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Sample records for hapmap lcls allowed

  1. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  2. LCLS II Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharadwaj, V.

    2005-01-31

    A one-day workshop was held on July 21st, 1998 to consider upgrade paths to the existing LCLS design with a view to making a facility with multiple FEL and spontaneous synchrotron radiation beamlines. The agenda, working groups and participants in this workshop are listed in Appendix 1. This technical note summarizes the ideas generated by this workshop.

  3. LCLS The First Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N

    2003-02-10

    The Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has selected six scientific experiments for the early phase of the project. The LCLS, with proposed construction in the 2003-2006 time frame, has been designed to utilize the last third of the existing Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) linac. The linac produces a high-current 5-15 GeV electron beam that is bunched into 230 fs slices with a 120 Hz repetition rate. When traveling through a sufficiently long (of order of 100 m) undulator, the electron bunches will lead to self amplification of the emitted x-ray intensity constituting an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). If funded as proposed, the LCLS will be the first XFEL in the world, operating in the 800-8,000 eV energy range. The emitted coherent x-rays will have unprecedented brightness with 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} photons/pulse in a 0.2-0.4% energy bandpass and an unprecedented time structure with a design pulse length of 230 fs. Studies are under way to reduce the pulse length to tens of femtoseconds. This document presents descriptions of the early scientific experiments selected by SAC in the spring of 2000. They cover a wide range of scientific fields. The experimental teams consist of many internationally recognized scientists who are excited about the unprecedented x-ray capabilities of LCLS that surely will lead to new scientific frontiers. More generally, this document serves to forward the scientific case for an accelerator-based XFEL source, as requested by the BESAC subpanel on Novel Coherent Light Sources, chaired by Stephen R. Leone. Two general classes of experiments are proposed for the LCLS. The first class consists of experiments where the x-ray beam is used to probe the sample without modifying it, as is done in most experiments at current synchrotron sources. In the second class, the LCLS beam is used to induce non-linear photo-processes or matter in extreme conditions. The same source can be used for

  4. Coherent Diffractive Imaging at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Joachim

    2010-03-01

    Soft x-ray FEL light sources produce ultrafast x-ray pulses with outstanding high peak brilliance. This might enable the structure determination of proteins that cannot be crystallized. The deposited energy would destroy the molecules completely, but owing to the short pulses the destruction will ideally only happen after the termination of the pulse. In order to address the many challenges that we face in attempting molecular diffraction, we have carried out experiments in coherent diffraction from protein nanocrystals at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. The periodicity of these objects gives us much higher scattering signals than uncrystallized proteins would. The crystals are filtered to sizes less than 2 micron, and delivered to the pulsed X-ray beam in a liquid jet. The effects of pulse duration and fluence on the high-resolution structure of the crystals have been studied. Diffraction patterns are recorded at a repetition rate of 30 Hz with pnCCD detectors. This allows us to take 108,000 images per hour. With 2-mega-pixel-detectors this gives a data-rate of more than 400 GB per hour. The automated sorting and evaluation of hundreds of thousands images is another challenge of this kind of experiments. Preliminary results will be presented on our first LCLS experiments. This work was carried out as part of a collaboration, for which Henry Chapman is the spokesperson. The collaboration consists of CFEL DESY, Arizona State University, SLAC, Uppsala University, LLNL, The University of Melbourne, LBNL, the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, and the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) at the CFEL. The experiments were carried out using the CAMP apparatus, which was designed and built by the Max Planck ASG at CFEL. The LCLS is operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  5. LCLS undulator production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenberg, E.; Barsz, T.; Lawrence, G.; Sasaki, S.; Vasserman, I.; White, M.; Goldfarb, G.; Lagonsky, S.; Sorsher, S.; Becker, T.; Dufresne, S.; Schuermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Design and construction of the undulators for the linac coherent light source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the responsibility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A full-scale prototype undulator was constructed in-house and extensively tested at Argonne's advanced photon source (APS). The device was tunable to well within the LCLS requirements and was stable for five years. Experience constructing the prototype undulator led us to conclude that with appropriate engineering design and detailed assembly procedures, precision undulators can be constructed by highly-qualified industrial vendors without undulator-construction experience. Argonne's detailed technological knowledge and experience were transferred to the successful bidders who produced outstanding undulators. Our production concept for the 3.4-m-long, fixed-gap, planar-hybrid undulators with a 30-mm period is discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and acceptance testing details are also presented.

  6. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, Nora [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  7. The LCLS Timing Event System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Allison, S.; Browne, M.; Krejcik, P.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The Linac Coherent Light Source requires precision timing trigger signals for various accelerator diagnostics and controls at SLAC-NAL. A new timing system has been developed that meets these requirements. This system is based on COTS hardware with a mixture of custom-designed units. An added challenge has been the requirement that the LCLS Timing System must co-exist and 'know' about the existing SLC Timing System. This paper describes the architecture, construction and performance of the LCLS timing event system.

  8. The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D

    2005-01-01

    In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10 4 ; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r 0 = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are

  9. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman

    2007-01-01

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes

  10. LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradaran, Samira; Bergmann, Uwe; Durr, Herrmann; Gaffney, Kelley; Goldstein, Julia; Guehr, Markus; Hastings, Jerome; Heimann, Philip; Lee, Richard; Seibert, Marvin; Stohr, Joachim; /SLAC

    2012-08-08

    The LCLS-II New Instruments workshops chaired by Phil Heimann and Jerry Hastings were held on March 19-22, 2012 at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The goal of the workshops was to identify the most exciting science and corresponding parameters which will help define the LCLS-II instrumentation. This report gives a synopsis of the proposed investigations and an account of the workshop. Scientists from around the world have provided short descriptions of the scientific opportunities they envision at LCLS-II. The workshops focused on four broadly defined science areas: biology, materials sciences, chemistry and atomic, molecular and optical physics (AMO). Below we summarize the identified science opportunities in the four areas. The frontiers of structural biology lie in solving the structures of large macromolecular biological systems. Most large protein assemblies are inherently difficult to crystallize due to their numerous degrees of freedom. Serial femtosecond protein nanocrystallography, using the 'diffraction-before-destruction' approach to outrun radiation damage has been very successfully pioneered at LCLS and diffraction patterns were obtained from some of the smallest protein crystals ever. The combination of femtosecond x-ray pulses of high intensity and nanosized protein crystals avoids the radiation damage encountered by conventional x-ray crystallography with focused beams and opens the door for atomic structure determinations of the previously largely inaccessible class of membrane proteins that are notoriously difficult to crystallize. The obtained structures will allow the identification of key protein functions and help in understanding the origin and control of diseases. Three dimensional coherent x-ray imaging at somewhat lower resolution may be used for larger objects such as viruses. The chemistry research areas of primary focus are the predictive understanding of catalytic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on photo- and

  11. LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradaran, Samira; Bergmann, Uwe; Durr, Herrmann; Gaffney, Kelley; Goldstein, Julia; Guehr, Markus; Hastings, Jerome; Heimann, Philip; Lee, Richard; Seibert, Marvin; Stohr, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The LCLS-II New Instruments workshops chaired by Phil Heimann and Jerry Hastings were held on March 19-22, 2012 at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The goal of the workshops was to identify the most exciting science and corresponding parameters which will help define the LCLS-II instrumentation. This report gives a synopsis of the proposed investigations and an account of the workshop. Scientists from around the world have provided short descriptions of the scientific opportunities they envision at LCLS-II. The workshops focused on four broadly defined science areas: biology, materials sciences, chemistry and atomic, molecular and optical physics (AMO). Below we summarize the identified science opportunities in the four areas. The frontiers of structural biology lie in solving the structures of large macromolecular biological systems. Most large protein assemblies are inherently difficult to crystallize due to their numerous degrees of freedom. Serial femtosecond protein nanocrystallography, using the 'diffraction-before-destruction' approach to outrun radiation damage has been very successfully pioneered at LCLS and diffraction patterns were obtained from some of the smallest protein crystals ever. The combination of femtosecond x-ray pulses of high intensity and nanosized protein crystals avoids the radiation damage encountered by conventional x-ray crystallography with focused beams and opens the door for atomic structure determinations of the previously largely inaccessible class of membrane proteins that are notoriously difficult to crystallize. The obtained structures will allow the identification of key protein functions and help in understanding the origin and control of diseases. Three dimensional coherent x-ray imaging at somewhat lower resolution may be used for larger objects such as viruses. The chemistry research areas of primary focus are the predictive understanding of catalytic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on photo- and

  12. Science Driven Instrumentation for LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brunger, Axel [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bostedt, Christoph [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Boutet, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bozek, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, Tom [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Yuantao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, Hermann [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, Kelly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Galayda, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, Julia [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guhr, Markus [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, Jerome [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, Philip [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hodgson, Keith [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Zirong [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelez, Nicholas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Montanez, Paul [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-03-24

    The world’s first x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), LCLS, has now been operating for more than three years and all six experimental stations are supporting user science and producing high impact scientific results. Other countries are rapidly catching up and a second XFEL, SACLA, is already operating in Japan with others coming on line in Germany, Korea and Switzerland within the next three to five years. In order to increase capability and capacity of LCLS, the Department of Energy has funded LCLS-II.

  13. LCLS-II Cryomodules Production at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Tug [Fermilab; Grimm, Chuck [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Premo, Ken [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    LCLS-II is an upgrade project for the linear coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC. The LCLS-II linac will consist of thirty-five 1.3 GHz and two 3.9 GHz superconducting RF continuous wave (CW) cryomodules that Fermilab and Jefferson Lab (JLab) will assemble in collaboration with SLAC. The LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design is based on the European XFEL pulsed-mode cryomodule design with modifications needed for CW operation. Fermilab and JLab will each assemble and test a prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule to assess the results of the CW modifications, in advance of 16 and 17 production 1.3 GHz cryomodules, respectively. Fermilab is solely responsible for the 3.9 GHz cryomodules. After the prototype cryomodule tests are complete and lessons learned incorporated, both laboratories will increase their cryomodule production rates to meet the challenging LCLS-II project requirement of approximately one cryomodule per month per laboratory. This paper presents the Fermilab Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF) infrastructure for LCLS-II cryomodule production, the Fermilab prototype 1.3 GHz CW cryomodule (pCM) assembly and readiness for production assembly.

  14. Realization of an X-Band RF System for LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Peter; Brooks, William; Emma, Paul; Rago, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A single X-band (11.424 GHz) accelerating structure is to be incorporated in the LCLS Linac design to linearize the energy-time correlation (or gradient) across each bunch, features which originate in the preceding accelerating structures (L0 and L1). This harmonic RF system will operate near the negative RF crest to decelerate the beam, reducing these non-linear components of the correlation, providing a more efficient compression in the downstream bunch compressor chicanes (BC1 and BC2). These non-linear correlation components, if allowed to grow, would lead to Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) instabilities in the chicanes, effectively destroying the coherence of the photon radiation in the main LCLS undulator. The many years devoted at SLAC in the development of X-band RF components for the NLC/JLC linear collider project, has enabled the technical and financial realization of such an RF system for LCLS. This paper details the requirements for the X-band system and the proposed scheme planned for achie...

  15. Geographical affinities of the HapMap samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao He

    Full Text Available The HapMap samples were collected for medical-genetic studies, but are also widely used in population-genetic and evolutionary investigations. Yet the ascertainment of the samples differs from most population-genetic studies which collect individuals who live in the same local region as their ancestors. What effects could this non-standard ascertainment have on the interpretation of HapMap results?We compared the HapMap samples with more conventionally-ascertained samples used in population- and forensic-genetic studies, including the HGDP-CEPH panel, making use of published genome-wide autosomal SNP data and Y-STR haplotypes, as well as producing new Y-STR data. We found that the HapMap samples were representative of their broad geographical regions of ancestry according to all tests applied. The YRI and JPT were indistinguishable from independent samples of Yoruba and Japanese in all ways investigated. However, both the CHB and the CEU were distinguishable from all other HGDP-CEPH populations with autosomal markers, and both showed Y-STR similarities to unusually large numbers of populations, perhaps reflecting their admixed origins.The CHB and JPT are readily distinguished from one another with both autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers, and results obtained after combining them into a single sample should be interpreted with caution. The CEU are better described as being of Western European ancestry than of Northern European ancestry as often reported. Both the CHB and CEU show subtle but detectable signs of admixture. Thus the YRI and JPT samples are well-suited to standard population-genetic studies, but the CHB and CEU less so.

  16. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  17. Chirping the LCLS Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    2005-01-01

    We explore scenarios for generating a linear time-correlated energy spread in the LCLS electron bunch, prior to the undulator, that is needed for optical (x-ray) pulse compression. The correlated energy spread (''chirp'') is formed by generating an energy gradient along the length of the electron bunch using RF phasing and/or longitudinal wakefields of the accelerating structures. The sign of the correlation is an important limitation. Excluding a complete re-design of the compression systems, the best possibility is to use ''over-compression'' to effect the required energy chirp. This is easily done with only a slight strength increase (∼10%) in the chicane bends of the second compressor. In this case, the bend-plane emittance dilution associated with the increased coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the bunch compressor may, however, significantly compromise the electron beam density. The CSR calculations for the momentary extremely short (∼1 (micro)m) electron bunch during over-compression are quite subtle and an adequate confidence level may not be achievable. A practical limit in this short-pulse scenario may be to use spontaneous rather than FEL radiation. Ignoring the potential emittance growth, a FWHM electron energy spread of 2% is possible

  18. Cost-effective way to enhance the capabilities of the LCLS baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    This paper discusses the potential for enhancing the LCLS hard X-ray FEL capabilities. In the hard X-ray regime, a high longitudinal coherence will be the key to such performance upgrade. The method considered here to obtain high longitudinal coherence is based on a novel single-bunch self-seeding scheme exploiting a single crystal monochromator, which is extremely compact and can be straightforwardly installed in the LCLS baseline undulator. We present simulation results dealing with the LCLS hard X-ray FEL, and show that this method can produce fully-coherent X-ray pulses at 100 GW power level. With the radiation beam monochromatized down to the Fourier transform limit, a variety of very different techniques leading to further improvements of the LCLS performance become feasible. In particular, we describe an efficient way for obtaining full polarization control at the LCLS hard X-ray FEL. We also propose to exploit crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry as movable deflectors for the LCLS X-ray transport systems. The hard X-ray beam can be deflected of an angle of order of a radian without perturbations. The monochromatization of the output radiation constitutes the key for reaching such result. Finally, we describe a newoptical pump - hard X-ray probe technique which will allow time-resolved studies at the LCLS baseline on the femtosecond time scale. The principle of operation of the proposed scheme is essentially based on the use of the time jitter between pump and probe pulses. This eliminates the need for timing XFELs to high-power conventional lasers with femtosecond accuracy. (orig.)

  19. Cost-effective way to enhance the capabilities of the LCLS baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential for enhancing the LCLS hard X-ray FEL capabilities. In the hard X-ray regime, a high longitudinal coherence will be the key to such performance upgrade. The method considered here to obtain high longitudinal coherence is based on a novel single-bunch self-seeding scheme exploiting a single crystal monochromator, which is extremely compact and can be straightforwardly installed in the LCLS baseline undulator. We present simulation results dealing with the LCLS hard X-ray FEL, and show that this method can produce fully-coherent X-ray pulses at 100 GW power level. With the radiation beam monochromatized down to the Fourier transform limit, a variety of very different techniques leading to further improvements of the LCLS performance become feasible. In particular, we describe an efficient way for obtaining full polarization control at the LCLS hard X-ray FEL. We also propose to exploit crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry as movable deflectors for the LCLS X-ray transport systems. The hard X-ray beam can be deflected of an angle of order of a radian without perturbations. The monochromatization of the output radiation constitutes the key for reaching such result. Finally, we describe a newoptical pump - hard X-ray probe technique which will allow time-resolved studies at the LCLS baseline on the femtosecond time scale. The principle of operation of the proposed scheme is essentially based on the use of the time jitter between pump and probe pulses. This eliminates the need for timing XFELs to high-power conventional lasers with femtosecond accuracy. (orig.)

  20. Wakefields in the LCLS Undulator Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, K.L.F.; /SLAC; Zagorodov, I.; /DESY

    2006-07-17

    For a short bunch in an elliptical collimator we demonstrate that, as in a purely round collimator, the wake can be estimated from the primary fields of the beam alone. We obtain the wakes in the LCLS rectangular-to-round, undulator transitions using a hybrid method that includes indirect numerical (field) integration and an analytical potential energy term. For the LCLS 1 nC bunch charge configuration, we find the wake-induced energy change in the transitions to be small compared to that due to the resistance of the beam pipe walls.

  1. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.

    2010-01-01

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun (1), referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee (2). Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  2. Microbunching phenomena in LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Qiang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Papadopoulos, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Emma, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marcus, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marinelli, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nosochkov, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wang, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Woodley, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The microbunching instability has long been recognized as a potential limiting factor to the performance of X-ray FELs. It is of particular relevance in LCLS-II due, in part, to a layout that includes a long bypass beamline between the Linac and the undulators. Here we focus on two aspects of the instability that highlight the importance of 3D effects.

  3. SNPexp - A web tool for calculating and visualizing correlation between HapMap genotypes and gene expression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke Andre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels for 47294 transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines from all 270 HapMap phase II individuals, and genotypes (both HapMap phase II and III of 3.96 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the same individuals are publicly available. We aimed to generate a user-friendly web based tool for visualization of the correlation between SNP genotypes within a specified genomic region and a gene of interest, which is also well-known as an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analysis. Results SNPexp is implemented as a server-side script, and publicly available on this website: http://tinyurl.com/snpexp. Correlation between genotype and transcript expression levels are calculated by performing linear regression and the Wald test as implemented in PLINK and visualized using the UCSC Genome Browser. Validation of SNPexp using previously published eQTLs yielded comparable results. Conclusions SNPexp provides a convenient and platform-independent way to calculate and visualize the correlation between HapMap genotypes within a specified genetic region anywhere in the genome and gene expression levels. This allows for investigation of both cis and trans effects. The web interface and utilization of publicly available and widely used software resources makes it an attractive supplement to more advanced bioinformatic tools. For the advanced user the program can be used on a local computer on custom datasets.

  4. Coherent synchrotron radiation experiments for the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Russell, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a coherent synchrotron radiation experiment planned at Los Alamos to support the design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL. Preliminary simulations of the LCLS compressors show that a clever tuning strategy can be used to minimize the electron's beam emittance growth due to noninertial space-charge forces by employing a delicate cancellation of these forces. The purpose of the Los Alamos experiment, using a sub-picosecond chicane compressor, is to benchmark these simulations tools. In this paper, the authors present detailed numerical simulations of the experiment, and point out unique signatures of this effect that are measurable. As predicted previously, the largest emittance growths and induced energy spreads result from the nonradiative components of this space-charge force

  5. Results of the SLAC LCLS Gun High-Power RF Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.H.; Jongewaard, E.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Schmerge, J.F.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; Wang, J.; Lewandowski, J.; Vlieks, A.

