bands located at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz. Our sources show mostly flat or inverted (spectral indices -0.5 < alpha < 0) spectra, in agreement with optically thick emission. All lightcurves show strong variability on all time scales. Analyzing the time lags between the lightcurves from different frequency bands, we find that we can distinguish high-peaking flares and low-peaking flares in accord with the classification of Valtaoja et al. (1992). The periodograms (temporal power spectra) of the observed lightcurves are consistent with random-walk powerlaw noise without any indication of (quasi-)periodic variability. The fact that all four sources studied are in agreement with...
Marital Happiness and Psychological Well-Being Across the Life Course.
Kamp Dush, Claire M; Taylor, Miles G; Kroeger, Rhiannon A
2008-04-01
Using data from six waves of the Study of Marital Instability over the Life Course (N = 1,998), we conducted a latent class analysis to test for distinct marital happiness trajectories. We found three distinct marital happiness trajectories: low, middle, and high happiness. Initial levels of life happiness were strongly associated with membership in the marital happiness trajectories and with various demographic and attitude-related control variables. Using fixed effects regression with time-varying covariates, we also found that marital happiness trajectory membership was associated with subsequent changes in both life happiness and depressive symptoms. All respondents experienced a decrease in life happiness between Wave 1 and the end of their observed time in their marriage, but respondents in the high marital happiness trajectory experienced the smallest decline. Respondents in both the high and middle marital happiness trajectories also experienced a decline in depressive symptoms across time. Intervention and policy implications are discussed.
T. Feicht
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background. As distress in society increases, including work environments, individual capacities to compete with stress have to be strengthened. Objective. We examined the impact of a web-based happiness training on psychological and physiological parameters, by self-report and objective means, in an occupational health setting. Methods. Randomized controlled trial with 147 employees. Participants were divided into intervention (happiness training and control groups (waiting list. The intervention consisted of a seven-week online training. Questionnaires were administered before, after, and four weeks after training. The following scales were included: VAS (happiness and satisfaction, WHO-5 Well-being Index, Stress Warning Signals, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Recovery Experience Questionnaire, and Flourishing Scale. Subgroup samples for saliva cortisol and alpha-amylase determinations were taken, indicating stress, and Attention Network Testing for effects on attention regulation. Results. Happiness (P=0.000; d=0.93, satisfaction (P=0.000; d=1.17, and quality of life (P=0.000; d=1.06 improved; perceived stress was reduced (P=0.003; d=0.64; mindfulness (P=0.006; d=0.62, flourishing (P=0.002; d=0.63, and recovery experience (P=0.030; d=0.42 also increased significantly. No significant differences in the Attention Network Tests and saliva results occurred (intergroup, except for one saliva value. Conclusions. The web-based training can be a useful tool for stabilizing health/psychological well-being and work/life balance.
Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion
Abdul Ghafar Ismail
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.
Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments
Kang, Hyunseung
Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with
Using "The Happiness Advantage" in a College Honors Program
Rockey, Christine
2015-01-01
In the field of college success and retention, researchers have examined school facilities, grade point averages, SAT scores, high school grades, and student involvement among other variables. One of the additional variables that has been examined is how happiness affects college success. The matter of student happiness is of primary importance to…
Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.
Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V
2014-10-01
Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness.
Furnham, A; Cheng, H
2000-10-01
This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.
Sociology's blind eye for happiness
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2006-01-01
textabstractABSTRACT Empirical studies on happiness have found that: a) most people are happy in modern nations, b) average happiness in nations is rising, c) inequality in happiness is going down, d) happiness depends heavily on the kind of society one lives in, but e) not very much on one’s place
Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.
Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee
2005-09-01
Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.
Automatic Probabilistic Program Verification through Random Variable Abstraction
Damián Barsotti
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The weakest pre-expectation calculus has been proved to be a mature theory to analyze quantitative properties of probabilistic and nondeterministic programs. We present an automatic method for proving quantitative linear properties on any denumerable state space using iterative backwards fixed point calculation in the general framework of abstract interpretation. In order to accomplish this task we present the technique of random variable abstraction (RVA and we also postulate a sufficient condition to achieve exact fixed point computation in the abstract domain. The feasibility of our approach is shown with two examples, one obtaining the expected running time of a probabilistic program, and the other the expected gain of a gambling strategy. Our method works on general guarded probabilistic and nondeterministic transition systems instead of plain pGCL programs, allowing us to easily model a wide range of systems including distributed ones and unstructured programs. We present the operational and weakest precondition semantics for this programs and prove its equivalence.
Happiness and its relation to psychological well-being of adolescents.
Heizomi, Haleh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Safaian, Abdolrasul
2015-08-01
In the present decade, adolescents' mental problems are known as critical problems which have many destructive consequences. This study aimed to measure students' happiness and psychological well-being status in a sample of high school students. The cross sectional study consisted of 403 randomly selected high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Numerous variables including general health status, happiness, self-efficacy, perceived stress, hopefulness and life satisfaction were measured by using self-reported written questionnaires. Significant relation observed between happiness and psychological well-being (r=0.48). Those students with good relationship and those who had reported to enjoy attending social events indicated better mental health status. No causal inferences were investigated due to the non-experimental nature of the study. The findings also revealed that students with higher happiness score have a better school performance. Integration of happiness promotion initiatives into the comprehensive school health programs is recommended to have pleasant environments for a healthy population of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fordyce Happiness Program and Happiness in Mothers of Children with a Cleft Lip and Palate
Hemati, Zeinab; Mosavi Asl, Fatemeh-Sadat; Abbasi, Samira; Ghazavi, Zohre; Kiani, Davood
2016-01-01
Introduction: Facial deformities and aesthetic and functional anomalies in children may be a cause of real distress in families. Problems faced by parents in coping with a child’s anomaly can be upsetting and lead parents to exhibit over-severe behavior. The present study was conducted in order to study the effect of happiness program on the happiness of the mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 64 mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate enrolled by convenience random sampling were assigned to an intervention or control group based on a simple random sampling. Then, a program of happiness training was implemented consisting of 10 sessions of 2 hours each. A demographic questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were completed prior to and 2 months after the last session of intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, consisting of a paired t-test, independent t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS version 20. Results: The independent t-test indicated a significant difference in mean happiness score after training between the intervention and control groups (P0.05). Conclusion: In light of the efficacy of happiness training on the promotion of happiness in the mothers of children with a cleft lip and palate, this model is recommended as a healthcare intervention to decrease stress in mothers following the birth of an infant with a cleft lip and palate. PMID:28008390
Alberto Cassone
2011-01-01
Since a few decades there is a booming literature about the economics of happiness: a quick Google search (all searches have been run on April 2, 2011) with the two terms "economics happiness" returns over 366000 results. Even using google scholar the outcome is signi cant: 148 records. Entering "happiness economics", one gets 72.100 results. The same is true for the literature about wine and economics. Read the full text below
Almost Sure Convergence of the General Jamison Weighted Sum of B-Valued Random Variables
Chun SU; Tie Jun TONG
2004-01-01
In this paper, two new functions are introduced to depict the Jamison weighted sum of random variables instead using the common methods, their properties and relationships are systematically discussed. We also analysed the implication of the conditions in previous papers. Then we apply these consequences to B-valued random variables, and greatly improve the original results of the strong convergence of the general Jamison weighted sum. Furthermore, our discussions are useful to the corresponding questions of real-valued random variables.
Can Seeking Happiness Make People Happy? Paradoxical Effects of Valuing Happiness
Mauss, Iris B.; Tamir, Maya; Anderson, Craig L.; Savino, Nicole S.
2011-01-01
Happiness is a key ingredient of well-being. It is thus reasonable to expect that valuing happiness will have beneficial outcomes. We argue that this may not always be the case. Instead, valuing happiness could be self-defeating because the more people value happiness, the more likely they will feel disappointed. This should apply particularly in positive situations, in which people have every reason to be happy. Two studies support this hypothesis. In Study 1, female participants who valued happiness more (vs. less) reported lower happiness when under conditions of low, but not high, life stress. In Study 2, compared to a control group, female participants who were experimentally induced to value happiness reacted less positively to a happy, but not a sad, emotion induction. This effect was mediated by participants’ disappointment at their own feelings. Paradoxically, therefore, valuing happiness may lead people to be less happy just when happiness is within reach. PMID:21517168
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
1988-01-01
textabstractABSTRACT
The issue. Nineteenth century utilitarian philosophers considered happiness as the highest good (‘utility’ in their words) and claimed political priority for attempts to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number. In reaction, many of their contemporaries cried
Rettew, David C.
2009-01-01
Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2000-01-01
textabstractFreedom in nations can affect the happiness of citizens both positively and negatively. This study takes stock of the balance of effects. It considers 1) whether there is a positive net-effect at all, 2) which freedom variants contribute most to happiness 3) in what conditions. Freedom
Predicting happiness among centenarians.
Bishop, Alex J; Martin, Peter; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Johnson, M A; Tenover, J S; Siegler, I C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D B; Rott, C; Davey, A; Arnold, J
2010-01-01
Happiness is believed to evolve from the comparison of current circumstances relative to past achievement. However, gerontological literature on happiness in extreme old age has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine how perceptions of health, social provisions, and economics link past satisfaction with life to current feelings of happiness among persons living to 100 years of age and beyond. A total of 158 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study were included to conduct the investigation. Items reflecting congruence and happiness from the Life Satisfaction Index were used to evaluate a model of happiness. Pathways between congruence, perceived economic security, subjective health, perceived social provisions, and happiness were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Congruence emerged as a key predictor of happiness. Furthermore, congruence predicted perceived economic security and subjective health, whereas perceived economic security had a strong influence on subjective health status. It appears that past satisfaction with life influences how centenarians frame subjective evaluations of health status and economic security. Furthermore, past satisfaction with life is directly associated with present happiness. This presents implications relative to understanding how perception of resources may enhance quality of life among persons who live exceptionally long lives. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Happiness, Sadness and Government
G. Duncan
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Policy-making that re-presents – as objects of concern and by means of statistics – the suffering or depression and the happiness of populations indicates an evolving form of governance that examines and reshapes subjectivity itself. Never before have states of subjectivity been acted upon, through surveys, statistical and policy analysis, and scientific disciplines, to the extent seen today. This article: Documents changing epistemic co-ordinates, especially in psychology and economics, that first occluded happiness in the interests of objectivity, but, in recent decades, marked out a renewed ‘science’ of happiness.Examines changes in the discursive formulation of depression, as a counterpart to happiness.Argues that, seen in terms of bio-power, contemporary concerns for happiness and depression are consistent – rather than incompatible – with one another. How can so many claim to be happy when so many, we are told, are depressed, anxious or suffering emotional pain? There is no underlying contradiction here, for two reasons: Happiness and depression are manifestations of the same political discourse (or aspects of a political subjectivity characterized by dis-inhibition, consumer self-indulgence and performance anxiety. And, just as we needed madness in order to understand ‘sanity,’ or the prison in order to view ourselves as ‘free,’ so we rely upon concerns about depression in order to understand and act upon ourselves as subjects capable of unlimited happiness.
Income, leisure, and happiness
Hoorn, A.A.J. van
2008-01-01
The income-leisure trade-off, whilst prominent in textbooks, is largely absent in the incomehappiness debate. Multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling is introduced and used to investigate the income-leisure-happiness nexus. Leisure has a positive effect on happiness, but lowers the effect of
Landes, Xavier
2013-01-01
Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politi...
无
2011-01-01
The concept of happiness differs from person to person and country to country. Beijing Review asked two people—Zhao Xingzhou,a doctor at a hospital in Baoding,north China’s Hebei Province,and Niu Fenglei,a white-collar worker at an IT corporation in Beijing—to share their ideas about happiness.
Rettew, David C.
2009-01-01
Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.
Happiness and neurological diseases.
Barak, Yoram; Achiron, Anat
2009-04-01
Happiness is an emotional state reflecting positive feelings and satisfaction with life, which, as an outcome in disease states or as an end point in clinical trials, is a neglected concept in most therapeutic areas. In neurological disease, happiness is important as it can be diminished either as a direct result of damage to neuronal tissue or as a reaction to a poor prognosis. The monitoring and maintenance of happiness and wellbeing have historically been considered to be peripheral to medicine. However, as happiness interacts with the patient's physical health, it is an important parameter to assess alongside all aspects of any given disease. Happiness provides a reliable overview of the patient's general status over and above standard parameters for quality of life, and is more wide-ranging than the narrow measures of disease activity or treatment efficacy that are the focus of most clinical trials. In many studies, happiness has been associated with health and success in most areas of life, including performance at work, sporting achievement and social functioning. For approximately a decade, previously studied aspects of psychology have been grouped under the label of positive psychology (PoP). Principles of this discipline are now being used to guide some treatments in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PoP aims to define patient wellbeing in scientific terms and to increase understanding of happiness, meaning in life, resilience and character strengths, as well as to determine how this knowledge can be applied clinically to promote health. Some evidence has emerged recently suggesting that improvements in patient status can result from interventions to improve the patient's level of happiness in diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Several effective approaches to increase happiness employ activities to engage and stimulate patients who might otherwise be unoccupied and isolated. In
de Groot, Jasper H B; Smeets, Monique A M; Rowson, Matt J; Bulsing, Patricia J; Blonk, Cor G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Semin, Gün R
2015-06-01
It is well known that feelings of happiness transfer between individuals through mimicry induced by vision and hearing. The evidence is inconclusive, however, as to whether happiness can be communicated through the sense of smell via chemosignals. As chemosignals are a known medium for transferring negative emotions from a sender to a receiver, we examined whether chemosignals are also involved in the transmission of positive emotions. Positive emotions are important for overall well-being and yet relatively neglected in research on chemosignaling, arguably because of the stronger survival benefits linked with negative emotions. We observed that exposure to body odor collected from senders of chemosignals in a happy state induced a facial expression and perceptual-processing style indicative of happiness in the receivers of those signals. Our findings suggest that not only negative affect but also a positive state (happiness) can be transferred by means of odors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Roxana Bratu
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.
Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students
Marzyeh Moghadam
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.
Effects of physical exercise programme on happiness among older people.
Khazaee-Pool, M; Sadeghi, R; Majlessi, F; Rahimi Foroushani, A
2015-02-01
This randomized-controlled trial investigated the effect of physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. Results of this study on 120 male and female volunteers showed that an 8-week group physical exercise programme was significantly effective in older adults' happiness. Findings showed that physical exercise programme is so beneficial for increasing older adults' happiness. Physical activity is associated with well-being and happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week long physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. This was a randomized control trial study. The participants consisted of a group of 120 male and female volunteers (mean ± SD age: 71 ± 5.86 years) in a convenience sampling among older adults in public parks in Nowshahr, Iran. We randomly allocated them into experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups. A validated instrument was used to measure well-being and happiness [Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI)]. Respondents were asked to complete the OHI before and 2 months after implementing PEP. The 8-week PEP was implemented with the intervention group. The statistical analysis of the data was conducted using paired t-test, Fisher's exact test and χ(2). Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in the happiness mean score between the case and control groups; however, after implementing PEP, happiness significantly improved among the experimental group (P = 0.001) and did not improve within the control group (P = 0.79). It can be concluded that PEP had positive effects on happiness among older adults. Planning and implementing of physical activity is so important for older happiness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Complete Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise ϕ-mixing Random Variables
LI Jing
2013-01-01
In the paper, the complete convergence for arrays of rowwise ϕ-mixing random variables is studied. Some sufficient conditions for complete convergence for an array of row-wiseϕ-mixing random variables without assumptions of identical distribution and stochastic domination are presented.
LARGE DEVIATION FOR THE EMPIRICAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT OF TWO GAUSSIAN RANDOM VARIABLES
Shen Si
2007-01-01
In this article, the author obtains the large deviation principles for the empirical correlation coefficient of two Gaussian random variables X and Y. Especially, when considering two independent Gaussian random variables X, Y with the means EX, EY(both known), wherein the author gives two kinds of different proofs and gets the same results.
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF NEGATIVELY DEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
Liu Li; Wan Chenggao; Feng Yanqin
2011-01-01
In this article, we obtain the large deviations and moderate deviations for negatively dependent (ND) and non-identically distributed random variables defined on (-∞, +∞). The results show that for some non-identical random variables, precise large deviations and moderate deviations remain insensitive to negative dependence structure.
Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda. This fact is feasible by means of the Fourier-Stieltjes sequence (FSS of the random variable.
Yongfeng Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The authors first present a Rosenthal inequality for sequence of extended negatively dependent (END random variables. By means of the Rosenthal inequality, the authors obtain some complete moment convergence and mean convergence results for arrays of rowwise END random variables. The results in this paper extend and improve the corresponding theorems by Hu and Taylor (1997.
Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables
Jiangfeng Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.
Ji-hua Xu; Jing-hui Zhao
2000-01-01
After giving the representation of moment gqnerating function for the S-λ type random variable by solving a differential equation, we prove that this type random variable is of regular n-r order moment. Furthermore we establish the higher order asymptotic formula for generalized Feller operators by making use of the generalized Taylor formula.
Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers
Griffiths, Martin
2013-01-01
We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…
An almost Sure Central Limit Theorem for the Weight Function Sequences of NA Random Variables
Qunying Wu
2011-08-01
Consider the weight function sequences of NA random variables. This paper proves that the almost sure central limit theorem holds for the weight function sequences of NA random variables. Our results generalize and improve those on the almost sure central limit theorem previously obtained from the i.i.d. case to NA sequences.
Salvatore Moccia
2016-05-01
Full Text Available One of the main goals of work and organisational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. However, the different authors do not agree on the fundamental concept of happiness. The objectives of this paper are to present the enormous contribution of positive psychology and philosophy to the subject of happiness and its influence on labour and productivity, to review several scholars in this field, to highlight the differences among them, and, especially, to find a consensus on the fundamentals of happiness. In fact, the major difference among all the contributions is that there is no unanimity on the fundamental concept of happiness. Whereas some authors see happiness as “pleasure”, others prefer the concept of happiness as a mixture of “pleasure”, “engagement” and “meaning”, avoiding the definition of happiness, and hiding it behind the concept of well-being. However, if a consensus were reached, it would represent a concept that could be better managed from the psychological perspective
Stochastic Optimal Estimation with Fuzzy Random Variables and Fuzzy Kalman Filtering
FENG Yu-hu
2005-01-01
By constructing a mean-square performance index in the case of fuzzy random variable, the optimal estimation theorem for unknown fuzzy state using the fuzzy observation data are given. The state and output of linear discrete-time dynamic fuzzy system with Gaussian noise are Gaussian fuzzy random variable sequences. An approach to fuzzy Kalman filtering is discussed. Fuzzy Kalman filtering contains two parts: a real-valued non-random recurrence equation and the standard Kalman filtering.
Mingle Guo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise negatively associated random variables is investigated. Some sufficient conditions for complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise negatively associated random variables are established. Moreover, the results of Baek et al. (2008, are complemented. As an application, the complete moment convergence of moving average processes based on a negatively associated random sequences is obtained, which improves the result of Li et al. (2004.
Bias in random forest variable importance measures: Illustrations, sources and a solution
Hothorn Torsten
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variable importance measures for random forests have been receiving increased attention as a means of variable selection in many classification tasks in bioinformatics and related scientific fields, for instance to select a subset of genetic markers relevant for the prediction of a certain disease. We show that random forest variable importance measures are a sensible means for variable selection in many applications, but are not reliable in situations where potential predictor variables vary in their scale of measurement or their number of categories. This is particularly important in genomics and computational biology, where predictors often include variables of different types, for example when predictors include both sequence data and continuous variables such as folding energy, or when amino acid sequence data show different numbers of categories. Results Simulation studies are presented illustrating that, when random forest variable importance measures are used with data of varying types, the results are misleading because suboptimal predictor variables may be artificially preferred in variable selection. The two mechanisms underlying this deficiency are biased variable selection in the individual classification trees used to build the random forest on one hand, and effects induced by bootstrap sampling with replacement on the other hand. Conclusion We propose to employ an alternative implementation of random forests, that provides unbiased variable selection in the individual classification trees. When this method is applied using subsampling without replacement, the resulting variable importance measures can be used reliably for variable selection even in situations where the potential predictor variables vary in their scale of measurement or their number of categories. The usage of both random forest algorithms and their variable importance measures in the R system for statistical computing is illustrated and
German Lobos; Maria del Carmen Lapo; Berta Schnettler
2016-01-01
Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1)...
Justin Dupré-Harbord
2014-01-01
.... It is also a "happy" country, at least according to well-being measures. In fact, Australia scores above average in almost all of the 11 well-being dimensions measured by the OECD Better Life Index...
2009-01-01
Kagu-Euroopa, Balti- ja Põhjamaade kunstnikke ühendav kunstiprojekt "Happy Together" Tallinna Kunstihoones 29.01.-01.03. 2009. a. Kuraatorid Mika Hannula, Minna Henriksson. Eestist osalevad Villu Jaanisoo ja Kristina Norman
Ervin, Sam J., Jr.
1977-01-01
To enable Americans to pursue happiness, the Constitution creates these five precious freedoms: economic freedom, personal freedom, political freedom, intellectual freedom, and religious freedom. Let us remember that eternal vigilance is the price of freedom. (Author/IRT)
2009-01-01
Kagu-Euroopa, Balti- ja Põhjamaade kunstnikke ühendav kunstiprojekt "Happy Together" Tallinna Kunstihoones 29.01.-01.03. 2009. a. Kuraatorid Mika Hannula, Minna Henriksson. Eestist osalevad Villu Jaanisoo ja Kristina Norman
Ghent, Alice
2011-04-01
Emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades, more governments than ever are measuring health and happiness as well as gross domestic product. But how will the study of well-being shape new policies?
PaCAL: A Python Package for Arithmetic Computations with Random Variables
Marcin Korze?
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present PaCAL, a Python package for arithmetical computations on random variables. The package is capable of performing the four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as computing many standard functions of random variables. Summary statistics, random number generation, plots, and histograms of the resulting distributions can easily be obtained and distribution parameter ?tting is also available. The operations are performed numerically and their results interpolated allowing for arbitrary arithmetic operations on random variables following practically any probability distribution encountered in practice. The package is easy to use, as operations on random variables are performed just as they are on standard Python variables. Independence of random variables is, by default, assumed on each step but some computations on dependent random variables are also possible. We demonstrate on several examples that the results are very accurate, often close to machine precision. Practical applications include statistics, physical measurements or estimation of error distributions in scienti?c computations.
John Ciardi
2007-01-01
@@ The right to pursue happiness is issued to Americans with their birth certificates, but no one seems quite sure which way it ran. It may be we are issued a hunting license but offered no game. Jonathan Swift1 seemed to think so when he attacked the idea of happiness as "the possession of being well-deceived," the felicity of being "a fool among knaves". For Swift saw society as Vanity Fair2, the land of false goals.
Conway, J. H.
1998-01-01
It is asserted without proof that every positive integer is the product of a unique "happy couple" of integers. A "happy couple" is an ordered pair of integers of one of three types: (A,A); (B,C), with C>1, where there exist integers R, S, such thath B*R^2+1=C*S^2; and (D,E) where there exist odd integers T, U such that D*T^2+2=E*U^2.
