Sample records for hapo

  1. Maternal BMI Associations with Maternal and Cord Blood Vitamin D Levels in a North American Subset of Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO Study Participants.

    Jami L Josefson

    Full Text Available Obesity in pregnancy may be associated with reduced placental transfer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD. The objective of this study was to examine associations between maternal BMI and maternal and cord blood levels of 25-OHD in full term neonates born to a single racial cohort residing at similar latitude. Secondary objectives were to examine associations between maternal glucose tolerance with maternal levels of 25-OHD and the relationship between cord blood 25-OHD levels and neonatal size.This study was conducted among participants of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO Study meeting the following criteria: residing at latitudes 41-43°, maternal white race, and gestational age 39-41 weeks. Healthy pregnant women underwent measures of height, weight, and a 75-g fasting oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at approximately 28 weeks gestation. Maternal and cord blood sera were analyzed for total 25-OHD by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included ANOVA and linear regression models.Maternal and cord blood (N = 360 mean levels (sd of 25-OHD were 37.2 (11.2 and 23.4 (9.2 ng/ml, respectively, and these levels were significantly different among the 3 field centers (ANOVA p< 0.001. Maternal serum 25-OHD was lower by 0.40 ng/ml for BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.001 in an adjusted model. Maternal fasting plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, and presence of GDM were not associated with maternal serum 25-OHD level when adjusted for maternal BMI. Cord blood 25-OHD was lower by 0.26 ng/ml for maternal BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.004. With adjustment for maternal age, field center, birth season and maternal serum 25-OHD, the association of cord blood 25-OHD with maternal BMI was attenuated. Neither birth weight nor neonatal adiposity was significantly associated with cord blood 25-OHD levels.These results suggest that maternal levels of 25-OHD are associated with maternal BMI. The results also suggest that interpretation of

  2. Counterpoint: Establishing consensus in the diagnosis of GDM following the HAPO study.

    McIntyre, H David; Metzger, Boyd E; Coustan, Donald R; Dyer, Alan R; Hadden, David R; Hod, Moshe; Lowe, Lynn P; Oats, Jeremy J N; Persson, Bengt


    The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommended a new protocol of 1-step testing with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test for gestational diabetes in 2010. Since that time, these recommendations have been carefully scrutinized and accepted by a variety of organizations, but challenged or rejected by others. In the current review, we present more details regarding the background to the development of the IADPSG recommendations and seek to place them in context with the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial data. In this "counterpoint," we also provide specific rebuttal for errors of fact and disputed contentions provided by Long and Cundy in their 2013 article in Current Diabetes Reports.

  3. Irradiation analysis, production test IP-672, HAPO 238, irradiation of impacted UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} fuel rod bundles in C reactor

    Cox, J.H.


    The loss of flow is considered as far as the flow to the inlet hydraulic connector, inlet plugging and water shutoff time. A mockup revealed no vibration of the fuel element bundles and at the low temperatures present there should be no problem of corrosion. Efforts to assure safety with plutonium in the fuel elements are noted. (GHH)

  4. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N


    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  5. Relations and Utilities Operation monthly report, September, 1956

    Johnson, D.M.


    This document contains the September 1956 management and operations statistics of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation (HAPO) for their ``Relations and Utilities Operations.`` This is a monthly report. (BN)

  6. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  7. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for January 1959


    This report for January 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1958


    This report for June 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  9. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, December 1964


    This report for December 1964, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and weapons manufacturing operation.

  10. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1957

    McCune, F. K.; Johnson, W. E.; MacCready, W. K.; Warren, J. H.; Schroeder, O. C.; Groswith, C. T.; Mobley, W. N.; LaFollette, T. G.; Grim, K. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Richards, R. B.; Roberts, D. S.


    This report, for July 1957 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following; Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  11. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1963


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for July 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  12. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, February 1966

    Reed, P.E.


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for February 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1959


    This report for February 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, April 1962


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, for April 1962 discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; finished products operation; maintenance; financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; special separation processing; and auxiliaries operation.

  15. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, August 1965


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, August 1965, discusses the following: Production Operation; Purex and Redox Operation; Finished Products Operation; Maintenance; Financial Operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee Relations.

  16. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, April 1966

    Reed, P.E.


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for April 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and waste management.

  17. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, September 1966

    Warren, J.H.


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee-relations, and waste management.

  18. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, February 1965

    Warren, J.H.


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: production operation; purex and redox operation; finished products operation; maintenance; financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  19. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.


    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  20. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for June 1961


    This report, for June 1961 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  1. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, December 1963


    This report, for December 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations. Weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  2. Regional monitoring program

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.


    The purpose of the Regional Monitoring program is to conduct surveys to detect, measure, and to evaluate environmental radiation, particularly that of HAPO origin. Estimations of total environmental dose and HAPO's contribution to this dose, in units of fraction of public exposure limits, are calculated. Corollary functions include the use of Regional Monitoring data to establish and predict trends in environmental exposure components, and to facilitate correlation of environmental radioactivity with plant processes, process changes, and waste disposal practices.

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant human hemangiopoietin in Escherichia coli

    Ren Qian; Ma Fengxia; Chen Zhong; Lu Shihong; Han Zhibo; Liu Yongiun; Xu Bin; Zhang Xiangyu; Han Zhongchao


    Objective: To express the soluble recombinant hemangiopoietin protein in E. coli BL21(DE3). Methods: Using human fetal live cDNA as a template, a partial cDNA fragment of HAPO coding N-terminal region was subcloned into plasmids pTrc99, pQE60 and pET32c to construct different recombinant prokaryotic expression systems. After selecting,the soluble rhHAPO fusion protein was expressed stably in E. coli BL21 (DE3) by vector pET32c-HAPO and further isolated by nickelnitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity chromatography. After cleavage with enterokinase, the rhHAPO protein was applied to Fast Flow SP sepharose column. Results: The rhHAPO protein had a purity of more than 95% and a good bioactivity based on the cell adhesion assay in ECV304 cells. Conclusion: We have established a protein engineering system to produce rhHAPO which may provide the possibility for clinical application.

  4. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Metzger, Boyd E; Gabbe, Steven G; Persson, Bengt


    . In this review, we provide details regarding some points that were considered by the IADPSG Consensus Panel but not published and address the following issues: 1) what should be the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 2) were appropriate outcomes and odds ratios used to define diagnostic thresholds......The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study showed significant perinatal risks at levels of maternal hyperglycemia below values that are diagnostic for diabetes. A Consensus Panel of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) reviewed HAPO Study...