    2007-01-01

    The beam quality and operational requirements for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) currently being constructed at SLAC are exceptional, requiring the design of a new RF photocathode gun for the electron source. Based on operational experience at SLAC's GTF and SDL and ATF at BNL as well as other laboratories, the 1.6cell s-band (2856MHz) gun was chosen to be the best electron source for the LCLS, however a significant redesign was necessary to achieve the challenging parameters. Detailed 3-D analysis and design was used to produce near-perfect rotationally symmetric rf fields to achieve the emittance requirement. In addition, the thermo-mechanical design allows the gun to operate at 120Hz and a 140MV/m cathode field, or to an average power dissipation of 4kW. Both average and pulsed heating issues are addressed in the LCLS gun design. The first LCLS gun is now fabricated and has been operated with high-power RF. The results of these high-power tests are presented and discussed

  6. Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.

    2007-01-01

    At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab(trademark) using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab(trademark) and Matlab(trademark) (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort

  7. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  8. GLIDERS - A web-based search engine for genome-wide linkage disequilibrium between HapMap SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broxholme John

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of tools for the examination of linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns between nearby alleles exist, but none are available for quickly and easily investigating LD at longer ranges (>500 kb. We have developed a web-based query tool (GLIDERS: Genome-wide LInkage DisEquilibrium Repository and Search engine that enables the retrieval of pairwise associations with r2 ≥ 0.3 across the human genome for any SNP genotyped within HapMap phase 2 and 3, regardless of distance between the markers. Description GLIDERS is an easy to use web tool that only requires the user to enter rs numbers of SNPs they want to retrieve genome-wide LD for (both nearby and long-range. The intuitive web interface handles both manual entry of SNP IDs as well as allowing users to upload files of SNP IDs. The user can limit the resulting inter SNP associations with easy to use menu options. These include MAF limit (5-45%, distance limits between SNPs (minimum and maximum, r2 (0.3 to 1, HapMap population sample (CEU, YRI and JPT+CHB combined and HapMap build/release. All resulting genome-wide inter-SNP associations are displayed on a single output page, which has a link to a downloadable tab delimited text file. Conclusion GLIDERS is a quick and easy way to retrieve genome-wide inter-SNP associations and to explore LD patterns for any number of SNPs of interest. GLIDERS can be useful in identifying SNPs with long-range LD. This can highlight mis-mapping or other potential association signal localisation problems.

  9. LCLS-II CRYOMODULE TRANSPORT SYSTEM TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); McGee, Michael W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Cryomodules (CM) for the Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be shipped to SLAC (Menlo Park, California) from JLab (Newport News, Virginia) and FNAL (Batavia, Illinois). A transportation system has been designed and built to safely transport the CMs over the road. It uses an array of helical isolator springs to attenuate shocks on the CM to below 1.5g in all directions. The system rides on trailers equipped with Air-Ride suspension, which attenuates vibration loads. The prototype LCLS-II CM (pCM) was driven 750 miles to test the transport system; shock loggers recorded the shock attenuation on the pCM and vacuum gauges were used to detect any compromises in beamline vacuum. Alignment measurements were taken before and after the trip to check whether cavity positions had shifted beyond the ± 0.2mm spec. Passband frequencies and cavity gradients were measured at 2K at the Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at JLab to identify any degradation of CM performance after transportation. The transport system was found to have safely carried the CM and is cleared to begin shipments from JLab and FNAL to SLAC.

  10. Wakefields in the LCLS Undulator Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl L.F.; /SLAC; Zagorodnov, Igor A.; /DESY

    2005-08-15

    We have studied longitudinal wakefields of very short bunches in non-cylindrically symmetric (3D) vacuum chamber transitions using analytical models and the computer program ECHO. The wake (for pairs of well-separated, non-smooth transitions) invariably is resistive, with its shape proportional to the bunch distribution. For the example of an elliptical collimator in a round beam pipe we have demonstrated that--as in the cylindrically symmetric (2D) case--the wake can be obtained from the static primary field of the beam alone. We have obtained the wakes of the LCLS rectangular-to-round transitions using indirect (numerical) field integration combined with a primary beam field calculation. For the LCLS 1 nC bunch charge configuration we find that the total variation in wake-induced energy change is small (0.03% in the core of the beam, 0.15% in the horns of the distribution) compared to that due to the resistive wall wakes of the undulator beam pipe (0.6%).

  11. Status of the LCLS-II undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallén, E., E-mail: ejwallen@lbl.gov; Arbelaez, D.; Brown, A.; Dougherty, J.; Corlett, J.; DeMello, A.; Hanzel, K.; Jung, J.-Y.; Leitner, M.; Madur, A.; McCombs, K.; Marks, S.; Munson, D.; Plate, D.; Pucci, J.; Ray, K.; Schlueter, R.; Mateo, E. San [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Ewart, M.; Rowen, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The new free electron laser facility Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will use planar variable gap undulators of hybrid type for the production of free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The LCLS-II will include two FELs with two separate rows of undulators to generate soft and hard x-rays. The soft x-rays will be produced by undulators with 39 mm period length (SXR) and the hard x-rays will be produced by undulators with 26 mm period length (HXR). Both the SXR and the HXR undulators are 3.4 m long and they use a common support structure and frame. In total 21 SXR and 32 HXR undulators will be produced by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. A full-scale prototype with 32 mm period length, called HXU, has been assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The present status of the design, prototyping, and pre-series production of the SXR and HXR undulators are presented in this paper together with the first results from measurements on the full scale HXU prototype.

  12. Generating samples for association studies based on HapMap data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yixuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the HapMap project, a variety of computational algorithms and tools have been proposed for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and genome-wide association studies. Simulated data are commonly used in evaluating these new developed approaches. In addition to simulations based on population models, empirical data generated by perturbing real data, has also been used because it may inherit specific properties from real data. However, there is no tool that is publicly available to generate large scale simulated variation data by taking into account knowledge from the HapMap project. Results A computer program (gs was developed to quickly generate a large number of samples based on real data that are useful for a variety of purposes, including evaluating methods for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and association studies. Two approaches have been implemented to generate dense SNP haplotype/genotype data that share similar local linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns as those in human populations. The first approach takes haplotype pairs from samples as inputs, and the second approach takes patterns of haplotype block structures as inputs. Both quantitative and qualitative traits have been incorporated in the program. Phenotypes are generated based on a disease model, or based on the effect of a quantitative trait nucleotide, both of which can be specified by users. In addition to single-locus disease models, two-locus disease models have also been implemented that can incorporate any degree of epistasis. Users are allowed to specify all nine parameters in a 3 × 3 penetrance table. For several commonly used two-locus disease models, the program can automatically calculate penetrances based on the population prevalence and marginal effects of a disease that users can conveniently specify. Conclusion The program gs can effectively generate large scale genetic and phenotypic variation data that can be

  13. Multi-Device Knob Utility for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, Michael; Chevtsov, Sergei; Chu, Chungming Paul; Fairley, Diane; Krejcik, Patrick; Rogind, Deborah; Smith, Howard; White, Greg; Yocky, Gerald; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) the Controls Department (CD) has developed a new Multi-Device Knob Utility (MKB) based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit for controlling one or more Process Variables (PVs) in unison, or simultaneously, from a physical knob located in the control room, or from various software tools such as the EPICS Extensible Display Manager (EDM) or a Swing slider in Java. A group of devices are hooked up to a knob, and then the value written to the devices is a simple function of the value of the knob. This is used, most commonly, to create a bump in the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Control system variables typically controlled are magnetic fields, phases, and timing offsets. This paper describes the technologies used to implement this utility.

  14. A proposed injector for the LCLS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Bharadwaj, V.K.; Emma, P.; Miller, R.H.; Palmer, D.T.; Woodley, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will use the last portion of the SLAC accelerator as a driver for a short wavelength FEL. The injector must produce 1-nC, 3-ps rms electron bunches at a repetition rate of up to 120 Hz with a normalized rms emittance of about 1 mm-mrad. The injector design takes advantage of the photocathode rf gun technology developed since its conception in the mid 1980's, in particular the S-band rf gun developed by the SLAC/BNL/UCLA collaboration, and emittance compensation techniques developed in the last decade. The injector beamline has been designed using the SUPERFISH, POISSON, PARMELA, and TRANSPORT codes in a consistent way to simulate the beam from the gun up to the entrance of the main accelerator linac where the beam energy is 150 MeV. PARMELA simulations indicate that at 150 MeV, space charge effects are negligible

  15. Performance Characterization of LCLS-II Superconducting Radiofrequency Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, RuthAnn [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-11-10

    This paper will describe the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source)-II, Fermilab’s role in the development of LCLS-II, and my contributions as a Lee Teng intern. LCLS-II is a second generation x-ray free electron laser being constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Fermilab is responsible for the design, construction, and testing of several 1.3 GHz cryomodules to be used in LCLS-II. These cryomodules are currently being tested at Fermilab. Some software was written to analyze the data from the cryomodule tests. This software assesses the performance of the cryomodules by looking at data on the cavity voltage, cavity gradient, dark current, and radiation.

  16. Linac coherent light source (LCLS) undulator RF BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, R.; Waldschmidt, G.; Morrison, L.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T; Li, Z.; Johnson, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) when it becomes operational in 2009. The LCLS is currently in the construction phase. The beam position monitor (BPM) system planned for the LCLS undulator will incorporate a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM system described in this paper. The BPM system will provide high-resolution measurements of the electron beam trajectory on a pulse-to-pulse basis and over many shots. The X-band cavity BPM size, simple fabrication, and high resolution make it an ideal choice for LCLS beam position detection. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  17. Development of pattern aware unit (PAU) for the LCLS beam based fast feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Allison, S.; Fairley, D.; Himel, T.M.; Krejcik, P.; Rogind, D.; Williams, E.

    2012-01-01

    LCLS is now successfully operating at its design beam repetition rate of 120 Hz, but in order to ensure stable beam operation at this high rate we have developed a new timing pattern aware EPICS controller for beam line actuators. Actuators that are capable of responding at 120 Hz are controlled by the new Pattern Aware Unit (PAU) as part of the beam-based feedback system. The beam at the LCLS is synchronized to the 60 Hz AC power line phase and is subject to electrical noise which differs according to which of the six possible AC phases is chosen from the 3-phase site power line. Beam operation at 120 Hz interleaves two of these 60 Hz phases and the feedback must be able to apply independent corrections to the beam pulse according to which of the 60 Hz timing patterns the pulse is synchronized to. The PAU works together with the LCLS Event Timing system which broadcasts a timing pattern that uniquely identifies each pulse when it is measured and allows the feedback correction to be applied to subsequent pulses belonging to the same timing pattern, or time slot, as it is referred to at SLAC. At 120 Hz operation this effectively provides us with two independent, but interleaved feedback loops. Other beam programs at the SLAC facility such as LCLS-II and FACET will be pulsed on other time slots and the PAUs in those systems will respond to their appropriate timing patterns. This paper describes the details of the PAU development: real-time requirements and achievement, scalability, and consistency. The operational results will also be described. (authors)

  18. Single-molecule optical genome mapping of a human HapMap and a colorectal cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Audrey S M; Verzotto, Davide; Yao, Fei; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Hillmer, Axel M

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have changed our understanding of the variability of the human genome. However, the identification of genome structural variations based on NGS approaches with read lengths of 35-300 bases remains a challenge. Single-molecule optical mapping technologies allow the analysis of DNA molecules of up to 2 Mb and as such are suitable for the identification of large-scale genome structural variations, and for de novo genome assemblies when combined with short-read NGS data. Here we present optical mapping data for two human genomes: the HapMap cell line GM12878 and the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. High molecular weight DNA was obtained by embedding GM12878 and HCT116 cells, respectively, in agarose plugs, followed by DNA extraction under mild conditions. Genomic DNA was digested with KpnI and 310,000 and 296,000 DNA molecules (≥ 150 kb and 10 restriction fragments), respectively, were analyzed per cell line using the Argus optical mapping system. Maps were aligned to the human reference by OPTIMA, a new glocal alignment method. Genome coverage of 6.8× and 5.7× was obtained, respectively; 2.9× and 1.7× more than the coverage obtained with previously available software. Optical mapping allows the resolution of large-scale structural variations of the genome, and the scaffold extension of NGS-based de novo assemblies. OPTIMA is an efficient new alignment method; our optical mapping data provide a resource for genome structure analyses of the human HapMap reference cell line GM12878, and the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116.

  19. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) design study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode in the wavelength range 1.5--15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. In this report, the Design Team has established performance parameters for all the major components of the LCLS and developed a layout of the entire system. Chapter 1 is the Executive Summary. Chapter 2 (Overview) provides a brief description of each of the major sections of the LCLS, from the rf photocathode gun, through the experimental stations and electron beam dump. Chapter 3 describes the scientific case for the LCLS. Chapter 4 provides a review of the principles of the FEL physics that the LCLS is based on, and Chapter 5 discusses the choice of the system's physical parameters. Chapters 6 through 10 describe in detail each major element of the system. Chapters 11 through 13 respectively cover undulator controls, mechanical alignment, and radiation issues.

  20. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) design study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode in the wavelength range 1.5--15 angstrom. This FEL, called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. In this report, the Design Team has established performance parameters for all the major components of the LCLS and developed a layout of the entire system. Chapter 1 is the Executive Summary. Chapter 2 (Overview) provides a brief description of each of the major sections of the LCLS, from the rf photocathode gun, through the experimental stations and electron beam dump. Chapter 3 describes the scientific case for the LCLS. Chapter 4 provides a review of the principles of the FEL physics that the LCLS is based on, and Chapter 5 discusses the choice of the system's physical parameters. Chapters 6 through 10 describe in detail each major element of the system. Chapters 11 through 13 respectively cover undulator controls, mechanical alignment, and radiation issues

  1. ePix100 camera: Use and applications at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, G. A., E-mail: carini@slac.stanford.edu; Alonso-Mori, R.; Blaj, G.; Caragiulo, P.; Chollet, M.; Damiani, D.; Dragone, A.; Feng, Y.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herbst, R.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Lemke, H.; Manger, L.; Markovic, B.; Mehta, A.; Nelson, S.; Nishimura, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-07-27

    The ePix100 x-ray camera is a new system designed and built at SLAC for experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The camera is the first member of a family of detectors built around a single hardware and software platform, supporting a variety of front-end chips. With a readout speed of 120 Hz, matching the LCLS repetition rate, a noise lower than 80 e-rms and pixels of 50 µm × 50 µm, this camera offers a viable alternative to fast readout, direct conversion, scientific CCDs in imaging mode. The detector, designed for applications such as X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) in the energy range from 2 to 10 keV and above, comprises up to 0.5 Mpixels in a very compact form factor. In this paper, we report the performance of the camera during its first use at LCLS.

  2. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao

    2012-01-01

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  3. Femtosecond Synchronization of Laser Systems for the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang; Staples, John; Wilcox, Russell; Arthur, John; Frisch, Josef; White, William

    2012-01-01

    The scientific potential of femtosecond x-ray pulses at linac-driven free-electron lasers such as the Linac Coherent Light Source is tremendous. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments require a measure of the relative arrival time of each x-ray pulse with respect to the experimental pump laser. An optical timing system based on stabilized fiber links has been developed for the LCLS to provide this synchronization. Preliminary results show synchronization of the installed stabilized links at the sub-20-femtosecond level. We present details of the implementation at LCLS and potential for future development.

  4. Status of the LCLS-II Accelerating Cavity Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Ed [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Marhauser, Frank [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Fitzpatrick, Jarrod A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, Ari D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Preble, Joe [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, Katherine M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Grimm, C. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Burrill, Andrew B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gonnella, Daniel [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Cavity serial production for the LCLS-II 4 GeV CM SRF linac has started. A quantity of 266 accelerating cavities has been ordered from two industrial vendors. Jefferson Laboratory leads the cavity procurement activities for the project and has successfully transferred the Nitrogen-Doping process to the industrial partners in the initial phase, which is now being applied for the production cavities. We report on the results from vendor qualification and the status of the cavity production for LCLS-II.

  5. Magnetic Measurement Results of the LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott; Caban, Keith; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reese, Ed; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    This note details the magnetic measurements and the magnetic center fiducializations that were performed on all of the thirty-six LCLS undulator quadrupoles. Temperature rise, standardization reproducibility, vacuum chamber effects and magnetic center reproducibility measurements are also presented. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator beam line has 33 girders, each with a LCLS undulator quadrupole which focuses and steers the beam through the beam line. Each quadrupole has main quadrupole coils, as well as separate horizontal and vertical trim coils. Thirty-six quadrupoles, thirty-three installed and three spares were, manufactured for the LCLS undulator system and all were measured to confirm that they met requirement specifications for integrated gradient, harmonics and for magnetic center shifts after current changes. The horizontal and vertical dipole trims of each quadrupole were similarly characterized. Each quadrupole was also fiducialized to its magnetic center. All characterizing measurements on the undulator quads were performed with their mirror plates on and after a standardization of three cycles from -6 to +6 to -6 amps. Since the undulator quadrupoles could be used as a focusing or defocusing magnet depending on their location, all quadrupoles were characterized as focusing and as defocusing quadrupoles. A subset of the undulator quadrupoles were used to verify that the undulator quadrupole design met specifications for temperature rise, standardization reproducibility and magnetic center reproducibility after splitting. The effects of the mirror plates on the undulator quadrupoles were also measured.

  6. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  7. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  8. Triggering for Magnetic Field Measurements of the LCLS Undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-12-13

    A triggering system for magnetic field measurements of the LCLS undulators has been built with a National Instruments PXI-1002 and a Xylinx FPGA board. The system generates single triggers at specified positions, regardless of encoder sensor jitter about a linear scale.

  9. Triggering for Magnetic Field Measurements of the LCLS Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    A triggering system for magnetic field measurements of the LCLS undulators has been built with a National Instruments PXI-1002 and a Xylinx FPGA board. The system generates single triggers at specified positions, regardless of encoder sensor jitter about a linear scale.

  10. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S de Vries

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8, the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.