Salvatore Moccia
2016-01-01
One of the main goals of work and organisational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. However, the different authors do not agree on the fundamental concept of happiness. The objectives of this paper are to present the enormous contribution of positive psychology and philosophy to the subject of happiness and its influence on labour and productivity, to review several scholars in this field, to highlight the differences among them, and, especially, to find a c...
Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara
2017-01-01
This article reviews the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms ‘happiness’ and ‘satisfaction’ interchangeably as if one were tantamount to the other, such conflation being due to the move towards consumerism within higher education and the marketization of the sector. Wh...
Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift
Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten
2014-01-01
these results handle a position-dependent (variable) drift that was not covered by previous drift theorems with tail bounds. Moreover, our theorem can be specialized into virtually all existing drift theorems with drift towards the target from the literature. Finally, user-friendly specializations...
Muhammad Farrukh Yaqub
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for single phase variable voltage inverter based on Random Pulse Width Modulation. In Random Pulse Width Modulation based inverter, the frequency spectrum of the output current and voltage waveforms becomes continuous because of the randomization of the switching function of the devices controlling the output voltages. This paper establishes a theory that if the distributions of the random numbers generated by the random source are kept within certain limit with respect to the peak value of reference sinusoidal waveform, the frequency spectrum can be controlled. On the basis of the results, a novel drive using variable tap changing transformer (optional and adaptive random number generator, to control the ratio between the numbers generated by the random source and the reference waveform has been suggested that will guarantee a better power quality profile for a broad range of output voltages.
YUAN DeMei; AN Jun
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some Rosenthal type inequalities for maximum partial sums of asymptotically almost negatively associated random variables, which extend the corresponding results for negatively associated random variables. As applications of these inequalities, by employing the notions of residual Cesaro α-integrability and strong residual Cesaro α-integrability, we derive some results on Lp convergence where 1
random variables.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some Rosenthal type inequalities for maximum partial sums of asymptotically almost negatively associated random variables, which extend the corresponding results for negatively associated random variables. As applications of these inequalities, by employing the notions of residual Cesàro α-integrability and strong residual Cesàro α-integrability, we derive some results on Lp convergence where 1 < p < 2 and complete convergence. In addition, we estimate the rate of convergence in Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund strong law for partial sums of identically distributed random variables.
Qunying Wu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the complete convergence and complete moment convergence for negatively associated sequences of random variables with E X = 0 $\\mathbb{E}X=0$ , E exp ( ln α | X | 1 $\\alpha>1$ . As a result, we extend some complete convergence and complete moment convergence theorems for independent random variables to the case of negatively associated random variables without necessarily imposing any extra conditions. Our results generalize corresponding results obtained by Gut and Stadtmüller (Stat. Probab. Lett. 81:1486-1492, 2011 and Qiu and Chen (Stat. Probab. Lett. 91:76-82, 2014.
Yue Bao WANG; Kai Yong WANG; Dong Ya CHENG
2006-01-01
In this paper, we obtain results on precise large deviations for non-random and random sums of negatively associated nonnegative random variables with common dominatedly varying tail distribution function. We discover that, under certain conditions, three precise large-deviation probabilities with different centering numbers are equivalent to each other. Furthermore, we investigate precise large deviations for sums of negatively associated nonnegative random variables with certain negatively dependent occurrences. The obtained results extend and improve the corresponding results of Ng, Tang, Yan and Yang (J. Appl. Prob., 41, 93-107, 2004).
THE STRUCTURE AND PRECISE MODERATE DEVIATIONS OF RANDOM VARIABLES WITH DOMINATEDLY VARYING TAILS
WANG Yuebao; YANG Yang
2005-01-01
This paper shows the structure of the random variables with dominatedly varying tails and that of the associated random variables,and obtains some results on these r.v.s' precise moderate deviations with random centralizing constants,which extend the boundary γλ(t) of large deviations to γ(λ(t))1/s,where γ＞0,1＜s＜2,λ(t) is the expectation of the random index N(t),t＞O.
Banerji, Anirban; Magarkar, Aniket
2012-09-01
We feel happy when web browsing operations provide us with necessary information; otherwise, we feel bitter. How to measure this happiness (or bitterness)? How does the profile of happiness grow and decay during the course of web browsing? We propose a probabilistic framework that models the evolution of user satisfaction, on top of his/her continuous frustration at not finding the required information. It is found that the cumulative satisfaction profile of a web-searching individual can be modeled effectively as the sum of a random number of random terms, where each term is a mutually independent random variable, originating from ‘memoryless’ Poisson flow. Evolution of satisfaction over the entire time interval of a user’s browsing was modeled using auto-correlation analysis. A utilitarian marker, a magnitude of greater than unity of which describes happy web-searching operations, and an empirical limit that connects user’s satisfaction with his frustration level-are proposed too. The presence of pertinent information in the very first page of a website and magnitude of the decay parameter of user satisfaction (frustration, irritation etc.) are found to be two key aspects that dominate the web user’s psychology. The proposed model employed different combinations of decay parameter, searching time and number of helpful websites. The obtained results are found to match the results from three real-life case studies.
Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...
The functional central limit theorem for strong near-epoch dependent random variables
QIU Jin; LIN Zhengyan
2004-01-01
The functional central limit theorem for strong near-epoch dependent sequences of random variables is proved.The conditions given improve on previous results in the literature concerning dependence and heterogeneity.
New Results On the Sum of Two Generalized Gaussian Random Variables
Soury, Hamza
2015-01-01
We propose in this paper a new method to compute the characteristic function (CF) of generalized Gaussian (GG) random variable in terms of the Fox H function. The CF of the sum of two independent GG random variables is then deduced. Based on this results, the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum distribution are obtained. These functions are expressed in terms of the bivariate Fox H function. Next, the statistics of the distribution of the sum, such as the moments, the cumulant, and the kurtosis, are analyzed and computed. Due to the complexity of bivariate Fox H function, a solution to reduce such complexity is to approximate the sum of two independent GG random variables by one GG random variable with suitable shape factor. The approximation method depends on the utility of the system so three methods of estimate the shape factor are studied and presented.
New Results on the Sum of Two Generalized Gaussian Random Variables
Soury, Hamza
2016-01-06
We propose in this paper a new method to compute the characteristic function (CF) of generalized Gaussian (GG) random variable in terms of the Fox H function. The CF of the sum of two independent GG random variables is then deduced. Based on this results, the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum distribution are obtained. These functions are expressed in terms of the bivariate Fox H function. Next, the statistics of the distribution of the sum, such as the moments, the cumulant, and the kurtosis, are analyzed and computed. Due to the complexity of bivariate Fox H function, a solution to reduce such complexity is to approximate the sum of two independent GG random variables by one GG random variable with suitable shape factor. The approximation method depends on the utility of the system so three methods of estimate the shape factor are studied and presented [1].
On the Strong Law of Large Numbers for Non-Independent B-Valued Random Variables
Gan Shi-xin
2004-01-01
This paper investigates some conditions which imply the strong laws of large numbers for Banach space valued random variable sequences. Some generalizations of the Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund theorem and the Hoffmann-Jφrgensen and Pisier theorem are obtained.
On an asymptotic distribution of dependent random variables on a 3-dimensional lattice.
Harvey, Danielle J; Weng, Qian; Beckett, Laurel A
2010-06-15
We define conditions under which sums of dependent spatial data will be approximately normally distributed. A theorem on the asymptotic distribution of a sum of dependent random variables defined on a 3-dimensional lattice is presented. Examples are also presented.
Random variables as pathwise integrals with respect to fractional Brownian motion
Mishura, Yuliya; Valkeila, Esko
2011-01-01
We show that a pathwise stochastic integral with respect to fractional Brownian motion with an adapted integrand $g$ can have any prescribed distribution, moreover, we give both necessary and sufficient conditions when random variables can be represented in this form. We also prove that any random variable is a value of such integral in some improper sense. We discuss some applications of these results, in particular, to fractional Black--Scholes model of financial market.
Zero Distribution of System with Unknown Random Variables Case Study: Avoiding Collision Path
Parman Setyamartana
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the stochastic analysis of finding the feasible trajectories of robotics arm motion at obstacle surrounding. Unknown variables are coefficients of polynomials joint angle so that the collision-free motion is achieved. ãk is matrix consisting of these unknown feasible polynomial coefficients. The pattern of feasible polynomial in the obstacle environment shows as random. This paper proposes to model the pattern of this randomness values using random polynomial with unknown variables as coefficients. The behavior of the system will be obtained from zero distribution as the characteristic of such random polynomial. Results show that the pattern of random polynomial of avoiding collision can be constructed from zero distribution. Zero distribution is like building block of the system with obstacles as uncertainty factor. By scale factor k, which has range, the random coefficient pattern can be predicted.
Lapko, A. V.; Lapko, V. A.; Yuronen, E. A.
2016-11-01
The new technique of testing of hypothesis of random variables independence is offered. Its basis is made by nonparametric algorithm of pattern recognition. The considered technique doesn't demand sampling of area of values of random variables.
Measures of Gross National Happiness
Ruut Veenhoven
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.
无
2010-01-01
This paper studies the moderate deviations of real-valued extended negatively dependent(END) random variables with consistently varying tails.The moderate deviations of partial sums are first given.The results are then used to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the moderate deviations of random sums under certain circumstances.
The Sum and Difference of Two Lognormal Random Variables
C. F. Lo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We have presented a new unified approach to model the dynamics of both the sum and difference of two correlated lognormal stochastic variables. By the Lie-Trotter operator splitting method, both the sum and difference are shown to follow a shifted lognormal stochastic process, and approximate probability distributions are determined in closed form. Illustrative numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of these approximate distributions. In terms of the approximate probability distributions, we have also obtained an analytical series expansion of the exact solutions, which can allow us to improve the approximation in a systematic manner. Moreover, we believe that this new approach can be extended to study both (1 the algebraic sum of N lognormals, and (2 the sum and difference of other correlated stochastic processes, for example, two correlated CEV processes, two correlated CIR processes, and two correlated lognormal processes with mean-reversion.
Happiness economics: a new road to measuring and comparing happiness
van Praag, B.M.S.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the concept of happiness in economics. Of late there has come into life a branch of happiness economics and it is this field that will be our concern. Actually, not only economists are interested in quantifications of happiness but also researchers in other disciplines. Notably
Happiness economics: a new road to measuring and comparing happiness
van Praag, B.M.S.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the concept of happiness in economics. Of late there has come into life a branch of happiness economics and it is this field that will be our concern. Actually, not only economists are interested in quantifications of happiness but also researchers in other disciplines. Notably
Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros
Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.
2008-01-01
Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…
Asymptotic Results for Tail Probabilities of Sums of Dependent and Heavy-Tailed Random Variables
Kam Chuen YUEN; Chuancun YIN
2012-01-01
Abstract Let X1,X2,...be a sequence of dependent and heavy-tailed random variables with distributions F1,F2,…. on (-∞,∞),and let т be a nonnegative integer-valued random variable independent of the sequence {Xk,k≥ 1}.In this framework,the asymptotic behavior of the tail probabilities of the quantities Sn =n∑k=1 Xk and S(n) =max1≤k≤n Sk for n ＞ 1,and their randomized versions Sт and S(т) are studied.Some applications to the risk theory are presented.
Complete Moment Convergence of Weighted Sums for Arrays of Rowwise φ-Mixing Random Variables
Ming Le Guo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise φ-mixing random variables is investigated. By using moment inequality and truncation method, the sufficient conditions for complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise φ-mixing random variables are obtained. The results of Ahmed et al. (2002 are complemented. As an application, the complete moment convergence of moving average processes based on a φ-mixing random sequence is obtained, which improves the result of Kim et al. (2008.
van Dongen, Christel M P; van der Graaf, Yolanda
2012-01-01
Descriptive, questionnaire-based. To study what makes doctors and medical students happy: Descriptive, questionnaire-based. Descriptive, questionnaire-based. For the purposes of this study, doctors and medical students completed an online questionnaire in the summer of 2012. They were presented with questions enquiring into general characteristics and into happiness. We asked them to define happiness, and to describe their happiest moments. The results were interpreted with the aid of simple statistics. 401 doctors, registrars and medical students took part in the study. 41% of the respondents were male and 59% female. Average age was 40 years. Students, GPs, anaesthesiologists and internists were the best represented. On average, the participants gave their 'happiness' a score of 7.6. The younger doctors ( 48 years (7.8), which also explains the relatively low scores for students (7.1). GPs were the happiest, with an average score of 7.9, closely followed by the 'other doctors', with an average score of 7.8, and the medical specialists (7.6). Within the specialties, bearing in mind that the low numbers means that results should be interpreted with some caution, the doctors with 'minority specialties' were the happiest, followed by internists and the supporting specialties. Psychiatrists and surgical colleagues can be found at the bottom of the list. The determinants 'love and relationships' and 'family' contribute the most to feeling happy. Older doctors are happier than younger doctors and GPs are generally happier than medical specialists. The determinants 'love and relationships' and family' are the most important for doctors' happiness.
Variable Selection for Varying-Coefficient Models with Missing Response at Random
Pei Xin ZHAO; Liu Gen XUE
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a variable selection procedure by combining basis function approximations with penalized estimating equations for varying-coefficient models with missing response at random. With appropriate selection of the tuning parameters, we establish the consistency of the variable selection procedure and the optimal convergence rate of the regularized estimators. A simulation study is undertaken to assess the finite sample performance of the proposed variable selection procedure.
Are Special Education Students Happy?
Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta; Kankaanpaa, Paula; Makinen, Tuula; Raeluoto, Tiina; Rauttu, Karoliina; Tarhala, Veera; Lehto, Juhani E.
2012-01-01
This study compared the subjective and school-related happiness of 75 11- to 16-year-old special education students to 77 age- and gender-matched mainstream students using two quantitative measures. Additionally, the respondents chose from a list of 12 putative happy makers what they felt increased their happiness. Ten special education students…
Measures of Gross National Happiness
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2009-01-01
textabstractHappiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and
Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness
Ip, Po Keung
2011-01-01
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…
Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness
Ip, Po Keung
2011-01-01
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…
Comparability of happiness across nations
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2009-01-01
textabstractCross-national research on happiness is soaring, but doubts about the comparability of happiness remain. One source of doubt is the possibility of cultural measurement bias. Another source of doubt is the theory that happiness depends on standards of the good life that differ widely acro
Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano
2014-01-01
This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...
When Irish eyes are smiling: income and happiness in Ireland, 2003-2009.
Doherty, A M; Kelly, B D
2013-03-01
Ireland's economic fortunes rose and fell in dramatic fashion between 2000 and 2010, as an unprecedented boom was followed by economic crisis. We hypothesised that (a) these dramatic changes in economic circumstances did not substantially change self-rated happiness in Ireland, but (b) social and psychological correlates of happiness may have changed, both within Ireland and compared to other European countries. We studied data from the European Social Survey relating to self-rated happiness and social and psychological correlates of happiness in Ireland in 2003 (n = 2,046), 2005 (n = 2,274), 2007 (n = 1,794) and 2009 (n = 1,764). There was a slight decline in happiness between 2005 and 2009, as mean self-rated happiness score changed from 7.94 (2005) to 7.55 (2009) (0: "extremely unhappy"; 10: "extremely happy"). Linear regression models accounted for only 16.6-20.2% of inter-individual variation in happiness at each time-point. Satisfaction with health had the strongest association with happiness in 2003, 2005 and 2007. Satisfaction with income, relative to other variables, increased over time and in 2009 had the strongest association with happiness. Overall, despite dramatic changes in economic circumstances and a slight decline in happiness, the Irish continued an historic tradition of rating ourselves as generally very happy.
Convergence properties of polynomial chaos approximations for L2 random variables.
Field, Richard V., Jr. (.,; .); Grigoriu, Mircea (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)
2007-03-01
Polynomial chaos (PC) representations for non-Gaussian random variables are infinite series of Hermite polynomials of standard Gaussian random variables with deterministic coefficients. For calculations, the PC representations are truncated, creating what are herein referred to as PC approximations. We study some convergence properties of PC approximations for L{sub 2} random variables. The well-known property of mean-square convergence is reviewed. Mathematical proof is then provided to show that higher-order moments (i.e., greater than two) of PC approximations may or may not converge as the number of terms retained in the series, denoted by n, grows large. In particular, it is shown that the third absolute moment of the PC approximation for a lognormal random variable does converge, while moments of order four and higher of PC approximations for uniform random variables do not converge. It has been previously demonstrated through numerical study that this lack of convergence in the higher-order moments can have a profound effect on the rate of convergence of the tails of the distribution of the PC approximation. As a result, reliability estimates based on PC approximations can exhibit large errors, even when n is large. The purpose of this report is not to criticize the use of polynomial chaos for probabilistic analysis but, rather, to motivate the need for further study of the efficacy of the method.
On the use of fractional calculus for the probabilistic characterization of random variables
Cottone, Giulio; 10.1016/j.probengmech.2008.08.002
2013-01-01
In this paper, the classical problem of the probabilistic characterization of a random variable is re-examined. A random variable is usually described by the probability density function (PDF) or by its Fourier transform, namely the characteristic function (CF). The CF can be further expressed by a Taylor series involving the moments of the random variable. However, in some circumstances, the moments do not exist and the Taylor expansion of the CF is useless. This happens for example in the case of $\\alpha$--stable random variables. Here, the problem of representing the CF or the PDF of random variables (r.vs) is examined by introducing fractional calculus. Two very remarkable results are obtained. Firstly, it is shown that the fractional derivatives of the CF in zero coincide with fractional moments. This is true also in case of CF not derivable in zero (like the CF of $\\alpha$--stable r.vs). Moreover, it is shown that the CF may be represented by a generalized Taylor expansion involving fractional moments. ...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2003-01-01
textabstractHedonism is a way of life, characterised by openness to pleasurable experience. There are many qualms about hedonism. It is rejected on moral grounds and said to be detrimental to long-term happiness. Several mechanisms for this 'paradox of hedonism' have been suggested and telling examp
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
1995-01-01
textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
1.
Dean, Erin
Thousands of lesbian, gay and bisexual people have entered civil partnerships since 2005. The change in the law has, arguably, opened the legal and health benefits of marriage to same-sex couples. In this article, nurses explain that being in a civil partnership has removed practical difficulties and brought increased security and happiness.
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
1995-01-01
textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
1. Bib
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
1995-01-01
textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
1. Bib
Pei Xin ZHAO; Liu Gen XUE
2011-01-01
In this paper,we present a variable selection procedure by combining basis function approximations with penalized estimating equations for semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear models with missing response at random.The proposed procedure simultaneously selects significant variables in parametric components and nonparametric components.With appropriate selection of the tuning parameters,we establish the consistency of the variable selection procedure and the convergence rate of the regularized estimators.A simulation study is undertaken to assess the finite sample performance of the proposed variable selection procedure.
Happiness Inequality in the United States
Stevenson, Betsey; Wolfers, Justin
2008-01-01
This paper examines how the level and dispersion of self-reported happiness has evolved over the period 1972-2006. While there has been no increase in aggregate happiness, inequality in happiness has fallen substantially since the 1970s. There have been large changes in the level of happiness across groups: Two-thirds of the black-white happiness gap has been eroded, and the gender happiness gap has disappeared entirely. Paralleling changes in the income distribution, differences in happiness...
Shape and distribution of Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable
Saipornchai, N.
2005-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find another way to generate Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable and to construct quantile table, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis and coefficient of variation tables of Jones and Faddy's skew t distribution. Graphs of its probability density function and graphs of its distribution function are also presented. The results of this study show that Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable can be generated from a beta random variable on (-1,1. The coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the distribution depend on parameters a and b. The coefficient of variation of Jones and Faddy's skew t distribution can be calculated.
Autoclassification of the Variable 3XMM Sources Using the Random Forest Machine Learning Algorithm
Farrell, Sean A; Lo, Kitty K
2015-01-01
In the current era of large surveys and massive data sets, autoclassification of astrophysical sources using intelligent algorithms is becoming increasingly important. In this paper we present the catalog of variable sources in the Third XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source catalog (3XMM) autoclassified using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used a sample of manually classified variable sources from the second data release of the XMM-Newton catalogs (2XMMi-DR2) to train the classifier, obtaining an accuracy of ~92%. We also evaluated the effectiveness of identifying spurious detections using a sample of spurious sources, achieving an accuracy of ~95%. Manual investigation of a random sample of classified sources confirmed these accuracy levels and showed that the Random Forest machine learning algorithm is highly effective at automatically classifying 3XMM sources. Here we present the catalog of classified 3XMM variable sources. We also present three previously unidentified unusual sources that wer...
A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Variable Random Functions and Mutation
ZHOU Xiao-Jun; YANG Chun-Hua; GUI Wei-Hua; DONG Tian-Xue
2014-01-01
The convergence analysis of the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) has shown that the changing of random functions, personal best and group best has the potential to improve the performance of the PSO. In this paper, a novel strategy with variable random functions and polynomial mutation is introduced into the PSO, which is called particle swarm optimization algorithm with variable random functions and mutation (PSO-RM). Random functions are adjusted with the density of the population so as to manipulate the weight of cognition part and social part. Mutation is executed on both personal best particle and group best particle to explore new areas. Experiment results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the strategy.
Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas
2017-04-15
The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zwan, van der, G.; Vente, de, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin,, Henk
2015-01-01
In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...
Complete Convergence of Weighted Sums for ρ*-Mixing Sequence of Random Variables
Mingle GUO; Dongjin ZHU
2013-01-01
In this paper,the complete convergence of weighted sums for ρ*-mixing sequence of random variables is investigated.By applying moment inequality and truncation methods,the equivalent conditions of complete convergence of weighted sums for ρ*-mixing sequence of random variables are established.We not only promote and improve the results of Li et al.(J.Theoret.Probab.,1995,8(1):49-76) from i.i.d.to ρ*-mixing setting but also obtain their necessities and relax their conditions.
SHEN Ai-ting; ZHU Hua-yan; ZHANG Ying
2014-01-01
Some exponential inequalities and complete convergence are established for ex-tended negatively dependent(END) random variables. The inequalities extend and improve the results of Kim and Kim(On the exponential inequality for negative dependent sequence. Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society, 2007, 22(2): 315-321) and Nooghabi and Azarnoosh(Exponential inequality for negatively associated random variables. Statisti-cal Papers, 2009, 50 (2): 419-428). We also obtain the convergence rate O(n-1/2 ln1/2 n) for the strong law of large numbers, which improves the corresponding ones of Kim and Kim, and Nooghabi and Azarnoosh.
Exponential inequalities for associated random variables and strong laws of large numbers
2007-01-01
Some exponential inequalities for partial sums of associated random variables are established. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Ioannides and Roussas (1999), and Oliveira (2005). As application, some strong laws of large numbers are given. For the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, we obtain the rate of convergence n-1/2(log log n)1/2(logn) which is close to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under an iterated logarithm, while Ioannides and Roussas (1999), and Oliveira (2005) only got n-1/3(logn)2/3 and n-1/3(logn)5/3, separately.