  5. Synoptic meteorology manual of standard practices

    Jenne, D.E.


    This report, dated March 22, 1954 details work procedures for the 200- West Area at HAPO. Topics discussed include emergency procedures, safety and housekeeping practices, policies and procedures, instruments and equipment located at the 622 tower, instruments and equipment located offsite, observational procedures, form entries, and card punching, and weather forecasting.

  6. Fuel element development committee: Annual report from the General Electric Company, Hanford

    Lewis, M.; Minor, J.E.; Stringer, J.T.


    A summary of HAPO activities is given to include separate sections on the N-Reactor and other current production reactors. Specific programs and fuel performance for current production reactor fuels is discussed. Also, the production status, fuel performance, development program and process technology for N-Reactor fuels is presented.

  7. Nuclear metallurgy lectures. Chapter 9, Fabrication and heat treatment of uranium

    Riches, J.W.


    This chapter presents the highlights of the fabrication and heat treatment of uranium with emphasis on HAPO type core material. For pile use three properties of uranium are of prime interest; grain size, type and degree of preferred orientation, and the mechanical properties.

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for June 1963


    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for June 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; and employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  9. Transgenic Drosophila model to study apolipoprotein E4-induced neurodegeneration.

    Haddadi, Mohammad; Nongthomba, Upendra; Jahromi, Samaneh Reiszadeh; Ramesh, S R


    The ε4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) that is involved in neuron-glial lipid metabolism has been demonstrated as the main genetic risk factor in late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying ApoE4-mediated neurodegeneration remains unclear. We created a transgenic model of neurodegenerative disorder by expressing ε3 and ε4 isoforms of human ApoE in the Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic models exhibited progressive neurodegeneration, shortened lifespan and memory impairment. Genetic interaction studies between amyloid precursor protein and ApoE in axon pathology of the disease revealed that over expression of hApoE in Appl-expressing neurons of Drosophila brain causes neurodegeneration. Moreover, acute oxidative damage in the hApoE transgenic flies triggered a neuroprotective response of hApoE3 while chronic induction of oxidative damage accelerated the rate of neurodegeneration. This Drosophila model may facilitate analysis of the molecular and cellular events implicated in hApoE4 neurotoxicity.

  10. Synoptic meteorology manual of standard practices

    Jenne, D.E.


    This report, dated March 22, 1954 details work procedures for the 200- West Area at HAPO. Topics discussed include emergency procedures, safety and housekeeping practices, policies and procedures, instruments and equipment located at the 622 tower, instruments and equipment located offsite, observational procedures, form entries, and card punching, and weather forecasting.

  11. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H&apos; (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H&apos; operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  12. A critical review of alternate methods of Purex solvent treatment

    Gordon, N.R.


    This document is a HAPO report dated September 20, 1957. At the time of this report, there had been many different methods suggested for improving the Purex organic recovery system. Some of these suggestions been tried in the plant and others had not. Information concerning this system and, particularly, methods for improving it were wide spread. At the time of this report was no immediate source of information available on the proposed and investigated methods for improving the Purex solvent recovery system.

  13. First observation of the B$0\\atop{s}$→K+K- decay mode, and measurement of the B0 and $0\\atop{s}$ mesons decay-rates into two-body charmless final states at CDF

    Tonelli, Diego [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) (Italy)


    The authors searched for decays of the type B$0\\atop{s}$→ h+h'- (where h, h&apos; = K or π) in a sample corresponding to 180 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, collected by the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A total signal of approximately 900 events was reconstructed, and the relative branching fractions (β) of each decay mode were determined with a likelihood fit.

  14. Accidental nuclear excursion Recuplex operation 234-5 facility. Final report: Date of incident: April 7, 1962


    On Saturday morning, April 7, 1962, at about 1059 Armed Forces time, an accidental nuclear excursion occurred in the plutonium waste recovery facility (Recuplex) of the 234-5 Building. This excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees of the General Electric Company received overexposures to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed; in each case the overexposure was recognized promptly, and following medical observation and testing the men were released to return to work. In compliance with AEC Manual Chapter 0703, an AEC-HAPO committee composed of two AEC employees and five General Electric employees was appointed by the Manger, HOO, with the concurrence of the General Manager, HAPO, to conduct an investigation of the incident. The committee`s purpose was to determine the cause, nature, and extent of the incident, and recommend action to be taken by others to minimize or preclude future incidents of this magnitude. A study of operating practices and operating conditions that appeared to exist prior to, during, and subsequent to the accident was made by the committee. The committee believes that this report provides sufficient information to answer questions which may arise as a result of the criticality incident except those relating to its cause.

  15. Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus%妊娠糖尿病筛查与诊断的现状

    赖丽萍; 陆泽元; 邵豪


    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an independent type of diabetes. The ultimate goal for screening and diagnosing GUM is to improve perinatal outcomes. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes (HAPO) suggests that maternal glucose levels below those diagnostic criteria of diabetes is closely reated to increased birth weight and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Screening and diagnosis of GUM is not yet unified internationally. Screening and diagnosis of international criteria is getting more and more concerned by scholars.%妊娠糖尿病(GDM)在糖尿病的病冈分类中是一个独立的类型.GDM筛杏和诊断的最终目的是改善围产儿预后.高血糖与不良妊娠结局(HAPO)研究提示即使低于GDM诊断标准的高血糖,也与新生儿的出生体重增加及不良孕产结局密切相关.国际上GDM的筛查方法与诊断标准仍未统一,制定全球合理的筛查方法和诊断标准成为国内外学者越来越关注的问题.

  16. Artificial cooling of the Columbia River by dam regulation: Part 1

    Kramer, H.A.


    In early July 1958, it appeared that Columbia River temperatures at HAPO would be near 24--50{degree}C by the end of August. River temperatures were averaging 40 to 50{degree}C above 1957 figures and were 3{degree} to 4{degree} above the ten year highs. It seemed desirable to examine the problem to determine if any corrective measure could be taken, since it was apparent that production losses were imminent. The large storage of cold water behind Grand Coulee Dam, normally untapped, was a source of possible relief. A plan for use was proposed for the peak high temperature period and agreed to by the Bureau of Reclamation.