  11. Way to increase the user access at the LCLS baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Although the LCLS photon beam is meant for a single user, the baseline undulator is long enough to serve two users simultaneously. To this end, we propose a setup composed of two simple elements: an X-ray mirror pair for X-ray beam deflection, and a short (4 m-long) magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for mirror pair installation in the middle of the baseline undulator. The insertable mirror pair can be used for spatial separation of the X-ray beams generated in the first and in the second half of the baseline undulator. The method of deactivating one half and activating another half of the undulator is based on the rapid switching of the FEL amplification process. As proposed elsewhere, using a kicker installed upstream of the LCLS baseline undulator and an already existing corrector in the first half of the undulator, it is possible to rapidly switch the X-ray beam from one user to another, thus providing two active beamlines at any time. We present simulation results dealing with the LCLS baseline, and show that it is possible to generate two saturated SASE X-ray beams in the whole 0.8-8 keV photon energy range in the same baseline undulator. These can be exploited to serve two users. Implementation of the proposed technique does not perturb the baseline mode of operation of the LCLS undulator. Moreover, the magnetic chicane setup is very flexible, and can be used as a self-seeding setup too. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline undulator with SHAB (second harmonic afterburner) and show that one can produce monochromatic radiation at the 2nd harmonic as well as at the 1st. We describe an efficient way for obtaining multi-user operation at the LCLS hard X-ray FEL. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezoelectric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders

  12. Linac design for the LCLS project at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.K.; Bane, K.; Clendenin, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC is being designed to produce intense, coherent 0.15-nm x-rays. These x-rays will be produced by a single pass of a 15 GeV bunched electron beam through a long undulator. Nominally, the bunches have a charge of 1 nC, normalized transverse emittances of less than 1.5π mm-mr and an rms bunch length of 20 μm. The electron beam will be produced using the last third of the SLAC 3-km linac in a manner compatible with simultaneous operation of the remainder of the linac for PEP-II. The linac design necessary to produce an electron beam with the required brightness for LCLS is discussed, and the specific linac modifications are described

  13. Operational Experience from LCLS-II Cryomodule Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renzhuo [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; White, Michael [Fermilab; Hurd, Joseph [Fermilab; Atassi, Omar Al [Fermilab; Bossert, Richard [Fermilab; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Makara, Jerry [Fermilab; Theilacker, Jay [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  14. Operational experience from LCLS-II cryomodule testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Hansen, B.; White, M.; Hurd, J.; Atassi, O. Al; Bossert, R.; Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Makara, J.; Theilacker, J.; Kaluzny, J.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  15. Process simulations for the LCLS-II cryogenic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, V.; Bai, H.; Heloin, V.; Fauve, E.; Pflueckhahn, D.; Peterson, T.; Arenius, D.; Bevins, M.; Scanlon, C.; Than, R.; Hays, G.; Ross, M.

    2017-12-01

    Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II), a 4 GeV continuous-wave (CW) superconducting electron linear accelerator, is to be constructed in the existing two mile Linac facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The first light from the new facility is scheduled to be in 2020. The LCLS-II Linac consists of thirty-five 1.3 GHz and two 3.9 GHz superconducting cryomodules. The Linac cryomodules require cryogenic cooling for the super-conducting niobium cavities at 2.0 K, low temperature thermal intercept at 5.5-7.5 K, and a thermal shield at 35-55 K. The equivalent 4.5 K refrigeration capacity needed for the Linac operations range from a minimum of 11 kW to a maximum of 24 kW. Two cryogenic plants with 18 kW of equivalent 4.5 K refrigeration capacity will be used for supporting the Linac cryogenic cooling requirements. The cryogenic plants are based on the Jefferson Lab’s CHL-II cryogenic plant design which uses the “Floating Pressure” design to support a wide variation in the cooling load. In this paper, the cryogenic process for the integrated LCLS-II cryogenic system and the process simulation for a 4.5 K cryoplant in combination with a 2 K cold compressor box, and the Linac cryomodules are described.

  16. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2002-11-25

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, have collaborated to create a conceptual design for a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R&D facility operating in the wavelength range 1.5-15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called the ''Linac Coherent Light Source'' (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. The first two-thirds of the SLAC linac are used for injection into the PEP-II storage rings. The last one-third will be converted to a source of electrons for the LCLS. The electrons will be transported to the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility, which will be extended to house a 122-m undulator system. In passing through the undulators, the electrons will be bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation to produce an intense, spatially coherent beam of x-rays, tunable in energy from 0.8 keV to 8 keV. The LCLS will include two experiment halls as well as x-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to make use of this x-ray beam for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of constructing an x-ray FEL based on the SLAC linac.

  17. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi eGao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is a vital tool in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and meta-analyses of multiple GWAS results. Imputation enables researchers to increase genomic coverage and to pool data generated using different genotyping platforms. HapMap samples are often employed as the reference panel. More recently, the 1000 Genomes Project resource is becoming the primary source for reference panels. Multiple GWAS and meta-analyses are targeting Latinos, the most populous and fastest growing minority group in the US. However, genotype imputation resources for Latinos are rather limited compared to individuals of European ancestry at present, largely because of the lack of good reference data. One choice of reference panel for Latinos is one derived from the population of Mexican individuals in Los Angeles contained in the HapMap Phase 3 project and the 1000 Genomes Project. However, a detailed evaluation of the quality of the imputed genotypes derived from the public reference panels has not yet been reported. Using simulation studies, the Illumina OmniExpress GWAS data from the Los Angles Latino Eye Study and the MACH software package, we evaluated the accuracy of genotype imputation in Latinos. Our results show that the 1000 Genomes Project AMR+CEU+YRI reference panel provides the highest imputation accuracy for Latinos, and that also including Asian samples in the panel can reduce imputation accuracy. We also provide the imputation accuracy for each autosomal chromosome using the 1000 Genomes Project panel for Latinos. Our results serve as a guide to future imputation-based analysis in Latinos.

  18. Unexpected Relationships and Inbreeding in HapMap Phase III Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Eric L.; Baugher, Joseph D.; Shirley, Matthew D.; Frelin, Laurence P.; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation of the genetic relationships between samples is essential for population genomic studies, which could be biased by errors or omissions. To this end, we used identity-by-state (IBS) and identity-by-descent (IBD) methods to assess genetic relatedness of individuals within HapMap phase III data. We analyzed data from 1,397 individuals across 11 ethnic populations. Our results support previous studies (Pemberton et al., 2010; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou et al., 2011) assessing unknown relatedness present within this population. Additionally, we present evidence for 1,657 novel pairwise relationships across 9 populations. Surprisingly, significant Cotterman's coefficients of relatedness K1 (IBD1) values were detected between pairs of known parents. Furthermore, significant K2 (IBD2) values were detected in 32 previously annotated parent-child relationships. Consistent with a hypothesis of inbreeding, regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in the offspring of related parents, of which a subset overlapped those reported in previous studies (Gibson et al. 2010; Johnson et al. 2011). In total, we inferred 28 inbred individuals with ROH that overlapped areas of relatedness between the parents and/or IBD2 sharing at a different genomic locus between a child and a parent. Finally, 8 previously annotated parent-child relationships had unexpected K0 (IBD0) values (resulting from a chromosomal abnormality or genotype error), and 10 previously annotated second-degree relationships along with 38 other novel pairwise relationships had unexpected IBD2 (indicating two separate paths of recent ancestry). These newly described types of relatedness may impact the outcome of previous studies and should inform the design of future studies relying on the HapMap Phase III resource. PMID:23185369

  19. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In...

  20. Semantic Modeling for SNPs Associated with Ethnic Disparities in HapMap Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyoYoung Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been emerging out of the efforts to research human diseases and ethnic disparities. A semantic network is needed for in-depth understanding of the impacts of SNPs, because phenotypes are modulated by complex networks, including biochemical and physiological pathways. We identified ethnicity-specific SNPs by eliminating overlapped SNPs from HapMap samples, and the ethnicity-specific SNPs were mapped to the UCSC RefGene lists. Ethnicity-specific genes were identified as follows: 22 genes in the USA (CEU individuals, 25 genes in the Japanese (JPT individuals, and 332 genes in the African (YRI individuals. To analyze the biologically functional implications for ethnicity-specific SNPs, we focused on constructing a semantic network model. Entities for the network represented by "Gene," "Pathway," "Disease," "Chemical," "Drug," "ClinicalTrials," "SNP," and relationships between entity-entity were obtained through curation. Our semantic modeling for ethnicity-specific SNPs showed interesting results in the three categories, including three diseases ("AIDS-associated nephropathy," "Hypertension," and "Pelvic infection", one drug ("Methylphenidate", and five pathways ("Hemostasis," "Systemic lupus erythematosus," "Prostate cancer," "Hepatitis C virus," and "Rheumatoid arthritis". We found ethnicity-specific genes using the semantic modeling, and the majority of our findings was consistent with the previous studies - that an understanding of genetic variability explained ethnicity-specific disparities.

  1. Multi-Device Knob Utility for LCLS at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) the Controls Department (CD) has developed a new Multi-Device Knob Utility (MKB) based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit for controlling one or more Process Variables (PVs) in unison, or simultaneously, from a physical knob located in the control room, or from various software tools such as the EPICS Extensible Display Manager (EDM) or a Swing slider in Java. A group of devices are hooked up to a knob, and then the value written to the devices is a simple function of the value of the knob. This is used, most commonly, to create a bump in the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Control system variables typically controlled are magnetic fields, phases, and timing offsets. This paper describes the technologies used to implement this utility.

  2. Superconducting Magnet Performance in LCLS-II Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. [Fermilab; Cheban, S. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Harms, E. [Fermilab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    New LCLS-II Linear Superconducting Accelerator Cry-omodules are under construction at Fermilab. Installed in-side each SCRF Cryomodule is a superconducting magnet package to focus and steer an electron beam. The magnet package is an iron dominated configuration with conduc-tively cooled racetrack-type quadrupole and dipole coils. For easier installation the magnet can be split in the vertical plane. Initially the magnet was tested in a liquid helium bath, and high precision magnetic field measurements were performed. The first (prototype) Cryomodule with the magnet inside was built and successfully tested at Fermilab test facility. In this paper the magnet package is discussed, the Cryomodule magnet test results and current leads con-duction cooling performance are presented. So far magnets in nine Cryomodules were successfully tested at Fermilab.

  3. Probing Complexity using the LCLS and the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, Nora [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-02-19

    The goal of our research program is to investigate fundamental interactions between photons and molecular/nano-systems to advance our quantitative understanding of electron correlations, charge transfer and many body phenomena. Our research projects focus on probing, on a femtosecond time-scale, multi-electron interactions and tracing nuclear motion in order to understand, and ultimately control energy flow and charge transfer processes from electromagnetic radiation to matter. The experiments will be carried out with state of the art instrumentation built by the P.I. team with funds from a DoE "Single Investigator and Small Group Research" (SISGR) grant. The research projects carried out the past three years consisted of first experiments using the linac coherent light source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility at the SLAC National Laboratory, as well as the study of correlated processes in select anions using the ALS. A report for the past cycle is described in section II. These studies have paved the way for our renewal application for the next three years. Our research interests for the next three years extend our past and present research by carrying out time-resolved measurements described in section III. They will consist of: a) The study of molecular dynamics that happen on ultrafast time scales, using pump-probe schemes and the study of non-linear physics in the x-ray regime via multi-photon absorption from the LCLS. This will be achieved by measuring and examining both electronic and nuclear dynamics subsequent to the interaction of molecules and nano-systems with LCLS pulses of various wavelength, intensity and pulse duration as described in section III.A. b) The study of molecular dynamics and correlated processes via absorption of vuv-soft x-rays from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide single-photon ionization baseline results for LCLS studies. In addition, we will study the photodetachment of anions

  4. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Design Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, Massimo

    1998-12-04

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the wavelength range 1.5-15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called the ''Linac Coherent Light Source'' (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. Starting in FY 1998, the first two-thirds of the SLAC linac will be used for injection into the B factory. This leaves the last one-third free for acceleration to 15 GeV. The LCLS takes advantage of this opportunity, opening the way for the next generation of synchrotron light sources with largely proven technology and cost effective methods. This proposal is consistent with the recommendations of the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (Synchrotron Radiation Light Source Working Group, October 18-19, 1997). The report recognizes that ''fourth-generation x-ray sources...will in all likelihood be based on the free electron laser concepts. If successful, this technology could yield improvements in brightness by many orders of magnitude.'' This Design Study, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of constructing an x-ray FEL based on the SLAC linac. Although this design is based on a consistent and feasible set of parameters, some components require more research and development to guarantee the performance. Given appropriate funding, this R and D phase can be completed in 2 years.

  5. An evaluation of the performance of tag SNPs derived from HapMap in a Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montpetit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haplotype Map (HapMap project recently generated genotype data for more than 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in four population samples. The main application of the data is in the selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs to use in association studies. The usefulness of this selection process needs to be verified in populations outside those used for the HapMap project. In addition, it is not known how well the data represent the general population, as only 90-120 chromosomes were used for each population and since the genotyped SNPs were selected so as to have high frequencies. In this study, we analyzed more than 1,000 individuals from Estonia. The population of this northern European country has been influenced by many different waves of migrations from Europe and Russia. We genotyped 1,536 randomly selected SNPs from two 500-kbp ENCODE regions on Chromosome 2. We observed that the tSNPs selected from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain from Utah (CEU HapMap samples (derived from US residents with northern and western European ancestry captured most of the variation in the Estonia sample. (Between 90% and 95% of the SNPs with a minor allele frequency of more than 5% have an r2 of at least 0.8 with one of the CEU tSNPs. Using the reverse approach, tags selected from the Estonia sample could almost equally well describe the CEU sample. Finally, we observed that the sample size, the allelic frequency, and the SNP density in the dataset used to select the tags each have important effects on the tagging performance. Overall, our study supports the use of HapMap data in other Caucasian populations, but the SNP density and the bias towards high-frequency SNPs have to be taken into account when designing association studies.

  6. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutet, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

  7. Effective selection of informative SNPs and classification on the HapMap genotype data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lipo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are genetic variations which determine the difference between any two unrelated individuals, the SNPs can be used to identify the correct source population of an individual. For efficient population identification with the HapMap genotype data, as few informative SNPs as possible are required from the original 4 million SNPs. Recently, Park et al. (2006 adopted the nearest shrunken centroid method to classify the three populations, i.e., Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe (CEU, Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria in West Africa (YRI, and Han Chinese in Beijing together with Japanese in Tokyo (CHB+JPT, from which 100,736 SNPs were obtained and the top 82 SNPs could completely classify the three populations. Results In this paper, we propose to first rank each feature (SNP using a ranking measure, i.e., a modified t-test or F-statistics. Then from the ranking list, we form different feature subsets by sequentially choosing different numbers of features (e.g., 1, 2, 3, ..., 100. with top ranking values, train and test them by a classifier, e.g., the support vector machine (SVM, thereby finding one subset which has the highest classification accuracy. Compared to the classification method of Park et al., we obtain a better result, i.e., good classification of the 3 populations using on average 64 SNPs. Conclusion Experimental results show that the both of the modified t-test and F-statistics method are very effective in ranking SNPs about their classification capabilities. Combined with the SVM classifier, a desirable feature subset (with the minimum size and most informativeness can be quickly found in the greedy manner after ranking all SNPs. Our method is able to identify a very small number of important SNPs that can determine the populations of individuals.

  8. LCLS-S1 optical transition radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.J.; Yang, B.; Erwin, L.L.; Shoaf, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a high- resolution optical transition radiation (OTR) imaging monitor for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) injection linac at SLAC. The imaging station,OTR-S1, will be located at the S1 spectrometer with a beam energy of 135 MeV. The system will be used to acquire 2-D transverse beam distributions of the accelerated photocathode-gun-generated electron beam. We anticipate an average beam current of 0.2 to 1 nC and nominal beam spot size of 130 mum (sigmax), 100 mum (sigmay). The imaging system was designed for a field of view x/y: 10 times 7.5 mm. The spatial resolution of ∼12 microns was verified over the central 5times4 mm region in the visible. A 12-bit digital camera acquires the image and a Mac-based digital frame-capturing system was employed for the initial lab-based performance testing of the device. We report on system development, testing methods, and data analysis.

  9. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  10. Measurement, sorting and tuning of LCLS undulator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vasserman, I B; Dejus, Roger J; Moog, E; Trakhtenberg, E; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    Currently, a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) prototype undulator is under construction. The prototype is a 3.4-m-long hybrid-type undulator with fixed gap of 6 mm. The period length is 30 mm and the number of poles is 226. For this undulator, 450 NdFeB magnet blocks are used. This project does not have demanding requirements for multipole component errors, but the field strength at x=0 should be as precise as possible to provide proper particle steering and phase errors. The first set of magnetic blocks has been measured. The strength and direction of magnetization of the magnet blocks are measured using a Helmholtz coil system. In addition to this, Hall probe measurements are performed for magnet blocks while they are mounted in a specially designed cassette with vanadium-permendur poles. The magnet blocks will be sorted using these data to minimize errors. Computer simulations show that magnets may be sorted in decreasing strengths with little or no additional tuning of the undulators.

  11. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  12. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glownia, James; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Cryan, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Andreasson, J.; /Uppsala U.; Belkacem, A.; /LBNL, Berkeley; Berrah, N.; /Western Michigan U.; Blaga, C.L.; /Ohio State U.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; /SLAC; DiMauro, L.F.; /Ohio State U.; Fang, L.; /Western Michigan U.; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Gessner, O.; /LBNL; Guhr, M.; /SLAC; Hajdu, J.; /Uppsala U.; Hertlein, M.P.; /LBNL; Hoener, M.; /Western Michigan U. /LBNL; Huang, G.; Kornilov, O.; /LBNL; Marangos, J.P.; /Imperial Coll., London; March, A.M.; /Argonne; McFarland, B.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /IRAMIS, Saclay /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Georgia Tech /Argonne /Kansas State U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /LBNL /Argonne /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

  13. Electron Beam Alignment Strategy in the LCLS Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, H

    2007-01-01

    The x-ray FEL process puts very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (2 (micro)m rms) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight but less stringent tolerances of 80 (micro)m rms vertical and 140 (micro)m rms horizontally are to be met for the placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through beam-based alignment (BBA) based on electron energy variations. Conventional alignment will set the start conditions for BBA. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders and the use of beam-finder wires (BFW) will satisfy placement tolerances. Girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes will be monitored continuously by an alignment monitoring system (ADS) and remotely corrected. This stabilization of components as well as the monitoring and correction of the electron beam trajectory based on BPMs and correctors will increase the time between BBA applications. Undulator segments will be periodically removed from the undulator Hall and measured to monitor radiation damage and other effects that might degrade undulator tuning

  14. Helium cryosystem for the X-ray laser LCLS-II; Heliumkryosystem fuer den Roentgenlaser LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueckhahn, Dirk; Fauve, Eric; Heloin, Vincent; Ravindranath, Viswanath; Ross, Marc [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source-II project represents the expansion of the LCLS free-electron laser, which has been successfully operated at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory since 2009. In collaboration with several national institutes, 37 cryomodules with superconducting accelerator cavities will be installed in a 700 m long section of the existing tunnel. The use of superconducting accelerator technology will enable particle energy of up to 4 GeV in CW (continuous wave) operation. Two identical cryogenic systems with an equivalent output of 18 kW each at 4.5 K are described below. The plants supply the linear accelerator with helium at several temperature levels. Superfluid helium II provides the cooling necessary to maintain superconductivity in the cavities. The operating temperature of the 1.3 GHz cavities has been set at 2 K. Two further helium circuits are used for shield cooling at approx. 35 K and cooling of heat loads at 5 K level. The purely dynamic compression of the cold helium vapour is a technical feature of the systems described here. In a five-stage chain of cold compressors of 32 mbar at the cavities, it is absolutely compressed to the suction pressure of the circulation compressors at approx. 1 bar. [German] Das Linac Coherent Light Source-II Projekt stellt die Erweiterung des seit 2009 erfolgreich betriebenen Freie- Elektronen-Lasers LCLS am SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory dar. In Kollaboration mit mehreren nationalen Instituten werden in einem 700 m langen Teilstueck des bereits bestehenden Tunnels 37 Kryomodule mit supraleitenden Beschleunigerkavitaeten installiert. Der Einsatz von supraleitender Beschleunigertechnologie wird eine Teilchenenergie von bis zu 4 GeV im CW (continous wave) Betrieb ermoeglichen. Zwei identische Kryoanlagen mit einer aequivalenten Leistung von je 18 kW bei 4,5 K werden im Folgenden beschrieben. Die Anlagen versorgen den Linearbeschleuniger mit Helium auf mehreren Temperaturniveaus. Superfluides Helium

  15. BEAM OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR AN X-RAY FEL OSCILLATOR AT THE LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weilun; Huang, S.; Liu, K.X.; Huang, Z; Ding, Y.; Maxwell, T.J.; Kim, K.-J.