Exponential inequalities for associated random variables and strong laws of large numbers
Shan-chao YANG; Min CHEN
2007-01-01
Some exponential inequalities for partial sums of associated random variables are established. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Ioannides and Roussas (1999), and Oliveira (2005). As application, some strong laws of large numbers are given. For the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, we obtain the rate of convergence n-1/2(log log n)1/2(log n) which is close to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under an iterated logarithm, while Ioannides and Roussas (1999), and Oliveira (2005) only got n-1/3 (log n)2/3 and n-1/3 (log n)5/3, separately.
A note on strong law of large numbers of random variables
LIN Zheng-yan; SHEN Xin-mei
2006-01-01
In this paper, the Chung's strong law of large numbers is generalized to the random variables which do not need the condition of independence, while the sequence of Borel functions verifies some conditions weaker than that in Chung's theorem.Some convergence theorems for martingale difference sequence such as Lp martingale difference sequence are the particular cases of results achieved in this paper. Finally, the convergence theorem for A-summability of sequence of random variables is proved,where A is a suitable real infinite matrix.
Tail dependence of random variables from ARCH and heavy tailed bilinear models
潘家柱
2002-01-01
Discussed in this paper is the dependent structure in the tails of distributions of random variables from some heavy-tailed stationary nonlinear time series. One class of models discussed is the first-order autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) process introduced by Engle (1982). The other class is the simple first-order bilinear models driven by heavy-tailed innovations. We give some explicit formulas for the asymptotic values of conditional probabilities used for measuring the tail dependence between two random variables from these models. Our results have significant meanings in finance.
Higher order moments of a sum of random variables: remarks and applications.
Luisa Tibiletti
1996-02-01
Full Text Available The moments of a sum of random variables depend on both the pure moments of each random addendum and on the addendum mixed moments. In this note we introduce a simple measure to evaluate the relative impedance to attach to the latter. Once the pure moments are fixed, the functional relation between the random addenda leading to the extreme values is also provided. Applications to Finance, Decision Theory and Actuarial Sciences are also suggested.
USING RANDOM PROPORTIONAL PULSE FEEDBACK OF SYSTEM VARIABLES TO CONTROL CHAOS AND HYPERCHAOS
LUO XIAO-SHU; WANG BING-HONG; GAO YUAN; JIANG FENG
2001-01-01
A method that allows one to control chaotic and hyperchaotic systems by a random proportional pulse feedback of system variables is proposed. This method is illustrated with the Rossler chaotic and the complex Lorenz-Harken hyperchaotic systems, and a better control result is obtained. The advantage of this method is that just one perturbed system variable is enough to obtain a stabilized periodic orbit.
Zheng, Zhong; Hämäläinen, Jyri; Tirkkonen, Olav
2012-01-01
We derive a closed-form expression for the orthogonal polynomials associated with the general lognormal density. The result can be utilized to construct easily computable approximations for probability density function of a product of random variables. As an example, we have calculated the approximative distribution for the product of correlated Nakagami-m variables. Simulations indicate that accuracy of the proposed approximation is good.
Rosario Cabello
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a higher quality of social relationships, and (b higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness.
Cabello, Rosario; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
2015-01-01
Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18-80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness.
Cabello, Rosario
2015-01-01
Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness. PMID:26500814
The Economic Problem of Happiness. Keynes on Happiness and Economics
Anna M. Carabelli; Cedrini, Mario A.
2011-01-01
In their latest book (2008), Bruno Frey and the members of the research group he chairs at the University of Zurich announce that happiness research is leading a revolution in economics. More precisely, the revolutionary character of happiness economics would draw on measurement, on how people value goods and social conditions, as well as on policies. This paper aims to discuss critically this claim and what we identified as five crucial issues of mainstream happiness economics, i.e.: 1. the ...
Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations
Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.
2011-01-01
The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…
What Do We Know About Happiness
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2001-01-01
textabstractOne of the goals of developmental policy is to create greater happiness for a greater number. Realization of that ambition requires understanding of happiness. The following questions must be answered: 1) What is happiness precisely? 2) Can happiness be measured? 3) How happy are people
Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations
Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.
2011-01-01
The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous…
Buying time promotes happiness.
Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I
2017-08-08
Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands (n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.
Developmental programming of happiness.
Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J
2017-09-01
Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Impact of Three Types of Economic, Cultural and Social Capitals on Youth’s Happiness
Fatemeh Akbarzadeh
2013-07-01
Other researches like Richard Rose (2000 concluded that social capital has greater effect on happiness than other variables. He believed that social capital includes social relational networks, friendships and social trust. Social networks provide a great amount of social and mental support. In our research, economic capital has the least effect on happiness among independent variables. Various studies show that money is necessary to happiness but only a certain amount of money. Some researchers believe that by increasing their wealth, people become happier. However, after getting to a certain point, we no longer observe more happiness.
2010-02-25
This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along! Created: 2/25/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Date Released: 2/25/2010.
2010-02-25
This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along! Created: 2/25/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Date Released: 2/25/2010.
Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness
Veenhoven, Ruut
2004-01-01
textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...
S Jahedi
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: The role of family in shaping affective and cognitive characteristics of children, especially girls, who the future health of community depends on their mental health, is evident. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of family cohesion and flexibility on self-esteem and happiness of children in high school girl students in Shiraz. Methods: In the present correlational study design, 303 cases of Shiraz secondary girl students who lived with their parents were chosen through the multistage random cluster sampling method. They responded to questionnaires for consistency of family, positives flexibility, Cooper Smith Self-esteem and Oxford Happiness scale. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Results Family consistency had significant positive power predictive for criterion variables self-esteem and happiness (p <0.05, whereas the flexibility had no such significance. Conclusion: Quality of operation of parents, communication and interaction in family life is one of the best determinants of behavior, health and well-being of children, including their self-esteem and happiness. Key words: Family cohesion, Family flexibility, Self-esteem, Happiness, Child
Bounds for right tails of deterministic and stochastic sums of random variables
G. Darkiewicz; G. Deelstra; J. Dhaene; T. Hoedemakers; M. Vanmaele
2009-01-01
We investigate lower and upper bounds for right tails (stop-loss premiums) of deterministic and stochastic sums of nonindependent random variables. The bounds are derived using the concepts of comonotonicity, convex order, and conditioning. The performance of the presented approximations is investig
A NONCLASSICAL LAW OF ITERATED LOGARITHM FOR NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM VARIABLES
JiangYe
2003-01-01
A nonclassical law of iterated logarithm that holds for a stationary negatively associated sequence of random variables with finite variance is proved in this paper.The proof is based on a Rosenthal type maximal inequality and the subsequence method.This result extends the work of Klesov,Rosalsky(2001)and Shao.Su(1999).
2008-01-01
In this paper,we prove a general law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) for independent non-identically distributed B-valued random variables.As an interesting application,we obtain the law of the iterated logarithm for the empirical covariance of Hilbertian autoregressive processes.
van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.
2015-01-01
In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing
Laws of Large Numbers of Negatively Correlated Random Variables for Capacities
Wen-juan LI; Zeng-jing CHEN
2011-01-01
Our aim is to present some limit theorems for capacities.We consider a sequence of pairwise negatively correlated random variables.We obtain laws of large numbers for upper probabilities and 2-aiternating capacities,using some results in the classical probability theory and a non-additive version of Chebyshev's inequality and Borai-Contelli lemma for capacities.
Zwan, van der J.E.; Vente, de W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de E.I.
2015-01-01
In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing
On Complete Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise Strong Mixing Random Variables
ZHOU XING-CAI; LIN JIN-GUAN; WANG XUE-JUN; HU SHU-HE
2011-01-01
In this paper,we present a general method to prove the complete convergence for arrays of rowwise strong mixing random variables,and give some results on complete convergence under some suitable conditions.Some Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type strong laws of large numbers are also obtained.
Eisinga, R.N.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Pelzer, B.J.
2013-01-01
We discuss saddlepoint approximations to the distribution of the sum of independent non-identically distributed binomial random variables. We examine the accuracy of the saddlepoint methods for a sum of 10 binomials with different sets of parameter values. The numerical results indicate that the sad
On an asymptotic distribution of dependent random variables on a 3-dimensional lattice✩
Harvey, Danielle J.; Weng, Qian; Beckett, Laurel A.
2010-01-01
We define conditions under which sums of dependent spatial data will be approximately normally distributed. A theorem on the asymptotic distribution of a sum of dependent random variables defined on a 3-dimensional lattice is presented. Examples are also presented. PMID:20436940
J.L. Geluk (Jaap); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
2004-01-01
textabstractAsymptotic tail probabilities for bivariate linear combinations of subexponential random variables are given. These results are applied to explain the joint movements of the stocks of reinsurers. Portfolio investment and retrocession practices in the reinsurance industry, for reasons of
Weak laws of large numbers for arrays of rowwise negatively dependent random variables
R. L. Taylor
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Weak laws of large numbers for arrays of rowwise negatively dependent random variables are obtained in this paper. The more general hypothesis of negative dependence relaxes the usual assumption of independence. The moment conditions are similar to previous results, and the stochastic bounded condition also provides a generalization of the usual distributional assumptions.
A CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM FOR STRONG NEAR-EPOCH DEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
LIN ZHENGYAN; QIU JIN
2004-01-01
In this paper, a central limit theorem for strong near-epoch dependent sequences of random variables introduced in [9] is showed. Under the same moments condition,the authors essentially weaken the "size" requirement mentioned in other papers about near epoch dependence.
Sasanpour M
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, many professionals consider necessary conditions for progress in developing emotional intelligence. A person who has a high emotional intelligence will experience less negative events in his/her life. The main purpose of this study is to answer this question: Is emotional intelligence related to happiness and mental health? Method and material: Statistical community in this study is all the students of Medical sciences of Isfahan University in 2009, among whom 120 people were randomly selected and these three questionnaires were administered to them: 1 Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, 2 Goldberg and Williams's Mental Health Questionnaire (GHQ, and 3 Argyl and Lou's Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (1989. This study design is correlative that has been used to evaluate significance of the relationship of variables by using Pearson correlation coefficient and to compare the scores of male and female using T-test. Result: The results show that there is a positive and meaningful relation between emotional intelligence, happiness and mental health. Besides, students with high emotional intelligence have more happiness and mental health. Therefore it is recommended that techniques of increasing emotional intelligence should be trained in school and universities. Conclusion: The Overall EQ-I score was high indicating a group that has good Emotional Intelligence. There are fairly large differences in the scores for the 15 content scales indicating areas of relative strengths and areas of improvement and relation between mental healths in students. Emotional Intelligence will contribute to success in most endeavors.
Volunteering, Happiness and Public Policy
2012-01-01
Is the activity of volunteering something that benefits the volunteer as well as the recipient of the volunteer's activities? We analyze this relationship and apply matching estimators to the large- scale British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data set to estimate the causal impact of volunteering on happiness. We take into account personality traits that could jointly determine volunteering behaviour and happiness. We find that the causal impact of volunteering on happiness is positive and in...
Measuring happiness in large population
Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby
2016-01-01
The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.
Relationships between happiness and gender, age and marital status
Reynaldo Alarcón
2001-06-01
Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.
Emotional Self-Efficacy, Emotional Empathy and Emotional Approach Coping as Sources of Happiness
Tarık Totan; Tayfun Doğan; Fatma Sapmaz
2013-01-01
Among the many variables affecting happiness, there are those that arise from emotional factors. In this study, the hypothesis stating that happiness is affected by emotional self-efficacy, emotional empathy and emotional approach coping has been examined using the path model. A total of 334 university students participated in this study, 229 of whom were females and 105 being males. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, Emotional Self-efficacy Scale, Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy ...
El-Wakil, S. A.; Sallah, M.; El-Hanbaly, A. M.
2015-10-01
The stochastic radiative transfer problem is studied in a participating planar finite continuously fluctuating medium. The problem is considered for specular- and diffusly-reflecting boundaries with linear anisotropic scattering. Random variable transformation (RVT) technique is used to get the complete average for the solution functions, that are represented by the probability-density function (PDF) of the solution process. In the RVT algorithm, a simple integral transformation to the input stochastic process (the extinction function of the medium) is applied. This linear transformation enables us to rewrite the stochastic transport equations in terms of the optical random variable (x) and the optical random thickness (L). Then the transport equation is solved deterministically to get a closed form for the solution as a function of x and L. So, the solution is used to obtain the PDF of the solution functions applying the RVT technique among the input random variable (L) and the output process (the solution functions). The obtained averages of the solution functions are used to get the complete analytical averages for some interesting physical quantities, namely, reflectivity and transmissivity at the medium boundaries. In terms of the average reflectivity and transmissivity, the average of the partial heat fluxes for the generalized problem with internal source of radiation are obtained and represented graphically.
Happiness and Sustainability Together at Last! Sustainable Happiness
O'Brien, Catherine
2013-01-01
Sustainable happiness is "happiness that contributes to individual, community and/or global well-being without exploiting other people, the environment or future generations" (O'Brien, 2010a, n.p.). It underscores the interrelationship between human flourishing and ecological resilience. At the national and international levels,…
Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2004-01-01
textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard
Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo
2016-01-01
Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were
Relationship between Personality Traits and Happiness in Patients with Thalassemia
Babollah Bakhshipour
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determining the relationship between personality traits and happiness in patients with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods: The design of this study was descriptive (correlational study. The target population of this study was all under-treated patients with major thalassemia in Amirkola thalassemia center in 2011. Among these patients, 150 patients were sampled using simple random sampling method and Morgan's table. The data were analyzed by means of calculating Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis. The patients were asked to complete NEO-five factor Inventory (short form and Oxford happiness inventory. Results: Based on the results, the coefficient of regression analysis of NEO personality factors (big five and happiness was 0.45, which shows a linear relationship between personality factors of NEO and happiness in patients with thalassemia. Thus, there is a statistically significant relationship among personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and happiness. Conclusion: Among personality traits, extroversion, flexibility, agreeableness and conscientiousness had positive statistically meaningful relationship with happiness i.e. patients with lower scores in neuroticism, were happier.
Inequality-Adjusted happiness (IAH)
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ According to the utilitarian creed, the quality of a society should be judged using the degree of happiness of its members, the best society being the one that provides the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Following the egalitarian principle, the quality of a
Happiness and Childbearing across Europe
Aassve, Arnstein; Goisis, Alice; Sironi, Maria
2012-01-01
Using happiness as a well-being measure and comparative data from the European social survey we focus in this paper on the link between happiness and childbearing across European countries. The analysis motivates from the recent lows in fertility in many European countries and that economic wellbeing measures are problematic when considering…
Inequality of happiness in nations
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2005-01-01
textabstractThe first comparison of happiness in nations took place in 1948 and involved 9 countries (Buchanan, 1953). A second comparative study in 1960 covered 14 nations (Cantril 1965) and this was followed by a global survey in 1975 carried out by Gallup (1976), in which happiness in all parts
Happiness Adjusted Life Years (HALY)
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ How long and happy people live. For individuals this can be assessed only once they have died. For populations it can be estimated by combining average happiness as assessed in surveys with average longevity as assessed using civil registration. The focus of this
Happiness and Childbearing across Europe
Aassve, Arnstein; Goisis, Alice; Sironi, Maria
2012-01-01
Using happiness as a well-being measure and comparative data from the European social survey we focus in this paper on the link between happiness and childbearing across European countries. The analysis motivates from the recent lows in fertility in many European countries and that economic wellbeing measures are problematic when considering…
McCluskey, Neal
2017-01-01
Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…
Inequality of happiness in nations
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2006-01-01
textabstractThe first comparison of happiness in nations took place in 1948 and involved 9 countries (Buchanan, 1953). A second comparative study in 1960 covered 14 nations (Cantril 1965) and this was followed by a global survey in 1975 carried out by Gallup (1976), in which happiness in all parts o
Berns, Walter
1987-01-01
Discusses the changes in American thinking and tolerance between the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the writing of the Constitution. Concludes that the right to pursue happiness allows everyone to personally define happiness. The government that secures that right will leave people alone to do as they wish. (PS)
Berns, Walter
1987-01-01
Discusses the changes in American thinking and tolerance between the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the writing of the Constitution. Concludes that the right to pursue happiness allows everyone to personally define happiness. The government that secures that right will leave people alone to do as they wish. (PS)
Happiness Adjusted Life Years (HALY)
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ How long and happy people live. For individuals this can be assessed only once they have died. For populations it can be estimated by combining average happiness as assessed in surveys with average longevity as assessed using civil registration. The focus of this lemma
Consumption and happiness: An introduction
R. Veenhoven (Ruut); L. Stanca (Luca)
2015-01-01
textabstractWhile abundant evidence is available about the relationship between income and happiness, relatively little is known about the effects of the level and composition of consumption on happiness. The present paper provides an introduction to this special issue devoted to Consumption and Hap
Partial summations of stationary sequences of non-Gaussian random variables
Mohr, Gunnar; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
1996-01-01
-Gaussian variables up to the moments of the fourth order [Winterstein, S. R. Nonlinear vibration models for extremes and fatigue. J. Engng Mech. ASCE 114 (1988) 1772-1790](1). A method to obtain the Winterstein approximation to a partial sum of a sequence of Winterstein approximations is explained and results...... of convergence of the distribution of a sum (or an integral) of mutually dependent random variables to the Gaussian distribution. The paper is closely related to the work in Ditlevsen el al. [Ditlevsen, O., Mohr, G. & Hoffmeyer, P. Integration of non-Gaussian fields. Prob. Engng Mech 11 (1996) 15-23](2)....
Os determinantes empíricos da felicidade no Brasil The empirical determinants of happiness in Brazil
Raphael Bottura Corbi
2006-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role that economic variables play in the determination of happiness, using reported happiness as a proxy to individual well-being. We use microdata extracted from the World Values Survey for five countries, emphasizing the Brazilian case. Our findings suggest that there is a positive and significant correlation between happiness and income. Unemployment is also a large source of unhappiness. In most cases, happiness appears to be positively correlated to being married. Moreover, happiness is apparently U-shaped in age (minimizing at 50's.
Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness
Yavuz Agan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions.
Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness
Yavuz Agan
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions
Wang, Xin-Fan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Deng, Sheng-Yue
2013-01-01
We investigate the dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making (SMCDM) problems, in which the criterion values take the form of log-normally distributed random variables, and the argument information is collected from different periods. We propose two new geometric aggregation operators, such as the log-normal distribution weighted geometric (LNDWG) operator and the dynamic log-normal distribution weighted geometric (DLNDWG) operator, and develop a method for dynamic SMCDM with log-normally distributed random variables. This method uses the DLNDWG operator and the LNDWG operator to aggregate the log-normally distributed criterion values, utilizes the entropy model of Shannon to generate the time weight vector, and utilizes the expectation values and variances of log-normal distributions to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this developed method.
无
2005-01-01
The character and an algorithm about DRVIP(discrete random variable with interval probability) and the second kind DRVFP (discrete random variable with crisp event-fuzzy probability) are researched. Using the fuzzy resolution theorem, the solving mathematical expectation of a DRVFP can be translated into solving mathematical expectation of a series of RVIP. It is obvious that solving mathematical expectation of a DRVIP is a typical linear programming problem. A very functional calculating formula for solving mathematical expectation of DRVIP was obtained by using the Dantzig's simplex method. The example indicates that the result obtained by using the functional calculating formula fits together completely with the result obtained by using the linear programming method, but the process using the formula deduced is simpler.
Xin-Fan Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making (SMCDM problems, in which the criterion values take the form of log-normally distributed random variables, and the argument information is collected from different periods. We propose two new geometric aggregation operators, such as the log-normal distribution weighted geometric (LNDWG operator and the dynamic log-normal distribution weighted geometric (DLNDWG operator, and develop a method for dynamic SMCDM with log-normally distributed random variables. This method uses the DLNDWG operator and the LNDWG operator to aggregate the log-normally distributed criterion values, utilizes the entropy model of Shannon to generate the time weight vector, and utilizes the expectation values and variances of log-normal distributions to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this developed method.
On the complete convergence for weighted sums of a class of random variables
Jinghuan Zhao
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this article, some new results as regards complete convergence for weighted sums ∑ i = 1 n a n i X i $\\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_{ni}X_{i}$ of random variables satisfying the Rosenthal type inequality are established under some mild conditions. These results extend the corresponding theorems of Deng et al. (Filomat 28(3:509-522, 2014 and Gan and Chen (Acta Math. Sci. 28(2:269-281, 2008.
An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables
Wan Soo Rhee
1985-01-01
Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,…,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+α (0<α≦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of Sσ−1(S=X1+X2+…+Xn, σ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it Sσ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.
Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H
2017-07-01
Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in
A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization
Zheng, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2015-05-01
Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow-density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172247, 61273021, 61373009, and 61100118).
Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne
2016-10-01
We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.
The effect of cluster size variability on statistical power in cluster-randomized trials.
Stephen A Lauer
Full Text Available The frequency of cluster-randomized trials (CRTs in peer-reviewed literature has increased exponentially over the past two decades. CRTs are a valuable tool for studying interventions that cannot be effectively implemented or randomized at the individual level. However, some aspects of the design and analysis of data from CRTs are more complex than those for individually randomized controlled trials. One of the key components to designing a successful CRT is calculating the proper sample size (i.e. number of clusters needed to attain an acceptable level of statistical power. In order to do this, a researcher must make assumptions about the value of several variables, including a fixed mean cluster size. In practice, cluster size can often vary dramatically. Few studies account for the effect of cluster size variation when assessing the statistical power for a given trial. We conducted a simulation study to investigate how the statistical power of CRTs changes with variable cluster sizes. In general, we observed that increases in cluster size variability lead to a decrease in power.
Ali, A; Ambler, G; Strydom, A; Rai, D; Cooper, C; McManus, S; Weich, S; Meltzer, H; Dein, S; Hassiotis, A
2013-06-01
Happiness and higher intelligent quotient (IQ) are independently related to positive health outcomes. However, there are inconsistent reports about the relationship between IQ and happiness. The aim was to examine the association between IQ and happiness and whether it is mediated by social and clinical factors. Method The authors analysed data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey in England. The participants were adults aged 16 years or over, living in private households in 2007. Data from 6870 participants were included in the study. Happiness was measured using a validated question on a three-point scale. Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test and both categorical and continuous IQ was analysed. Happiness is significantly associated with IQ. Those in the lowest IQ range (70-99) reported the lowest levels of happiness compared with the highest IQ group (120-129). Mediation analysis using the continuous IQ variable found dependency in activities of daily living, income, health and neurotic symptoms were strong mediators of the relationship, as they reduced the association between happiness and IQ by 50%. Those with lower IQ are less happy than those with higher IQ. Interventions that target modifiable variables such as income (e.g. through enhancing education and employment opportunities) and neurotic symptoms (e.g. through better detection of mental health problems) may improve levels of happiness in the lower IQ groups.
Social connections and happiness among the elder population of Taiwan.
Hsu, H-C; Chang, W-C
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social connections and happiness among members of the elder population of Taiwan. Longitudinal panel data collected in three waves from 1999 to 2007 that are selected from national samples of Taiwanese older people were used for the analysis (n = 4731 persons). Happiness was defined as a dichotomous variable. Social connection variables included living arrangements, contacts with children/grandchildren/parents/relatives/friends, telephone contacts, providing instrumental and informational support, receiving instrumental and emotional support, and social participation. We controlled for the variables demographics, physical and mental health, economic satisfaction, and lifestyle. A generalized linear model (GLM) was applied in the analysis. Happiness remained stable over time. Receiving more emotional support and participating in social events were related to happiness at the beginning, while the effect of social participation was offset over time. Living arrangements, telephone contacts, providing social support, and receiving instrumental support were not significant. The quality of social relationships experienced is possibly more important than the quantity of social interaction for older people, and having social relationships outside the informal social network may increase happiness.