  17. Neural Network Model Of The PXIE RFQ Cooling System and Resonant Frequency Response

    Edelen, Auralee [Fermilab; Biedron, Sandra [Colorado State U., Fort Collins; Bowring, Daniel [Fermilab; Chase, Brian [Fermilab; Edelen, Jonathan [Fermilab; Milton, Stephen [Colorado State U., Fort Collins; Steimel, Jim [Fermilab


    As part of the PIP-II Injector Experiment (PXIE) accel-erator, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA H&apos; ion beam to 2.1 MeV. It is designed to operate at a frequency of 162.5 MHz with arbitrary duty factor, including continuous wave (CW) mode. The resonant frequency is controlled solely by a water-cooling system. We present an initial neural network model of the RFQ frequency response to changes in the cooling system and RF power conditions during pulsed operation. A neural network model will be used in a model predictive control scheme to regulate the resonant frequency of the RFQ.

  18. Gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes - a systematic review of the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG diagnostic criteria

    Wendland Eliana M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two criteria based on a 2 h 75 g OGTT are being used for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM, those recommended over the years by the World Health Organization (WHO, and those recently recommended by the International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG, the latter generated in the HAPO study and based on pregnancy outcomes. Our aim is to systematically review the evidence for the associations between GDM (according to these criteria and adverse outcomes. Methods We searched relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL, WHO-Afro library, IMSEAR, EMCAT, IMEMR and WPRIM. We included cohort studies permitting the evaluation of GDM diagnosed by WHO and or IADPSG criteria against adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in untreated women. Only studies with universal application of a 75 g OGTT were included. Relative risks (RRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained for each study. We combined study results using a random-effects model. Inconsistency across studies was defined by an inconsistency index (I2 > 50%. Results Data were extracted from eight studies, totaling 44,829 women. Greater risk of adverse outcomes was observed for both diagnostic criteria. When using the WHO criteria, consistent associations were seen for macrosomia (RR = 1.81; 95%CI 1.47-2.22; p 2 ≥ 73%. Magnitudes of RRs and their 95%CIs were 1.73 (1.28-2.35; p = 0.001 for large for gestational age; 1.71 (1.38-2.13; p Conclusions The WHO and the IADPSG criteria for GDM identified women at a small increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Associations were of similar magnitude for both criteria. However, high inconsistency was seen for those with the IADPSG criteria. Full evaluation of the latter in settings other than HAPO requires additional studies.

  19. Effects of solar eclipse on the electrodynamical processes of the equatorial ionosphere: a case study during 11 August 1999 dusk time total solar eclipse over India

    R. Sridharan

    Full Text Available The effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial E- and F-regions of the ionosphere, due to the occurrence of the solar eclipse during sunset hours on 11 August 1999, were investigated in a unique observational campaign involving ground based ionosondes, VHF and HF radars from the equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat. 0.5° N, India. The study revealed the nature of changes brought about by the eclipse in the evening time E- and F-regions in terms of (i the sudden intensification of a weak blanketing ES-layer and the associated large enhancement of the VHF backscattered returns, (ii significant increase in h&apos; F immediately following the eclipse and (iii distinctly different spatial and temporal structures in the spread-F irregularity drift velocities as observed by the HF radar. The significantly large enhancement of the backscattered returns from the E-region coincident with the onset of the eclipse is attributed to the generation of steep electron density gradients associated with the blanketing ES , possibly triggered by the eclipse phenomena. The increase in F-region base height immediately after the eclipse is explained as due to the reduction in the conductivity of the conjugate E-region in the path of totality connected to the F-region over the equator along the magnetic field lines, and this, with the peculiar local and regional conditions, seems to have reduced the E-region loading of the F-region dynamo, resulting in a larger post sunset F-region height (h&apos; F rise. These aspects of E-and F-region behaviour on the eclipse day are discussed in relation to those observed on the control day.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  20. AVE8134, a novel potent PPARα agonist, improves lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats

    Hans Ludwig SCH(A)FER; Wolfgang LINZ; Eugen FALK; Maike GLIEN; Heiner GLOMBIK; Mlarcus KORN; Wolfgang WEN-DLER; Andreas W HERLING; Hartmut R(U)TTEN


    AVE8134 is a structurally novel potent PPARα agonist.The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of AVE8134 on lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats.Methods:A cell based PPAR Gal4 transactivation assay was constructed for testing the activities of AVE8134 at 3 different PPAR isoforms in vitro.Transgenic human Apo A1 (hApo A1) mice and insulin-resistant ZDF rats were used to evaluate the effects of AVE8134 in vivo.Results:AVE8134 was a full PPARα dominated PPAR agonist (the values of EC5o for human and rodent PPARα receptor were 0.01 and 0.3 μmol/L,respectively).AVE8134 was not active at PPARδ receptor.In female hApo A1 mice,AVE8134 (1-30 mg·kg-1-d-1,po for 12 d)dose-dependently lowered the plasma triglycerides,and increased the serum HDL-cholesterol,hApo A1 and mouse Apo E levels.In female ZDF rats,AVE8134 (3-30 mg·kg-1-d-1 for 2 weeks) improved insulin-sensitivity index.In pre-diabetic male ZDF rats (at the age of 7 weeks),AVE8134 (10 mg·kg-1-d-1 for 8 weeks) produced an anti-diabetic action comparable to rosiglitazone,without the PPARy mediated adverse effects on body weight and heart weight.In male ZDF rats (at the age of 6 weeks),AVE8134 (20 mg·kg-1-d-1 for 12 weeks) increased mRNA levels of the target genes LPL and PDK4 about 20 fold in the liver,and there was no relevant effect with rosiglitazone.Conclusion:AVE8134 improves lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats.

  1. The role of inflammatory pathway genetic variation on maternal metabolic phenotypes during pregnancy.

    Margrit Urbanek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since mediators of inflammation are associated with insulin resistance, and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes, we hypothesized that genetic variation in members of the inflammatory gene pathway impact glucose levels and related phenotypes in pregnancy. We evaluated this hypothesis by testing for association between genetic variants in 31 inflammatory pathway genes in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO cohort, a large multiethnic multicenter study designed to address the impact of glycemia less than overt diabetes on pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour glucose, fasting and 1-hour C-peptide, and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples obtained from HAPO participants during an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-32 weeks gestation. We tested for association between 458 SNPs mapping to 31 genes in the inflammatory pathway and metabolic phenotypes in 3836 European ancestry and 1713 Thai pregnant women. The strongest evidence for association was observed with TNF alpha and HbA1c (rs1052248; 0.04% increase per allele C; p-value = 4.4×10(-5, RETN and fasting plasma glucose (rs1423096; 0.7 mg/dl decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.1×10(-4, IL8 and 1 hr plasma glucose (rs2886920; 2.6 mg/dl decrease per allele T; p-value = 1.3×10(-4, ADIPOR2 and fasting C-peptide (rs2041139; 0.55 ug/L decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.4×10(-4, LEPR and 1-hour C-peptide (rs1171278; 0.62 ug/L decrease per allele T; p-value = 2.4×10(-4, and IL6 and 1-hour plasma glucose (rs6954897; -2.29 mg/dl decrease per allele G, p-value = 4.3×10(-4. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the genes surveyed in this study the inflammatory pathway is unlikely to have a strong impact on maternal metabolic phenotypes in pregnancy although variation in individual members of the pathway (e.g. RETN, IL8, ADIPOR2, LEPR, IL6, and TNF alpha, may contribute to metabolic phenotypes in pregnant women.