    2016-06-01

    The 4 GeV LCLS-II superconducting linac with high repetition beam rate enables the possibility to drive an X-Ray FEL oscillator at harmonic frequencies *. Compared to the regular LCLS-II machine setup, the oscillator mode requires a much longer bunch length with a relatively lower current. Also a flat longitudinal phase space distribution is critical to maintain the FEL gain since the X-ray cavity has extremely narrow bandwidth. In this paper, we study the longitudinal phase space optimization including shaping the initial beam from the injector and optimizing the bunch compressor and dechirper parameters. We obtain a bunch with a flat energy chirp over 400 fs in the core part with current above 100 A. The optimization was based on LiTrack and Elegant simulations using LCLS-II beam parameters.

  16. RESULTS OF ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING OF LCLS-II CAVITY TUNER MOTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    An Accelerated Life Test (ALT) of the Phytron stepper motor used in the LCLS-II cavity tuner has been conducted at JLab. Since the motor will reside inside the cryomodule, any failure would lead to a very costly and arduous repair. As such, the motor was tested for the equivalent of 30 lifetimes before being approved for use in the production cryomodules. The 9-cell LCLS-II cavity is simulated by disc springs with an equivalent spring constant. Plots of the motor position vs. tuner position ' measured via an installed linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) ' are used to measure motor motion. The titanium spindle was inspected for loss of lubrication. The motor passed the ALT, and is set to be installed in the LCLS-II cryomodules.

  17. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.

    2011-01-01

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  18. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that

  19. Reprogramming LCLs to iPSCs Results in Recovery of Donor-Specific Gene Expression Signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable in vitro cell cultures, such as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, have facilitated studies that contributed to our understanding of genetic influence on human traits. However, the degree to which cell lines faithfully maintain differences in donor-specific phenotypes is still debated. We have previously reported that standard cell line maintenance practice results in a loss of donor-specific gene expression signatures in LCLs. An alternative to the LCL model is the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC system, which carries the potential to model tissue-specific physiology through the use of differentiation protocols. Still, existing LCL banks represent an important source of starting material for iPSC generation, and it is possible that the disruptions in gene regulation associated with long-term LCL maintenance could persist through the reprogramming process. To address this concern, we studied the effect of reprogramming mature LCL cultures from six unrelated donors to iPSCs on the ensuing gene expression patterns within and between individuals. We show that the reprogramming process results in a recovery of donor-specific gene regulatory signatures, increasing the number of genes with a detectable donor effect by an order of magnitude. The proportion of variation in gene expression statistically attributed to donor increases from 6.9% in LCLs to 24.5% in iPSCs (P < 10-15. Since environmental contributions are unlikely to be a source of individual variation in our system of highly passaged cultured cell lines, our observations suggest that the effect of genotype on gene regulation is more pronounced in iPSCs than in LCLs. Our findings indicate that iPSCs can be a powerful model system for studies of phenotypic variation across individuals in general, and the genetic association with variation in gene regulation in particular. We further conclude that LCLs are an appropriate starting material for iPSC generation.

  20. Self-seeded operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL in the long-bunch mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Self-seeding options for the LCLS baseline were recently investigated using a scheme which relies on a single-crystal monochromator in Bragg-transmission geometry. The LCLS low-charge (0.02 nC) mode of operation was considered in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. The wakefield effects from the linac and from the undulator vacuum chamber are much reduced at such low charge, and can be ignored. In this paper we extend our previous investigations to the case of the LCLS mode of operation with nominal charge. Based on the LCLS start-to-end simulation for an electron beam charge of 0.25 nC, and accounting for the wakefields from the undulator vacuum chamber we demonstrate that the same simplest self-seeding system (two undulators with a single-crystal monochromator in between) is appropriate not only for short (few femtosecond) bunches, but for longer bunches too. (orig.)

  1. Self-seeded operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL in the long-bunch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-12-01

    Self-seeding options for the LCLS baseline were recently investigated using a scheme which relies on a single-crystal monochromator in Bragg-transmission geometry. The LCLS low-charge (0.02 nC) mode of operation was considered in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. The wakefield effects from the linac and from the undulator vacuum chamber are much reduced at such low charge, and can be ignored. In this paper we extend our previous investigations to the case of the LCLS mode of operation with nominal charge. Based on the LCLS start-to-end simulation for an electron beam charge of 0.25 nC, and accounting for the wakefields from the undulator vacuum chamber we demonstrate that the same simplest self-seeding system (two undulators with a single-crystal monochromator in between) is appropriate not only for short (few femtosecond) bunches, but for longer bunches too. (orig.)

  2. Infrared (IR) vs x-ray power generation in the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-05-01

    The LCLS, a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) designed for operation at a first harmonic energy of 300 eV (λ congruent 40 Angstrom) in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime, will utilize electron bunches compressed down to durations of <0.5ps, or lengths of <150 μ. It is natural to inquire whether coherent radiation of this (and longer) wavelength will constitute a significant component of the total coherent output of the FEL. In this paper a determination of a simple upper bound on the IR that can be generated by the compressed bunches is outlines. Under the assumed operating parameters of the LCLS undulator, it is shown that that IR component of the coherent output should be strongly dominated by the x-ray component

  3. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  4. Laser power meters as an X-ray power diagnostic for LCLS-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Philip; Moeller, Stefan; Carbajo, Sergio; Song, Sanghoon; Dakovski, Georgi; Nordlund, Dennis; Fritz, David

    2018-01-01

    For the LCLS-II X-ray instruments, laser power meters are being developed as compact X-ray power diagnostics to operate at soft and tender X-ray photon energies. These diagnostics can be installed at various locations along an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) beamline in order to monitor the transmission of X-ray optics along the beam path. In addition, the power meters will be used to determine the absolute X-ray power at the endstations. Here, thermopile power meters, which measure average power, and have been chosen primarily for their compatibility with the high repetition rates at LCLS-II, are evaluated. A number of characteristics in the soft X-ray range are presented including linearity, calibrations conducted with a photodiode and a gas monitor detector as well as ultra-high-vacuum compatibility tests using residual gas analysis. The application of these power meters for LCLS-II and other X-ray FEL sources is discussed.

  5. Industrialization of the nitrogen-doping preparation for SRF cavities for LCLS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnella, D.; Aderhold, S.; Burrill, A.; Daly, E.; Davis, K.; Grassellino, A.; Grimm, C.; Khabiboulline, T.; Marhauser, F.; Melnychuk, O.; Palczewski, A.; Posen, S.; Ross, M.; Sergatskov, D.; Sukhanov, A.; Trenikhina, Y.; Wilson, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) is a new state-of-the-art coherent X-ray source being constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. It employs 280 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in order operate in continuous wave (CW) mode. To reduce the overall cryogenic cost of such a large accelerator, nitrogen-doping of the SRF cavities is being used. Nitrogen-doping has consistently been shown to increase the efficiency of SRF cavities operating in the 2.0 K regime and at medium fields (15-20 MV/m) in vertical cavity tests and horizontal cryomodule tests. While nitrogen-doping's efficacy for improvement of cavity performance was demonstrated at three independent labs, Fermilab, Jefferson Lab, and Cornell University, transfer of the technology to industry for LCLS-II production was not without challenges. Here we present results from the beginning of LCLS-II cavity production. We discuss qualification of the cavity vendors and the first cavities from each vendor. Finally, we demonstrate that nitrogen-doping has been successfully transferred to SRF cavity vendors, resulting in consistent production of cavities with better cryogenic efficiency than has ever been achieved for a large-scale accelerator.

  6. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  7. Comparison of Antidepressant Efficacy-related SNPs Among Taiwanese and Four Populations in the HapMap Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hung Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on antidepressant efficacy has been previously demonstrated. To evaluate whether there are ethnic differences, we compared the allele frequencies of antidepressant efficacy-related SNPs between the Taiwanese population and four other populations in the HapMap database. We recruited 198 Taiwanese major depression patients and 106 Taiwanese controls. A panel of possible relevant SNPs (in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, interleukin 1 beta, and G-protein beta 3 subunit genes was selected for comparisons of allele frequencies using the χ2 test. Our results suggested no difference between Taiwanese patients and controls, but there were significant differences among Taiwanese controls and the other four ethnic groups in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, interleukin 1 beta and G-protein beta 3 subunit genes. We conclude that there are ethnic differences in the allele frequencies of antidepressant efficacy-related SNPs, and that the degree of variations is consistent with geographic distances. Further investigation is required to verify the attribution of genetic differences to ethnic-specific antidepressant responses.

  8. Genome-wide screen for universal individual identification SNPs based on the HapMap and 1000 Genomes databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Erwen; Liu, Changhui; Zheng, Jingjing; Han, Xiaolong; Du, Weian; Huang, Yuanjian; Li, Chengshi; Wang, Xiaoguang; Tong, Dayue; Ou, Xueling; Sun, Hongyu; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-03

    Differences among SNP panels for individual identification in SNP-selecting and populations led to few common SNPs, compromising their universal applicability. To screen all universal SNPs, we performed a genome-wide SNP mining in multiple populations based on HapMap and 1000Genomes databases. SNPs with high minor allele frequencies (MAF) in 37 populations were selected. With MAF from ≥0.35 to ≥0.43, the number of selected SNPs decreased from 2769 to 0. A total of 117 SNPs with MAF ≥0.39 have no linkage disequilibrium with each other in every population. For 116 of the 117 SNPs, cumulative match probability (CMP) ranged from 2.01 × 10-48 to 1.93 × 10-50 and cumulative exclusion probability (CEP) ranged from 0.9999999996653 to 0.9999999999945. In 134 tested Han samples, 110 of the 117 SNPs remained within high MAF and conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with CMP = 4.70 × 10-47 and CEP = 0.999999999862. By analyzing the same number of autosomal SNPs as in the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel, i.e. 90 randomized out of the 110 SNPs, our panel yielded preferable CMP and CEP. Taken together, the 110-SNPs panel is advantageous for forensic test, and this study provided plenty of highly informative SNPs for compiling final universal panels.

  9. Circular polarization control for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The LCLS baseline includes a planar undulator system, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nm. In the soft X-ray wavelength region polarization control from linear to circular is highly desirable for studying ultrafast magnetic phenomena and material science issues. Several schemes using helical undulators have been discussed in the context of the LCLS. One consists in replacing three of the last planar undulator segments by helical (APPLE III) ones. A second proposal, the 2nd harmonic helical afterburner, is based on the use of short, crossed undulators tuned to the second harmonic. This last scheme is expected to be the better one. Its advantages are a high (over 90%) and stable degree of circular polarization and a low cost. Its disadvantage is a small output power (1% of the power at the fundamental harmonic) and a narrow wavelength range. We propose a novel method to generate 10 GW level power at the fundamental harmonic with 99% degree of circular polarization from the LCLS baseline. Its merits are low cost, simplicity and easy implementation. In the option presented here, the microbunching of the planar undulator is used too. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is sent through a 40 m long straight section, and subsequently passes through a short helical (APPLE II) radiator. In this case the microbunch structure is easily preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. The background radiation from the baseline undulator can be easily suppressed by letting radiation and electron beamthrough horizontal and vertical slits upstream the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron bunch transverse size. Using thin Beryllium foils for the slits the divergence of the electron beam halo will increase by Coulomb scattering, but the beam will propagate through the setup without electron losses. The applicability of our method is not

  10. Radiation containment at a 1 MW high energy electron accelerator: Status of LCLS-II radiation physics design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner M. Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LCLS-II will add a 4 GeV, 1 MHz, SCRF electron accelerator in the first 700 meters of the SLAC 2-mile Linac, as well as adjustable gap polarized undulators in the down-beam electron lines, to produce tunable, fully coherent X-rays in programmable bunch patterns. This facility will work in unison with the existing Linac Coherent Light Source, which uses the legacy copper cavities in the last third of the linac to deliver electrons between 2 and 17 GeV to an undulator line. The upgrade plan includes new beam lines, five stages of state of the art collimation that shall clean the high-power beam well up-beam of the radio-sensitive undulators, and new electron and photon beam dumps. This paper describes the challenges encountered to define efficient measures to protect machine, personnel, public and the environment from the potentially destructive power of the beam, while maximizing the reuse of existing components and infrastructure, and allowing for complex operational modes.

  11. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Matthew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  12. Ultrafast studies of shock-induced melting and phase transitions at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Malcolm

    The study of shock-induced phase transitions, which is vital to the understanding of material response to rapid pressure changes, dates back to the 1950s, when Bankcroft et al reported a transition in iron. Since then, many transitions have been reported in a wide range of materials, but, due to the lack of sufficiently bright x-ray sources, the structural details of these new phases has been notably lacking. While the development of nanosecond in situ x-ray diffraction has meant that lattice-level studies of such phenomena have become possible, including studies of the phase transition reported 60 years ago in iron, the quality of the diffraction data from such studies is noticeably poorer than that obtained from statically-compressed samples on synchrotrons. The advent of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), such as the LCLS, has resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the quality of diffraction data that can be obtained from shock-compressed matter. Here I describe the results from three recent experiment at the LCLS that looked at the solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions in Sb, Bi and Sc using single 50 fs x-ray exposures. The results provide new insight into the structural changes and melting induced by shock compression. This work is supported by EPSRC under Grant No. EP/J017051/1. Use of the LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  13. Evidence of Wigner rotation phenomena in the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-07-01

    A result from particle tracking states that, after a microbunched electron beam is kicked, its trajectory changes while the orientation of the microbunching wavefront remains as before. Experiments at the LCLS showed that radiation in the kicked direction is produced practically without suppression. This could be explained if the orientation of the microbunching wavefront is readjusted along the kicked direction. In previous papers we showed that when the evolution of the electron beam modulation is treated according to relativistic kinematics, the orientation of the microbunching wavefront in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity. There we refrained from using advanced theoretical concepts to explain or analyze the wavefront rotation. For example, we only hinted to the relation of this phenomenon with the concept of Wigner rotation. This more abstract view of wavefront rotation underlines its elementary nature. The Wigner rotation is known as a fundamental effect in elementary particle physics. The composition of non collinear boosts does not result in a simple boost but, rather, in a Lorentz transformation involving a boost and a rotation, the Wigner rotation. Here we show that during the LCLS experiments, a Wigner rotation was actually directly recorded for the first time with a ultrarelativistic, macroscopic object: an ultrarelativistic electron bunch in an XFEL modulated at nm-scale of the size of about 10 microns. Here we point out the role of Wigner rotation in the analysis and interpretation of experiments with ultrarelativistic, microbunched electron beams in FELs. After the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS it became clear that, in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic, the projection of the microbunching wave vector onto the beam velocity is a Lorentz invariant, similar to the helicity in particle physics.

  14. Evidence of Wigner rotation phenomena in the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    A result from particle tracking states that, after a microbunched electron beam is kicked, its trajectory changes while the orientation of the microbunching wavefront remains as before. Experiments at the LCLS showed that radiation in the kicked direction is produced practically without suppression. This could be explained if the orientation of the microbunching wavefront is readjusted along the kicked direction. In previous papers we showed that when the evolution of the electron beam modulation is treated according to relativistic kinematics, the orientation of the microbunching wavefront in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity. There we refrained from using advanced theoretical concepts to explain or analyze the wavefront rotation. For example, we only hinted to the relation of this phenomenon with the concept of Wigner rotation. This more abstract view of wavefront rotation underlines its elementary nature. The Wigner rotation is known as a fundamental effect in elementary particle physics. The composition of non collinear boosts does not result in a simple boost but, rather, in a Lorentz transformation involving a boost and a rotation, the Wigner rotation. Here we show that during the LCLS experiments, a Wigner rotation was actually directly recorded for the first time with a ultrarelativistic, macroscopic object: an ultrarelativistic electron bunch in an XFEL modulated at nm-scale of the size of about 10 microns. Here we point out the role of Wigner rotation in the analysis and interpretation of experiments with ultrarelativistic, microbunched electron beams in FELs. After the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS it became clear that, in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic, the projection of the microbunching wave vector onto the beam velocity is a Lorentz invariant, similar to the helicity in particle physics.

  15. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation as a Diagnostic Tool for the LCLS Longitudinal Feedback System

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, a longitudinal feedback system is required together with other diagnostics. In this paper, we study the possibility of using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) from the chicane as the diagnostic tool for bunch length feedback. Calculations show that CSR is a good candidate, even for the non-Gaussian, double-horn longitudinal charge distribution. We further check the feasibility for low and high charge options, and also the possibility for detecting the microbunching.

  16. Mechanical Design and Analysis of LCLS II 2 K Cold Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Rath, D.; Bevins, M.; Bai, H.; Kaminski, S.; Ravindranath, V.

    2017-12-01

    The mechanical design and analysis of the LCLS II 2 K cold box are presented. Its feature and functionality are discussed. ASME B31.3 was used to design its internal piping, and compliance of the piping code was ensured through flexibility analysis. The 2 K cold box was analyzed using ANSYS 17.2; the requirements of the applicable codes—ASME Section VIII Division 2 and ASCE 7-10—were satisfied. Seismic load was explicitly considered in both analyses.

  17. Laser Safety for the Experimental Halls at SLAC_s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; Anthony, Perry; /SLAC; Barat, Ken; /LBL, Berkeley; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Greg; White, William E.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    The LCLS at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will be the world's first source of an intense hard x-ray laser beam, generating x-rays with wavelengths of 1nm and pulse durations less than 100fs. The ultrafast x-ray pulses will be used in pump-probe experiments to take stop-motion pictures of atoms and molecules in motion, with pulses powerful enough to take diffraction images of single molecules, enabling scientists to elucidate fundamental processes of chemistry and biology. Ultrafast conventional lasers will be used as the pump. In 2009, LCLS will deliver beam to the Atomic Molecular and Optical (AMO) Experiment, located in one of 3 x-ray Hutches in the Near Experimental Hall (NEH). The NEH includes a centralized Laser Hall, containing up to three Class 4 laser systems, three x-ray Hutches for experiments and vacuum transport tubes for delivering laser beams to the Hutches. The main components of the NEH laser systems are a Ti:sapphire oscillator, a regen amplifier, green pump lasers for the oscillator and regen, a pulse compressor and a harmonics conversion unit. Laser safety considerations and controls for the ultrafast laser beams, multiple laser controlled areas, and user facility issues are discussed.