Extended q-Gaussian and q-exponential distributions from gamma random variables.
Budini, Adrián A
2015-05-01
The family of q-Gaussian and q-exponential probability densities fit the statistical behavior of diverse complex self-similar nonequilibrium systems. These distributions, independently of the underlying dynamics, can rigorously be obtained by maximizing Tsallis "nonextensive" entropy under appropriate constraints, as well as from superstatistical models. In this paper we provide an alternative and complementary scheme for deriving these objects. We show that q-Gaussian and q-exponential random variables can always be expressed as a function of two statistically independent gamma random variables with the same scale parameter. Their shape index determines the complexity q parameter. This result also allows us to define an extended family of asymmetric q-Gaussian and modified q-exponential densities, which reduce to the standard ones when the shape parameters are the same. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a simple change of variables always allows relating any of these distributions with a beta stochastic variable. The extended distributions are applied in the statistical description of different complex dynamics such as log-return signals in financial markets and motion of point defects in a fluid flow.
Cleveland, Richard E.
2014-01-01
This dissertation performed an investigation of the psychometric properties of six instruments used in the 2012 Happiness Project research study. The project revisited the 2010 study conducted by Holder, Coleman, and Wallace. Holder et al. (2010) investigated the relationships among variables relating to student happiness and spirituality while…
Cleveland, Richard E.
2014-01-01
This dissertation performed an investigation of the psychometric properties of six instruments used in the 2012 Happiness Project research study. The project revisited the 2010 study conducted by Holder, Coleman, and Wallace. Holder et al. (2010) investigated the relationships among variables relating to student happiness and spirituality while…
Trends in Marital Happiness by Gender and Race, 1973 to 2006
Corra, Mamadi; Carter, Shannon K.; Carter, J. Scott; Knox, David
2009-01-01
This article uses data from the 1973-2006 General Social Survey to assess the interactive impact of race and gender on marital happiness over time. Findings indicate independent and significant effects for both variables, with Whites and husbands reporting greater marital happiness than Blacks and wives. Comparing four subgroups (White husbands,…
An efficient hybrid reliability analysis method with random and interval variables
Xie, Shaojun; Pan, Baisong; Du, Xiaoping
2016-09-01
Random and interval variables often coexist. Interval variables make reliability analysis much more computationally intensive. This work develops a new hybrid reliability analysis method so that the probability analysis (PA) loop and interval analysis (IA) loop are decomposed into two separate loops. An efficient PA algorithm is employed, and a new efficient IA method is developed. The new IA method consists of two stages. The first stage is for monotonic limit-state functions. If the limit-state function is not monotonic, the second stage is triggered. In the second stage, the limit-state function is sequentially approximated with a second order form, and the gradient projection method is applied to solve the extreme responses of the limit-state function with respect to the interval variables. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated by three examples.
Krøigård, Thomas; Gaist, David; Otto, Marit; Højlund, Dorthe; Selmar, Peter E; Sindrup, Søren H
2014-08-01
The reproducibility of variables commonly included in studies of peripheral nerve conduction in healthy individuals has not previously been analyzed using a random effects regression model. We examined the temporal changes and variability of standard nerve conduction measures in the leg. Peroneal nerve distal motor latency, motor conduction velocity, and compound motor action potential amplitude; sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and sensory conduction velocity; and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency were examined in 51 healthy subjects, aged 40 to 67 years. They were reexamined after 2 and 26 weeks. There was no change in the variables except for a minor decrease in sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and a minor increase in tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Reproducibility was best for peroneal nerve distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity, sural nerve sensory conduction velocity, and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Between-subject variability was greater than within-subject variability. Sample sizes ranging from 21 to 128 would be required to show changes twice the magnitude of the spontaneous changes observed in this study. Nerve conduction studies have a high reproducibility, and variables are mainly unaltered during 6 months. This study provides a solid basis for the planning of future clinical trials assessing changes in nerve conduction.
Edward; Cornish; 柳倩
1998-01-01
我们所以“相中”此文,因为它从一个全新的视角提出了问题:幸福和财富的关系如何? 可将上面的问题如此具体化: 入住花园别墅者幸福,还是“蜗居”二室一厅者幸福? 下榻星级宾馆者幸福,还是夜投荒郊客店者幸福? 问题似乎提得有些低气,其实质与文中的一句却是相通的: Living standards have soared during the twentieth century,and economists expectthem to continuerising in the decades ahead.Does that mean that we humans can lookforward to increasing happiness? 稍有生活积淀的人,对这些问题的回答可能是两个字:未必。 在过去的半个世纪中,美国的实际人均国内生产总值翻了一番,但是美国人普遍感到幸福没有增长! 为什么?原因在于心态。一下分析读者是否认同? a.“水”涨“船”高: Easterlin认为:As incomes rise,the aspiration(愿望;期望)level does too,andthe effect of this increase in aspirations is to vitiate(使…无效;抵消)the expectedgrowth in happiness due to higher income. b.攀比四邻: We feel rich if we have more than our neighbors,poor if we have less,and feelingrelatively well off is equated with being happy.(这令我们想起英语成语:keep upwith the Joneses,
Vijaya M Musini
Full Text Available Systematic reviews can often reveal much more than the original objective of the work. The objectives of this retrospective analysis were to answer three basic questions about blood pressure variability: 1 Does blood pressure entry criterion have an effect on baseline blood pressure variability? 2 Do thiazide diuretics have a significant effect on blood pressure variability? and 3 Does systolic blood pressure vary to the same degree as diastolic blood pressure? This analysis of blood pressure variability is based on resting standardized research setting BP readings from two systematic reviews evaluating blood pressure lowering efficacy of thiazide diuretics from double blind randomized controlled trials in 33,611 patients with primary hypertension. The standard deviation reported in trials was the focus of the research and the unit of analysis. When a threshold systolic or diastolic blood pressure value is used to determine entry into a trial, baseline variability is significantly decreased, systolic from 14.0 to 9.3 mmHg and diastolic from 8.4 to 5.3 mmHg. Thiazides do not change BP variability as the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between thiazide and placebo groups at end of treatment. The coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure was significantly greater than the coefficient of variation of diastolic blood pressure. Entry criterion decreases the baseline blood pressure variability. Treatment with a thiazide diuretic does not affect blood pressure variability. Systolic blood pressure varies to a greater degree than diastolic blood pressure.
Happiness, Dispositions and the Self
Klausen, Søren Harnow
2016-01-01
I argue that happiness is an exclusively categorical mental state. Daniel Haybron’s inclusion of dispositions into his emotional state theory rests of a confusion of constituents of happiness in the narrow psychological sense with objects of prudential concern, to which obviously belong “mood...... propensities” and other dispositional states. I further argue that while it is probably correct to require of a constituent of happiness that it must in some sense be “deep” and belong to, or directly impact on, a persons’ self, the importance of depth may be overrated by the emotional state theory, which also...
Hypertension and happiness across nations.
Blanchflower, David G; Oswald, Andrew J
2008-03-01
In surveys of well-being, countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands emerge as particularly happy while nations like Germany and Italy report lower levels of happiness. But are these kinds of findings credible? This paper provides some evidence that the answer is yes. Using data on 16 countries, it shows that happier nations report systematically lower levels of hypertension. As well as potentially validating the differences in measured happiness across nations, this suggests that blood-pressure readings might be valuable as part of a national well-being index. A new ranking of European nations' GHQ-N6 mental health scores is also given.
无
2010-01-01
To analyze the effect of basic variable on failure probability in reliability analysis,a moment-independent importance measure of the basic random variable is proposed,and its properties are analyzed and verified.Based on this work,the importance measure of the basic variable on the failure probability is compared with that on the distribution density of the response.By use of the probability density evolution method,a solution is established to solve two importance measures,which can efficiently avoid the difficulty in solving the importance measures.Some numerical examples and engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed importance measure on the failure probability and that on the distribution density of the response.The results show that the proposed importance measure can effectively describe the effect of the basic variable on the failure probability from the distribution density of the basic variable.Additionally,the results show that the established solution on the probability density evolution is efficient for the importance measures.
Solar cycles or random processes? Evaluating solar variability in Holocene climate records.
Turner, T Edward; Swindles, Graeme T; Charman, Dan J; Langdon, Peter G; Morris, Paul J; Booth, Robert K; Parry, Lauren E; Nichols, Jonathan E
2016-04-05
Many studies have reported evidence for solar-forcing of Holocene climate change across a range of archives. These studies have compared proxy-climate data with records of solar variability (e.g. (14)C or (10)Be), or have used time series analysis to test for the presence of solar-type cycles. This has led to some climate sceptics misrepresenting this literature to argue strongly that solar variability drove the rapid global temperature increase of the twentieth century. As proxy records underpin our understanding of the long-term processes governing climate, they need to be evaluated thoroughly. The peatland archive has become a prominent line of evidence for solar forcing of climate. Here we examine high-resolution peatland proxy climate data to determine whether solar signals are present. We find a wide range of significant periodicities similar to those in records of solar variability: periods between 40-100 years, and 120-140 years are particularly common. However, periodicities similar to those in the data are commonly found in random-walk simulations. Our results demonstrate that solar-type signals can be the product of random variations alone, and that a more critical approach is required for their robust interpretation.
Why is intelligence associated with stability of happiness?
Kanazawa, Satoshi
2014-08-01
In the National Child Development Study, life-course variability in happiness over 18 years was significantly negatively associated with its mean level (happier individuals were more stable in their happiness, and it was not due to the ceiling effect), as well as childhood general intelligence and all Big Five personality factors (except for Agreeableness). In a multiple regression analysis, childhood general intelligence was the strongest predictor of life-course variability in life satisfaction, stronger than all Big Five personality factors, including Emotional stability. More intelligent individuals were significantly more stable in their happiness, and it was not entirely because: (1) they were more educated and wealthier (even though they were); (2) they were healthier (even though they were); (3) they were more stable in their marital status (even though they were); (4) they were happier (even though they were); (5) they were better able to assess their own happiness accurately (even though they were); or (6) they were better able to recall their previous responses more accurately or they were more honest in their survey responses (even though they were both). While I could exclude all of these alternative explanations, it ultimately remained unclear why more intelligent individuals were more stable in their happiness. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Measuring the impact of major life events upon happiness.
Ballas, Dimitris; Dorling, Danny
2007-12-01
In recent years there have been numerous attempts to define and measure happiness in various contexts and pertaining to a wide range of disciplines, ranging from neuroscience and psychology to philosophy, economics and social policy. This article builds on recent work by economists who attempt to estimate happiness regressions using large random samples of individuals in order to calculate monetary 'compensating amounts' for different life 'events'. We estimate happiness regressions using the 'major life event' and 'happiness' data from the British Household Panel Survey. The data and methods used in this article suggest that in contrast to living states such as 'being married', it is more events such as 'starting a new relationship' that have the highest positive effect on happiness. This is closely followed by 'employment-related gains' (in contrast to employment status). Also, women who become pregnant on average report higher than average levels of subjective happiness (in contrast to 'being a parent'). Other events that appear to be associated with happiness according to our analysis include 'personal education-related events' (e.g. starting a new course, graduating from University, passing exams) and 'finance/house related events' (e.g. buying a new house). On the other hand, the event that has the highest negative impact upon happiness according to our analysis is 'the end of my relationship' closely followed by 'death of a parent'. Adverse health events pertaining to the parents of the respondents also have a high negative coefficient and so does an employment-related loss. The analysis presented in this article suggests that what matters the most in people's lives in Britain is to have good dynamic interpersonal relationships and to be respected at work with that respect being constantly renewed. These 'goods' are as much reflected through dynamic events as static situations. Relationships at work appear to be of a similar order of importance to those at
Blind estimation of statistical properties of non-stationary random variables
Mansour, Ali; Mesleh, Raed; Aggoune, el-Hadi M.
2014-12-01
To identify or equalize wireless transmission channels, or alternatively to evaluate the performance of many wireless communication algorithms, coefficients or statistical properties of the used transmission channels are often assumed to be known or can be estimated at the receiver end. For most of the proposed algorithms, the knowledge of transmission channel statistical properties is essential to detect signals and retrieve data. To the best of our knowledge, most proposed approaches assume that transmission channels are static and can be modeled by stationary random variables (uniform, Gaussian, exponential, Weilbul, Rayleigh, etc.). In the majority of sensor networks or cellular systems applications, transmitters and/or receivers are in motion. Therefore, the validity of static transmission channels and the underlying assumptions may not be valid. In this case, coefficients and statistical properties change and therefore the stationary model falls short of making an accurate representation. In order to estimate the statistical properties (represented by the high-order statistics and probability density function, PDF) of dynamic channels, we firstly assume that the dynamic channels can be modeled by short-term stationary but long-term non-stationary random variable (RV), i.e., the RVs are stationary within unknown successive periods but they may suddenly change their statistical properties between two successive periods. Therefore, this manuscript proposes an algorithm to detect the transition phases of non-stationary random variables and introduces an indicator based on high-order statistics for non-stationary transmission which can be used to alter channel properties and initiate the estimation process. Additionally, PDF estimators based on kernel functions are also developed. The first part of the manuscript provides a brief introduction for unbiased estimators of the second and fourth-order cumulants. Then, the non-stationary indicators are formulated
The biometric antecedents to happiness
Bryson, Alex; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli
2017-01-01
It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905) and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980) are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001). Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986) on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood. PMID:28915269
A new Hedging algorithm and its application to inferring latent random variables
Freund, Yoav
2008-01-01
We present a new online learning algorithm for cumulative discounted gain. This learning algorithm does not use exponential weights on the experts. Instead, it uses a weighting scheme that depends on the regret of the master algorithm relative to the experts. In particular, experts whose discounted cumulative gain is smaller (worse) than that of the master algorithm receive zero weight. We also sketch how a regret-based algorithm can be used as an alternative to Bayesian averaging in the context of inferring latent random variables.
Criticality in Two-Variable Earthquake Model on a Random Graph
SUN Fan; ZHANG Duan-Ming
2008-01-01
A two-variable earthquake model on a quenched random graph is established here. It can be seen as a generalization of the OFC models. We numerically study the critical behavior of the model when the system is nonconservative: the result indicates that the model exhibits self-organized criticality deep within the nonconservative regime. The probability distribution for avalanche size obeys finite size scaling. We compare our model with the model introduced by Stefano Lise and Maya Paczuski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 228301], it is proved that they are not in the same universality class.
Genuer, Robin; Toussile, Wilson
2011-01-01
Malaria control strategies aiming at reducing disease transmission intensity may impact both oocyst intensity and infection prevalence in the mosquito vector. Thus far, mathematical models failed to identify a clear relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and their infectiousness to mosquitoes. Natural isolates of gametocytes are genetically diverse and biologically complex. Infectiousness to mosquitoes relies on multiple parameters such as density, sex-ratio, maturity, parasite genotypes and host immune factors. In this article, we investigated how density and genetic diversity of gametocytes impact on the success of transmission in the mosquito vector. We analyzed data for which the number of covariates plus attendant interactions is at least of order of the sample size, precluding usage of classical models such as general linear models. We then considered the variable importance from random forests to address the problem of selecting the most influent variables. The selected covariates were ...
Encounters with Translations of Happiness
T. Titchkosky
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This special issue edited by Katie Aubrecht demonstrates that a focus on translations of happiness makes us attend to the interpretive process animating social relations. There are many registers of translation that individuals, communities, and the state make use of as they grapple with relations to happiness. Among the vast array of historical registers that aim to make happiness comprehensible or compelling, medicine and politics are two of the most noteworthy. Moving from one register to another, such as from institutional versions of happiness as a medically regulated matter, to its appearance in situations of war, trauma, illness, local community or state, between these differing registers, we come to re-encounter happiness in many important ways as this special issue demonstrates. This issue thus invites its readers to question modernity’s progressive interest in and use of happiness as a way to narrate and assemble our essential inter-relatedness.
van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I
2015-12-01
In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.
A THEOREM ON THE CONVERGENCE OF SUMS OF INDEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
无
2001-01-01
Let ∑∞n=1 Xn be a series of independent random variables with at least one non-degenerate Xn, and let Fn be the distribution function of its partial sums Sn =n∑k=1 Xk. Motivated by Hildebrand's work in [1], the authors investigate the a.s. convergence of ∞∑n=1 Xn under a hypothesis that ∞∑n=1 p(Xn,cn) = ∞ whenever ∞∑n=1 cn diverges, where the notation p(X,c) denotes the Lévy distance between the random variable X and the constant c. The principal result of this paper shows that the hypothesis is the condition under which the convergence of Fn(x0) with the limit value 0 ＜ L0 ＜ 1, together with the essential convergence of ∞∑n=1 Xn, is both sufficient and necessary in order for the series ∞∑n=1 Xn to a.s. converge. Moreover, if the essential convergence of ∞∑n=1 Xn is strengthened to limsup P(|Sn| ＜ K) = 1 for some K ＞ 0, the hypothesis is already equivalent to the a.s.convergence of ∞∑n=1 Xn. Here they have not only founded a very general limit theorem, but improved the related result in Hildebrand[1] as well.
Events of Borel Sets, Construction of Borel Sets and Random Variables for Stochastic Finance
Jaeger Peter
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We consider special events of Borel sets with the aim to prove, that the set of the irrational numbers is an event of the Borel sets. The set of the natural numbers, the set of the integer numbers and the set of the rational numbers are countable, so we can use the literature [10] (pp. 78-81 as a basis for the similar construction of the proof. Next we prove, that different sets can construct the Borel sets [16] (pp. 9-10. Literature [16] (pp. 9-10 and [11] (pp. 11-12 gives an overview, that there exists some other sets for this construction. Last we define special functions as random variables for stochastic finance in discrete time. The relevant functions are implemented in the article [15], see [9] (p. 4. The aim is to construct events and random variables, which can easily be used with a probability measure. See as an example theorems (10 and (14 in [20]. Then the formalization is more similar to the presentation used in the book [9]. As a background, further literatures is [3] (pp. 9-12, [13] (pp. 17-20, and [8] (pp.32-35.
A functional limit theorem for partial sums of dependent random variables with infinite variance
Basrak, Bojan; Segers, Johan
2010-01-01
Under an appropriate regular variation condition, the affinely normalized partial sums of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables converges weakly to a non-Gaussian stable random variable. A functional version of this is known to be true as well, the limit process being a stable L\\'evy process. The main result in the paper is that for a stationary, regularly varying sequence for which clusters of high-threshold excesses can be broken down into asymptotically independent blocks, the properly centered partial sum process still converges to a stable L\\'evy process. Due to clustering, the L\\'evy triple of the limit process can be different from the one in the independent case. The convergence takes place in the space of c\\`adl\\`ag functions endowed with Skorohod's $M_1$ topology, the more usual $J_1$ topology being inappropriate as the partial sum processes may exhibit rapid successions of jumps within temporal clusters of large values, collapsing in the limit to a single jump. The ...
On the Distribution of Indefinite Quadratic Forms in Gaussian Random Variables
Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2015-10-30
© 2015 IEEE. In this work, we propose a unified approach to evaluating the CDF and PDF of indefinite quadratic forms in Gaussian random variables. Such a quantity appears in many applications in communications, signal processing, information theory, and adaptive filtering. For example, this quantity appears in the mean-square-error (MSE) analysis of the normalized least-meansquare (NLMS) adaptive algorithm, and SINR associated with each beam in beam forming applications. The trick of the proposed approach is to replace inequalities that appear in the CDF calculation with unit step functions and to use complex integral representation of the the unit step function. Complex integration allows us then to evaluate the CDF in closed form for the zero mean case and as a single dimensional integral for the non-zero mean case. Utilizing the saddle point technique allows us to closely approximate such integrals in non zero mean case. We demonstrate how our approach can be extended to other scenarios such as the joint distribution of quadratic forms and ratios of such forms, and to characterize quadratic forms in isotropic distributed random variables.We also evaluate the outage probability in multiuser beamforming using our approach to provide an application of indefinite forms in communications.
Analyzing Personal Happiness from Global Survey and Weather Data: A Geospatial Approach
Peng, Yi-Fan; Tang, Jia-Hong; Fu, Yang-chih; Fan, I-chun; Hor, Maw-Kae; Chan, Ta-Chien
2016-01-01
Past studies have shown that personal subjective happiness is associated with various macro- and micro-level background factors, including environmental conditions, such as weather and the economic situation, and personal health behaviors, such as smoking and exercise. We contribute to this literature of happiness studies by using a geospatial approach to examine both macro and micro links to personal happiness. Our geospatial approach incorporates two major global datasets: representative national survey data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and corresponding world weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). After processing and filtering 55,081 records of ISSP 2011 survey data from 32 countries, we extracted 5,420 records from China and 25,441 records from 28 other countries. Sensitivity analyses of different intervals for average weather variables showed that macro-level conditions, including temperature, wind speed, elevation, and GDP, are positively correlated with happiness. To distinguish the effects of weather conditions on happiness in different seasons, we also adopted climate zone and seasonal variables. The micro-level analysis indicated that better health status and eating more vegetables or fruits are highly associated with happiness. Never engaging in physical activity appears to make people less happy. The findings suggest that weather conditions, economic situations, and personal health behaviors are all correlated with levels of happiness. PMID:27078263
Analyzing Personal Happiness from Global Survey and Weather Data: A Geospatial Approach.
Peng, Yi-Fan; Tang, Jia-Hong; Fu, Yang-chih; Fan, I-chun; Hor, Maw-Kae; Chan, Ta-Chien
2016-01-01
Past studies have shown that personal subjective happiness is associated with various macro- and micro-level background factors, including environmental conditions, such as weather and the economic situation, and personal health behaviors, such as smoking and exercise. We contribute to this literature of happiness studies by using a geospatial approach to examine both macro and micro links to personal happiness. Our geospatial approach incorporates two major global datasets: representative national survey data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and corresponding world weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). After processing and filtering 55,081 records of ISSP 2011 survey data from 32 countries, we extracted 5,420 records from China and 25,441 records from 28 other countries. Sensitivity analyses of different intervals for average weather variables showed that macro-level conditions, including temperature, wind speed, elevation, and GDP, are positively correlated with happiness. To distinguish the effects of weather conditions on happiness in different seasons, we also adopted climate zone and seasonal variables. The micro-level analysis indicated that better health status and eating more vegetables or fruits are highly associated with happiness. Never engaging in physical activity appears to make people less happy. The findings suggest that weather conditions, economic situations, and personal health behaviors are all correlated with levels of happiness.
JIANG Tao
2008-01-01
We establish an asymptotic relation for the large-deviation probabilities of the maxima of sums of subexponential random variables centered by multiples of order statistics of i.i.d. standard uniform random variables. This extends a corresponding result of Korshunov. As an application, we generalize a result of Tang,the uniform asymptotic estimate for the finite-time ruin probability, to the whole strongly subexponential class.