  2. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar Border: a clinical report

    Mary Ellen Gilder


    Full Text Available Background: Individuals in conflict-affected areas rarely get appropriate care for chronic or non-infectious diseases. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing worldwide, and new evidence shows conclusively that the negative effects of hyperglycemia occur even at mild glucose elevations and that these negative effects can be attenuated by treatment. Scientific literature on gestational diabetes in refugee camp settings is critically limited. Methods: A 75 g 2-hour glucose tolerance test was administered to 228 women attending the antenatal care (ANC clinic in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar border. Prevalence of GDM was determined using the HAPO trial cut-offs [≥92 mg/dL (fasting,≥180 (1 hour, and≥153 (2 hour] and the WHO criteria [≥126 mg/dL (fasting, and 140 mg/dL (2 hour]. Results: From July 2011 to March 2012, the prevalence of GDM was 10.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2–14.0] when the cut-off determined by the HAPO trial was applied. Applying the older WHO criteria yielded a prevalence of 6.6% (95% CI 3.3–9.8. Age, parity, and BMI emerged as characteristics that may be significantly associated with GDM in this population. Other risk factors that are commonly used in screening guidelines were not applicable in this diabetes-naïve population. Discussion: The prevalence of GDM is lower in this population compared with other populations, but still complicates 10% of pregnancies. New evidence regarding gestational diabetes raises new dilemmas for healthcare providers in resource-poor settings. Efforts to identify and treat patients at risk for adverse outcomes need to be balanced with awareness of the risks and burdens associated with over diagnosis and unnecessary interventions. Screening approaches based on risk factors or using higher cut-off values may help minimize this burden and identify those most likely to benefit from intervention.

  3. Soldier at High Altitude: Problem & Preventive Measures

    S.S Purkayastha


    Full Text Available Due to military and j trategic reasons, a large body of troops is being regularly dcployed in the snowbound areas through ut the Himalayan regions to guard Ihe Ironliers. Thc mountain environment at high 'allitude (HA consisls of several faclors alien lo plain dwellers, which evoke a series of physiological responses in human system. Some of the sea' level residents on induction to HA suffer from several unloward symploms of HA" ailmenls varying from mild-lo-severe degrees. Suddenexposure to HA is detrimental to physical and mental  performance of the low landers and  certain cases, may even lead to dreaded condition like high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO. These may make a man Jisturbed physically and mentally. So, there is a need lo prevent such hazards v(hich ispossible if the individual is aware of the problems and prevenlive measures ofHA ailments in advance, before going to HA for a safe and happy living there. Hence, a noble effort has been made to provide guidelines to create awareness about physical and physiological problems of life at HA and themethods of protection against its ill-effects for the soldiers, mountaineers and sojourners conducting scientific trials it HA. In th.:s revieJ, an attempt has been made to describe vital aspects of HA in a popular way, st~ing with its concept and various environmental factors which exert considerableettects on human body functions, heallh and performance on exposure to such environment, on the b¥is of a series of studies coitlucted at Ithe Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Delhi, oVer the years. The most important featurelof HA (3,000 m and above is hypoxia or deficiency ofoxygej1 in the body. Olher cnvironmental tactors are: scverc cold, high velocity wind, low rclalivc humidily, high solar radiatior, increased ultraviolet radialion and difficult terrain. These faclors are responsible for various HA cWtdc old syndromes, viz., acute mountain sickness, HAPO, dehydration,4

  4. Redox iodine and nitric acid absorbers

    Stoker, D.J.; Rohrmann, C.A.


    A desirable radio-iodine emission goal for all HAPO has recently been set at one curie per day maximum. At the same time it was suggested that a more relaxed limit of ten curries per week with no more than three in any one day, would probably be satisfactory. To assure the achievement of these goal figures in the separations plants it was deemed necessary to either cool'' the irradiated material a greater length of time than is presently done before processing, or provide more efficient, iodine retention facilities. Increased power levels, higher production rates, and an increase in the awareness of radio-iodine emissions, have all coupled together to make present facilities generally inadequate when processing material aged less than about 100 days. Several alternate methods of providing additional iodine retention facilities for Redox were preliminarily scoped and presented for consideration. The purpose of this report is to present a scope design for improving iodine emission control at Redox.

  5. Review: Bio-compartmentalization of microRNAs in exosomes during gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Iljas, Juvita D; Guanzon, Dominic; Elfeky, Omar; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos


    Analysis of the human genome revealed that only 1.2% encoded for proteins, which raised questions regarding the biological significance of the remaining genome. We now know that approximately 80% of the genome serves at least one biochemical function within the cell. A portion of this 80% consists of a family of non-coding regulatory RNAs, one important member being microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs can be detected in tissues and biofluids, where miRNAs in the latter can be bound to proteins or encapsulated within lipid vesicles such as exosomes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complication of pregnancy, which has harmful health impacts on both the fetus as well as the mother. The incidence of GDM worldwide varies, but reached 18% in the HAPO cohort using the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Not only has GDM been associated with increased risks of further complications during pregnancy, but also pose long-term risks for both the mother and the baby. Thus, understanding the pathophysiology of GDM is important from a public health perspective. Literature has demonstrated that GDM is associated with elevated levels of circulating exosomes in maternal circulation. However, there is a paucity of data defining the expression, role, and diagnostic utility of miRNAs in GDM. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in the function and quantification of intracellular and extracellular miRNAs in GDM.

  6. Position measurements for the isotope production facility and the switchyard kicker upgrade projects

    Gilpatrick, J. D. (John Douglas); Barr, D. S. (Dean S.); O' Hara, J. F. (James F.); Shurter, R. B. (Robert B.); Stettler, M. W. (Matthew W.); Martinez, D. G. (Derwin G.)