  18. LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design - lessons learned from testing at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, J.; Hurd, J.; Orlov, Y.; He, Y.; Bossert, R.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; Atassi, O. Al; Wang, R.; Arkan, T.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; White, M.; Wu, G.; Makara, J.; Ginsburg, C.; Pei, L.; Holzbauer, J.; Hansen, B.; Stanek, R.; Peterson, T.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    Fermilab’s 1.3 GHz prototype cryomodule for the Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade (LCLS-II) has been tested at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Aspects of the cryomodule design have been studied and tested. The cooldown circuit was used to quickly cool the cavities through the transition temperature, and a heater on the circuit was used to heat incoming helium for warmup. Due to the 0.5% slope of the cryomodule, the liquid level is not constant along the length of the cryomodule. This slope as well as the pressure profile caused liquid level management to be a challenge. The microphonics levels in the cryomodule were studied and efforts were made to reduce them throughout testing. Some of the design approaches and studies performed on these aspects will be presented. Fermilab is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy. This work was supported, in part, by the LCLS-II Project.

  19. Fresh Slice Self-Seeding and Fresh Slice Harmonic Lasing at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the successful demonstration of fresh slice self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).* The performance is compared with SASE and regular self-seeding at photon energy of 5.5 keV, resulting in a relative average brightness increase of a factor of 12 and a factor of 2 respectively. Following this proof-of-principle we discuss the forthcoming plans to use the same technique** for fresh slice harmonic lasing in an upcoming experiment. The demonstration of fresh slice harmonic lasing provides an attractive solution for future XFELs aiming to achieve high efficiency, high brightness X-ray pulses at high photon energies (>12 keV).***

  20. Transport of LCLS-II 1.3 Ghz cryomodule to SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M. W.; Arkan, T.; Peterson, T.; Tang, Z.; Boo, S.; Carrasco, M.; Daly, E.; Huque, N.

    2016-06-30

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These include a prototype built and delivered by each Lab. Another two 3.9 GHz cryomodules will be built, tested and transported by Fermilab to SLAC. Each assembly will be transported over-the-road from Fermilab or Jefferson Lab using specific routes to SLAC. The transport system consists of a base frame, isolation fixture and upper protective truss. The strongback cryomodule lifting fixture is described along with other supporting equipment used for both over-the-road transport and local (on-site) transport at Fermilab. Initially, analysis of fragile components and stability studies will be performed in order to assess the risk associated with over-the-road transport of a fully assembled cryomodule.

  1. Measurements of Compression and Emittance Growth after the First LCLS Bunch Compressor Chicane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray free-electron laser project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section from RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane was installed during the fall of 2006. The first bunch compressor is located at 250 MeV and nominally compresses a 1-nC electron bunch from an rms length of about 1 mm to 0.2 mm. Transverse phase space and bunch length diagnostics are located immediately after the chicane. We present preliminary measurements and simulations of the longitudinal and transverse phase space after the chicane in various beam conditions, including extreme compression with micron-scale current spikes

  2. A 2--4 nm Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-05-01

    We describe the use of the SLAC linac to drive a unique, powerful. short wavelength Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Operating as an FEL, lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a high peak current electron beam through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The main components are a high-brightness rf photocathode electron gun; pulse compressors; about 1/5 of the SLAC linac; and a long undulator with a FODO quadrupole focussing system. Using electrons below 8 GeV, the system would operate at wavelengths down to about 3 nm, producing ≥10 GW peak power in sub-ps pulses. At a 120 Hz rate the average power is ∼ 1 W

  3. Thermal-Mechanical Study of 3.9 GHz CW Coupler and Cavity for LCLS-II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, Ivan [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Khabiboulline, Timergali [Fermilab; Solyak, Nikolay [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Third harmonic system was originally developed by Fermilab for FLASH facility at DESY and then was adopted and modified by INFN for the XFEL project [1-3]. In contrast to XFEL project, all cryomodules in LCLS-II project will operate in CW regime with higher RF average power for 1.3 GHz and 3.9 GHz cavities and couplers. Design of the cavity and fundamental power coupler has been modified to satisfy LCLS-II requirements. In this paper we discuss the results of COMSOL thermal and mechanical analysis of the 3.9 GHz coupler and cavity to verify proposed modifica-tion of the design. For the dressed cavity we present simulations of Lorentz force detuning, helium pressure sensitivity df/dP and major mechanical resonances.

  4. Michelson interferometer design for Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) applications in the 15-1.5 Aa wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    2000-01-01

    In recent years the continuing development of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XRFEL) designs has significantly expanded the parameter space associated with 3rd and earlier-generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, in contrast to the >100 ps pulse durations typical of storage rings, temporal lengths extending down to the <100 fs regime will become available. For example, for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) a pulse duration of ∼200-300 fs with finer temporal features extending down to ∼1 fs is anticipated. The characterization of the phase space distributions of such pulses poses a significant challenge for instrumentation design both with regard to the brevity of the pulse structure as well as the X-ray (15-1.5 Aa) wavelength range of the FEL line. In this paper we assess a Michelson interferometer design aimed at characterizing the coherence length of the SLAC LCLS and discuss considerations related to its operation

  5. Research and development toward a 4.5-1.5{angstrom} linac coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the theoretical and technical feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 {Angstrom}) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation include: (1) a peak current in the 3-7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, ad (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}{le}{lambda}/4{pi}, where {lambda}[m] is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.1-0.2% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 4-8 m for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to {approximately}20 {angstrom}, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 {angstrom} LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas. These include the construction and operation of a linac test stand for developing laser-driven photocathode rf guns with normalized emittances approaching 1 mm-mr; development of advanced beam compression, stability, an emittance control techniques at multi-GeV energies; the construction and operation of a FEL Amplifier Test Experiment (FATE) for theoretical and experimental studies of SASE at IR wavelengths; an undulator development program to investigate superconducting, hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM), and pulsed-Cu technologies; theoretical and computational studies of high-gain FEL physics and LCLS component designs.

  6. Scheme for generating and transporting THz radiation to the X-ray experimental floor at LCLS baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes a novel scheme for integrating a coherent THz source in the baseline of the LCLS facility. Any method relying on the spent electron beam downstream of the baseline undulator should provide a way of transporting the radiation up to the experimental floor.Herewe propose to use the dump area access maze. In this way the THz output must propagate with limited size at least for one hundred meters in a maze, following many turns, to reach the near experimental hall. The use of a standard, discrete, open beam-waveguide formed by periodic reflectors, that is a mirror guide, would lead to unacceptable size of the system. To avoid these problems, in this paper we propose an alternative approach based on periodically spaced metallic screens with holes. This quasi-optical transmission line is referred to as an iris line. We present complete calculations for the iris line using both analytical and numerical methods, which we find in good agreement. We present a design of a THz edge radiation source based on the use of an iris line. The proposed setup takes almost no cost nor time to be implemented at the LCLS baseline, and can be used at other facilities as well. The edge radiation source is limited in maximally achievable field strength at the sample. An extension based on the use of an undulator in the presence of the iris line, which is feasible at the LCLS energies, is proposed as a possible upgrade of the baseline THz source. (orig)

  7. Research and Development Toward a 4.5-1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at SLAC to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 A) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation in a minimal time include: (1) a peak current in the 7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, and (3) a transverse emittance, ε[r-m], approximating the diffraction limit condition ε = λ / 4π, where lambda(m) is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.02% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 8 m/rad for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress has been made in developing individual components and beam processing techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to approx. 20 A, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 A LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas

  8. Scheme for generating and transporting THz radiation to the X-ray experimental floor at LCLS baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes a novel scheme for integrating a coherent THz source in the baseline of the LCLS facility. Any method relying on the spent electron beam downstream of the baseline undulator should provide a way of transporting the radiation up to the experimental floor.Herewe propose to use the dump area access maze. In this way the THz output must propagate with limited size at least for one hundred meters in a maze, following many turns, to reach the near experimental hall. The use of a standard, discrete, open beam-waveguide formed by periodic reflectors, that is a mirror guide, would lead to unacceptable size of the system. To avoid these problems, in this paper we propose an alternative approach based on periodically spaced metallic screens with holes. This quasi-optical transmission line is referred to as an iris line. We present complete calculations for the iris line using both analytical and numerical methods, which we find in good agreement. We present a design of a THz edge radiation source based on the use of an iris line. The proposed setup takes almost no cost nor time to be implemented at the LCLS baseline, and can be used at other facilities as well. The edge radiation source is limited in maximally achievable field strength at the sample. An extension based on the use of an undulator in the presence of the iris line, which is feasible at the LCLS energies, is proposed as a possible upgrade of the baseline THz source. (orig)

  9. LLRF Control of High Loaded-Q Cavities for the LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Carlos [LBNL, Berkeley; Babel, Sandeep [SLAC; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [Jefferson Lab; Boyes, Matt [SLAC; Chase, Brian [Fermilab; Cullerton, Ed [Fermilab; Doolittle, Lawrence [LBNL, Berkeley; Einstein, Joshua [Fermilab; Hong, Bo [SLAC; Hovater, Curt [Jefferson Lab; Huang, Gang [LBNL, Berkeley; Ratti, Alessandro [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-06-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is planning an upgrade (LCLS-II) to the Linear Coherent Light Source with a 4 GeV CW Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) linac. The nature of the machine places stringent requirements in the Low-Level RF (LLRF) system, expected to control the cavity fields within 0.01 degrees in phase and 0.01% in amplitude, which is equivalent to a longitudinal motion of the cavity structure in the nanometer range. This stability has been achieved in the past but never for hundreds of superconducting cavities in Continuous-Wave (CW) operation. The difficulty resides in providing the ability to reject disturbances from the cryomodule, which is incompletely known as it depends on the cryomodule structure itself (currently under development at JLab and Fermilab) and the harsh accelerator environment. Previous experience in the field and an extrapolation to the cavity design parameters (relatively high Q_{L}c≈ 4×10⁷ , implying a half-bandwidth of around 16 Hz) suggest the use of strong RF feedback to reject the projected noise disturbances, which in turn demands careful engineering of the entire system.

  10. Microbunch preserving in-line system for an APPLE II helical radiator at the LCLS baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL Project Team, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    In a previous work we proposed a scheme for polarization control at the LCLS baseline, which exploited the microbunching from the planar undulator. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is transported through a drift by a FODO focusing system, and through a short helical radiator. The microbunching structure can be preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical undulator at fundamental harmonic. The driving idea of this proposal is that the background linearly-polarized radiation from the baseline undulator is suppressed by spatial filtering. Filtering is achieved by letting radiation and electron beam through Be slits upstream of the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron beam transverse size. Several changes considered in the present paper were made to improve the previous design. Slits are now placed immediately behind the helical radiator. The advantage is that the electron beam can be spoiled by the slits, and narrower slits width can be used for spatial filtering. Due to this fundamental reason, the present setup is shorter than the previous one. The helical radiator is now placed immediately behind the SHAB undulator. It is thus sufficient to use the existing FODO focusing system of the SHAB undulator for transporting themodulated electron beam. This paper presents complete GENESIS code calculations for the new design, starting from the baseline undulator entrance up to the helical radiator exit including the modulated electron beam transport by the SHAB FODO focusing system. (orig.)

  11. Data Acquisition in a High Harmonic Generation Lab and at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirokawa, Takako; /U. Colorado, Boulder /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    In this paper, we examine data acquisition in a high harmonic generation (HHG) lab and preliminary data analysis with the Cyclohexadiene Collaboration at the Linac Coherent Lightsource (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. HHG experiments have a large number of parameters that need to be monitored constantly. In particular, the pressure of the target is critical to HHG yield. However, this pressure can fluctuate wildly and without a tool to monitor it, it is difficult to analyze the correlation between HHG yield and the pressure. I used the Arduino microcontroller board and created a complementary MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI), thereby enhancing the ease with which users can acquire time-stamped parameter data. Using the Arduino, it is much easier to match the pressure to the corresponding HHG yield. Collecting data by using the Arduino and the GUI is flexible, user-friendly, and cost-effective. In the future, we hope to be able to control and monitor parts of the lab with the Arduino alone. While more parameter information is needed in the HHG lab, we needed to reduce the amount of data during the cyclohexadiene collaboration. This was achieved by sorting the data into bins and filtering out unnecessary details. This method was highly effective in that it minimized the amount of data without losing any valuable information. This effective preliminary data analysis technique will continue to be used to decrease the size of the collected data.

  12. ePix: a class of architectures for second generation LCLS cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragone, A; Caragiulo, P; Markovic, B; Herbst, R; Reese, B; Herrmann, S C; Hart, P A; Segal, J; Carini, G A; Kenney, C J; Haller, G

    2014-01-01

    ePix is a novel class of ASIC architectures, based on a common platform, optimized to build modular scalable detectors for LCLS. The platform architecture is composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters per column. It also implements a dedicated control interface and all the required support electronics to perform configuration, calibration and readout of the matrix. Based on this platform a class of front-end ASICs and several camera modules, meeting different requirements, can be developed by designing specific pixel architectures. This approach reduces development time and expands the possibility of integration of detector modules with different size, shape or functionality in the same camera. The ePix platform is currently under development together with the first two integrating pixel architectures: ePix100 dedicated to ultra low noise applications and ePix10k for high dynamic range applications.

  13. Production of Copper-Plated Beamline Bellows and Spools for LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Katherine M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Carpenter, Brian C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Ed [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Huque, Naeem A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Peshehonoff, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arkan, Tug [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lunin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Premo, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is currently constructing a major upgrade to its accelerator, the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II). Several Department of Energy national laboratories, including the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), are participating in this project. The 1.3-GHz cryomodules for this project consist of eight cavities separated by bellows (expansion joints) and spools (tube sections), which are copper plated for RF conduction. JLab is responsible for procurement of these bellows and spools, which are delivered to JLab and FNAL for assembly into cryomodules. Achieving accelerator-grade copper plating is always a challenge and requires careful specification of requirements and application of quality control processes. Due to the demanding technical requirements of this part, JLab implemented procurement strategies to make the process more efficient as well as provide process redundancy. This paper discusses the manufacturing challenges that were encountered and resolved, as well as the strategies that were employed to minimize the impact of any technical issues.

  14. Microbunch preserving in-line system for an APPLE II helical radiator at the LCLS baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-05-01

    In a previous work we proposed a scheme for polarization control at the LCLS baseline, which exploited the microbunching from the planar undulator. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is transported through a drift by a FODO focusing system, and through a short helical radiator. The microbunching structure can be preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical undulator at fundamental harmonic. The driving idea of this proposal is that the background linearly-polarized radiation from the baseline undulator is suppressed by spatial filtering. Filtering is achieved by letting radiation and electron beam through Be slits upstream of the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron beam transverse size. Several changes considered in the present paper were made to improve the previous design. Slits are now placed immediately behind the helical radiator. The advantage is that the electron beam can be spoiled by the slits, and narrower slits width can be used for spatial filtering. Due to this fundamental reason, the present setup is shorter than the previous one. The helical radiator is now placed immediately behind the SHAB undulator. It is thus sufficient to use the existing FODO focusing system of the SHAB undulator for transporting themodulated electron beam. This paper presents complete GENESIS code calculations for the new design, starting from the baseline undulator entrance up to the helical radiator exit including the modulated electron beam transport by the SHAB FODO focusing system. (orig.)

  15. Data Acquisition in a High Harmonic Generation Lab and at LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine data acquisition in a high harmonic generation (HHG) lab and preliminary data analysis with the Cyclohexadiene Collaboration at the Linac Coherent Lightsource (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. HHG experiments have a large number of parameters that need to be monitored constantly. In particular, the pressure of the target is critical to HHG yield. However, this pressure can fluctuate wildly and without a tool to monitor it, it is difficult to analyze the correlation between HHG yield and the pressure. I used the Arduino microcontroller board and created a complementary MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI), thereby enhancing the ease with which users can acquire time-stamped parameter data. Using the Arduino, it is much easier to match the pressure to the corresponding HHG yield. Collecting data by using the Arduino and the GUI is flexible, user-friendly, and cost-effective. In the future, we hope to be able to control and monitor parts of the lab with the Arduino alone. While more parameter information is needed in the HHG lab, we needed to reduce the amount of data during the cyclohexadiene collaboration. This was achieved by sorting the data into bins and filtering out unnecessary details. This method was highly effective in that it minimized the amount of data without losing any valuable information. This effective preliminary data analysis technique will continue to be used to decrease the size of the collected data.

  16. Imputation of variants from the 1000 Genomes Project modestly improves known associations and can identify low-frequency variant-phenotype associations undetected by HapMap based imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew R; Perry, John R B; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hernandez, Dena G; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Melzer, David; Gibbs, J Raphael; Nalls, Michael A; Weedon, Michael N; Spector, Tim D; Richards, J Brent; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B; Frayling, Timothy M

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been limited by the reliance on common variants present on microarrays or imputable from the HapMap Project data. More recently, the completion of the 1000 Genomes Project has provided variant and haplotype information for several million variants derived from sequencing over 1,000 individuals. To help understand the extent to which more variants (including low frequency (1% ≤ MAF 1000 Genomes imputation, respectively, and 9 and 11 that reached a stricter, likely conservative, threshold of P1000 Genomes genotype data modestly improved the strength of known associations. Of 20 associations detected at P1000 Genomes imputed data and one was nominally more strongly associated in HapMap imputed data. We also detected an association between a low frequency variant and phenotype that was previously missed by HapMap based imputation approaches. An association between rs112635299 and alpha-1 globulin near the SERPINA gene represented the known association between rs28929474 (MAF = 0.007) and alpha1-antitrypsin that predisposes to emphysema (P = 2.5×10(-12)). Our data provide important proof of principle that 1000 Genomes imputation will detect novel, low frequency-large effect associations.

  17. LCLS X-Ray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Highly Time-Dependent Undulator Wakefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, Karl L.F.; Emma, Paul; Huang, Heinz-Dieter Nuhn; Stupakov, Gennady; Fawley, William M.; Reiche, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Energy loss due to wakefields within a long undulator, if not compensated by an appropriate tapering of the magnetic field strength, can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive-wall component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber material (e.g., Cu) and its radius. Of recent interest[1] is the so-called ''AC'' component of the resistive-wall wake which can lead to strong variations on very short timescales (e.g., ∼ 20 0fs). To study the expected performance of the LCLS in the presence of these wakefields, we have made an extensive series of start-to-end SASE simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT, and time-dependent FEL simulation codes GENESIS1.3 and GINGER. We discuss the impact of the wakefield losses upon output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well as the benefits of a partial compensation of the time-dependent wake losses obtained with a slight z-dependent taper in the undulator field. We compare the taper results to those predicted analytically[2

  18. LCLS X-Ray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Highly Time-Dependent Undulator Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Fawley, W M; Emma, P; Huang, Z; Nuhn, H D; Reiche, S; Stupakov, G

    2005-01-01

    Energy loss due to wakefields within a long undulator, if not compensated by an appropriate tapering of the magnetic field strength, can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber wall material (e.g. Cu) and its radius. Of recent interest [1] is the so-called "AC" component of the resistive wake which can lead to strong variations on very short timescales (e.g. ~20 fs). To study the expected performance of the LCLS in the presence of these wakefields, we have made an extensive series of start-to-end SASE simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT, and time-dependent FEL simulation codes GENESIS1.3 and GINGER. We discuss the impact of the wakefield losses upon output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well a...