Brice Franke; Michael Stolz
2009-01-01
We propose an approach to the aggregation of risks which is based on estimation of simple quantities (such as covariances) associated to a vector of dependent random variables, and which avoids the use of parametric families of copulae. Our main result demonstrates that the method leads to bounds on the worst case Value at Risk for a sum of dependent random variables. Its proof applies duality theory for infinite dimensional linear programs.
2008-01-01
We establish an asymptotic relation for the large-deviation probabilities of the maxima of sums of subexponential random variables centered by multiples of order statistics of i.i.d.standard uniform random variables.This extends a corresponding result of Korshunov.As an application,we generalize a result of Tang,the uniform asymptotic estimate for the finite-time ruin probability,to the whole strongly subexponential class.
Multiobjective Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Problems with Interval Discrete Random Variables
S. K. Barik
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most of the real-life decision-making problems have more than one conflicting and incommensurable objective functions. In this paper, we present a multiobjective two-stage stochastic linear programming problem considering some parameters of the linear constraints as interval type discrete random variables with known probability distribution. Randomness of the discrete intervals are considered for the model parameters. Further, the concepts of best optimum and worst optimum solution are analyzed in two-stage stochastic programming. To solve the stated problem, first we remove the randomness of the problem and formulate an equivalent deterministic linear programming model with multiobjective interval coefficients. Then the deterministic multiobjective model is solved using weighting method, where we apply the solution procedure of interval linear programming technique. We obtain the upper and lower bound of the objective function as the best and the worst value, respectively. It highlights the possible risk involved in the decision-making tool. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed solution procedure.
Gosho, Masahiko; Maruo, Kazushi; Ishii, Ryota; Hirakawa, Akihiro
2016-11-16
The total score, which is calculated as the sum of scores in multiple items or questions, is repeatedly measured in longitudinal clinical studies. A mixed effects model for repeated measures method is often used to analyze these data; however, if one or more individual items are not measured, the method cannot be directly applied to the total score. We develop two simple and interpretable procedures that infer fixed effects for a longitudinal continuous composite variable. These procedures consider that the items that compose the total score are multivariate longitudinal continuous data and, simultaneously, handle subject-level and item-level missing data. One procedure is based on a multivariate marginalized random effects model with a multiple of Kronecker product covariance matrices for serial time dependence and correlation among items. The other procedure is based on a multiple imputation approach with a multivariate normal model. In terms of the type-1 error rate and the bias of treatment effect in total score, the marginalized random effects model and multiple imputation procedures performed better than the standard mixed effects model for repeated measures analysis with listwise deletion and single imputations for handling item-level missing data. In particular, the mixed effects model for repeated measures with listwise deletion resulted in substantial inflation of the type-1 error rate. The marginalized random effects model and multiple imputation methods provide for a more efficient analysis by fully utilizing the partially available data, compared to the mixed effects model for repeated measures method with listwise deletion.
On the Information of the Second Moments Between Random Variables Using Mutually Unbiased Bases
Yao, Hongyi
2007-01-01
The notation of mutually unbiased bases(MUB) was first introduced by Ivanovic to reconstruct density matrixes\\cite{Ivanovic}. The subject about how to use MUB to analyze, process, and utilize the information of the second moments between random variables is studied in this paper. In the first part, the mathematical foundation will be built. It will be shown that the spectra of MUB have complete information for the correlation matrixes of finite discrete signals, and the nice properties of them. Roughly speaking, it will be shown that each spectrum from MUB plays an equal role for finite discrete signals, and the effect between any two spectra can be treated as a global constant shift. These properties will be used to find some important and natural characterizations of random vectors and random discrete operators/filters. For a technical reason, it will be shown that any MUB spectra can be found as fast as Fourier spectrum when the length of the signal is a prime number. In the second part, some applications ...
The relationship between happiness and health: evidence from Italy.
Sabatini, Fabio
2014-08-01
We test the relationship between happiness and self-rated health in Italy. The analysis relies on a unique dataset collected through the administration of a questionnaire to a representative sample (n = 817) of the population of the Italian Province of Trento in March 2011. Based on probit regressions and instrumental variables estimates, we find that happiness is strongly correlated with perceived good health, after controlling for a number of relevant socio-economic phenomena. Health inequalities based on income, work status and education are relatively contained with respect to the rest of Italy. As expected, this scales down the role of social relationships.
Chakrabarti, Averi
2016-01-01
Abstract The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan’s focus on “a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction.” Under this development paradigm of Gross National Happiness, the Bhutanese health system meets select normative foundations of the right to health, seeking to guarantee the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care and underlying determinants of health. However, where Bhutan continues to restrict the rights of minority populations—failing to address the ways in which human rights are indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated—additional reforms will be necessary to realize the right to health. Given the continuing prevalence of minority rights violations in the region, this study raises research questions for comparative studies in other rights-denying national contexts and advocacy approaches to advance principles of non-discrimination, participation, and accountability through health policy.
Genes, Economics, and Happiness *
De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.; Frey, Bruno S.
2012-01-01
We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being. PMID:24349601
Genes, Economics, and Happiness.
De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H; Frey, Bruno S
2012-11-01
We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being.
Amirian, Mohammad-Elyas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud
2016-08-01
The present study examined simple and multivariate relationships of spiritual intelligence with general health and happiness. The employed method was descriptive and correlational. King's Spiritual Quotient scales, GHQ-28 and Oxford Happiness Inventory, are filled out by a sample consisted of 384 students, which were selected using stratified random sampling from the students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Data are subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics including correlations and multivariate regressions. Bivariate correlations support positive and significant predictive value of spiritual intelligence toward general health and happiness. Further analysis showed that among the Spiritual Intelligence' subscales, Existential Critical Thinking Predicted General Health and Happiness, reversely. In addition, happiness was positively predicted by generation of personal meaning and transcendental awareness. The findings are discussed in line with the previous studies and the relevant theoretical background.
Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.
Akhtar, Salman
2010-09-01
By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.
Happiness Among College Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Study Among Iranian Medical Students
Lesani
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Background During the recent decades, happiness and psychological wellbeing have been among the most attractive issues for researchers in the fields of social sciences and health. Medical and paramedical students in comparison with other college students are less happy due to work circumstance in hospital and special education. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate happiness among college students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in terms of socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional web-based study, all the students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who had course classes were invited to participate in the study and 541 students filled out the web-based questionnaire including questions for measuring happiness oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ, health status, stress experience in the past six months, cigarette and hookah smoking, physical activity rapid assessment of physical activity (RAPA, as well as socio-economic and demographic information. Results The mean happiness score was 114.59 ± 18.31. Socio-economic status, physical activity, and experience of stress in the last 6 months were related to the happiness score (P = 0.009, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively. However, gender, cigarette smoking, hookah smoking and body mass index were not significantly correlated with happiness. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that a happiness score among our sample study was slightly low and people with high happiness scores had a healthier lifestyle, i.e. more physical activity and less tobacco smoking. College students should be encouraged to do regular exercise as a way to increase the happiness level.
Between Pleasure and Contentment: Evolutionary Dynamics of Some Possible Parameters of Happiness.
Gao, Yue; Edelman, Shimon
2016-01-01
We offer and test a simple operationalization of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being ("happiness") as mediating variables that link outcomes to motivation. In six evolutionary agent-based simulation experiments, we compared the relative performance of agents endowed with different combinations of happiness-related traits (parameter values), under four types of environmental conditions. We found (i) that the effects of attaching more weight to longer-term than to momentary happiness and of extending the memory for past happiness are both stronger in an environment where food is scarce; (ii) that in such an environment "relative consumption," in which the agent's well-being is negatively affected by that of its neighbors, is more detrimental to survival when food is scarce; and (iii) that having a positive outlook, under which agents' longer-term happiness is increased by positive events more than it is decreased by negative ones, is generally advantageous.
[Happiness in the elderly: an epidemiological approach in the ISA-Camp 2008 study].
Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto
2012-12-01
The objective was to identify factors associated with happiness in the elderly. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in 1,431 elderly under the ISA-Camp 2008 project. The survey used a two-stage probabilistic cluster sample. Prevalence of happiness was measured over time according to socio-demographics variables, health behaviors, and health conditions. High prevalence of happiness was associated with: marital status (married), active working, activity and insufficient leisure-time activity, occasional consumption of alcoholic beverages, daily consumption of fruit, vegetables, and leafy vegetables, normal body mass index, and sleeping less than 10 hours/night and sleeping well. The highest prevalence of long-term happiness was observed among elderly with no reported illness, with better self-rated health, and with less disability. Happiness was strongly related to health indicators, suggesting the adequacy of complementary use of this indicator for evaluating health promotion programs in the elderly.
Franciele R Figueira
Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS.Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement, and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods.Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003 and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004 were observed only after the COMB session.Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094.
Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza
2016-01-01
The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…
Polymers on disordered hierarchical lattices: A nonlinear combination of random variables
Cook, J. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France) Univ. of Edinburgh (England)); Derrida, B. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))
1989-10-01
The problem of directed polymers on disordered hierarchical and hypercubic lattices is considered. For the hierarchical lattices the problem can be reduced to the study of the stable laws for combining random variables in a nonlinear way. The authors present the results of numerical simulations of two hierarchical lattices, finding evidence of a phase transition in one case. For a limiting case they extend the perturbation theory developed by Derrida and Griffiths to nonzero temperature and to higher order and use this approach to calculate thermal and geometrical properties (overlaps) of the model. In this limit they obtain an interpolation formula, allowing one to obtain the noninteger moments of the partition function from the integer moments. They obtain bounds for the transition temperature for hierarchical and hypercubic lattices, and some similarities between the problem on the two different types of lattice are discussed.
Deli Li
1992-01-01
Full Text Available Let X, Xn, n≥1 be a sequence of iid real random variables, and Sn=∑k=1nXk, n≥1. Convergence rates of moderate deviations are derived, i.e., the rate of convergence to zero of certain tail probabilities of the partial sums are determined. For example, we obtain equivalent conditions for the convergence of series ∑n≥1(ψ2(n/nP(|Sn|≥nφ(n only under the assumptions convergence that EX=0 and EX2=1, where φ and ψ are taken from a broad class of functions. These results generalize and improve some recent results of Li (1991 and Gafurov (1982 and some previous work of Davis (1968. For b∈[0,1] and ϵ>0, letλϵ,b=∑n≥3((loglognb/nI(|Sn|≥(2+ϵnloglogn.The behaviour of Eλϵ,b as ϵ↓0 is also studied.
Gui, Ming; Huang, Ming-Qiu; Liang, Lin-Mei
2016-10-01
In practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) systems, due to environmental disturbance or some intrinsic imperfections of devices, inevitably the local oscillator (LO) employed in a coherent detection always fluctuates arbitrarily over time, which compromises the security and performance of practical CVQKD systems. In this paper, we investigate the performance of practical CVQKD systems with LO fluctuating randomly. By revising the measurement result of balanced homodyne detection and embedding fluctuation parameters into security analysis, we find that in addition to the average LO intensity, the fluctuation variance also severely affects the secret key rate. No secret key can be obtained if fluctuation variance is relatively large. This indicates that in a practical CVQKD, LO intensity should be well monitored and stabilized. Our research can be directly applied to improve the robustness of a practical CVQKD system as well as be used to optimize CVQKD protocols.
A Random Variable Substitution Lemma With Applications to Multiple Description Coding
Wang, Jia; Zhao, Lei; Cuff, Paul; Permuter, Haim
2009-01-01
We establish a random variable substitution lemma and use it to investigate the role of refinement layer in multiple description coding, which clarifies the relationship among several existing achievable multiple description rate-distortion regions. Specifically, it is shown that the El Gamal-Cover (EGC) region is equivalent to the EGC* region (an antecedent version of the EGC region) while the Venkataramani-Kramer-Goyal (VKG) region (when specialized to the 2-description case) is equivalent to the Zhang-Berger (ZB) region. Moreover, we prove that for multiple description coding with individual and hierarchical distortion constraints, the number of layers in the VKG scheme can be significantly reduced when only certain weighted sum rates are concerned. The role of refinement layer in scalable coding (a special case of multiple description coding) is also studied.
Technique for computing the PDFs and CDFs of non-negative infinitely divisible random variables
Veillette, Mark S
2010-01-01
We present a method for computing the PDF and CDF of a non-negative infinitely divisible random variable $X$. Our method uses the L\\'{e}vy-Khintchine representation of the Laplace transform $\\mathbb{E} e^{-\\lambda X} = e^{-\\phi(\\lambda)}$, where $\\phi$ is the Laplace exponent. We apply the Post-Widder method for Laplace transform inversion combined with a sequence convergence accelerator to obtain accurate results. We demonstrate this technique on several examples including the stable distribution, mixtures thereof, and integrals with respect to non-negative L\\'{e}vy processes. Software to implement this method is available from the authors and we illustrate its use at the end of the paper.
Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income
Bartram, David
2011-01-01
Research on happiness casts doubt on the notion that increases in income generally bring greater happiness. This finding can be taken to imply that economic migration might fail to result in increased happiness for the migrants: migration as a means of increasing one's income might be no more effective in raising happiness than other means of…
Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants' and Natives' Happiness Gains from Income
Bartram, David
2011-01-01
Research on happiness casts doubt on the notion that increases in income generally bring greater happiness. This finding can be taken to imply that economic migration might fail to result in increased happiness for the migrants: migration as a means of increasing one's income might be no more effective in raising happiness than other means of…
The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness
Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi
2015-01-01
Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components...
The pursuit of happiness can be lonely.
Mauss, Iris B; Savino, Nicole S; Anderson, Craig L; Weisbuch, Max; Tamir, Maya; Laudenslager, Mark L
2012-10-01
Few things seem more natural and functional than wanting to be happy. We suggest that, counter to this intuition, valuing happiness may have some surprising negative consequences. Specifically, because striving for personal gains can damage connections with others and because happiness is usually defined in terms of personal positive feelings (a personal gain) in western contexts, striving for happiness might damage people's connections with others and make them lonely. In 2 studies, we provide support for this hypothesis. Study 1 suggests that the more people value happiness, the lonelier they feel on a daily basis (assessed over 2 weeks with diaries). Study 2 provides an experimental manipulation of valuing happiness and demonstrates that inducing people to value happiness leads to relatively greater loneliness, as measured by self-reports and a hormonal index (progesterone). In each study, key potential confounds, such as positive and negative affect, were ruled out. These findings suggest that wanting to be happy can make people lonely.
黄兆霞
2014-01-01
The De finetti's theorem states that infinite exchangeable random variables sequences are independent and identically distribut-ed with the condition of the tailσ-algebra. So some results about independent identically distributed random variables are similar to ex-changeable random variables. This paper gives some conclusions of the relationship between exchangeable random variables and indepen-dent and identically distributed random variables.%由于可交换随机变量的基本结构定理De Finetti定理---可交换随机变量无限序列以其尾σ-代数为条件是独立同分布的，因而可交换随机变量应具有类似于独立同分布随机变量的性质。本文给出了可交换随机变量与独立同分布随机变量间关系的一些结论。
Hot-spot model for accretion disc variability as random process
Pechacek, T; Czerny, B
2008-01-01
Theory of random processes provides an attractive mathematical tool to describe the fluctuating signal from accreting sources, such as active galactic nuclei and Galactic black holes observed in X-rays. These objects exhibit featureless variability on different timescales, probably originating from an accretion disc. We study the basic features of the power spectra in terms of a general framework, which permits semi-analytical determination of the power spectral density (PSD) of the resulting light curve. We consider the expected signal generated by an ensemble of spots randomly created on the accretion disc surface. Spot generation is governed by Poisson or by Hawkes processes. We include general relativity effects shaping the signal on its propagation to a distant observer. We analyse the PSD of a spotted disc light curve and show the accuracy of our semi-analytical approach by comparing the obtained PSD with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. The asymptotic slopes of PSD are 0 at low frequencies and t...
Carlisle, J B; Dexter, F; Pandit, J J; Shafer, S L; Yentis, S M
2015-07-01
In a previous paper, one of the authors (JBC) used a chi-squared method to analyse the means (SD) of baseline variables, such as height or weight, from randomised controlled trials by Fujii et al., concluding that the probabilities that the reported distributions arose by chance were infinitesimally small. Subsequent testing of that chi-squared method, using simulation, suggested that the method was incorrect. This paper corrects the chi-squared method and tests its performance and the performance of Monte Carlo simulations and ANOVA to analyse the probability of random sampling. The corrected chi-squared method and ANOVA method became inaccurate when applied to means that were reported imprecisely. Monte Carlo simulations confirmed that baseline data from 158 randomised controlled trials by Fujii et al. were different to those from 329 trials published by other authors and that the distribution of Fujii et al.'s data were different to the expected distribution, both p non-random (i.e. unreliable) data in randomised controlled trials submitted to journals. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Chu, I-Hua; Wu, Wen-Lan; Lin, I-Mei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lin, Yuh-Jen; Yang, Pin-Chen
2017-04-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week yoga program on heart rate variability (HRV) and depressive symptoms in depressed women. This was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six sedentary women scoring ≥14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II were randomized to either the yoga or the control group. The yoga group completed a 12-week yoga program, which took place twice a week for 60 min per session and consisted of breathing exercises, yoga pose practice, and supine meditation/relaxation. The control group was instructed not to engage in any yoga practice and to maintain their usual level of physical activity during the course of the study. Participants' HRV, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-test. The yoga group had a significant increase in high-frequency HRV and decreases in low-frequency HRV and low frequency/high frequency ratio after the intervention. The yoga group also reported significantly reduced depressive symptoms and perceived stress. No change was found in the control group. A 12-week yoga program was effective in increasing parasympathetic tone and reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress in women with elevated depressive symptoms. Regular yoga practice may be recommended for women to cope with their depressive symptoms and stress and to improve their HRV.
Sawane, Manish Vinayak; Gupta, Shilpa Sharad
2015-01-01
Resting heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the modulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) at rest. Increased HRV achieved by the exercise is good for the cardiovascular health. However, prospective studies with comparison of the effects of yogic exercises and those of other endurance exercises like walking, running, and swimming on resting HRV are conspicuous by their absence. Study was designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on resting HRV in normal healthy young volunteers. Study was conducted in Department of Physiology in a medical college. Study design was prospective randomized comparative trial. One hundred sedentary volunteers were randomly ascribed to either yoga or swimming group. Baseline recordings of digital electrocardiogram were done for all the subjects in cohorts of 10. After yoga training and swimming for 12 weeks, evaluation for resting HRV was done again. Percentage change for each parameter with yoga and swimming was compared using unpaired t-test for data with normal distribution and using Mann-Whitney U test for data without normal distribution. Most of the HRV parameters improved statistically significantly by both modalities of exercise. However, some of the HRV parameters showed statistically better improvement with yoga as compared to swimming. Practicing yoga seems to be the mode of exercise with better improvement in autonomic functions as suggested by resting HRV.
In search of the emotional face: anger versus happiness superiority in visual search.
Savage, Ruth A; Lipp, Ottmar V; Craig, Belinda M; Becker, Stefanie I; Horstmann, Gernot
2013-08-01
Previous research has provided inconsistent results regarding visual search for emotional faces, yielding evidence for either anger superiority (i.e., more efficient search for angry faces) or happiness superiority effects (i.e., more efficient search for happy faces), suggesting that these results do not reflect on emotional expression, but on emotion (un-)related low-level perceptual features. The present study investigated possible factors mediating anger/happiness superiority effects; specifically search strategy (fixed vs. variable target search; Experiment 1), stimulus choice (Nimstim database vs. Ekman & Friesen database; Experiments 1 and 2), and emotional intensity (Experiment 3 and 3a). Angry faces were found faster than happy faces regardless of search strategy using faces from the Nimstim database (Experiment 1). By contrast, a happiness superiority effect was evident in Experiment 2 when using faces from the Ekman and Friesen database. Experiment 3 employed angry, happy, and exuberant expressions (Nimstim database) and yielded anger and happiness superiority effects, respectively, highlighting the importance of the choice of stimulus materials. Ratings of the stimulus materials collected in Experiment 3a indicate that differences in perceived emotional intensity, pleasantness, or arousal do not account for differences in search efficiency. Across three studies, the current investigation indicates that prior reports of anger or happiness superiority effects in visual search are likely to reflect on low-level visual features associated with the stimulus materials used, rather than on emotion.
Happiness and Social Policy in Europe
Research on Happiness can inform welfare choices and policies an dhelp to promote job creation, social inclusion and to some degree a higher level of equality. The book embraces the relationship between happiness, social policy and welfare state analysis.......Research on Happiness can inform welfare choices and policies an dhelp to promote job creation, social inclusion and to some degree a higher level of equality. The book embraces the relationship between happiness, social policy and welfare state analysis....
Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi terhadap Happiness at Work
Ginting, Nenita Sari Salsalina
2015-01-01
Employees need to have positive emotions such as happiness at work. Employees who are happy will give the best for their job and can improving productivity of the company. One of the determining factors of happiness at work is a strong organizational culture within the company. This study aims to examine the impact organizational culture on happiness at work. This study involved 120 insurance employees in AJB Bumiputera 1912 Kantor Wilayah Medan and are selected through incidental sampling te...
The relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression
Bahrami, Susan; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Zahmatkesh, Monereh; Nematolahi, Zahra
2011-01-01
BACKGROUND: One of the important requirements for cultural, social and even economic development is having a book-loving nation. In order to achieve this, there is a need for purposeful and continuous programming. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression in Isfahan University of Medical Science. METHODS: This research was a kind of descriptive and correlation survey. Statistical population included all MSc and PhD students in the second semester of the Isfahan University of Medical Science (263 students). In this research, stratified and random sampling was used in which a sample of 100 students was selected. Data collection instruments were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Oxford Happiness Inventory and a researcher-made questionnaire to determine the amount of students’ study. Validity of this questionnaires was determined by structure and content related validity and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the first (r = 0.94), second (r = 0.91) and third (r = 0.85) questionnaire. Analysis of research findings was done through descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Findings showed that 68.8 percent of students study less than 5 hours and only 2.5 percent of students study more than 10 hours. 65 percent of students had high amount of happiness and 35 percent had medium amount of happiness. In 60 percent of students there was no symptom of depression and 7.5 had depression symptoms. Also, there was no significant relationship between happiness and studying but there was a significant and negative relationship between studying and depression and happiness and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of study and tendency for reading are among the most important indices of human growth in terms of potential abilities for achieving a perfect human life and to prevent one-dimensional thinking. Thus, finding ways to encourage students to study is
What variables are important in predicting bovine viral diarrhea virus? A random forest approach.