    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is installing two beam lines to both improve operational tuning and provide new capabilities within the facility. The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) will provide isotopes for medical purposes by using the H&apos; beam spur at 100 MeV and the Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK) will allow the LANSCE 800-MeV H beam to be rapidly switched between various beam lines within the facility. The beam position measurements for both of these beam lines uses a standard micro-stripline beam position monitor (BPM) with both a 50-mm and 75-mm radius. The cable plant is unique in that it unambiguously provides a method of verifying the operation of the complete position measurement. The processing electronics module uses a log ratio technique with error corrections such that it has a dynamic range of -12 dBm to -85 dBm with errors less than 0.15 dB within this range. This paper will describe the primary components of these measurement systems and provide initial data of their operation.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Get, set, go From diabetes capital of the world to diabetes care capital of the world

    Navneet Magon


    Full Text Available Screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM as well as interventions for its management evoke considerable controversy. There are different types of screening methods: universal or risk-based, one step or two step. Different thresholds for diagnosis of GDM have been in vogue. Previous definition and diagnostic criteria had no place for diagnosis of overt diabetes in pregnancy. Following Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO study and International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG recommendations, new screening and diagnostic criteria around the world seem to be gaining consensus. The present recommendation given by IADPSG for screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has two discrete phases. The first is detection of women with overt diabetes not previously diagnosed or treated outside of pregnancy. Universal early testing in populations is recommended at the first prenatal visit. The second phase is a 75-g OGTT at 24-28 week gestation in all women not previously found to have overt diabetes or GDM. ACHOIS and MFMU Network trails have proven benefit in treating hyperglycemias less than what is diagnostic for diabetes. DIPSI has shown the alternative way for resource-challenged communities. Efforts from all stake holders with interest in GDM are required to make the diabetes capital of the world into the diabetes care capital of the world.

  8. 中孕早期血清铁蛋白水平对妊娠期糖尿病的预测价值

    贺木兰; 蒋静; 程海东


    妊娠期糖尿病(gestational diabetes mellitus,GDM)是指妊娠期间发生或首次发现的糖尿病或糖耐量异常.多数GDM孕妇早期无明显自觉症状,部分GDM孕妇空腹血浆血糖(fasting plasma glucose,FPG)也正常,因此,妊娠期仅依靠FPG检查易导致GDM早期漏诊[1].一项包括9个国家共23 316例孕妇的流行病学调查研究了高血糖和不良妊娠结局(hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes,HAPO),结果显示母体高血糖与巨大胎儿、新生儿高血糖、高剖宫产率及血清C肽水平均呈正相关[2].因此,探讨如何早期诊断GDM以减少高血糖对母儿的危害具有非常重要的意义.

  9. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.


    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  10. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Massad, R.-S.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.


    Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3). Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the ground layer compensation point (χg), stomatal compensation point (χs) and cuticular resistance (Rw). We review existing measurements of χg, χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and dissociation equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N) input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH4 apomodel for example). In principle, the parameterisations should be applicable to other climates, though there is a need for more underpinning data, with the uncertainties being especially large for tropical and subtropical conditions.

  11. Impact on offspring methylation patterns of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restraint suggest common genes and pathways linked to subsequent type 2 diabetes risk.

    Quilter, Claire R; Cooper, Wendy N; Cliffe, Kerry M; Skinner, Benjamin M; Prentice, Philippa M; Nelson, LaTasha; Bauer, Julien; Ong, Ken K; Constância, Miguel; Lowe, William L; Affara, Nabeel A; Dunger, David B


    Size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and adult risk for type 2 diabetes may reflect environmental exposures during developmental plasticity and may be mediated by epigenetics. Both low birth weight (BW), as a marker of fetal growth restraint, and high birth weight (BW), especially after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), have been linked to increased risk of adult type 2 diabetes. We assessed DNA methylation patterns using a bead chip in cord blood samples from infants of mothers with GDM (group 1) and infants with prenatal growth restraint indicated by rapid postnatal catch-up growth (group 2), compared with infants with normal postnatal growth (group 3). Seventy-five CpG loci were differentially methylated in groups 1 and 2 compared with the controls (group 3), representing 72 genes, many relevant to growth and diabetes. In replication studies using similar methodology, many of these differentially methylated regions were associated with levels of maternal glucose exposure below that defined by GDM [the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study] or were identified as changes observed after randomized periconceptional nutritional supplementation in a Gambian cohort characterized by maternal deprivation. These studies provide support for the concept that similar epigenetic modifications may underpin different prenatal exposures and potentially increase long-term risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

  12. The human apoE7 and apoE4 transgenic mice models

    孙明增; 琦祖和


    To scrutinize the disorders caused by human mutant apoE7/apoE4, human apoE4 and E7 transgenic mice were established with microinjection technique to examine molecular genetic phenomena in vivo. The integration and expression of h-apoE mutant genes in transgenic mice were determined with Southern blot, Northern blot and ELISA. The current studies indicated that the transgenes and the phenotypes regarding expression of transgenes could be transmitted stably in transgenic lines. The levels of serum lipid in transgenic mice showed the characteristics of hyperlipidemia. Besides, behavior tests demonstrated the degeneration of learning and memory in transgenic mice. Short life span was observed in 2 transgenic lines. After fed with high lipid food high serum lipid was found both in normal and transgenic mice, but their mechanism regulating lipid metabolism was different. It was also verified that the human apoE mutants located at either N-terminal or C-terminal had the same pathogenesis regarding disorders of lipid metabolism in murine.

  13. Effect of Fe(Ⅲ) impurity on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 prepared by hydrothermal process

    OU XiuQin; XU ShengZhao; LIANG GuangChuan; WANG Li; ZHAO Xia


    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) was synthesized from LiOH, FeSO4 and HaPO4 by a hydrothermal process at 180℃. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Electrochemical performance of the samples was tested in terms of charge-discharge capacity and cycling behavior. The results indicated that Fe(Ⅲ) impurity had obvi-ously effect on the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4, and the formation of Fe3+ was caused by the oxidation of Fe2+ in the dissolving and feeding processes accompanying the increase of pH value. It was found that the precipitation separation was effective in decreasing the content of Fe3+ in the solu-tion of FeSO4 and the sealed feeding was useful in preventing the conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+. When the content of Fe3+ < 0.5 wt%, the hydrothermaUy synthesized LiFePO4 calcined at 750℃ with sucrose as.