  19. Design and development of cryo-module test system for 1.3 GHz LCLS-II cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunt, A.C.S.; Anupam Kumar Sinha, B.; Aravind, T.C.; Mishra, D.V.K.; Sinha, E.A.K.; Mukesh Goyal, F.; Tejas Rane, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is a major cryogenic system designed and developed at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC under Indian Institutions and Fermi Lab Collaboration (IIFC). It is necessary test bed to measure the performance of superconducting RF cavities in Cryomodule. CMTS is required to test 1.3 GHz LCLS-II Cryomodule for Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), USA. Feed Cap and End Cap sub systems of Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is designed and developed at CDM, BARC. Feed cap and End cap are 2K liquid helium distribution system for LCLS-II RF Cavity Bath and insulated by intermediate radiation shields maintained at 5K and 40K and Multilayer Insulation. The whole distribution system is enclosed in horizontal vacuum shells of approximately 1100 mm in diameter and 3000 mm in total length. This development was very challenging as many design considerations and decisions for 2K cryogenic requirements have been made and implemented. Also intricate mounting of ceramic sensors both internally and externally (surface mounted) for very low temperature measurements, low temperature epoxy bonding and multi-layer insulation wrapping were successfully completed. (author)

  20. Optimization of the LCLS X-Rray FEL Output Performance in the Presence of Strong Undulator Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven; Emma, Paul; Fawley, William M; Huang, Zhirong; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Stupakov, Gennady

    2005-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Free-Electron Laser will operate in the wavelength range of 1.5 to 15 Angstroms. Energy loss due to wakefields within the long undulator can degrade the FEL process by detuning the resonant FEL frequency. The wakefields arise from the vacuum chamber wall resistivity, its surface roughness, and abrupt changes in its aperture. For LCLS parameters, the resistive component is the most critical and depends upon the chamber material (e.g. Cu) and its radius. To study the expected performance in the presence of these wakefields, we make a series of "start-to-end" simulations with tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT and time-dependent FEL simulation codes Genesis 1.3 and Ginger. We discuss the impact of the wakefield on output energy, spectral bandwidth, and temporal envelope of the output FEL pulse, as well as the benefits of a partial compensation obtained with a slight z dependent taper in the undulator field. We compare these results to those obtained by decreasing the bunch ...

  1. High-field strong-focusing undulator designs for X-ray Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Schlueter, R.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-01-01

    Linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (e.g., Linac Coherent Light Sources (LCLSs)), operating on the principle of single-pass saturation in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime typically require multi-GeV beam energies and undulator lengths in excess of tens of meters to attain sufficient gain in the 1 angstrom--0.1 angstrom range. In this parameter regime, the undulator structure must provide: (1) field amplitudes B 0 in excess of 1T within periods of 4cm or less, (2) peak on-axis focusing gradients on the order of 30T/m, and (3) field quality in the 0.1%--0.3% range. In this paper the authors report on designs under consideration for a 4.5--1.5 angstrom LCLS based on superconducting (SC), hybrid/PM, and pulsed-Cu technologies

  2. Light Driven Energy Research at LCLS: Planned Pump-Probe X-ray Spectroscopy Studies on Photosynthetic Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2010-02-01

    Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil hydrocarbon resources. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanism of how nature has solved this problem is of fundamental importance and could be critical to aid in the design of manufactured devices to accomplish the conversion of sunlight into useful electrochemical energy and transportable fuel in the foreseeable future. In order to understand the photosynthetic splitting of water by the Mn-OEC we need to be able to follow the reaction in real time at an atomic level. A powerful probe to study the electronic and molecular structure of the Mn-OEC is x-ray spectroscopy. Here, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has two crucial qualities for LCLS based time-dependent pump-probe studies of the Mn-OEC: a) it directly probes the Mn oxidation state and ligation, b) it can be performed with wavelength dispersive optics to avoid the necessity of scanning in pump probe experiments. Recent results and the planned time dependent experiments at LCLS will be discussed. )

  3. Two-temperature equilibration in warm dense hydrogen measured with x-ray scattering from the LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Luke; High Energy Density Sciences Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the properties of warm dense hydrogen plasmas is critical for modeling stellar and planetary interiors, as well as for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Of central importance are the electron-ion collision and equilibration times that determine the microscopic properties in a high energy density state. Spectrally and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from fs-laser heated hydrogen have resolved the picosecond evolution and energy relaxation from a two-temperature plasma towards thermodynamic equilibrium in the warm dense matter regime. The interaction of rapidly heated cryogenic hydrogen irradiated by a 400 nm, 5x1017 W/cm2 , 70 fs-laser is visualized with ultra-bright 5.5 kev x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light (LCLS) source in 1 Hz repetition rate pump-probe setting. We demonstrate that the energy relaxation is faster than many classical binary collision theories that use ad hoc cutoff parameters used in the Landau-Spitzer determination of the Coulomb logarithm. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under contract No. SF00515 and supported under FWP 100182 and DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  4. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  5. LCLS in—photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Razib; Buth, Christian; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Beerwerth, Randolf; Holmes, Michael; Aldrich, Jeff; Lin, Ming-Fu; Minitti, Michael; Osipov, Timur; Schlotter, William; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Fritzsche, Stephan; Berrah, Nora

    2018-02-01

    We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (∼1200 eV) from the x-ray free-electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable line spacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for photoionization shake off of neutral neon and double auger decay of single core holes.

  6. Probing Dynamics in Colloidal Crystals with Pump-Probe Experiments at LCLS: Methodology and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasia Mukharamova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the studies of dynamics in colloidal crystals performed by pump-probe experiments using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL. Colloidal crystals were pumped with an infrared laser at a wavelength of 800 nm with varying power and probed by XFEL pulses at an energy of 8 keV with a time delay up to 1000 ps. The positions of the Bragg peaks, and their radial and azimuthal widths were analyzed as a function of the time delay. The spectral analysis of the data did not reveal significant enhancement of frequencies expected in this experiment. This allowed us to conclude that the amplitude of vibrational modes excited in colloidal crystals was less than the systematic error caused by the noise level.

  7. Current-enhanced SASE using an optical laser and its application to the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, Alexander A.; Fawley, William M.; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Reiche, Sven; Stupakov, Gennady

    2004-01-01

    We propose a significant enhancement of the electron peak current entering a SASE undulator by inducing an energy modulation in an upstream wiggler magnet via resonant interaction with an optical laser, followed by microbunching of the energy-modulated electrons at the accelerator exit. This current enhancement allows a reduction of the FEL gain length. The x-ray output consists of a series of uniformly spaced spikes, each spike being temporally coherent. The duration of this series is controlled by the laser pulse and in principle can be narrowed down to just a single, 200-attosecond spike. Given potentially absolute temporal synchronization of the x-ray spikes to the energy-modulating laser pulse, this scheme naturally makes pump-probe experiments available to SASE FEL's. We also study various detrimental effects related to the high electron peak current

  8. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance and advance of allowance. 35...

  9. LCLS: Ultrafast Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucksbaum, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Everyone knows that lasers can be bright. From Goldfinger to Star Wars, intense lasers carry a 'death ray' reputation in popular culture. But what is intense light, anyway? How can you even make or direct something that will blast to smithereens any material that it encounters? And how can something as ephemeral as a ray of light turn into an irresistible force? Is there an ultimate intensity, a brightest light? We'll answer these questions, and more.

  10. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... prescription skin cream for the ``face, neck, hands, arms, or any area not covered by clothing may come into... the clothing or outergarment due to a second appliance or medication.'' This language will clarify that a second clothing allowance may be paid when a second appliance and/or medication increases the...

  11. Surfaces allowing for fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, Charilaos.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we give a necessary condition in order for a geometrical surface to allow for Abelian fractional statistics. In particular, we show that such statistics is possible only for two-dimentional oriented surfaces of genus zero, namely the sphere S 2 , the plane R 2 and the cylindrical surface R 1 *S 1 , and in general the connected sum of n planes R 2 -R 2 -R 2 -...-R 2 . (Author)

  12. Emission allowances stall in marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Misinformation and public misunderstanding have given emissions trading a bad reputation in the public marketplace, says William F. Malec, executive vice president of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in Knoxville, Tennessee. Media coverage of a May 1992 emissions-allowance trade between TVA and Wisconsin Power and Light open-quotes focused on the agreement's pollution-trading aspects, not its overall potential economic and environmental benefits,close quotes Malec says. Such negative portrayal of TVA's transaction sparked severe public criticism and charges that emissions trading gives utilities the right to pollute. open-quotes The fact is that TVA sought the emissions-trading agreement as a means to reduce overall emissions in the most cost-effective way,close quotes Malec explains. Emissions trading allows a company with emission levels lower than clean-air standards to earn open-quotes credits.close quotes These credits then may be purchased by a company with emission levels that exceed federal standards. Under this arrangement, the environment is protected and companies that buy credits save money because they do not have to purchase expensive emissions-control devices or reduce their production levels. Malec says TVA decided to enter into the emissions-allowance market, not only to cut costs, but also to publicize the existence and benefits of emissions trading. However, TVA's experience proves that open-quotes people will not accept what they do not understand,close quotes concludes Malec, open-quotes especially when complex environmental issues are involved.close quotes

  13. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  15. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title IV...

  16. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  17. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are allowable costs? Allowable costs are costs that are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of approved...

  18. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  19. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  20. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  1. 49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  2. 29 CFR 95.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by... Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  3. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or federally..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  4. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  5. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  6. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  7. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  8. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  9. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified...

  10. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in applicable...

  11. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and...

  12. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costs. An institution's share of allowable costs may be in cash or in the form of services. The... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  13. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular fellowships shall be entitled...) Stipend. (b) Dependency allowances. (c) When authorized in advance, separate allowances for travel. Such...

  14. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel... FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. Payments for stipends, dependency allowances, and the travel allowances...

  15. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is limited to the actual net reduction or loss of earnings or profits suffered. Calculations for net reductions or losses must clearly reflect adjustments for... available; (d) Any saved overhead or normal expenses not incurred as a result of the incident; and (e) State...

  16. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the type of entity incurring the cost as follows: (1) For-profit organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by for-profit organizations and those nonprofit organizations listed in Attachment C to... specifically authorized in the award document. (2) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred...

  17. 29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  18. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...

  19. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the cost...

  20. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  1. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  3. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...

  4. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter and...

  5. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in...

  6. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  8. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  9. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  10. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  11. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  12. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  13. The future(s) of emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, K.M.; Villarreal, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a sulfur dioxide emission allowance system to be implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the two-phase implementation of the program, electric utilities responsible for approximately 70 percent of SO 2 emissions in the United States will be issued emission allowances, each representing authorization to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide during a specified calendar year or a later year. Allowances will be issued to utilities with electric-generating units affected by the CAAA limits, as well as to certain entities which may choose to opt-in to the program. Each utility or other emission source must hold a number of allowances at least equal to its total SO 2 emissions during any given year. Unused allowances may be sold, traded, or held in inventory for use against SO 2 emissions in future years. Anyone can buy and hold allowances, including affected utilities, non-utility companies, SO 2 allowances brokers and dealers, environmental groups, and individuals. During Phase I of the program, allowances equivalent to approximately 6.4 million tons of SO 2 emissions will be allocated annually to a group of 110 large, high-SO 2 -emitting power plants. In Phase II, virtually all power-generating utilities (representing approximately 99.4 percent of total US utility emissions) will be subject to the program. The number of allowances issued will increase to approximately 8.9 million a year, with certain special allocations raising the actual number issued to 9.48 million between the years 2000 to 2009, and 8.95 million yearly thereafter. Thus, the CAAA goal of annual emissions of 9 million tons should be achieved by 2010, when virtually all US emission sources will be participating in the program

  14. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  15. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  16. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  17. Emission allowances -- Long-term price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Estimated trends in emission allowance (EA) values have been of interest to all those affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 since it became law in 1990. The authors published estimates of the values of EAs in December 1991, and revised their estimate in November 1992. The summary trends of the 1992 estimate is shown here. General estimates such as these are no longer useful. Everyone directly involved in complying with the Act or in buying and selling allowances has developed their own outlook on EA values. Many recent trades have been publicized. The prices from the first auction are also well known. Therefore this article is concerned only with what might happening the long-run. Once Phase 2 compliance is essentially complete and emissions roughly match Emission Allowance allocations of some 9.8 million tons annually, what pressures will there be on prices? What will be the direction of values after Phase 2 is in balance?

  18. Tradable allowances in a restructuring electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirhart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The SO 2 tradable allowance program has been introduced into an electric industry undergoing dramatic changes. Entry of nonutilities into the industry and the emergence of stranded costs are two major changes that are shown to have an impact on the market for allowances and the industry's incentives to switch to cleaner fuels. The degree of impact depends on the extent to which consumers bypass traditional utilities and buy from entrants, and on public utility commission policies regarding the recovery of stranded costs. In turn, the amount of stranded costs depends on fuel switching. The results follow from simulations of a two-utility model that illustrate the qualitative effects of changing policies

  19. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Non...

  20. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  1. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  2. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  3. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  4. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...

  5. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  6. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  7. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part for labor, weatherization materials, and related matters for a renewable energy system, shall not... beginning in calendar year 2010 and the $3,000 average for renewable energy systems will be adjusted... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy...

  8. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for covered...

  9. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295.21 Section 295.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... no-cost crisis counseling services available in the community. FEMA will not reimburse for treatment...

  10. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation facility or sheltered workshop; independent instructor; institutional non-farm cooperative: Full...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31... rehabilitation program under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 will receive a monthly subsistence allowance at the rates in...

  11. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  12. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... Organizations” and paragraph (b) of this section. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  13. 22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 145...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  14. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A...

  15. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  16. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  17. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN...

  18. Super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    A final analysis of J π =0 + ->0 + super-allowed Fermi transitions yields vertical bar V ud vertical bar 2 =0.9500±0.0007; vertical bar V ud vertical bar 2 + vertical bar V us vertical bar 2 + vertical bar V ub vertical bar 2 =0.9999±0.0011 with the operational vector coupling constant G V */(-bar c) 3 =(1.15052±0.00021)x10 -5 GeV -2

  19. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes its...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  20. Sulfur dioxide allowances. Trading and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Managi, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    The US Clean Air Act Amendments introduce an emissions trading system to regulate SO 2 emissions. This study finds that changes in SO 2 emissions prices are related to innovations induced by these amendments. We find that electricity-generating plants are able to increase electricity output and reduce emissions of SO 2 and NO x from 1995 to 2007 due to the introduction of the allowance trading system. However, compared to the approximate 8% per year of exogenous technological progress, the induced effect is relatively small, and the contribution of the induced effect to overall technological progress is about 1-2%. (author)

  1. What parents say about the allowance: Function of the allowance for parents of different economic incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Lauer Lellis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of giving allowance is used by several parents in different parts of the world and can contribute to the economic education of children. This study aimed to investigate the purposes of the allowance with 32 parents of varying incomes. We used the focus group technique and Alceste software to analyze the data. The results involved two classes related to the process of using the allowance. These classes have covered aspects of the role of socialization and education allowance, serving as an instrument of reward, but sometimes encouraging bad habits in children. The justification of the fathers concerning the amount of money to be given to the children and when to stop giving allowance were also highlighted.   Keywords: allowance; economic socialization; parenting practices.

  2. 34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES What Conditions Must Be... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs? 656.30 Section 656.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  3. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...

  4. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [GSA Bulletin FTR 10-04] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy... (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA tables found in 41 CFR Part 301-17...

  5. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... reflection of the actual tax impact on the employee. Therefore, this proposed rule offers the one-year RITA... to estimate the additional income tax liability that you incur as a result of relocation benefits and... Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General...

  6. Does Confucianism allow for body donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao

    2018-01-16

    Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Resident away rotations allow adaptive neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Melanie Hayden; Derstine, Pamela; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Grady, M Sean; Burchiel, Kim; Batjer, H Hunt; Popp, A John; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2015-04-01

    Subspecialization of physicians and regional centers concentrate the volume of certain rare cases into fewer hospitals. Consequently, the primary institution of a neurological surgery training program may not have sufficient case volume to meet the current Residency Review Committee case minimum requirements in some areas. To ensure the competency of graduating residents through a comprehensive neurosurgical education, programs may need for residents to travel to outside institutions for exposure to cases that are either less common or more regionally focused. We sought to evaluate off-site rotations to better understand the changing demographics and needs of resident education. This would also allow prospective monitoring of modifications to the neurosurgery training landscape. We completed a survey of neurosurgery program directors and query of data from the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to characterize the current use of away rotations in neurosurgical education of residents. We found that 20% of programs have mandatory away rotations, most commonly for exposure to pediatric, functional, peripheral nerve, or trauma cases. Most of these rotations are done during postgraduate year 3 to 6, lasting 1 to 15 months. Twenty-six programs have 2 to 3 participating sites and 41 have 4 to 6 sites distinct from the host program. Programs frequently offset potential financial harm to residents rotating at a distant site by support of housing and transportation costs. As medical systems experience fluctuating treatment paradigms and demographics, over time, more residency programs may adapt to meet the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education case minimum requirements through the implementation of away rotations.

  8. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  9. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice is effective March 24, 2011. FOR... CFR part 301-17 Appendices A through D. The tables will be published at http://www.gsa.gov...

  10. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ...: The GSA published FTR Amendment 2008-04, in the Federal Register on June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables in Title 41 of the Code of Federal..., 2013. Carolyn Austin-Diggs, Principal Deputy Administrator, Office of Asset and Transportation...

  11. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  12. Spontaneous Radiation Background Calculation for LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of undulator radiation, not amplified by the FEL interaction, can be larger than the maximum FEL signal in the case of an X-ray FEL. In the commissioning of a SASE FEL it is essential to extract an amplified signal early to diagnose eventual misalignment of undulator modules or errors in the undulator field strength. We developed a numerical code to calculate the radiation pattern at any position behind a multi-segmented undulator with arbitrary spacing and field profiles. The output can be run through numerical spatial and frequency filters to model the radiation beam transport and diagnostic. In this presentation we estimate the expected background signal for the FEL diagnostic and at what point along the undulator the FEL signal can be separated from the background. We also discusses how much information on the undulator field and alignment can be obtained from the incoherent radiation signal itself.

  13. 40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4160 Submission of Hg allowance transfers. An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  15. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special allowance reserve. 73.27 Section 73.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.27 Special allowance reserve. (a...

  16. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking system...

  17. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.B. II; Radulski, D.R.; Ellingson, E.G.; Engels, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO 2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  18. Ratemaking and accounting for allowances and compliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory treatment of compliance costs and allowances will significantly affect both the utility's CAAA compliance decisions and the cost of compliance. Sections in this chapter include ratemaking treatment of allowances, utility buy-ins, the market test of compliance costs and utility incentive, FERC account classification, measuring the value of allowances, inventory methods for allowances, expense recognition of allowances, regulatory-created assets and liabilities, and application of the FERC proposal. 8 refs., 1 tab

  19. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The...

  20. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance...

  1. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost (OCT... cost; (ii) Incurred with proper justification and accounting support; (iii) Determined in accordance... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and allowable...

  2. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg Budget...

  4. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; and (iii) The current realizable market value, determined as of the close of the market on the last... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a...

  5. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide” to...

  6. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  7. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  8. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  9. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp...