Machado, Gustavo; Mendoza, Mariana Recamonde; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo
2015-07-24
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle, and the virus is found worldwide. A better understanding of the disease associated factors is a crucial step towards the definition of strategies for control and eradication. In this study we trained a random forest (RF) prediction model and performed variable importance analysis to identify factors associated with BVDV occurrence. In addition, we assessed the influence of features selection on RF performance and evaluated its predictive power relative to other popular classifiers and to logistic regression. We found that RF classification model resulted in an average error rate of 32.03% for the negative class (negative for BVDV) and 36.78% for the positive class (positive for BVDV).The RF model presented area under the ROC curve equal to 0.702. Variable importance analysis revealed that important predictors of BVDV occurrence were: a) who inseminates the animals, b) number of neighboring farms that have cattle and c) rectal palpation performed routinely. Our results suggest that the use of machine learning algorithms, especially RF, is a promising methodology for the analysis of cross-sectional studies, presenting a satisfactory predictive power and the ability to identify predictors that represent potential risk factors for BVDV investigation. We examined classical predictors and found some new and hard to control practices that may lead to the spread of this disease within and among farms, mainly regarding poor or neglected reproduction management, which should be considered for disease control and eradication.
Are the Variability Properties of the Kepler AGN Light Curves Consistent with a Damped Random Walk?
Kasliwal, Vishal P; Richards, Gordon T
2015-01-01
We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the \\textit{damped random walk} (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multi-quarter \\textit{Kepler} AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. \\textit{Kepler} observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid ($11.6-28.6$ min) and highly uniform rest-frame sampling combined with a photometric precision of $1$ part in $10^{5}$ over a period of 3.5 yr. We categorize the light curves of all 20 objects based on visual similarities and find that the light curves fall into 5 broad categories. We measure the first order structure function of these light curves and model the observed light curve with a general broken power-law PSD characterized by a short-timescale power-law index $\\gamma$ and turnover timescale $\\tau$. We find that less than half the objects are consistent with a DRW and ...
de Oliveira, Andréia M R; Matsumura, Aida T S; Prestes, Ariano M; Van Der Sand, Sueli T
2002-01-01
Isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana were analyzed by random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability and to study host-pathogen interactions. Ten isolates originated from different regions of Brazil were examined. Plants of the wheat cultivars BR8, BH1146 (original host) and IAC-5 Maringá, classified as resistant, moderately resistant or susceptible to B. sorokiniana, respectively, were inoculated with these 10 isolates. Twenty-seven isolates were recovered from these cultivars and were analyzed by RAPD assay and compared to the RAPD of the original 10 isolates. According to the RAPD profiles there was a high level of genetic variability among the isolates. We detected 69 polymorphic fragments, ranging from 1.6 to 0.54 kb, in the original 10 isolates; 57 fragments with sizes between 1.98 and 0.38 kb from the isolates recovered from BH1146; 47 polymorphic bands, ranging from 1.96-0.54 kb, were detected in the isolates from BR8 and 32 fragments between 1.98 and 0.42 kb in isolates were recovered from IAC-5 Maringá. The number of polymorphic fragments varied, even for the same isolate, when the isolates were recovered from different cultivar hosts.
Happiness and Ethical Values in Higher Education
Lee, Jeong-Kyu
2017-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss relations between happiness and ethical values in higher education, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness and ethical values. To examine the paper logically, four research questions are addressed. First, what are general concepts of happiness and ethical values? Second, why higher…
Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain
Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?
Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka
2015-01-01
Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…
The Marital Happiness of Remarried Divorced Persons
Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.
1977-01-01
A comparison of the reported marital happiness of ever-divorced and never-divorced white respondents to three recent U. S. national surveys reveals significantly greater marital happiness for never-divorced females but not for never-divorced males. Even among females, the difference in the percentage of "very happy" responses was less than 10…
A Hidden Cost of Happiness in Children
Schnall, Simone; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Rowe, Christina
2008-01-01
Happiness is generally considered an emotion with only beneficial effects, particularly in childhood. However, there are some situations where the style of information processing triggered by happiness could be a liability. In particular, happiness seems to motivate a top-down processing style, which could impair performance when attention to…
Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain
Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
ECONOMICS OF HAPPINESS: A STUDY ON HAPPINESS INDICATORS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS
Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI; Zilli, Julcemar Bruno
2016-01-01
The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by m...
ECONOMICS OF HAPPINESS: A STUDY ON HAPPINESS INDICATORS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS
Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI; Zilli, Julcemar Bruno
2016-01-01
The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by m...
Veenhoven, Ruut
2009-01-01
textabstractIs happiness good for your health? This common notion is tested in a synthetic analysis of 30 follow-up studies on happiness and longevity. It appears that happiness does not predict longevity in sick populations, but that it does predict longevity among healthy populations. So, happiness does not cure illness but it does protect against becoming ill. The effect of happiness on longevity in healthy populations is remarkably strong. The size of the effect is comparable to that of s...
de Souto Barreto, Philipe
2014-09-01
The purposes of this study were to examine if physical activity (PA) is associated to happiness and to investigate if social functioning and health status mediate this association. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 323 men and women, age 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System, France. They received by mail a self-report questionnaire that asked for information about general health, PA, and happiness. In multinomial logistic regressions, the total volume of PA was associated to higher levels of happiness, but this association disappeared in the presence of social functioning. A structural equation modelling (SEM) showed an indirect association between PA and happiness, which was mediated by participants' health status and social functioning; in this SEM model, social functioning was the only variable directly associated to happiness. Complex associations among PA, health status, and social functioning appear to determine happiness levels in older adults.
Farahnaz Shakehnia
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with low self-esteem are ready to suffering from depression and depression effects on life quality and educational function Thus, the present research was done with the aim of a happiness training program effectiveness in decreasing depression symptoms, its dimensions,and self esteem of children. Materials and Methods: A quasi- experimental study with a control and a training group, covering pre-testing and post-testing, was conducted on 30 elementary school students of the first educational division of Isfahan city in 2012.The subjects had the appropriate properties of the research and were randomly selected using purposive method based on the criteria . and Interventions included 5 weekly 60 minute group sessions teaching happiness to children and 7 weekly 40 minute group sessions for mothers. In order to assess the children’s depression and self-esteem, CDI and RSS were applied pre and post-interventionally. The obtained data was analysed by SPSS software (V:16 employing descriptive statistics and one-variable co-variance at the significant level ……………….. . Results: Happiness training programs had significant effects on the decreasing of total depression symptoms, negative mood,, interpersonal problems, anhedonia, negative self-esteem, and children’s self-esteem of the experimental group (P0.05.Interactive effect of gender and group membership on self-esteem and depression was also not significant Conclusion: Happiness teaching programs can decrease depression symptoms n and increase children’s self-esteem.Therefore, it is necessary to take these programs into account while employing other depression treatments.
Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.
Concept analysis of nurses' happiness.
Ozkara San, Eda
2015-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to examine and clarify the concept of nurses' happiness (NH), understand the different uses of the concept, explore the conditions that foster it, and consider the consequences of NH, including the phenomena that emerge as a result of NH occurrence. The author utilizes Walker and Avant's eight-stage concept analysis. Computer and manual searches were conducted of articles in the English language addressing NH from 1990 to present. EBSCO and PubMed are the electronic databases used to access literature for this paper. For both databases, the researcher has examined this new term by splitting the term nurses' happiness into its two root words, namely nurses and happiness. An inductive analysis of articles produced descriptive themes. Definitions of happiness and NH are analyzed. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences of NH are described. Model, borderline, contrary, and related cases for NH are also identified. This concept analysis helps in the understanding of the definition of NH, the attributes that contribute to the occurrence of NH in clinical practice, as well as the consequences of NH, and how it should be measured from a nursing perspective. Ozkara San. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
National wealth and individual happiness
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
1989-01-01
textabstractABSTRACT Easterlin has argued that national economic prosperity is of no consequence for the individual’s appreciation of life. He contends that people in poor countries are as happy as those of rich welfare states, and that decades of economic growth have left people no happier than
PERSPECTIVES UPON CONSUMPTION AND HAPPINESS
Andreea Mihaela STROE
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Consumers are described by economists as rational people when making a decision and when interacting with different types of framing problems. Theories explaining rational "consumer's rational behaviour" , assume that emotions can be controlled and even ignored so people be able to behave in a rational manner. An important issue was to establish the rational economic report between resources and needs and finding ways to optimize it. Rational consumer behaviour is considered to be one that ensures maximum consumer satisfaction with maximum efficiency at minimum cost. Each user asks himself at one point, if happiness is found in material goods and services. Economists would like that the consumers believe that in their attempt to explain buying behaviour. However, it is a matter of debate if psychological records tend to state otherwise. It is suggested that people buy goods and services hoping that they will substitute the factors that make them truly happy . It is debatable whether consumption is detrimental to human happiness and if the link between consumption and happiness extends to all buying experiences.
Marital Status, Happiness, and Anomia.
Ryan, John
1981-01-01
Survey data indicates that neither marital status nor marital happiness is related to anomia. Suggests a moderately strong negative relationship exists between education and anomia with a weak negative relationship between overall life satisfaction and anomia. Results indicate socioeconomic status remains the primary determinant of anomia for most…
The Effect of Teaching Communicative Patterns of Pluralistic Family on Couples Happiness
H Molavi
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the basic elements declared in positive psychology is the concept of happiness. Researches have shown that without concerning how achieved, happiness can enhance our health. People who are happy feel more secure, decide easier, and are more satisfied of the people who live with. The aim of the present study was to measure the efficiency of teaching communicative pattern of pluralistic family on the happiness of couples. Materials & Method:This experimental study was designed to have a pre-test and post test and also a control group. Subjects of this study were comprised of consultation centers clients in Shiraz and was based on random sampling. Forty couples were selected according to the revised version of family communication patterns of Koerner and Fitzpatrick. Two dimensions, namely laisseze fair and protective family patterns, were taken into account through the process of selection . Oxford Happiness Invintory was administered to 40 couples and they were randomly divided into a control and an experimental group. Ten training sessions, 90- minute each, were held for experimental group exposed to pluralistic communication patterns. Three Couples declined and finally 34 couples were analyzed.The test was run for both groups and data was analyzed with covariance analysis method using SPSSI5. Results:The results of the present study revealed that with regard to happiness, there is a meaningful difference in both groups (p<0.005. The difference also existed between the pretest and post test scores of happiness test in both groups (p<0.0001. However, communication patterns and interaction between both groups did not reach a meaningful level. Conclusion: Based on the finding, it can be concluded that listening to and speaking with each other play a key role in happiness, therefore pluralistic communication methods based on high levels of listing speaking interactions can be effective happiness of couples.
Jones, Salene M W; Guthrie, Katherine A; Reed, Susan D; Landis, Carol A; Sternfeld, Barbara; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dunn, Andrea; Burr, Robert L; Newton, Katherine M
2016-06-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the integration of the parasympathetic nervous system with the rest of the body. Studies on the effects of yoga and exercise on HRV have been mixed but suggest that exercise increases HRV. We conducted a secondary analysis of the effect of yoga and exercise on HRV based on a randomized clinical trial of treatments for vasomotor symptoms in peri/post-menopausal women. Randomized clinical trial of behavioral interventions in women with vasomotor symptoms (n=335), 40-62 years old from three clinical study sites. 12-weeks of a yoga program, designed specifically for mid-life women, or a supervised aerobic exercise-training program with specific intensity and energy expenditure goals, compared to a usual activity group. Time and frequency domain HRV measured at baseline and at 12 weeks for 15min using Holter monitors. Women had a median of 7.6 vasomotor symptoms per 24h. Time and frequency domain HRV measures did not change significantly in either of the intervention groups compared to the change in the usual activity group. HRV results did not differ when the analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women. Although yoga and exercise have been shown to increase parasympathetic-mediated HRV in other populations, neither intervention increased HRV in middle-aged women with vasomotor symptoms. Mixed results in previous research may be due to sample differences. Yoga and exercise likely improve short-term health in middle-aged women through mechanisms other than HRV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.
Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C
2013-01-01
Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.
Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.
Ana Maria Baptista Menezes
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. METHODOLOGY: Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. RESULTS: About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7, depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6, and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (<20 cigarettes/day OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.03; 1.84] and ≥ 20 cigarettes/day OR = 2.11[95% CI 1.31; 3.40]. Smoking by the partner was associated with decreased offspring happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.
The Self-Justifying Desire for Happiness
Rodogno, Raffaele
2004-01-01
In Happiness, Tabensky equates the notion of happiness to Aristotelian eudaimonia. I shall claim that doing so amounts to equating two concepts that moderns cannot conceptually equate, namely, the good for a person and the good person or good life. In §2 I examine the way in which Tabensky deals...... with this issue and claim that his idea of happiness is as problematic for us moderns as is any translation of the notion of eudaimonia in terms of happiness. Naturally, if happiness understood as eudaimonia is ambiguous, so will be the notion of a desire for happiness, which we find at the core of Tabensky......'s whole project. In §3 I shall be concerned with another aspect of the desire for happiness; namely, its alleged self-justifying nature. I will attempt to undermine the idea that this desire is self-justifying by undermining the criterion on which Tabensky takes self-justifiability to rest, i.e. its...
The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.
Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi
2015-11-20
Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.
Concepts of happiness across time and cultures.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Graham, Jesse; Kesebir, Selin; Galinha, Iolanda Costa
2013-05-01
We explored cultural and historical variations in concepts of happiness. First, we analyzed the definitions of happiness in dictionaries from 30 nations to understand cultural similarities and differences in happiness concepts. Second, we analyzed the definition of happiness in Webster's dictionaries from 1850 to the present day to understand historical changes in American English. Third, we coded the State of the Union addresses given by U.S. presidents from 1790 to 2010. Finally, we investigated the appearance of the phrases happy nation versus happy person in Google's Ngram Viewer from 1800 to 2008. Across cultures and time, happiness was most frequently defined as good luck and favorable external conditions. However, in American English, this definition was replaced by definitions focused on favorable internal feeling states. Our findings highlight the value of a historical perspective in the study of psychological concepts.
Happy mood decreases self-focused attention.
Green, Jeffrey D; Sedikides, Constantine; Saltzberg, Judith A; Wood, Joanne V; Forzano, Lori-Ann B
2003-03-01
Research addressing the influence of happy mood on self-focused attention has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies found that happy mood decreased self-focus relative to sad mood. Other studies did not detect a significant difference between happy and neutral mood, and still other studies found that happy mood, relative to neutral mood, increased self-focus. These investigations have potential shortcomings, such as an insufficiently powerful happy mood induction and a confound between visualization mood inductions and self-focus itself. The present experiment addressed these shortcomings by inducing mood via musical selections, equalizing the approximate potency between happy and sad moods, and using a within-participants design. Relative to neutral mood, happy mood decreased self-focused attention.
German Lobos
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1 individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2 health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3 dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.
Lobos, German; Lapo, Maria Del Carmen; Schnettler, Berta
2016-01-01
We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1) individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2) health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3) dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.
Mona Lisa is always happy - and only sometimes sad.
Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen
2017-03-10
The worldwide fascination of da Vinci's Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa's mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding 'happy' to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants' confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range.
Pursuing happiness in everyday life: the characteristics and behaviors of online happiness seekers.
Parks, Acacia C; Della Porta, Matthew D; Pierce, Russell S; Zilca, Ran; Lyubomirsky, Sonja
2012-12-01
Although the last decade has witnessed mounting research on the development and evaluation of positive interventions, investigators still know little about the target population of such interventions: happiness seekers. The present research asked three questions about happiness seekers: (1) What are their general characteristics?, (2) What do they purposefully do to become happier?, and (3) How do they make use of self-help resources? In Study 1, we identified two distinct clusters of online happiness seekers. In Study 2, we asked happiness seekers to report on their use of 14 types of happiness-seeking behaviors. In Study 3, we tracked happiness seekers' usage of an iPhone application that offered access to eight different happiness-increasing activities, and assessed their resulting happiness and mood improvements. Together, these studies provide a preliminary portrait of happiness seekers' characteristics and naturalistic behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
ECONOMICS OF HAPPINESS: A STUDY ON HAPPINESS INDICATORS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS
Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by marital status; happiness by age; happiness and money; happiness, sports and health; happiness, friendship, love relationships and sex life; and happiness, creativity and organization. The results show that money is not one of the major constraints to achieve happiness in this analysis group, that love relationships significantly increase the happiness of this study group, once sexual relationships don’t represent happiness increasing. It was also found that emotional / mental health of the participants has significance to turn them happier as creative tasks and planning actions to the future to reach the dreams and goals demonstrate to increase the happiness of this sample of university teachers.
Money and Happiness: Evidence from the Industry Wage Structure
Pischke, Jörn-Steffen
2011-01-01
There is a well-established positive correlation between life-satisfaction measures and income in individual level cross-sectional data. This paper attempts to provide some evidence on whether this correlation reflects causality running from money to happiness. I use industry wage differentials as instruments for income. This is based on the idea that at least part of these differentials are due to rents, and part of the pattern of industry affiliations of individuals is random. To probe the ...
A study on relationship between income, health and family relationship and happiness
Mahmoud Moradi
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between exogenous components including monthly income, family relationship and physical health and endogenous variables including subjective happiness scale (SHS, satisfaction with life scale (SWLS and happiness. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 254 employees of private banks in city of Tehran, Iran during the year of 2012. Cronbach's Alpha and Dillon-Goldstein's Rho both are well above 0.70, for SHS and SWLS and Eigenvalue for both components were greater than one. T-student values for all components were greater than 1.96, which means they are meaningful. Mean Communalities (Ave calculated for both Latent Variables were greater than 0.50. The results of investigating various questions of the survey indicate that while healthcare is the most important factor on happiness, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between income and family relationships and happiness.
Examining Relationships between Academic and Social Achievement Goals and Routes to Happiness
Christopher O. Walker
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among social and academic achievement goals and the route to happiness selected by a sample of college students. According to Waterman (1993 there are two distinct routes to happiness: eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment. Hedonic enjoyment has been defined as the pursuit of proximal goals and immediate pleasure, while eudaimonia is best defined as the long-term commitment to pursue “self-realization” (Waterman, 1993. A sample of 132 college students completed a research packet containing an informed consent, demographics form, and three questionnaires. The results suggested that one’s route to happiness was related to the academic and social achievement goal orientation of the participants. A call is made for additional research to examine the interrelations among variables traditionally considered in cognitive-motivational research and variables considered to be a part of the positive psychology movement (e.g., happiness.
Functional limit theorem for moving average processes generated by dependent random variables
无
2006-01-01
Let {Xt,t≥1} be a moving average process defined byXt = ∞∑j=0bjξt-j , where {bj,j≥0} is a sequence of real numbers and { ξt, ∞＜ t ＜∞ } is a doubly infinite sequence of strictly stationary φ- mixing random variables. Under conditions on { bj, j ≥0 }which entail that { Xt, t ≥ 1 } is either a long memory process or a linear process, we study asymptotics of Sn ( s ) = [ns]∑t=1 Xt (properly normalized). When { Xt, t≥1 } is a long memory process, we establish a functional limit theorem. When { Xt, t≥1 } is a linear process, we not only obtain the multi-dimensional weak convergence for { Xt, t≥1 }, but also weaken the moment condition on { ξt, - ∞＜ t ＜∞ } and the restriction on { bj,j≥0}. Finally, we give some applications of our results.
Shuwei Zhang
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Experimental pEC50s for 216 selective respiratory syncytial virus (RSV inhibitors are used to develop classification models as a potential screening tool for a large library of target compounds. Variable selection algorithm coupled with random forests (VS-RF is used to extract the physicochemical features most relevant to the RSV inhibition. Based on the selected small set of descriptors, four other widely used approaches, i.e., support vector machine (SVM, Gaussian process (GP, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and k nearest neighbors (kNN routines are also employed and compared with the VS-RF method in terms of several of rigorous evaluation criteria. The obtained results indicate that the VS-RF model is a powerful tool for classification of RSV inhibitors, producing the highest overall accuracy of 94.34% for the external prediction set, which significantly outperforms the other four methods with the average accuracy of 80.66%. The proposed model with excellent prediction capacity from internal to external quality should be important for screening and optimization of potential RSV inhibitors prior to chemical synthesis in drug development.
A randomized-controlled trial of heart rate variability biofeedback for psychotic symptoms.
Clamor, Annika; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F; Lincoln, Tania M
2016-12-01
Arousal and the way it is coped with are relevant to the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) stems from autonomic responses to environmental demands such as stress and is an index of physiological arousal, adaptability, and homeostatic reflexes forming autonomic balance. A randomized-controlled between-subjects trial that compared HRV-biofeedback (BF) to an active relaxation and to a waiting control condition was conducted in a sample with attenuated subclinical psychotic symptoms (N = 84). A 20-min intervention was preceded and followed by repeated assessments of stress responses. Change scores of the post-stress periods were analyzed using ANOVAs for HRV, subjective stress, perceived control, and state paranoia. As expected, BF participants showed greater improvements in perceived control than waiting controls (p = 0.006). However, no group differences occurred in HRV, paranoid symptoms or subjective stress. In exploratory analyses in a subset of participants who were breathing per protocol, the expected effects were found for total HRV and state paranoia. Thus, this trial of HRV-BF for people with attenuated psychotic symptoms indicates that the intervention may hold potential if conducted per protocol. To reach this, longer training might be inevitable. Future studies are needed to further elucidate efficacy and applicability of HRV-BF in clinical samples. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
2011-01-01
Data in the European Community Household Panel are used to analyse the impact on self-reported satisfaction from a number of economic and demographic variables. The paper contributes to the ongoing discussion of the relationship between life satisfaction and income utilizing also the panel proper......-reported health has a strong impact on satisfaction....
Factors Affecting Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Iranian Youth
Mehrdadi, Amir; Sadeghian, Shahnaz; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf
2016-01-01
Introduction Happiness is one of the most important concepts in the mental health that has an impact on different aspects of young people. Aim The present study was conducted to identify the factors influencing on happiness among young persons in Liam, Iran during 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young population 15-29-year-old. Multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants. Data were collected using two demographic and Oxford Happiness Inventory. SPSS software Package 14 was used to analyse the data. Results A total of 500 young people, including 272 men and 228 women were enrolled. The Mean ± SD of the participants’ age was 20 ± 2.18 years. There was a significant relationship between the happiness score and location in urban and rural, employment status and physical activity. There was not a significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with happiness score among participants. Conclusion The age groups, type of occupation, physical activity and place of residence were factors associated with happiness in young persons. However, there was not significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with a happiness score among study participants. PMID:27437333
Factors influencing life happiness among elderly female in Rayong Province, Thailand.
Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Tuntichaivanit, Chutigai; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Charupoonphol, Phitaya
2009-12-01
To study the factors influencing life happiness of elderly female in Rayong province, Thailand. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 233 elderly female aged between 60-80 years using multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from June 6th to July 31st 2008 by interviewing questionnaires. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. About half (50.2%) of the elderly female had moderate level of life happiness, followed by low level (27.1%) and high level (22.7%). The factors which significantly influenced the life happiness of the elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p happiness of the elderly female by 91.4%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of life happiness among elderly female. The important factors influencing life happiness of elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote life happiness of elderly female, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the elderly female's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.