  14. A Directional Dose Equivalent Monitor for Neutrons

    D' Errico, F.; Alberts, W.G.; Curzio, G.; Matzke, M.; Nath, R.; Siebert, B.R.L


    A directional dose equivalent monitor is introduced which consists of a 30 cm diameter spherical phantom hosting a superheated drop detector embedded at a depth of 10 mm. The device relies on the similarity between the fluence response of neutron superheated drop detectors based on halocarbon-12 and the quality-factor-weighted kerma factor. This implies that these detectors can be used for in-phantom dosimetry and provide a direct reading of dose equivalent at depth. The directional dose equivalent monitor was characterised experimentally with fast neutron calibrations and numerically with Monte Carlo simulations. The fluence response was determined at angles of 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degrees for thermal to 20 MeV neutrons. The response of the device is closely proportional to the fluence-to-directional dose equivalent conversion coefficient, H'{sub F}(10;a,E). Therefore, our monitor is suitable for a direct measurement of neutron directional dose equivalent, H&apos;(10), regardless of angle and energy distribution of the neutron fluence. (author)

  15. Transient micro-elastography:A novel non-invasive approach to measure liver stiffness in mice

    Cécile Bastard; Matteo R Bosisio; Michèle Chabert; Athina D Kalopissis; Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov; Hélène Gilgenkrantz; Sebastian Mueller; Laurent Sandrin


    AIM:To develop and validate a transient micro-elastography device to measure liver stiffness (LS) in mice. METHODS:A novel transient micro-elastography (TME) device,dedicated to LS measurements in mice with a range of measurement from 1-170 kPa,was developed using an optimized vibration frequency of 300 Hz and a 2 mm piston.The novel probe was validated in a classical fibrosis model (CCl4) and in a transgenic murine model of systemic amyloidosis.RESULTS:TME could be successfully performed in control mice below the xiphoid cartilage,with a mean LS of 4.4 ± 1.3 kPa,a mean success rate of 88%,and an excellent intra-observer agreement (0.98).Treatment with CCl4 over seven weeks drastically increased LS as compared to controls (18.2 ± 3.7 kPa vs 3.6 ± 1.2 kPa).Moreover, fibrosis stage was highly correlated with LS (Spearman coefficient = 0.88,P 150 kPa.LS significantly correlated with the amyloidosis index (0.93,P < 0.0001) and the plasma concentration of mutant hapoA-Ⅱ (0.62,P < 0.005). CONCLUSION:Here,we have established the first non-invasive approach to measure LS in mice,and have successfully validated it in two murine models of high LS.

  16. Environmental Survey at Ormen Lange, June 2009

    Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen; Cochrane, Sabine


    An environmental monitoring survey was carried out at Ormen Lange in Region V on behalf of Norske Shell. The samples were collected at 19 stations by use of a 0.25 m{sub 2} box corer and carried out in connection with the field work in Region VI. The station depths varied between 823 and 925 m. The sediments at Ormen Lange are classified as silt with a high amount of pelite (> 90 %) and TOM (> 9 %). The amount of pelite is higher than that found in the baseline survey in 2004 at all stations. Whether this is a result of changes in sediment composition or a difference in analytical methods used is not known. With the exception of station OL-01 and OL-09, where a small increase has occurred, the amount of TOM has decreased at the stations since 2004. The concentrations of hydrocarbons and metals in the sediments at Template D, can be regarded as the natural background level for these parameters. The average amount of THC in the sediments around Template D is 11.7 +- 1.8 mg/kg in this base line survey. The average level of THC at template A and B was at the same level in the base line survey in 2004, 9.7 +- 0.6 mg/kg. In the present survey the average amount of THC in the sediments at Template A and B has increased to 17.0 +- 3.9 mg/kg. 11 of 14 stations at Template A and B have slightly elevated levels of barium and zinc in the sediments and sediments at three stations are elevated with mercury. In the present survey the mollusks dominates the fauna at Ormen Lange. The number of individuals at the stations (0.4 m{sub 2}) is high (1553 - 2833), while the number of taxa is relatively low (51 - 73), resulting in a very low diversity (H&apos; 2.4 - 3.3). This is due to the over dominance by two mussels (Thyasira minuta and T. equalis) at all stations. However, the dominant species registered are known to be abundant in sediment with high amount of pelite and organic material. Due to the different sampling strategy and area, a direct comparison with the baseline survey is

  17. Regulatory effect of epigenin on hypothalamus-adenohypophysis-ovarian in rats%芹菜素对雌性大鼠下丘脑-腺垂体-卵巢轴调控作用

    李伟红; 周丰; 庄笑梅; 姜恩魁; 姜岩


    Objective To study the effect of apigenin (Api) on adenohypophysis, follicle stimulating hormone( FSH),luteinzing hormone ( LH), estradiol ( E2 ), and progesterone (P). Methods Cell culture, radioimmunoassay, and hypothalamus( H)-adenohypophysis( AP) -ovarian( O) tertiary culture cell sequence perfusion were adopted. The sequence of perfusion was H-AP-O and the concentrations were 10-4 mol/L, 10-5 mol/L, and 10-6 mol/L. The contents of FSH, LH ,E2 and P in adenohypophysis and ovarian granulosa cell medium were measured. Results In ovarian granulosa cells of proestrus rats treated with Api( 10-4 mol/L- 10-6 mol/L), E2 and P secretion decreased in concentration-dependence manner compared to those of the control group with statistically significant differences( P < 0. 01 ) and the contents of E2 and P decreased with the increase of Api conentration. There were no significant differences in LH and FSH secretion of adenohypophysis cells between the proestrus rats in Api treatment groups and the control group( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion Api inhibits E2 and P secretion of ovarian granular cells but does not affect FSH and LH secretion of adenohypophysis in proestrus female rats.%目的 研究芹菜素(apigenin,Api)对雌性大鼠腺垂体、卵巢颗粒细胞分泌促卵泡激素(follicle stimulatinghormone,FSH)、黄体生成素(luteinzing hormone,LH)、雌二醇(estradiol,E2)及孕酮(progesterone,P)的影响.方法 应用细胞培养技术,放射免疫测定法及下丘脑-腺垂体-卵巢三级培养细胞顺序灌注法.采用下列顺序灌注法,Api浓度分别为10-4mol/L、10-5mol/L、10-6mol/L,(1)H-AP-O;(2)H-AP(Api)-O;(3)H-AP-O(Api),分别测定腺垂体和卵巢颗粒细胞培养液中FSH、LH、H2及P的含量.结果 实验组(3、5、7组)分别与对照组(1组)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),Api(10-4mol/L~10-6mol/L)以浓度依赖方式使培养的雌性动情前期大鼠卵巢颗粒细胞E2及P的含量也呈减少,且随着浓度的增加,E2