  10. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  11. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  12. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.10 Section 82.10... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.10 Availability of consumption allowances in...

  13. Slotting allowances to coordinate manufacturers’ retail sales effort

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sand, Jan Yngve

    2007-01-01

    Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Although the main attention towards slotting allowances has been within the grocery industry, slotting allowances have also been applied within e.g. e-commerce and mobile telephony. In these industries we observe that distributors have large market power due to their control of access to customers. We analyse how shifting bargaining power from manufacturers to retailers and the use of slotting allowanc...

  14. Impediments to markets for SO2 emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990 imposed tighter limits on allowed emissions from electric utilities. The CAA also introduced an innovative SO 2 market mechanism to help lower the cost of compliance. The annual Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) auctions of emission allowances intended to help usher in the market mechanisms for trading allowances. In that respect, the results have been mixed. A full fledged market for emission allowances has been slow to emerge. Starting with a detailed study of the EPA auctions to date, this paper analyzes and discusses some of the reasons for this slow development

  15. 24 CFR 982.517 - Utility allowance schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities and services paid by energy-conservative households that occupy housing of similar size and type... utility allowance for an individual family, must include the utilities and services that are necessary in...-family detached, and manufactured housing) that are typical in the community. (4) The utility allowance...

  16. 41 CFR 105-71.122 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS 71.12-Post-Award Requirements/Financial Administration § 105-71.122 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  17. Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Openly? There are 18 countries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their mili- taries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada...clinical and cultural competence for the proper care of transgender patients. Surgical procedures quite similar to those used for gender transition...tries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their militaries: Austra- lia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark

  18. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1) The... addition, the Carrier must: (i) on request, document and make available accounting support for the cost to...

  19. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... household. “Members of a family residing in one household” shall include all persons, regardless of age, who...

  20. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input...

  1. 40 CFR 73.21 - Phase II repowering allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the following table Unit Year 2000 adjusted basic allowances RE Burger 1 1273 RE Burger 2 1245 RE... manner: EC01SE92.082 where: Forfeiture Period = difference (as a portion of a year) between the end of... table in paragraph (a) of this section. (c)(2) The Administrator will reallocate any allowances...

  2. 26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-10 Utility allowances. (a) Inclusion of utility allowances in gross rent. If the cost.... (b) Applicable utility allowances—(1) Buildings assisted by the Rural Housing Service. If a building...

  3. 42 CFR 61.37 - Stipends, allowances, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stipends, allowances, and benefits. 61.37 Section..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.37 Stipends, allowances, and benefits. (a) Stipends... employees of the Public Health Service. (c) Benefits. In addition to other benefits provided herein, service...

  4. Forecasting the market for SO2 emission allowances under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G.; Pandola, G.; Lurie, G.; Taxon, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which are briefly reviewed here, provide for about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral, or potential speculators in the allowance market, are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by utilities that are risk averse. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions. 1 fig

  5. Future prices and market for SO2 allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.; Michael, K.; Munro, W.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The expected price of SO 2 emission allowances is an important issue in energy and integrated resource planning activities. For example, the expected price of SO 2 allowances in needed in order to evaluate alternative strategies for meeting SO 2 provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In addition, the expected SO 2 allowance price is important to state public utility regulators who must provide guidance on rate-making issues regarding utility compliance plans which involve allowance trading and direct investment of SO 2 control technologies. Last but not the least, the expected SO 2 allowance price is an important determinant of the future market for natural gas and low sulfur coal. The paper develops estimates of SO 2 allowance prices over time by constructing national supply and demand curves for SO 2 reductions. Both the supply and demand for SO 2 reductions are based on an analysis of the sulfur content of fuels burned in 1990 by utilities throughout the United States; and on assumptions about plant retirements, the rate of new capacity growth, the types of new and replacement plants constructed, the costs of SO 2 reduction measures and legislation by midwest states to maintain the use of high sulfur coal to protect local jobs. The paper shows that SO 2 allowance prices will peak around the year 2000 at about $500 per ton, and will eventually fall to zero by about the year 2020. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the price of SO 2 allowances is relatively insensitive to assumptions regarding the availability of natural gas or energy demand growth. However, SO 2 allowance prices tend to be quite sensitive to assumptions regarding regulations which may force early retirement of existing power plants and possible legislation which may reduce CO 2 emissions

  6. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Allowance for market risk. The supervised investment bank holding company must compute an allowance for market risk on a consolidated basis for all proprietary positions, including debt instruments, equity instruments, commodity instruments, foreign exchange contracts, and derivative contracts as the aggregate of...

  7. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.20 Section 82...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.20 Availability of consumption...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trucks § 86.1725-01 Allowable maintenance. This section includes text that specifies requirements that... this subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel...

  9. 50 CFR 86.44 - What are my allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PROGRAM Funding Availability § 86.44 What are my allowable costs? (a) The State may spend grant funds to pay only costs that are necessary and reasonable to accomplish the approved grant objectives. Grant...

  10. The economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This paper shows the economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas. First, an : overview of the truck size and weight policies is explained, with an emphasis on those that affect : Texas. Next, LCV operations in other countries...

  11. 30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a series of outgoing pipelines; (5) Gas Research Institute (GRI) fees. The GRI conducts research... industry and gas customers. GRI fees are allowable provided such fees are mandatory in FERC-approved...

  12. Economic rationale for an emission allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption behind the economic model of allowance trading is that managers of firms are better at solving pollution abatement problems than government overseers. This is because firms know more than an environmental regulator about their own operations and because the profit motive, rather than direct government mandate of compliance decisions, may be more effective at minimizing emission control costs. The allowance trading program in the CAAA is designed to provide firms with an incentive to make good choices about how to reduce emissions by allowing the firm to reduce compliance cost and profit from trading. This chapter discusses the benefits of allowance trading and summarizes the economic literature on tradable pollution rights. 17 refs., 2 figs

  13. 14 CFR 1261.109 - Computation of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exchange). There will be no allowance for replacement cost or for appreciation in the value of the property...) Depreciation in value is determined by considering the type of article involved, its cost, its condition when...

  14. The Effect of Allowing Pollution Offsets with Imperfect Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman; Howard F. Chang

    2011-01-01

    Public policies for pollution control, including climate change policies, sometimes allow polluters in one sector subject to an emissions cap to offset excessive emissions in that sector with pollution abatement in another sector. The government may often find it more costly to verify offset claims than to verify compliance with emissions caps. Concerns about such difficulties in enforcement may lead regulators to restrict the use of offsets. In this paper, we demonstrate that allowing offset...

  15. ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

  16. Sea-Level Allowances along the World Coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, R.; Tsitsikas, C.; Reerink, T.; Slangen, A.; de Winter, R.; Muis, S.; Hunter, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level changes as a result of climate change. For projections we take ocean mass changes and volume changes into account. Including gravitational and rotational fingerprints this provide regional sea level changes. Hence we can calculate sea-level rise patterns based on CMIP5 projections. In order to take the variability around the mean state, which follows from the climate models, into account we use the concept of allowances. The allowance indicates the height a coastal structure needs to be increased to maintain the likelihood of sea-level extremes. Here we use a global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels based on a global hydrodynamic model in order to calculate allowances. It is shown that the model compares in most regions favourably with tide gauge records from the GESLA data set. Combining the CMIP5 projections and the global hydrodynamical model we calculate sea-level allowances along the global coastlines and expand the number of points with a factor 50 relative to tide gauge based results. Results show that allowances increase gradually along continental margins with largest values near the equator. In general values are lower at midlatitudes both in Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Increased risk for extremes are typically 103-104 for the majority of the coastline under the RCP8.5 scenario at the end of the century. Finally we will show preliminary results of the effect of changing wave heights based on the coordinated ocean wave project.

  17. Allowable variance set on left ventricular function parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Li'na; Qi Zhongzhi; Zeng Yu; Ou Xiaohong; Li Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of allowable Variance settings on left ventricular function parameter of the arrhythmia patients during gated myocardial perfusion imaging. Method: 42 patients with evident arrhythmia underwent myocardial perfusion SPECT, 3 different allowable variance with 20%, 60%, 100% would be set before acquisition for every patients,and they will be acquired simultaneously. After reconstruction by Astonish, end-diastole volume(EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) would be computed with Quantitative Gated SPECT(QGS). Using SPSS software EDV, ESV, EF values of analysis of variance. Result: there is no statistical difference between three groups. Conclusion: arrhythmia patients undergo Gated myocardial perfusion imaging, Allowable Variance settings on EDV, ESV, EF value does not have a statistical meaning. (authors)

  18. Strategic partitioning of emissions allowances in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Carl von Ossietzky Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)); Rosendahl, Knut Einar (Research Dept., Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-07-01

    The EU ETS opens up for strategic partitioning of emissions allowances by the Member States. In this paper we examine the potential effects of such strategic behavior on quota prices and abatement costs. We show that although marginal abatement costs in the sectors outside the EU ETS become quite differentiated, the effects on the quota price and total abatement costs are small. More abatement, however, takes place in the old Member States that are importers of allowances, compared to the cost-effective outcome. Single countries can nevertheless significantly affect the outcome of the EU ETS by exploiting their market power

  19. Isospin impurity and super-allowed β transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, H.; Van Giai Nguyen; Suzuki, T.

    1999-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin impurity on the super-allowed Fermi β decay using microscopic HF and RPA (or TDA) model taking into account CSB and CIB interactions. It is found that the isospin impurity of N = Z nuclei gives enhancement of the sum rule of Fermi transition probabilities. On the other hand, the super-allowed transitions between odd-odd J = 0 nuclei and even-even J = 0 nuclei are quenched because on the cancellation of the isospin impurity effects of mother and daughter nuclei. An implication of the calculated Fermi transition rate on the unitarity of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix is also discussed. (authors)

  20. On test and maintenance: Optimization of allowed outage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Cepin, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment is widely becoming standard method for assessing, maintaining, assuring and improving the nuclear power plant safety. To achieve one of its many potential benefits, the optimization of allowed outage time specified in technical specifications is investigated. Proposed is the risk comparison approach for evaluation of allowed outage time. The risk of shutting the plant down due to failure of certain equipment is compared to the risk of continued plant operation with the specified equipment down. The core damage frequency serves as a risk measure. (author)

  1. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  2. Is It Safe to Allow Cell Phones in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones were banned from most schools years ago, but after the Columbine High School and 9/11 tragedies, parents started pressuring some school boards and administrators to reverse the bans. On its surface, allowing students to have cell phones under the guise of improved school safety may seem like a "no-brainer" to many board members and…

  3. 48 CFR 243.204-70-6 - Allowable profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... profit allowed reflects— (a) Any reduced cost risk to the contractor for costs incurred during contract performance before negotiation of the final price; (b) The contractor's reduced cost risk for costs incurred during performance of the remainder of the contract; and (c) The extent to which costs have been incurred...

  4. 48 CFR 217.7404-6 - Allowable profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ensure the profit allowed reflects— (a) Any reduced cost risk to the contractor for costs incurred during contract performance before negotiation of the final price; (b) The contractor's reduced cost risk for costs incurred during performance of the remainder of the contract; and (c) The requirements at 215.404...

  5. 30 CFR 206.56 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil has been determined under § 206.52 or § 206.53 of this subpart at a point (e.g., sales point or point of value determination) off the lease, MMS shall allow a deduction for the reasonable, actual... sales type code may not exceed 50 percent of the value of the oil at the point of sale as determined...

  6. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  7. Allowed unhindered beta connected states in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Ray, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    The beta-connected states in odd-mass as well as even mass rare earth nuclei, where the transition is of allowed unhindered nature, are listed. The tabulation includes 54 cases of such transitions. Validity of Alaga selection rules is examined and the results are used to assign configurations to the involved single particle and two-particle states. (author)

  8. 5 CFR 2610.107 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable fees and expenses. 2610.107 Section 2610.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... factors as may bear on the value of the services provided. (d) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis...

  9. 19 CFR 212.06 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 212.06 Allowable fees and...) If the attorney, agent or expert witness is in private practice, his or her customary fee for similar...

  10. 28 CFR 0.142 - Per diem and travel allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized to approve travel expenses of newly appointed special agents and the transportation expenses of... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Per diem and travel allowances. 0.142... Authorizations With Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.142 Per diem and travel...

  11. Mitigation of Global Warming with Focus on Personal Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2008-01-01

    The mitigation of global warming requires new efficient systems and methods. The paper presents a new proposal called personal carbon allowances with caps on the CO2 emission from household heating and electricity and on emission from transport in private cars and in personal air flights. Results...

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27.503 Section 101-27.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.5...

  13. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course; (c... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  14. 48 CFR 752.7028 - Differential and allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allowance) at rates prescribed by the Federal Travel Regulations, as from time to time amended, during the... providing adequate elementary and secondary education for his/her children. The Contractor will be...), Chapter 270, as from time to time amended. (g) Educational travel. Educational travel is travel to and...

  15. Allowable stem nut wear and diagnostic monitoring for MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburne, P.

    1994-01-01

    After a motor-operated valve (MOV) stem nut failure in 1991 that contributed to a forced plant shutdown, the FitzPatrick Plant staff developed criteria to check for excessive stem nut wear in MOVs. Allowable stem nut wear monitoring uses both direct dimensional measurement and diagnostic test data interpretation. The wear allowance is based on the recommended permitted backlash discussed in the Electric Power Research Institute/Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center Technical Repair Guideline for the Limitorque SMB-000 Motor Actuator. The diagnostic analysis technique measures the time at zero load and compares this with a precalculated allowable zero force time. Excessive zero force time may be the result of other MOV problems, such as a loose stem nut lock nut or excessive free play in the drive sleeve bearing. Stress levels for new or nominal stem nuts and stem nuts with the full wear allowance were compared. Bending and shear stresses at the thread root increase for the maximum wear condition when compared with a open-quotes newclose quotes stem nut. These stresses are directly related to the thread root thickness. For typical MOV loading and common stem threading (with two diameters of thread engagement), the thread stresses are well within acceptable limits for ASTM B584-C86300 (formerly B147-863) manganese bronze (typical stem nut material)

  16. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted dips; substances allowed. 73.10 Section 73.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... flowers of sulphur or sulphur flour to 100 gallons of water; or a specifically permitted proprietary brand...

  17. 76 FR 14282 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... paid as a subsistence allowance for a full-time institutional program under chapter 31 of title 38...' rehabilitation following injury or disease. To the extent the commenter objects to the payment of money to... under this section. (a) Payment will be made at the rate paid for a full-time institutional program...

  18. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit... the first such 5 years. (2)(i) A unit's control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired... Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with...

  19. 9 CFR 52.6 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... violation of a law or regulation administered by the Secretary regarding animal disease, or in violation of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 52.6 Section 52.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 9 CFR 55.7 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... owner in violation of a law or regulation administered by the Secretary regarding animal disease, or in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 55.7 Section 55.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.307 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 105-72.307 Section 105-72.307 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 72-UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  2. Can preapproval jump-start the allowance market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, D.J.; Goffman, J.

    1992-06-01

    With compliance deadlines approaching in three years, utility, environmental and financial planners and their regulators are in the process of grappling with the requirements imposed, and opportunities created, by the acid rain program established under Title 4 of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. The novel element of the program - emissions or allowance trading through a nationwide allowance market - presents great challenges for utilities and their regulators. Perhaps the foremost challenge is establishing the allowance market. If state utility commissions subject utilities' compliance strategies to traditional after-the-fact prudence reviews, as tradition would impel them to do, the attendant regulatory risks are likely to push utilities toward more conservative compliance schemes that underuse allowance trading (as the exchange at the head of this article demonstrates). If that happens, the market will fail to develop, and its full potential for environmental benefit at least cost will go unrealized. This, in turn, is likely to strengthen the case for non-market regulatory mechanisms - a vicious circle. In this paper, the authors suggest a way out of this.

  3. 37 CFR 1.311 - Notice of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fee, in which case the issue fee and publication fee (§ 1.211(e)) must both be paid within three... notice of allowance will operate as a request to charge the correct issue fee or any publication fee due... incorrect issue fee or publication fee; or (2) A fee transmittal form (or letter) for payment of issue fee...

  4. Can preapproval jump-start the allowance market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, D.J.; Goffman, J.

    1992-01-01

    With compliance deadlines approaching in three years, utility, environmental and financial planners and their regulators are in the process of grappling with the requirements imposed, and opportunities created, by the acid rain program established under Title 4 of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. The novel element of the program - emissions or allowance trading through a nationwide allowance market - presents great challenges for utilities and their regulators. Perhaps the foremost challenge is establishing the allowance market. If state utility commissions subject utilities' compliance strategies to traditional after-the-fact prudence reviews, as tradition would impel them to do, the attendant regulatory risks are likely to push utilities toward more conservative compliance schemes that underuse allowance trading (as the exchange at the head of this article demonstrates). If that happens, the market will fail to develop, and its full potential for environmental benefit at least cost will go unrealized. This, in turn, is likely to strengthen the case for non-market regulatory mechanisms - a vicious circle. In this paper, the authors suggest a way out of this

  5. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Docket 2010-0009, Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of... agency travel programs, save money on travel costs, better protect the environment, and conserve natural...

  6. Just do it: action-dependent learning allows sensory prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Novick

    Full Text Available Sensory-motor learning is commonly considered as a mapping process, whereby sensory information is transformed into the motor commands that drive actions. However, this directional mapping, from inputs to outputs, is part of a loop; sensory stimuli cause actions and vice versa. Here, we explore whether actions affect the understanding of the sensory input that they cause. Using a visuo-motor task in humans, we demonstrate two types of learning-related behavioral effects. Stimulus-dependent effects reflect stimulus-response learning, while action-dependent effects reflect a distinct learning component, allowing the brain to predict the forthcoming sensory outcome of actions. Together, the stimulus-dependent and the action-dependent learning components allow the brain to construct a complete internal representation of the sensory-motor loop.

  7. Spent fuel treatment to allow storage in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987 (FY-87), research began at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a treatment material and process to coat fuel rods in commercial spent fuel assemblies to allow the assemblies to be stored in hot (up to 380 0 C) air without oxidation of the fuel. This research was conducted under a research and development fund provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and independently administered by EG and G Idaho, Inc., DOE's prime contractor at the INEL. The objectives of the research were to identify and evaluate possible treatment processes and materials, identify areas of uncertainty, and to recommend the most likely candidate to allow spent fuel dry storage in hot air. The results of the research are described: results were promising and several good candidates were identified, but further research is needed to examine the candidates to the point where comparison is possible

  8. A new approach for primary overloads allowance in ratcheting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Gatt, J.M.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic loading must be taken into account in ratchetting design analysis. In LMFBR structures it mainly produces primary overloads, which are characterised by severe magnitudes but a generally low number of occurrences. Other cases of several primary overloads can also observed in pipes during emptying operations for instance. In the RCC-MR design code rule, the maximum primary stress supported by a structure is considered as permanent. No allowance is made for temporary load. Experimental ratchetting tests conducted on different structures with and without overloads clearly point out that temporary overloads lead to less ratchetting effect. A method using the RCC-MR efficiency diagram framework is proposed. A general theoretical approach allows to extend its field of application of various cases of primary loading: constant or null primary loading or overloads. Experimental results are then used to check the validity of this new approach. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  10. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  11. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  12. Bribery vs. extortion: allowing the lesser of two evils

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad Khalil; Jacques Lawarree; Sungho Yun

    2009-01-01

    Rewards to prevent supervisors from accepting bribes create incentives for extortion. This raises the question whether a supervisor who can engage in bribery and extortion can still be useful in providing incentives. By highlighting the role of team work in forging information, we present a notion of soft information that makes supervision valuable. We show that a fear of inducing extortion may make it optimal to allow bribery, but extortion is never tolerated. Even though both increase incen...