高海峰; 白广忱; 高阳; 鲍天未
2015-01-01
The fatigue life of aeroengine turbine disc presents great dispersion due to the randomness of the basic variables, such as applied load, working temperature, geometrical dimensions and material properties. In order to ameliorate reliability analysis efficiency without loss of reliability, the distributed collaborative response surface method (DCRSM) was proposed, and its basic theories were established in this work. Considering the failure dependency among the failure modes, the distributed response surface was constructed to establish the relationship between the failure mode and the relevant random variables. Then, the failure modes were considered as the random variables of system response to obtain the distributed collaborative response surface model based on structure failure criterion. Finally, the given turbine disc structure was employed to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the presented method. Through the comparison of DCRSM, Monte Carlo method (MCM) and the traditional response surface method (RSM), the results show that the computational precision for DCRSM is more consistent with MCM than RSM, while DCRSM needs far less computing time than MCM and RSM under the same simulation conditions. Thus, DCRSM is demonstrated to be a feasible and valid approach for improving the computational efficiency of reliability analysis for aeroengine turbine disc fatigue life with multiple random variables, and has great potential value for the complicated mechanical structure with multi-component and multi-failure mode.
F Hashemi
2013-12-01
Background & aim: infertility and the attitude of the society toward it, makes women and even men deal with many emotional disturbances. Infertile women tolerate more stress than fertile women. Stress can reduce the amount of happiness and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of stress management skills training (cognitive-behavioral on happiness of infertile women. Methods: In this clinical-trial study, the cases of infertile women who were referred to the Infertility Center of Shiraz in the summer of 2011were studied. A total of 24 infertile women with high stress scores were selected by purposive sampling and divided into two experimental and control groups. The stress management training (cognitive-behavioral was instructed during 10 weekly sessions on the target group. Using Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, a pre-test and a post-test was completed. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and ANCOVA. Results: The difference between the mean happiness was significant after controlling of the pretest variables in the two groups. The mean scored happiness of the experimental group significantly increased compared to the control group in the post-test (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The results indicated that the control effectiveness of stress management therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy on happiness levels of infertile women. Key words: Happiness, Cognitive- Behavioral, Stress Management, Infertility
What Are People Saying When They Report They Are Happy Or Life Satisfied
Americo Baptista
Full Text Available The study of happiness was dominated with the model of subjective well-being. With the advent of positive psychology the eudaimonic and hedonic models entered the field, but major surveys continue to use single-item measures of life satisfaction or happiness. We study the associations between life satisfaction and happiness, measured single-items with a graphic representation of a ladder and a thermometer, and three models of happiness: the subjective well-being, the eudaimonic and hedonic. The results showed that subjective well-being was the main predictor of life satisfaction and hedonic model also predicted a small amount of this variable. For happiness the predictors were the same but in reversed order, the main predictor was the hedonic model and a small variance was explained by subjective well-being. Contrary to our hypothesis the eudaimonic perspective of happiness was not a predictor in none of the models. These results underline the importance of the interaction between a cognitive or appraisal perspective and the hedonic perspectives for the study of happiness.
José Augusto Dela Coleta
2012-04-01
padres, con más altos niveles socioeconómicos se mostraron significativamente más populares, menos solitarios, más satisfechos con la vida y más felices.This study was developed with 388 college students using a set of scales to measure variables associated to happiness, subjective well-being, social behavior and some questions on demographic data. The results showed that the scales usually present high levels of reliability, average results superior to those expected in the subjective well-being measures and multiple correlation coefficient of 0.79 on the prediction of total happiness. When testing the differences among the several groups, it was verified that women, young people, those married or dating, those who had a religion, studied the first grade in a private school or the college in a public institution, those who know other languages with higher family income, having parents with high level of education or social-economic status, showed to be significantly more popular, less solitaires, more satisfied with their lives and happier.
On satisfaction, happiness and ecstasy.
Deutsch, H
1989-01-01
In her 1927 'On satisfaction, happiness and ecstasy' Helene Deutsch took a respectful attitude toward religious phenomena. She was also talking about emotional states that Freud was apt not to want to write about because of his own scepticism concerning them. She even touched with understanding tolerance on the blissfulness of religious communion. She proceeded from the premise of a universal striving in each individual for psychological unity. She used two case histories to illustrate how both sexual satisfaction and sublimation could involve heightened phases of dejection. She accounted for the sense of ecstasy by the temporarily undisturbed unity between ego and non-ego. This translation should help counter-act the ahistoric tendency to look on early psychoanalysis only from the perspective of our own preoccupations. In her interest in the 'feeling of happiness' Helene Deutsch was anticipating later thinking which sought to include within psychoanalytic theory the integrative processes that constitute harmony.
Childhood adversity and adulthood happiness: Evidence from Japan
Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito
2011-01-01
In this study, we examined the impact of childhood interpersonal adversity on adulthood subjective well-being, with a focus on the mediating and moderating effects of social support and socioeconomic status (SES). We concentrated on parental maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and bullying in school as childhood adversity variables and on perceived happiness, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as adulthood subjective well-being measures. Our empirical analysis was based on micro data from ...
Marina Della Giusta; Sarah Jewell; Uma Kambhampati
2010-01-01
Whilst there is an abundant supply of theoretical and empirical contributions in cooperative bargaining models on the transfer of material resources within couples and the labour supply patterns of individuals in couples, this literature has so far not been interested in measuring empirically the utilities of partners. Conversely the literature on hedonic wellbeing has recently moved on to assess couple’s happiness and the extent to which individuals in couples influence each other’s happines...
Tetschke, F; Schneider, U; Schleussner, E; Witte, O W; Hoyer, D
2016-03-01
Fetal maturation age assessment based on heart rate variability (HRV) is a predestinated tool in prenatal diagnosis. To date, almost linear maturation characteristic curves are used in univariate and multivariate models. Models using complex multivariate maturation characteristic curves are pending. To address this problem, we use Random Forest (RF) to assess fetal maturation age and compare RF with linear, multivariate age regression. We include previously developed HRV indices such as traditional time and frequency domain indices and complexity indices of multiple scales. We found that fetal maturation was best assessed by complexity indices of short scales and skewness in state-dependent datasets (quiet sleep, active sleep) as well as in state-independent recordings. Additionally, increasing fluctuation amplitude contributed to the model in the active sleep state. None of the traditional linear HRV parameters contributed to the RF models. Compared to linear, multivariate regression, the mean prediction of gestational age (GA) is more accurate with RF than in linear, multivariate regression (quiet state: R(2)=0,617 vs. R(2)=0,461, active state: R(2)=0,521 vs. R(2)=0,436, state independent: R(2)=0,583 vs. R(2)=0,548). We conclude that classification and regression tree models such as RF methodology are appropriate for the evaluation of fetal maturation age. The decisive role of adjustments between different time scales of complexity may essentially extend previous analysis concepts mainly based on rhythms and univariate complexity indices. Those system characteristics may have implication for better understanding and accessibility of the maturating complex autonomic control and its disturbance.
DIYAH MARTANTI
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Araceae is valued for its glucomanan content for use in food industry (healthy diet food, paper industry, pharmacy and cosmetics. The species is triploid (2n=3x=39 and the seed is developed apomictically. The present research is aimed to identify genetic variability of six population of A. muelleri from Java (consisted of 50 accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The six populations of the species are: East Java: (1 Silo-Jember, (2 Saradan-Madiun, (3 IPB (cultivated, from Saradan-Madiun, (4 Panti-Jember, (5 Probolinggo; and Central Java: (6 Cilacap. The results showed that five RAPD primers generated 42 scorable bands of which 29 (69.05% were polymorphic. Size of the bands varied from 300bp to 1.5kbp. The 50 accessions of A. muelleri were divided into two main clusters, some of them were grouped based on their populations, and some others were not. The range of individual genetic dissimilarity was from 0.02 to 0.36. The results showed that among six populations investigated, Saradan population showed the highest levels of genetic variation with mean values of na = 1.500+ 0.5061, ne = 1.3174 + 0.3841, PLP = 50% and He = 0, 0.1832+0.2054, whereas Silo-Jember population showed the lowest levels of genetic variation with mean values na = 1.2619+ 0.4450, ne = 1.1890 + 0.3507, PLP = 26.19% and He = 0.1048+0.1887. Efforts to conserve, domesticate, cultivate and improve genetically should be based on the genetic properties of each population and individual within population, especially Saradan population which has the highest levels of genetic variation, need more attention for its conservation.
Large Deviations for Sums of Heavy-tailed Random Variables%重尾随机变量和的大偏差
郭晓燕; 孔繁超
2007-01-01
This paper is a further investigation of large deviations for sums of random variables Sn =n∑i=1 Xi and S(t)=N(t)∑i=1 Xi,(t≥0), where {Xn,n≥1} are independent identically distribution and non-negative random variables, and {N(t),t≥0} is a counting process of non-negative integer-valued random variables, independent of {Xn,n≥1}. In this paper, under the suppose F ∈G, which is a bigger heavy-tailed class than C, proved large deviation results for sums of random variables.
Happiness and longevity in the United States.
Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Richard G; Wadsworth, Tim
2015-11-01
This is the first study to our knowledge to examine the relationship between happiness and longevity among a nationally representative sample of adults. We use the recently-released General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset and Cox proportional hazards models to reveal that overall happiness is related to longer lives among U.S. adults. Indeed, compared to very happy people, the risk of death over the follow-up period is 6% (95% CI 1.01-1.11) higher among individuals who are pretty happy and 14% (95% CI 1.06-1.22) higher among those who are not happy, net of marital status, socioeconomic status, census division, and religious attendance. This study provides support for happiness as a stand-alone indicator of well-being that should be used more widely in social science and health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The happiness-income paradox revisited.
Easterlin, Richard A; McVey, Laura Angelescu; Switek, Malgorzata; Sawangfa, Onnicha; Zweig, Jacqueline Smith
2010-12-28
The striking thing about the happiness-income paradox is that over the long-term--usually a period of 10 y or more--happiness does not increase as a country's income rises. Heretofore the evidence for this was limited to developed countries. This article presents evidence that the long term nil relationship between happiness and income holds also for a number of developing countries, the eastern European countries transitioning from socialism to capitalism, and an even wider sample of developed countries than previously studied. It also finds that in the short-term in all three groups of countries, happiness and income go together, i.e., happiness tends to fall in economic contractions and rise in expansions. Recent critiques of the paradox, claiming the time series relationship between happiness and income is positive, are the result either of a statistical artifact or a confusion of the short-term relationship with the long-term one.
Hypertension and happiness across nations \\ud \\ud
Blanchflower, David G.; Oswald, Andrew J.
2007-01-01
In surveys of well-being, countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands emerge as particularly happy while nations like Germany and Italy report lower levels of happiness. But are these kinds of findings credible? This paper provides some evidence that the answer is yes. Using data on 16 countries, it shows that happier nations report systematically lower levels of hypertension. As well as potentially validating the differences in measured happiness across nations, this suggests that blood-pr...
Happiness in the workplace: an appreciative inquiry
McGonagle, Catherine
2015-01-01
Maximising employee wellbeing is a challenge for managers at any time. The current economic climate of austerity and the resulting financial constraints within the public sector increase this challenge. Promoting happiness in the workplace is potentially relevant to improving productivity, creativity and retention of staff. Previous research on happiness in the workplace has focused on job satisfaction and employee engagement however happiness in the workplace is an understudied area and offe...
A happiness index of human development
Filipe, Carina da Conceição
2010-01-01
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Nowadays many social scientists defend the advantages to define a measure of well being able to complement the GDP per capita. This work project proposes a new index of human development: the happiness index. Many studies have been undertaken in order to determine the best measurement of happiness. Happiness is much more than just...
Steffel, Mary; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.
2009-01-01
The present research suggests that many of the most commonly-used indicators of happiness are constructed in a manner that renders them susceptible to null or misleading findings. While few happiness indicators specify particular comparison standards, we demonstrate that people tend to evaluate their happiness relative to comparison standards and…
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2009-01-01
textabstractIs happiness good for your health? This common notion is tested in a synthetic analysis of 30 follow-up studies on happiness and longevity. It appears that happiness does not predict longevity in sick populations, but that it does predict longevity among healthy populations. So,
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2009-01-01
textabstractIs happiness good for your health? This common notion is tested in a synthetic analysis of 30 follow-up studies on happiness and longevity. It appears that happiness does not predict longevity in sick populations, but that it does predict longevity among healthy populations. So, happines
Wealth and Happiness Revisited: Growing wealth of nations does go with greater happiness
M.R. Hagerty; R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2003-01-01
textabstract“Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?” Intuition says 'yes' but theories of relative utility caution that the answer may be ‘no’. The theory of relative utility holds that rises in income will produce at best short-lived gains in happiness. If people’s happiness
Steffel, Mary; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.
2009-01-01
The present research suggests that many of the most commonly-used indicators of happiness are constructed in a manner that renders them susceptible to null or misleading findings. While few happiness indicators specify particular comparison standards, we demonstrate that people tend to evaluate their happiness relative to comparison standards and…
Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness
Thomas E. Ford
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
Virtue and Happiness in Socrates’ Moral Thought
H Mahboobi Arani
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The question of “what is happiness?” is among the most important questions of Greek philosophy. In those early works of Plato that very likely represent the views of Socrates, Socrates mainly focuses on moral issues and tries to get close to an explanation of the nature of virtue (or virtues, the happy life and the relation between virtue (or virtues and the realization of happiness (Eudemonia. Given the Principle of Eudemonism, in this paper it is tried to examine Socrates’ views on the relation between virtue and happiness and defend what is known as the “Principle of the Sovereignty of Virtue”.
Visual search for emotional expressions: Effect of stimulus set on anger and happiness superiority.
Savage, Ruth A; Becker, Stefanie I; Lipp, Ottmar V
2016-01-01
Prior reports of preferential detection of emotional expressions in visual search have yielded inconsistent results, even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression-related perceptual confounds. The current study investigated inconsistent reports of anger and happiness superiority effects using face stimuli drawn from the same database. Experiment 1 excluded procedural differences as a potential factor, replicating a happiness superiority effect in a procedure that previously yielded an anger superiority effect. Experiments 2a and 2b confirmed that image colour or poser gender did not account for prior inconsistent findings. Experiments 3a and 3b identified stimulus set as the critical variable, revealing happiness or anger superiority effects for two partially overlapping sets of face stimuli. The current results highlight the critical role of stimulus selection for the observation of happiness or anger superiority effects in visual search even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression related perceptual confounds and are drawn from a single database.
Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models
Kock, Anders Bredahl
, we prove that the Marginal Bridge estimator can asymptotically correctly distinguish between relevant and irrelevant explanatory variables. We do this without restricting the dependence between covariates and without assuming sub Gaussianity of the error terms thereby generalizing the results...... and irrelevant variables and the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of the coefficients of the relevant variables is the same as if only these had been included in the model, i.e. as if an oracle had revealed the true model prior to estimation. In the case of more explanatory variables than observations...... of Huang et al. (2008). Furthermore, the number of relevant variables is allowed to be larger than the sample size....
Limitations on the recovery of the true AGN variability parameters using damped random walk modeling
Kozłowski, Szymon
2017-01-01
Context. The damped random walk (DRW) stochastic process is nowadays frequently used to model aperiodic light curves of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A number of correlations between the DRW model parameters, the signal decorrelation timescale and amplitude, and the physical AGN parameters, such as the black hole mass or luminosity, have been reported. Aims: We are interested in whether or not it is plausible to correctly measure the DRW parameters from a typical ground-based survey, and, in particular, in how accurate the recovered DRW parameters are compared to the input ones. Methods: By means of Monte Carlo simulations of AGN light curves, we studied the impact of the light curve length, the source magnitude (the photometric properties of a survey), cadence, and additional light (e.g., from a host galaxy) on the DRW model parameters. Results: The most significant finding is that currently existing surveys are going to return unconstrained DRW decorrelation timescales, because typical rest-frame data do not probe long enough timescales or the white noise part of the power spectral density for DRW. The experiment length must be at least ten times longer than the true DRW decorrelation timescale, being presumably in the vicinity of one year, thus meaning the necessity for AGN light curves measuring a minimum of 10 years (rest-frame). The DRW timescales for sufficiently long light curves are typically weakly biased, and the exact bias depends on the fitting method and used priors. The DRW amplitude is mostly affected by the photometric noise (the source magnitude or the signal-to-noise ratio), cadence, and the AGN host light. Conclusions: Because the DRW parameters appear to be incorrectly determined from typically existing data, the reported correlations of the DRW variability and physical AGN parameters from other works seem unlikely to be correct. In particular, the anti-correlation of the DRW decorrelation timescale with redshift is a manifestation of the
Anxious or Depressed and Still Happy?
Philip Spinhoven
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine cross-sectionally to what extent persons with higher symptom levels or a current or past emotional disorder report to be less happy than controls and to assess prospectively whether time-lagged measurements of extraversion and neuroticism predict future happiness independent of time-lagged measurements of emotional disorders or symptom severity. A sample of 2142 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with current or past emotional disorder according to DSM-IV criteria completed self-ratings for happiness and emotional well-being and symptom severity. Lagged measurements of personality, symptom severity and presence of anxiety and depressive disorder at T0 (year 0, T2 (year 2 and T4 (year 4 were used to predict happiness and emotional well-being at T6 (year 6 controlling for demographics. In particular persons with more depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and comorbid emotional disorders reported lower levels of happiness and emotional well-being. Depression symptom severity and to a lesser extent depressive disorder predicted future happiness and emotional well-being at T6. Extraversion and to a lesser extent neuroticism also consistently forecasted future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrent lagged measurements of emotional disorders and symptoms. A study limitation is that we only measured happiness and emotional well-being at T6 and our measures were confined to hedonistic well-being and did not include psychological and social well-being. In sum, consistent with the two continua model of emotional well-being and mental illness, a 'happy' personality characterized by high extraversion and to a lesser extent low neuroticism forecasts future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrently measured emotional disorders or symptom severity levels. Boosting positive emotionality may be an important treatment goal for persons
Estimate Theorems About Sums of Random Variables%随机变量和的估计定理
张丽娜; 陈俊英; 闫广州
2011-01-01
建立了关于随机序列部分和及加权和增长阶的估计,推广了Freedman收敛速度和已有的结果,这些结果除矩条件外,对随机变量的独立性和联合分布不作具体要求.最后揭示了序偶序列出现的频数与转移概率之间的关系.%The estimate theorems of partial sums and weighted sums for stochastic sequence are established using the known results. These theorems and corollaries have extended the growth rates established by Freed-man. No condition of independence or the distribution of random variables are required except the conditions on moments of random variables. Finally,the relationship between frequency and transition probability is obtained.
Therrar Kadri
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The distribution of ratio of two random variables has been studied by several authors especially when the two random variables are independent and come from the same family. In this paper, the exact distribution of the ratio of two independent Hyper-Erlang distribution is derived. However, closed expressions of the probability density, cumulative distribution function, reliability function, hazard function, moment generating function and the rth moment are found for this ratio distribution and proved to be a linear combination of the Generalized-F distribution. Finally, we will apply our results to real life application in analyzing the performance of wireless communication systems.
Ming He
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a random effects panel data model with both spatially correlated error components and spatially lagged dependent variables. We focus on diagnostic testing procedures and derive Lagrange multiplier (LM test statistics for a variety of hypotheses within this model. We first construct the joint LM test for both the individual random effects and the two spatial effects (spatial error correlation and spatial lag dependence. We then provide LM tests for the individual random effects and for the two spatial effects separately. In addition, in order to guard against local model misspecification, we derive locally adjusted (robust LM tests based on the Bera and Yoon principle (Bera and Yoon, 1993. We conduct a small Monte Carlo simulation to show the good finite sample performances of these LM test statistics and revisit the cigarette demand example in Baltagi and Levin (1992 to illustrate our testing procedures.
Hypertension and happiness across nations
Blanchflower, David G.; Oswald, Andrew J.
2007-01-01
A modern statistical literature argues that countries such as Denmark are particularly happy while nations like East Germany are not. Are such claims credible? The paper explores this by building on two ideas. The first is that psychological well-being and high blood-pressure are thought by clinicians to be inversely correlated. The second is that blood-pressure problems can be reported more objectively than mental well-being. Using data on 16 countries, the paper finds that happier nations r...
Effectiveness of Teach-Back Self-Management Training Program on Happiness of Breast Cancer Patients
Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Rahnama, Mozhgan; Afshari, Mahdi; Asadi Bidmeshki, Elahe
2016-10-01
Self-management training is one of the ways to empower patients to cope with disease. The aim of this before-and-after quasi-experimental study was to determine effects of a teach-back self-management training method on breast cancer patient happiness. Fifty breast cancer patients who visited the Park-e Neshat Limited Surgery Clinic in Kerman, Iran were randomly divided into intervention and control groups after convenience sampling and checking for inclusion eligibility. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory before and after teach-back training and analyzed using SPSS 23. Findings showed no significant difference between mean happiness scores in the two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention, the mean happiness score in the intervention group increased from 37.2 to 62.9, while it decreased from 41.4 to 29.8 in the control group. These changes were statistically significant (p<0.001). Even after controlling for the effect of confounding factors such as residence location and history of cancer education, the observed differences between the groups were statistically significant (p<0.001). A teach-back self-management training program can increase happiness levels in breast cancer patients. Therefore, the use of this method is recommended to improve self-management and increase happiness.
Sex Role Ideology, Marital Status, and Happiness.
Lueptow, Lloyd B.; And Others
1989-01-01
Analyzed General Social Survey data to determine if women's sex role ideology may be negatively related to marital happiness and stability. Found women with nontraditional gender values less happy and more likely to be separated or divorced. Results suggest that modern sex role ideology is negatively related to marital success for women.…
Enjoy Samba Carnival in Happy Valley
无
2009-01-01
On July3,the Yanjing Beer 2009 Beijing Happy Valley Mayan Carnival was grandly opened.The carnival will last for almost two months until August 30.With support from Yanjing Beer,Happy Valley is able to provide an authentic Brazilian festival including hot music and dancing,
Higher Education: Teach Happiness and Wisdom
Lee, Jeong-Kyu
2017-01-01
The purpose of this article is to examine why a university should teach happiness and wisdom from religious perspectives. To explore this paper systematically, three research questions are addressed. First, why higher education institutions should teach happiness? Second, why higher education institutions should teach wisdom? Third, how ethical…
The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness
Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun
2013-01-01
There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…
"Happiness and Education": Tilting at Windmills?
Verducci, Susan
2013-01-01
This essay explores the question: Is Nel Noddings a visionary who sees past the constraints of contemporary education or is she, like Don Quixote, madly tilting at windmills in her description and defense of happiness as an educational aim? Viewing the educational aim of happiness as an ideal raises substantial challenges for the practicality of…
Happiness: before and after the kids.
Myrskylä, Mikko; Margolis, Rachel
2014-10-01
Understanding how having children influences parents' subjective well-being ("happiness") has great potential to explain fertility behavior. We study parental happiness trajectories before and after the birth of a child, using large British and German longitudinal data sets. We account for unobserved parental characteristics using fixed-effects models and study how sociodemographic factors modify the parental happiness trajectories. Consistent with existing work, we find that happiness increases in the years around the birth of a first child and then decreases to before-child levels. Moreover, happiness increases before birth, suggesting that the trajectories may capture not only the effect of the birth but also the broader process of childbearing, which may include partnership formation and quality. Sociodemographic factors strongly modify this pattern. Those who have children at older ages or who have more education have a particularly positive happiness response to a first birth; and although having the first two children increases happiness, having a third child does not. The results, which are similar in Britain and Germany, suggest that having up to two children increases happiness, and mostly for those who have postponed childbearing. This pattern is consistent with the fertility behavior that emerged during the second demographic transition and provides new insights into low and late fertility.