  18. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte II. Estudio de la respuesta angular de dosimetros personales TLD-100 en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H&apos; (0.07;{alpha}). Since H&apos; (O. 07;{alpha}) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm{sup -2}); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, {sup S}tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of {sup 60}Co{sup ,} J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass

  19. 妊娠合并糖尿病的药物治疗



    @@ 妊娠合并糖尿病包括妊娠前诊断糖尿病和怀孕后罹患糖尿病的患者,后者被称为妊娠期糖尿病(gestational diabetes mellitus,GDM).GDM诊断标准尚未达成一致,目前基于HAPO(Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome)研究结果,国际妊娠合并糖尿病研究组(International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups,IADPSG)制定并推荐了新的GDM诊断标准,2010年ADA在糖尿病诊治规范中也提到该标准并计划将来和美国产科相关组织一起推行及采用该项标准.随着GDM诊断标准的降低,更多的孕妇将被诊断为GDM患者.合理控制孕期高血糖对母、儿的近远期影响十分重要.妊娠期高血糖对母、儿的影响程度取决于孕期母亲血糖的控制水平,大多数GDM患者可以单纯通过饮食控制即可达到满意控制血糖的目的,其余患者需加用药物治疗.

  20. Synthesis and application of novel flame retardant PPAP for cotton%棉用新型阻燃剂PPAP的制备及应用

    董振泉; 俞丹; 王炜


    A novel oligomeric N-P synergistic flame retardant poly [phenyl N-(2-aminoethyl) phosphon-amidoatel (PPAP) for cotton was synthesized from phenyl dichlorophosphate (PDCP) and ethylenediamine by nucleophilic substitution. The structure of product PPAP was fully characterized by infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance CH NMR). The application of PPAP on cotton fabric was studied, and the results showed that the optimal finishing conditions were: 350 g/L of flame retardant PPAP, 30 g/L of catalyst HaPO4, 100 g/L of crosslinking agent, cured at 160 ℃ for 3 min. The char length of the treated cotton fabric could be reduced to less than 10 cm, and the char content increased from 11% to 40% at 650 ℃. The thermal stability of fabric at high temperature was remarkably increased.%利用二氯磷酰苯酯(PDCP)与乙二胺的亲核取代反应,制备出一种新型棉用低聚物氮-磷协效阻燃剂聚乙二胺磷酰苯酯(PPAP),并用红外光谱(FT-IR)和核磁共振氢谱('H NMR)表征了其分子结构.同时研究了其在棉织物上的应用,确定了最优整理工艺:阻燃剂PPAP 350 g/L,催化剂磷酸30g/L,交联剂100g/L,160℃培烘3min.经过整理后,织物的损毁长度可降低至10 cm以下,在650℃时的成炭率可由11%提高到40%,织物的高温热稳定性显著提高.

  1. Hanford Atomic Products Operation Five-Year Program

    Priode, C.A.; Benoliel, R.W.; Gilbert, W.D.; McGrath, R.E.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Zuhr, H.F. [comps.


    The General Electric Company has prepared in past years numerous documents for the Atomic Energy Commission outlining in some detail its current and proposed programs at Hanford. Last year, at the request of the commission, program types of information were consolidated into one document, the HAPO Five Year Program. That document was well received and useful to an extent that the General Electric Company was requested by the Commission to prepare another covering the fiscal years 1959 through 1963. In outlining the five year program for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, the General Electric Company has made assumptions regarding the US Atomic Energy Commission`s current and future programs and Hanford`s relationship to these programs. Two major objectives of the Commission were considered basic for future planning: first, to provide adequate atomic weapons for national defense; and second, to encourage and assist in the development of atomic energy for peaceful uses. The Hanford contributions to these objectives are conceived to include the acquisition and potential application of new technology in support of: (1) Increased production of plutonium, as nitrate solution, buttons, and as current and future shapes. (2) A program that will provide the technological capability to implement broad changes in the Commission`s programs such as conversion of Hanford reactors to tritium production, the separation and packaging of mixed and specific fission products, the recovery of transuranic elements, the processing of power reactor fuels, and the provision of weapons assembly capability. (3) Optimum costs, operating and capital. (4) New production reactor designs and concepts. (5) Use of plutonium as power reactor fuel. (6) Operation of nuclear reactors and associated plants with assured radiological protection of both workers and people and other forms of life in the environs.

  2. Fault of the correction factor for pressure and temperature k{sub PT} in the atmospheric conditions of Dosimetric Calibration Lab. - LSCD of ININ - Mexico; Falla del factor de correcion por presion y temperatura k{sub PT} a las condiciones atmosfericas del LSCD-ININ-Mexico

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Jesus Cejudo, A.; La Cruz H., Daniel de; Tovar M, Victor M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (LSCD/ININ), Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica


    The realization of the operational quantities H*, Hp y/0 H&apos;(0.07) for estimating the effective dose E, usually is done by measuring the air kerma Ka air within the field of ionizing radiation of interest and was subsequently applied appropriate conversion factors for both the quality of radiation and the operational quantity of interest. However, the SSDL in performing the Ka to environmental conditions of ININ (3000 m above sea level, P ∼ 710 hPa) with ionization chambers has found that the pressure correction factor and kPT temperature is not sufficient to correct the change in air density. Indeed, in the case of {sup 60}Co the discrepancy between the measurement of a primary standard graphite walls Ka (BEV CC01 be 131) and a side of the plastic walls (Exradin A12) is on the order of 0.4% for the case of the RX BIPM qualities to 100,135, 180 and 250 kV. It was found that for a camera model 30001 PTW (PMMA graphite wall) is needed an additional correction factor k PT ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, correction factor calculated by MC simulation. For Sk of {sup 125}I brachytherapy sources was given an additional correction lower in 11% compared to conventional k{sub PT} value measured with a well chamber Standard Imaging HDR 1000 plus. Finally, it is in the process of studying the behavior of this additional correction factor to the case of {sup 137}Cs.

  3. A Lateral Cephalometric Study of the Pharyngeal Growth in Korean Children

    Choi, Ki Chae; Lee, Sang Rae; Lee, Man Sup [Department of Dental Radiology, Department of Periodontics . College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study has been to investigate the growth of the pharynx and sexual differences in the lateral cephalograms of Korean children. The material includes 173 cepalograms from two groups composed of 51 males aged 12.0 years and 39 females aged 12.2 years in group 2, and 45 males aged 7.4 years and 39 females aged 7.5 year in group 1, respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S, N, A, Ptm, B, H, H&apos;, M, S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper head positioning of subjects, especially in relative positions of A and H, while radiography. For each variable the statistically treated data have been presented in the table II, III, IV. The main results are presented as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in antero-posterior dimension of pharyngeal cavity, but all variables did not show significant sexual differences in both groups when evaluated statistically. 2. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity in group 2, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in the variables except M-H', but all variables did not show significant sexual differences in group 1 when evaluated statistically. 3. The dimensional increase of the pharynx by the growth in the vertical dimensions was shown to be greater than in the antero-posterior dimensions in the both sexes.

  4. Short scale (6 h temporal variation of sinking fluxes of planktonic and terrigeneous lipids at 200 m in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    L. Méjanelle


    Full Text Available Drifting sediment trap experiments were carried out at high temporal frequency in the northwestern Mediterranean in the course of the DYNAPROC2 campaign, every 6 h at 200 m depth. Molecular biomarkers were analyzed in selected subsets of consecutive samples. Fluxes of n-alkanes, long-chain alkenones, sterols and steroid ketones show high variability between consecutive 6-h&apos; samples, comparable in range to seasonnal variability. n-Alkane export ranges from 1.4 to 29.7 μg m−2 d−1, fluxes of C37 alkenones varies from 0 to 14.2 μg m−2 d−1. Fluxes of sterols, steroid ketones and C30 alkane diol, respectively range from 31 to 377, 2.2 to 46 and 0.3 to 9.3 μg m−2 d−1. The Biomarker composition is consistent with reworked algal and zooplanktonic organic matter with a remarkable refractory character. After a rain event ensuing the intrusion of coastal water at the study site, the relative signature of higher plant increases and corresponds to higher export fluxes of long-chain odd n-alkanes. Most phytoplanktonic biomarkers show concurrent variability in fluxes. Linear correlations between fluxes of distinct biomarkers and between fluxes of biomarkers and flux of total carbon suggest that the short term temporal variability of export fluxes depends primarily on physical constrains exerted by carrier particle dynamics. Linear correlation of their carbon-normalized concentrations explained a lower part of the variance, indicating that short-term variability in particle composition is a secondary driver of flux timing. At the end of summer stratification, export fluxes account for ca. 1% of the primary productivity. In this studied situation, biomarkers have a long residence time in the water column before they are exported at 200 m. Biomarkers exported at 200 m may thus record processes averaged over a larger period than the

  5. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria is suitable for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis:further evidence from China

    Wei Yumei; Yang Huixia; Zhu Weiwei; Yang Hongyun; Li Haixia; Yan Jie; Zhang Cuilin


    Background The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) recommended new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after extensive analyses of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study.Unfortunately,there was no data from mainland of China in this study.We evaluated the feasibility of IADPSG criteria for GDM diagnosis in China.Methods A large prospective study was conducted.We reviewed medical records of a total of 25 674 pregnant women who underwent GDM screening and diagnosis between January 1,2005 and December 31,2012 in the Peking University First Hospital.The prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was calculated according to different cut off values defined by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the IADPSG,and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to GDM was analyzed.Results According to the cut off values of NDDG and IADPSG criteria,the prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was 8.4% and 18.9% (P <0.01) respectively,and the prevalence of cesarean section (52.5% vs.46.0%,P <0.01),macrosomia (7.5% vs.6.3%,P <0.05),neonatal hypoglycemia (1.6% vs.1.0%,P <0.01),and perinatal death (0.5% vs.0.2%,P <0.01); the prevalence was significantly lower when IADPSG criteria were applied.The prevalence of macrosomia,cesarean section,neonatal hypoglycemia,pregnancy induced hypertension,etc.was also higher in the GDM group than in the normal group.The prevalence of cesarean section (62.3%) and macrosomia (14.8%) was the highest in untreated mild GDM patients.Conclusions Our results indicated that treatment/intervention of women with GDM identified by IADPSG criteria was related to significantly lower risk of multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes.Such findings provide support for applying IADPSG criteria in China.

  6. Top-down holographic G-structure glueball spectroscopy at (N)LO in N and finite coupling

    Sil, Karunava; Yadav, Vikas; Misra, Aalok [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttaranchal (India)


    The top-down type IIB holographic dual of large-N thermal QCD as constructed in Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187, 2010) involving a fluxed resolved warped deformed conifold, its delocalized type IIA Strominger-Yau-Zaslow-mirror (SYZ-mirror) as well as its M-theory uplift constructed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) - both in the finite coupling g{sub s} h}&apos;) on the solutions to the equations of motion on the other hand. We find that the former technique produces results closer to the lattice results. We also discuss the r{sub h} = 0 limits of all calculations. In this context we also calculate the 0{sup ++}, 0{sup --}, 1{sup ++}, 2{sup ++} glueball masses up to Next to Leading Order (NLO) in N and find a (g{sub s}M{sup 2})/(N)(g{sub s}N{sub f})-suppression similar to and further validating semi-universality of NLO corrections to transport coefficients, observed in Sil and Misra (Eur Phys J C 76(11):618, 2016). (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of LiFePO4 microspheres and their electrochemical properties%磷酸铁锂微球制备及其电化学性能研究

    葛权; 雷晓玲; 曹益荣; 荣东霞; 文晓刚


    A two-step method for synthesizing lithium iron phosphate microspheres was described. At first, Fe- PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction using FeCl3 · 7H2O, NH4H2PO4 and HaPO4 as starting materials, and the effects of temperature, different iron source on the morphology of product was studied; the second step, as-prepared FePO4 microspheres were mixed with LiOH H20, and polyethyle- neglycol powders and heated under flowing nitrogen at 700℃ to obtain LiFePO4 microspheres coated with car- bon. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to characterize the compo- sition and morphology of the prepared microstructures. The Li ion battery performance of the synthesized LiFe- PO4 microspheres were measured, which shows a high capacity of 143.5mAh/g at rates of 0.1C.%采用两步法合成磷酸铁锂,第一步先以氯化铁、磷酸二氢铵和磷酸为原料,用水热法合成球状磷酸铁,并研究了温度、不同铁源对其形貌的影响;第二步将制得的磷酸铁与氢氧化锂、PEG-10000混合,在氮气气氛保护下,750℃高温烧制成磷酸铁锂。用X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)等表征了磷酸铁及磷酸铁锂的纯度和形貌。制得的磷酸铁锂微球在0.1C充放电时,比容量达到143.5mAh/g。

  8. The human apoE7 and apoE4 transgenic mice models

    SUN; Mingzeng; (


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