Design for happiness: A telehomecare product case
Schot, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Van Dijk, M.B.; Schoone-Harmsen, M.
2009-01-01
In this paper a design approach is introduced for designing products to increase happiness. Happiness reflects the degree to which people’s concerns are fulfilled. Based on this fact, a framework of all human concerns was created. After that, the framework was applied to a telehomecare case. Telehom
"Happiness and Education": Tilting at Windmills?
Verducci, Susan
2013-01-01
This essay explores the question: Is Nel Noddings a visionary who sees past the constraints of contemporary education or is she, like Don Quixote, madly tilting at windmills in her description and defense of happiness as an educational aim? Viewing the educational aim of happiness as an ideal raises substantial challenges for the practicality of…
The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness
Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun
2013-01-01
There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…
Participatory teaching and happiness in developed nations
G.R. Brulé (Gaël); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
textabstractAverage happiness differs considerably across nations. Much of this difference is in societal development, but average happiness differs also among developed nations. Much of that latter difference seems to be due to cultural factors and education is a main carrier of these. In that cont
Participatory teaching and happiness in developed nations
G.R. Brulé (Gaël); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
textabstractAverage happiness differs considerably across nations. Much of this difference is in societal development, but average happiness differs also among developed nations. Much of that latter difference seems to be due to cultural factors and education is a main carrier of these. In that
Metaphors of Happiness in English and Russian
Csillag Andrea
2016-01-01
According to Ekman et al. (1972), happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. Kövecses (2000) claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.
Metaphors of Happiness in English and Russian
Csillag Andrea
2016-12-01
Full Text Available According to Ekman et al. (1972, happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. Kövecses (2000 claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.
Penzlin AI
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Ana Isabel Penzlin,1 Timo Siepmann,2 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,3 Kerstin Weidner,4 Martin Siepmann4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany Background and objective: In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV. Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24 attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2. Results: Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05, whereas craving was unchanged at
A neural link between generosity and happiness
Park, Soyoung Q.; Kahnt, Thorsten; Dogan, Azade; Strang, Sabrina; Fehr, Ernst; Tobler, Philippe N.
2017-01-01
Generous behaviour is known to increase happiness, which could thereby motivate generosity. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging and a public pledge for future generosity to investigate the brain mechanisms that link generous behaviour with increases in happiness. Participants promised to spend money over the next 4 weeks either on others (experimental group) or on themselves (control group). Here, we report that, compared to controls, participants in the experimental group make more generous choices in an independent decision-making task and show stronger increases in self-reported happiness. Generous decisions engage the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the experimental more than in the control group and differentially modulate the connectivity between TPJ and ventral striatum. Importantly, striatal activity during generous decisions is directly related to changes in happiness. These results demonstrate that top–down control of striatal activity plays a fundamental role in linking commitment-induced generosity with happiness. PMID:28696410
Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.
Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury
2016-03-01
The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.
The Meaning of Happiness in Consumer Research
Brandi Sørensen, Elin; Uth Thomsen, Thyra
2016-01-01
In this study we investigate the meaning of happiness in a consumption context. We employ an inductive approach and present the results of an exploratory pilot study with eight consumers. The study is based on a Multi-Sensory-Sculpting (MSS) procedure in which we asked consumers to build sculptures...... that represent consumer happiness. Following the MSS guidelines, consumers were interviewed about the meanings of their sculpture in order to elicit embodied cognition about the topic at hand. In this paper we present the meanings of consumer happiness in the participants‟ accounts and discuss implications...... for consumer research. Further, we discuss the applicability of the MSS-procedure to the topic of consumer happiness, and how to optimize it for later studies on consumer happiness....
Testing Happiness Hypothesis among the Elderly
Rossi Máximo
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We use a rich data set that allows us to test different happiness hypotheses employing four methodological approaches. We find that older people in Uruguay have a tendency to report themselves happy when they are married, when they have higher standards of health and when they earn higher levels of income or they consider that their income is suitable for their standard of living. On the contrary, they report lower levels of happiness when they live alone and when their nutrition is insufficient. We also find that education has no clear impact on happiness. We think that our study is a contribution to the study of those factors that can explain happiness among the elderly in Latin American countries. Future work will focus on enhanced empirical analysis and in extending our study to other countries.
The Meaning of Happiness in Consumer Research
Brandi Sørensen, Elin; Uth Thomsen, Thyra
2016-01-01
In this study we investigate the meaning of happiness in a consumption context. We employ an inductive approach and present the results of an exploratory pilot study with eight consumers. The study is based on a Multi-Sensory-Sculpting (MSS) procedure in which we asked consumers to build sculptures...... that represent consumer happiness. Following the MSS guidelines, consumers were interviewed about the meanings of their sculpture in order to elicit embodied cognition about the topic at hand. In this paper we present the meanings of consumer happiness in the participants‟ accounts and discuss implications...... for consumer research. Further, we discuss the applicability of the MSS-procedure to the topic of consumer happiness, and how to optimize it for later studies on consumer happiness....
Happiness: The Potential Power of Environment
Clifford Sosis
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Many scientists have argued that they can determine to what extent human happiness levels are controlled by genes by comparing the average happiness levels of identical twins raised apart. If we discover that identical twins raised apart tend to be more hedonically similar than fraternal twins raised apart, this is interpreted as evidence for the thesis that genes have a strong influence on our happiness levels. If identical twins are hedonically dissimilar, as dissimilar as fraternal twins raised apart, this has been taken as evidence for the thesis that happiness levels are determined in large part by the environment. I shall show that that these interpretations of these studies rely on a set of false assumptions. There is no good evidence our genes determine how happy we can be.
Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness
Angelica Moe
2014-01-01
This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API （attention to positive） and ANI （attention to negative information）, and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.
Mona Lisa is always happy – and only sometimes sad
Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen
2017-01-01
The worldwide fascination of da Vinci’s Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa’s mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding ‘happy’ to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants’ confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range. PMID:28281547
Stress and happiness among adolescents with varying frequency of physical activity.
Moljord, Inger Elise Opheim; Moksnes, Unni Karin; Eriksen, Lasse; Espnes, Geir Arild
2011-10-01
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between physical activity, stress, and happiness, as well as possible sex and age differences on these variables in a survey of 1,508 adolescent pupils (13 to 18 yr.) in middle Norway. Adolescents who reported they participated in physical activity 2 to 3 times per week or more scored significantly lower on stress and higher on happiness than those who participated in physical activity 1 day per week or less. There was no significant difference on stress and happiness between those being physically active 2 or 3 times a week and those being active almost every day. There was no sex difference in physical activity frequency. Girls had higher mean scores on stress, and boys scored higher on happiness. Adolescents 15 to 16 years old showed higher stress scores than those 17 to 18 years old, but there were no significant differences between the different age groups when looking at happiness and physical activity. A statistically significant two-way interaction of sex by age was found on both stress and happiness.
Emotional Self-Efficacy, Emotional Empathy and Emotional Approach Coping as Sources of Happiness
Tarık Totan
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Among the many variables affecting happiness, there are those that arise from emotional factors. In this study, the hypothesis stating that happiness is affected by emotional self-efficacy, emotional empathy and emotional approach coping has been examined using the path model. A total of 334 university students participated in this study, 229 of whom were females and 105 being males. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, Emotional Self-efficacy Scale, Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale, The Emotional Approach Coping Scale and personal information form have been used as data acquisition tools. As a result of path analysis, it was determined that the predicted path from emotional empathy to emotional approach coping was insignificant and thus it was taken out of the model. According to the modified path model, it was determined that there is a positive relationship between emotional self- efficacy and emotional empathy, that emotional self-efficacy positively affects emotional approach coping and happiness, that emotional empathy also positively affects happiness and that emotional approach coping also positively affects happiness.
A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.
Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari
2011-01-01
Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.
A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics
Elvira eBrattico
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area, and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics
A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics
Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari
2011-01-01
Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions
Using computer-generated data calculated with known amounts of random error (E = 1, 5 & 10%) associated with calculated qPCR cycle number (C ) at four jth 1:10 dilutions, we found that the “efficiency” (eff) associated with each population distribution of n = 10,000 measurements varied from 0.95 to ...
Ford, Brett Q.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Mauss, Iris B.; Floerke, Victoria A.; Gruber, June
2015-01-01
Culture shapes the emotions people feel and want to feel. In Western cultures, happiness is an emotion that many people want to feel. Although experiencing happiness is associated with increased well-being and psychological health, recent evidence suggests wanting to feel happy to an extreme degree, or, highly valuing happiness, leads to decreased well-being. To examine whether these effects of valuing happiness might extend to clinical outcomes, we examined the hypothesis that depression is associated with highly valuing happiness. To do so, we examined the relationship between valuing happiness and depression in two U.S. samples. As hypothesized, valuing happiness was associated with increased depressive symptoms in a community sample with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD), even when controlling for social desirability and neuroticism (Study 1). Furthermore, valuing happiness was elevated in a remitted MDD sample (vs. healthy controls), even when controlling for current depressive symptoms, general affect valuation, and extreme goal pursuit (Study 2). Taken together, these findings suggest that the culturally-pervasive value placed on attaining happiness can represent a risk factor for symptoms and a diagnosis of depression. More broadly, they indicate that a cultural approach can meaningfully extend our understanding of clinical phenomena. PMID:25678736
Ott, J C
2011-05-01
There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in particular to 'technical' quality. Once a minimum level is reached, rising technical quality boosts average happiness proportionally. Good governance does not only produce a higher level of happiness, but also lowers inequality of happiness among citizens. The relation between good governance and inequality of happiness is not linear, but follows a bell shaped pattern, inequality of happiness being highest in nations where the quality of government is at a medium level. The relation between the size of government and average happiness depends heavily on the quality of government; good-big government adds to happiness but bad-big government does not. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.
Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study
Ip, Po-Keung
2013-01-01
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…
Capability and Happiness: Conceptual difference and reality links
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2010-01-01
textabstractAbstract Happiness is not the same as capability, but the matters are related. Capability is obviously required for living a happy life and happiness feeds back on capability in several ways. Capabilities affect happiness not only at the individual level, but also indirectly at the
Sex Differentials in the Effect of Remarriage of Global Happiness.
White, Lynn K.
1979-01-01
Examined the effect of divorce and remarriage on global happiness. Remarried men report themselves significantly more happy than men in first marriages. Remarried women are less happy. Observed differences in global happiness seem to be systematically related to differences in social integration, socioeconomic status, and general and marital…
Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study
Ip, Po-Keung
2013-01-01
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…
The MAOA gene predicts happiness in women.
Chen, Henian; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique; Gorodetsky, Elena; Kasen, Stephanie; Gordon, Kathy; Goldman, David; Cohen, Patricia
2013-01-10
Psychologists, quality of life and well-being researchers have grown increasingly interested in understanding the factors that are associated with human happiness. Although twin studies estimate that genetic factors account for 35-50% of the variance in human happiness, knowledge of specific genes is limited. However, recent advances in molecular genetics can now provide a window into neurobiological markers of human happiness. This investigation examines association between happiness and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a population-based cohort, followed for three decades. In women, low expression of MAOA (MAOA-L) was related significantly to greater happiness (0.261 SD increase with one L-allele, 0.522 SD with two L-alleles, P=0.002) after adjusting for the potential effects of age, education, household income, marital status, employment status, mental disorder, physical health, relationship quality, religiosity, abuse history, recent negative life events and self-esteem use in linear regression models. In contrast, no such association was found in men. This new finding may help explain the gender difference on happiness and provide a link between MAOA and human happiness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valuing happiness is associated with bipolar disorder.
Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Gruber, June
2015-04-01
Although people who experience happiness tend to have better psychological health, people who value happiness to an extreme tend to have worse psychological health, including more depression. We propose that the extreme valuing of happiness may be a general risk factor for mood disturbances, both depressive and manic. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the extreme valuing of happiness and risk for, diagnosis of, and illness course for bipolar disorder (BD). Supporting our hypothesis, the extreme valuing of happiness was associated with a measure of increased risk for developing BD (Studies 1 and 2), increased likelihood of past diagnosis of BD (Studies 2 and 3), and worse prospective illness course in BD (Study 3), even when controlling for current mood symptoms (Studies 1-3). These findings indicate that the extreme valuing of happiness is associated with and even predicts BD. Taken together with previous evidence, these findings suggest that the extreme valuing of happiness is a general risk factor for mood disturbances. More broadly, what emotions people strive to feel may play a critical role in psychological health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Democracy and Happiness: A True Correlation?
Jacob Charles Potts
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Democracy has exploded in the 20th and 21st centuries, and while many assume that this would increase happiness, recently there has been evidence presented by critics that prove otherwise. Thus, one must ask the question, does democracy truly cause happiness? Literature suggests this is indeed the case, and through qualitative and comparative analysis it has been demonstrated that democracy does indeed cause happiness, but only if civil liberties are respected by their government. This was done by examining the arguments made by the critics of democracy and happiness. These arguments often focus on fledgling, illiberal democracies, instead of strong, established liberal democracies. These critics additionally use non-democracies who are economically powerful and stable to prove their point, instead of providing a more full view of non-democracies. These results are often cherry-picked, and it is clear that more democratic nations are happier on average than non-democracies. Additionally, in order to increase the happiness of liberal democracies, tenants such as direct democracy can help a country struggling to find happiness for its citizens. That way, democracy can provide the happiness through choice as it was intended to.
Heart rate variability and skin conductance biofeedback: A triple-blind randomized controlled study
Raaijmakers, S.F.; Steel,F.W.; Goede, M. de; Wouwe, N.C. van; Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.
2013-01-01
High heart rate variability (HRV) and low skin conductance level (SCL) have been associated with low levels of stress. Biofeedback - providing an individual with online information about his or her own physiological state – may help to change these signals in the desired direction and therewith impr
Heart rate variability and skin conductance biofeedback: A triple-blind randomized controlled study
Raaijmakers, S.F.; Steel,F.W.; Goede, M. de; Wouwe, N.C. van; Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.
2013-01-01
High heart rate variability (HRV) and low skin conductance level (SCL) have been associated with low levels of stress. Biofeedback - providing an individual with online information about his or her own physiological state – may help to change these signals in the desired direction and therewith
Heart rate variability and skin conductance biofeedback: A triple-blind randomized controlled study
Raaijmakers, S.F.; Steel,F.W.; Goede, M. de; Wouwe, N.C. van; Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.
2013-01-01
High heart rate variability (HRV) and low skin conductance level (SCL) have been associated with low levels of stress. Biofeedback - providing an individual with online information about his or her own physiological state – may help to change these signals in the desired direction and therewith impr
Chaibub Neto, Elias
2016-11-01
Clinical trials traditionally employ blinding as a design mechanism to reduce the influence of placebo effects. In practice, however, it can be difficult or impossible to blind study participants and unblinded trials are common in medical research. Here we show how instrumental variables can be used to quantify and disentangle treatment and placebo effects in randomized clinical trials comparing control and active treatments in the presence of confounders. The key idea is to use randomization to separately manipulate treatment assignment and psychological encouragement conversations/interactions that increase the participants’ desire for improved symptoms. The proposed approach is able to improve the estimation of treatment effects in blinded studies and, most importantly, opens the doors to account for placebo effects in unblinded trials.
Does Democracy Make You Happy? Multilevel Analysis of Self-rated Happiness in Indonesi
SUJARWOTO .
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The linkage between democracy and citizen happiness in developing countries is rarely examined. This study examines the link between democracy and citizen happiness in Indonesia, a new emerging democratic country in South East Asia. Data comes from the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007 (Nindividual = 29.055; Nhousehold = 12.528; Ndistrict = 262 and the Indonesian Family Survey East 2012 (Nindividual = 5.910; Nhousehold = 2.546; Ndistrict = 55. Results from a three-level ordinary logit model show that democracy as measured by age of direct local democracy is not associated with citizen happiness. Instead of age of direct local democracy, district community social capital and spending public services give benefit for citizen happiness. The results are robust against individual and district characteristics related to happiness. The results highlight the importance of promoting community social capital and improving district capacity in delivering public service to improve citizen happiness in Indonesia.
The usefulness of a Happy Income Index
Prinz, Aloys; Bünger, Björn
2011-01-01
In this paper, Happy Income is introduced as an indicator of physical and socio-psychic wellbeing. It is constructed on the assumption that socio-economic well-being is based on objective circumstances, such as personal income as well as on a subjective evaluation of life. In combining these factors, Happy Income is a cardinal measure of overall well-being in a given country. Therefore, Happy Income is not subject to the limitations of purely ordinally scaled indicators, i.e. it is not restri...
A System for Personality and Happiness Detection
Yago Saez
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This work proposes a platform for estimating personality and happiness. Starting from Eysenck's theory about human's personality, authors seek to provide a platform for collecting text messages from social media (Whatsapp, and classifying them into different personality categories. Although there is not a clear link between personality features and happiness, some correlations between them could be found in the future. In this work, we describe the platform developed, and as a proof of concept, we have used different sources of messages to see if common machine learning algorithms can be used for classifying different personality features and happiness.
Mark Walker
2011-01-01
Full Text Available
It is argued that we have a moral duty to create, and make available, advanced pharmacological agents to boost the happiness of those in the normal, i.e., the non-depressed, range of happiness. Happiness, conceived as a propensity to positive moods, is a quantitative trait with a sizeable genetic component. One means to boost the happiness of those in the normal range is to test the efficacy of antidepressants for enhancement. A second possibility is to model new pharmacologicals based on the genetics of the happiest amongst us, that is, the hyperthymic. The suggestion, in other words, is to “reverse engineer” the hyperthymic: to investigate what makes the hyperthymic genetically and physiologically different and then put what they have into pill form. To the ‘Brave New World’ objection, that there is more to wellbeing than happiness and that taking happy-people-pills will require the sacrifice of these other aspects of wellbeing, it is countered that contemporary social science research supports the view that happiness promotes achievement in the ‘higher’ endeavors of humanity, including work, love and virtue. In other words, happiness promotes acquisition of traits valued by perfectionists. Those born with genes for hyperthymia, on average, tend to be doubly blessed: they are happier and achieve more than the rest of the population. Happy-people-pills are a means to allow everyone else to share in this good
How to bring happiness in your life
无
2011-01-01
Happiness makes you beautiful.How to be happy?Here are some good suggestions: 1.Improve your relationships with friends and family.Happiness starts at home. Start by improving your relationship with your parents,brothers and sisters.Smile when you greet them,do things for them,don't allow them to get angry with you.Remember that love makes you beautiful. 2.Smile and laugh a lot.Smile into the mirror for a half hour without stopping.
Ott, J. C.
2011-01-01
There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in…
Ott, J. C.
2011-01-01
There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in…
Headey, B.; Muffels, R.J.A.; Wagner, G.
2012-01-01
There are strong two-way links between parent and child happiness (life satisfaction), even for 'children' who have grown up, moved to their own home and partnered themselves. German panel evidence shows that transmission of (un)happiness from parents to children is partly due to transmission of values and behaviors known to be associated with happiness (Headey, Wagner and Muffels, 2010, 2012). These values and behaviors include giving priority to pro-social and family values, rather than mat...
Wang, Kezhi
2014-09-01
The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.
Li Xin ZHANG
2002-01-01
Let {X, Xa; X-n;-n∈ Nd} be a field of i.i.d. random variables indexed by d-tuples of positiveintegers and taking values in a Banach spaceB and let X(r)-n = X-m if ‖X-m‖ is the r-th maximum ofsums (r)S-n by a Brownian sheet and obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for (r)S-n to satisfy thecompact and functional laws of the iterated logarithm. These results improve the previous works byMorrow (1981), Li and Wu (1989) and Ledoux and Talagrand (1990).
Stotland, Alexander; Peer, Tal; Cohen, Doron [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84005 (Israel); Budoyo, Rangga; Kottos, Tsampikos [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)
2008-07-11
The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming 'mesoscopic' circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We argue that the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictate the value of the conductance, and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced to capture the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture. (fast track communication)
Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?
Yilmaz Ilkay
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.
Bershitskaya, O N; Izakov VYa; Lysenko, L T; Protsenko, J L; Trubetskoy, A V
1985-01-01
The relationship "heart rate - left ventricular pressure" was investigated in the isolated canine heart perfused with constant pressure at different preloads. Rhythmical stimulation was performed with constant stimulus interval duration and with stimulus intervals randomly changed near the average value (150-200 stimuli in series). Correlation and dispersion function analysis show that rhythm dispersion had a negative inotropic effect which was independent of the preload of the ventricle in the range of 120-180 beat/min, but this dependence occurred with low rats of stimulation. This method is proposed for the assessment of contractility under conditions of heart rate variations (physiological and pathological arrhythmias).
Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.
Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J
2016-08-01
The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.
Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker
2013-06-01
It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature.
Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles
Thomas E. Ford
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.
Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles
Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.
2016-01-01
The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251
Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Xu, Liang
2010-06-01
SummaryMulti-scale heterogeneity of geological formations is a rule, which consists of random (local-scale) and systematic (large-scale) variability of hydraulic conductivity. The random variability and depth-decaying trend, a systematic variability, have different effects on subsurface flow, thus on groundwater discharge into tunnels. Little research has examined this problem in the past. Using Monte Carlo simulation and information of statistics of heterogeneity, we evaluate the most likely (ensemble average) discharge rate into a tunnel in geologic media with the multi-scale heterogeneity and uncertainty associated with this estimate. We find that the ensemble average discharge rate is larger than the discharge rate predicted by geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity, and smaller than the discharge rate predicted by arithmetic mean of hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the ensemble average discharge rate decreases with the decay exponent of the depth-decaying trend, and increases with the standard deviation as well as the correlation scale of the stationary log-conductivity fields. We also find that the discharge rate of a tunnel is highly influenced by the hydraulic conductivity near the tunnel. Furthermore, deviation of the true discharge rate from the ensemble average can be large and increases with the decay exponent, standard deviation and correlation scale of log-conductivity fields. The largest uncertainty of discharge rate prediction in the shallow subsurface is controlled by the variability of conductivity fields and the uncertainty at the deep subsurface is by the depth-decaying trend of hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, accurate prediction of groundwater discharge into tunnels requires detailed characterization of multi-scale heterogeneity.
Felicidade: uma revisão Happiness: a review
Renata Barboza Ferraz
2007-01-01
and to psychiatry. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature through the MedLine database, using the uniterms: happiness, mental health, well-being, positive psychology, resilience, optimism, gratitude, quality of life, positive emotions and personality. RESULTS: Variables such as origin, physical and mental health, religiosity and certain psychological characteristics are positively associated with happiness. There is no evidence suggesting that age, gender, marital status, wealthiness or the occurrence of external factors (favorable or not significantly associate with happiness. CONCLUSION: Happiness is a predominantly subjective phenomenon, subordinated to psychological and socio-cultural traits much more than to external factors. The identification of these factors is particularly useful when applied to subjects that are more predisposed to mental disorders, favoring the development of prevention approaches, which have potential repercussion in the social and occupational areas.