  13. Scientific substantination of maximum allowable concentration of fluopicolide in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelo I.М.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to substantiate fluopicolide maximum allowable concentration in the water of water reservoirs the research was carried out. Methods of study: laboratory hygienic experiment using organoleptic and sanitary-chemical, sanitary-toxicological, sanitary-microbiological and mathematical methods. The results of fluopicolide influence on organoleptic properties of water, sanitary regimen of reservoirs for household purposes were given and its subthreshold concentration in water by sanitary and toxicological hazard index was calculated. The threshold concentration of the substance by the main hazard criteria was established, the maximum allowable concentration in water was substantiated. The studies led to the following conclusions: fluopicolide threshold concentration in water by organoleptic hazard index (limiting criterion – the smell – 0.15 mg/dm3, general sanitary hazard index (limiting criteria – impact on the number of saprophytic microflora, biochemical oxygen demand and nitrification – 0.015 mg/dm3, the maximum noneffective concentration – 0.14 mg/dm3, the maximum allowable concentration - 0.015 mg/dm3.

  14. Allowable Pressure In Soils and Rocks by Seismic Wave Velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, S.; Keceli, A.; Oezdemir, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, the historical background is presented for the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The principles of plastic equilibrium used in the classical formulation of the ultimate bearing capacity are reviewed, followed by a discussion about the sources of approximations inherent in the classical theory. Secondly, based on a variety of case histories of site investigations, including extensive bore hole data, laboratory testing and geophysical prospecting, an empirical formulation is proposed for the determination of allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The proposed expression corroborates consistently with the results of the classical theory and is proven to be reliable and safe, also from the view point of maximum allowable settlements. It consists of only two soil parameters, namely, the Institut measured shear wave velocity, and the unit weight. The unit weight may be also determined with sufficient accuracy, by means of another empirical expression, using the P-wave velocity. It is indicated that once the shear and P-wave velocities are measured Institut by an appropriate geophysical survey, the allowable bearing capacity is determined reliably through a single step operation. Such an approach, is considerably cost and time-saving, in practice

  15. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  16. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  17. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  18. Predicted allowable doses to normal organs for biologically targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; Wheldon, T.E.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1988-01-01

    The authors have used Dale's extension to the ''linear quadratic'' (LQ) model (Dale, 1985) to evaluate ''equivalent doses'' in cases involving exponentially decaying dose rates. This analysis indicates that the dose-rate effect will be a significant determinant of allowable doses to organs such as liver, kidney and lung. These organ tolerance doses constitute independent constraints on the therapeutic intensity of biologically targeted radiotherapy in exactly the same way as for conventional external beam radiotherapy. In the context of marrow rescue they will in all likelihood constitute the dose-limiting side-effects and thus be especially important. (author)

  19. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  20. Allowable carbon emissions for medium-to-high mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Annan, James D.; Kawamiya, Michio [Research Inst. for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, (Japan)], e-mail: tachiiri@jamstec.go.jp; Huntingford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Using an ensemble of simulations with an intermediate complexity climate model and in a probabilistic framework, we estimate future ranges of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to follow three medium-high mitigation concentration pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and SCP4.5 to 2.6. Uncertainty is first estimated by allowing modelled equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within widely accepted ranges. Results are then constrained by comparison against contemporary measurements. For both constrained and unconstrained projections, our calculated allowable emissions are close to the standard (harmonised) emission scenarios associated with these pathways. For RCP4.5, which is the most moderate scenario considered in terms of required emission abatement, then after year 2100 very low net emissions are needed to maintain prescribed year 2100 CO{sub 2} concentrations. As expected, RCP2.6 and SCP4.5 to 2.6 require more strict emission reductions. The implication of this is that direct sequestration of carbon dioxide is likely to be required for RCP4.5 or higher mitigation scenarios, to offset any minimum emissions for society to function (the 'emissions floor'). Despite large uncertainties in the physical and biogeochemical processes, constraints from model-observational comparisons support a high degree of confidence in predicting the allowable emissions consistent with a particular concentration pathway. In contrast the uncertainty in the resulting temperature range remains large. For many parameter sets, and especially for RCP2.6, the land will turn into a carbon source within the twenty first century, but the ocean will remain as a carbon sink. For land carbon storage and our modelling framework, major reductions are seen in northern high latitudes and the Amazon basin even after atmospheric CO{sub 2} is stabilised, while for ocean carbon uptake, the tropical ocean regions will be a

  1. Statistical considerations of graphite strength for assessing design allowable stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Mogi, H.; Ioka, I.; Arai, T.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of statistics need to be considered to determine design allowable stresses for graphite structures. These include: 1) Statistical variation of graphite material strength. 2) Uncertainty of calculated stress. 3) Reliability (survival probability) required from operational and safety performance of graphite structures. This paper deals with some statistical considerations of structural graphite for assessing design allowable stress. Firstly, probability distribution functions of tensile and compressive strengths are investigated on experimental Very High Temperature candidated graphites. Normal, logarithmic normal and Weibull distribution functions are compared in terms of coefficient of correlation to measured strength data. This leads to the adaptation of normal distribution function. Then, the relation between factor of safety and fracture probability is discussed on the following items: 1) As the graphite strength is more variable than metalic material's strength, the effect of strength variation to the fracture probability is evaluated. 2) Fracture probability depending on survival probability of 99 ∼ 99.9 (%) with confidence level of 90 ∼ 95 (%) is discussed. 3) As the material properties used in the design analysis are usually the mean values of their variation, the additional effect of these variations on the fracture probability is discussed. Finally, the way to assure the minimum ultimate strength with required survival probability with confidence level is discussed in view of statistical treatment of the strength data from varying sample numbers in a material acceptance test. (author)

  2. Contested change: how Germany came to allow PGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bock von Wülfingen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, German laws protecting the human embryo from the moment of conception were some of the strictest internationally. These laws had previously prevented any manipulation of the embryo, such as in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, and continue to affect stem cell research. In 2011, however, the German parliament voted in favour of allowing PGD in specific cases. While the modification in the law in earlier analysis was interpreted as being in keeping with the usual norms in Germany, this article argues instead that the reasoning behind the partial acceptance of PGD, rather than the legal decision itself, is indicative of a sociocultural change that needs to be accredited. Demonstrating that a significant change occurred, this article analyses the arguments that led to the amendment in law: not only has the identity of the embryo been redefined towards a pragmatic concept but the notions of parenting and pregnancy have also changed. The focus on the mother and the moment of birth has given way to a focus on conception and ‘genetic couplehood’. The professional discourse preceding the decision allowing PGD suggested that the rights of the not-yet-implanted embryo should be negotiated with those of the two parents-to-be, a concept that may be called ‘in-vitro pregnancy’.

  3. [Niacin allowance of students of a sports college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, I M

    1977-01-01

    In 227 students of the Institute for Physical Culture examined in the winter-spring and summer-fall seasons of the year, the passage of N1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) with urine per hour on an empty stomach amounted to 245 +/- 15.9 and 311 +/- 14.6 microgram/hour (the difference according to seasons in significant). These figues point to the dependence of the MNA excretion with uridine on the quantity of the niacin equivalents supplied together with the food. The content of such equivalentsin the rations of students-sprotrsmen (7-9.5 mg per 1000 calories per day) proved insufficient to maintain the MNA passage with urine at a level accepted as a standard allowance of niacin for the organism, i. e. 400-500 microgram/hour. Furthermore, the author shows changes in the niacin allowances of the student's organism, engaged in different kinds of sporting activities and also depending upon the sporting qualification of the examinees the work performed by them, the periods of training, and conditions of their every-day life.

  4. Characteristics and allowed behaviors of gay male couples' sexual agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that gay male couples' sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the United States by using paid Facebook ads. Findings revealed that couples discussed their HIV status before having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but established their agreement some time after having UAI. About half of the couples (N = 207) concurred about having an agreement. Among these couples, 58% concurred about explicitly discussing their agreement, 84% concurred about having the same type of agreement, and 54% had both men adhering to it. A variety of sexual behaviors were endorsed and varied by agreement type. Concordance about aspects of couples' agreements varied, suggesting the need to engage couples to be more explicit and detailed when establishing and communicating about their agreements. The allowed behaviors and primary reasons for establishing and breaking sexual agreements further highlight the need to bolster HIV prevention for gay male couples.

  5. Evaluation of allowed outage time using PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) different measures of risk importance can be established. These measures can be used as a basis for further evaluation and determination of allowed outage time for specific components, within safety systems of a nuclear power plant. In order to optimize the allowed outage time (AOT) stipulated in the plant's Technical Specification it is necessary to create a methodology which could incorporate existing PRA data into a quantitative extrapolation. In order to evaluate the plant risk status due to AOT in a quantitative manner, the risk achievement worth is utilized. Risk achievement worth is defined as follows: to measure the worth of a feature, in achieving the present risk, one approach is to remove the feature and then determine how much the risk has increased. Thus, the risk achievement worth is formally defined to be the increase in risk if the feature were assumed not be there or to be failed. Another parameter of interest for this analysis is the shutdown risk increase. The shutdown risk achievement worth must be incorporated into the accident sequence risk achievement worth to arrive at an optimal set of plant specific AOTs

  6. The greenhouse gases emissions allowances trading in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisinec, Igor; Marvan, Miroslav; Tuma, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    The energy policy of the State is very important for a state development. The aim of this policy is power energy development, which is essential for improving the quality of life and standards of people's living in every country. Unfortunately, power energy development also has a negative impact; primarily on the environment. Some possible solutions exist for reduction of the power energy negative impacts. This paper deals with reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the Czech Republic according to the Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention climate change. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The GHG emissions allowances trading as one of the instruments for stabilisation of GHG emissions is described in the paper. (authors)

  7. AICPA allows low-cost options for compiled financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Alan; Luecke, Randall W

    2002-02-01

    The AICPA Accounting and Review Services Committee's (ARSC) SSARS No. 8, Amendment to Statement on Standards for Accounting and Review Services No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements, issued in October 2000, allows financial managers to provide plain-paper, compiled financial statements for the exclusive use of management. Such financial statements were disallowed in 1979 when the AICPA issued SSARS No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements. With the issuance of SSARS No. 8, financial managers can prepare plain-paper, compiled financial statements when third parties are not expected to rely on the financial statements, management acknowledges such restrictions in writing, and management acknowledges its primary responsibility for the adequacy of the financial statements.

  8. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M; Cutler, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in certain languages that allow stand-alone vowelless open-class words. One such language is Berber (where t is indeed a word). Berber listeners here detected words affixed to nonsense contexts with or without vowels. Length effects seen in other languages replicated in Berber, but in contrast to prior findings, word detection was not hindered by vowelless contexts. When words can be vowelless, otherwise universal constraints disfavoring vowelless words do not feature in spoken-word recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short peptides allowing preferential detection of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hani E J; Pölderl, Antonia; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    Whereas the detection of pathogens via recognition of surface structures by specific antibodies and various types of antibody mimics is frequently described, the applicability of short linear peptides as sensor molecules or diagnostic tools is less well-known. We selected peptides which were previously reported to bind to recombinant S. cerevisiae cells, expressing members of the C. albicans Agglutinin-Like-Sequence (ALS) cell wall protein family. We slightly modified amino acid sequences to evaluate peptide sequence properties influencing binding to C. albicans cells. Among the selected peptides, decamer peptides with an "AP"-N-terminus were superior to shorter peptides. The new decamer peptide FBP4 stained viable C. albicans cells more efficiently in their mature hyphal form than in their yeast form. Moreover, it allowed distinction of C. albicans from other related Candida spp. and could thus be the basis for the development of a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  10. Public pensions, family allowances and endogenous demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    1995-05-01

    "A tax-transfer system deals with redistribution a PAYGmong generations and corrective taxation a PAYGt the same time. Since such a policy is a government's task, we take a normative approach and pose the question: Which tax-transfer system should a government apply to maximize social welfare? The framework we consider allows for endogenous demographic aspects...: first, fertility has a great impact on a PAYG [pay-as-you-go] financed pension insurance; and second, through education human capital is accumulated.... We analyzed the optimal extent of a public pension scheme in the presence of external effects of fertility and education on the net domestic product." Pension schemes in Germany and the United States are compared. excerpt

  11. Diet quality, overweight and daily monetary allowance of Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Maraki, Maria I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Grammatikopoulou, Melpomene; Karathanou, Lenia; Kotsias, Emma; Tsofliou, Fotini; Tsigga, Maria; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G

    2017-07-14

    Objective To investigate cross-correlates of pocket-money on diet quality and weight status of Greek adolescents. Methods A total of 172 adolescents (55.2% boys), aged between 10 and 15 years old were recruited. Body weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) was computed. Weight status was assessed according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria and diet quality was evaluated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) - 2010. Results Adolescents were allowed a mean allowance of €4.63 ± 3.66 daily. Among boys participants, BMI correlated with pocket money (r = 0.311, p ≤ 0.002) and normoweight boys received statistically less money than their overweight peers (p ≤ 0.019). In both sexes, normoweight was more prevalent in the lowest monetary quartiles. Pocket money was not associated with HEI. Among boys, moderate HEI was more prevalent in the third quartile of pocket money, significantly higher compared to all others (p ≤ 0.01 for all). For girls, the prevalence of moderate HEI declined by each ascending pocket money quartile (p ≤ 0.05 for all). Conclusion In our sample, adolescents exhibited high rates of pooled overweight including obesity. The majority of the participants followed a diet of moderate quality. Pocket money was associated with BMI only among boys. As pocket money was not associated with diet quality, it is highly possible that adolescents might choose to spend their money on items other than foods. Our study shows that pocket money should be controlled during adolescence and teenagers should be educated on spending their money on healthier food choices.

  12. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  13. Allowing for surface preparation in stress corrosion cracking modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.; Buisine, D.; Gelpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    When a 600 alloy component is significantly deformed during installation, by welding, rolling, bending, its stress corrosion cracking in Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor's primary coolant, is significantly changed by the initial surface treatment. Therefore, the crack initiated time may be reduced by several orders of magnitude for certain surfaces preparations. Allowing for cold working of the surface, for which modelling is proposed, depends less on the degree of cold work then on the depths of the hardened layers. Honing hardens the metal over depths of about one micron for vessel head penetrations, for example, and has little influence on subsequent behaviour after the part deforms. On the other hand, coarser turning treatment produces cold worked layers which can reach several tens of microns and can very significantly reduce the initiation time compared to fine honing. So evaluation after depths of hardening is vital on test pieces for interpreting laboratory results as well as on service components for estimating their service life. Suppression by mechanical or chemical treatment of these layers, after deformation, seems to be the most appropriate solution for reducing over-stressing connected with surface treatment carried out before deformation. (author)

  14. Investigating ASME allowable loads with finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel; Bezerra, Luciano M.; Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Cruz, Julio R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of nuclear components using finite element analysis (FEA) does not generally fall into the shell type verification adopted by the ASME Code. Consequently, the demonstration that the modes of failure are avoided sometimes is not straightforward. Allowable limits, developed by limit load theory, require the computation of shell membrane and bending stresses. How to calculate these stresses from FEA is not necessarily self-evident. One approach to be considered is to develop recommendations in a case-by-case basis for the most common pressure vessel geometries and loads based on comparison between the results of elastic and plastic FEA. In this paper, FE analyses of common 2D and complex 3D geometries are examined and discussed. It will be clear that in the cases studied, stress separation and categorization are not self-evident and simple tasks to undertake. Certain unclear recommendations of ASME Code can lead the stress analyst to non conservative designs as will be demonstrated in this paper. At the endo of this paper, taking into account comparison between elastic and elastic-plastic FE results from ANSYS some observations, suggestions and conclusions about the degree of conservatism of the ASME recommendations will be addressed. (author)

  15. Photochemical Microscale Electrophoresis Allows Fast Quantification of Biomolecule Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Friederike M; Kieß, Michael; Braun, Dieter

    2016-04-27

    Intricate spatiotemporal patterns emerge when chemical reactions couple to physical transport. We induce electrophoretic transport by a confined photochemical reaction and use it to infer the binding strength of a second, biomolecular binding reaction under physiological conditions. To this end, we use the photoactive compound 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which releases a proton upon 375 nm irradiation. The charged photoproducts locally perturb electroneutrality due to differential diffusion, giving rise to an electric potential Φ in the 100 μV range on the micrometer scale. Electrophoresis of biomolecules in this field is counterbalanced by back-diffusion within seconds. The biomolecule concentration is measured by fluorescence and settles proportionally to exp(-μ/D Φ). Typically, binding alters either the diffusion coefficient D or the electrophoretic mobility μ. Hence, the local biomolecule fluorescence directly reflects the binding state. A fit to the law of mass action reveals the dissociation constant of the binding reaction. We apply this approach to quantify the binding of the aptamer TBA15 to its protein target human-α-thrombin and to probe the hybridization of DNA. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar regime were determined and match both results in literature and in control experiments using microscale thermophoresis. As our approach is all-optical, isothermal and requires only nanoliter volumes at nanomolar concentrations, it will allow for the fast screening of biomolecule binding in low volume multiwell formats.

  16. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  17. Simulation of FRET dyes allows quantitative comparison against experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Ines; Sinner, Claude; Nettels, Daniel; Stucki-Buchli, Brigitte; Stockmar, Florian; Panek, Pawel T.; Jacob, Christoph R.; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Schuler, Benjamin; Schug, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Fully understanding biomolecular function requires detailed insight into the systems' structural dynamics. Powerful experimental techniques such as single molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) provide access to such dynamic information yet have to be carefully interpreted. Molecular simulations can complement these experiments but typically face limits in accessing slow time scales and large or unstructured systems. Here, we introduce a coarse-grained simulation technique that tackles these challenges. While requiring only few parameters, we maintain full protein flexibility and include all heavy atoms of proteins, linkers, and dyes. We are able to sufficiently reduce computational demands to simulate large or heterogeneous structural dynamics and ensembles on slow time scales found in, e.g., protein folding. The simulations allow for calculating FRET efficiencies which quantitatively agree with experimentally determined values. By providing atomically resolved trajectories, this work supports the planning and microscopic interpretation of experiments. Overall, these results highlight how simulations and experiments can complement each other leading to new insights into biomolecular dynamics and function.

  18. Coherent Multimodal Sensory Information Allows Switching between Gravitoinertial Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Marie; Rousseau, Célia; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; White, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Whether the central nervous system is capable to switch between contexts critically depends on experimental details. Motor control studies regularly adopt robotic devices to perturb the dynamics of a certain task. Other approaches investigate motor control by altering the gravitoinertial context itself as in parabolic flights and human centrifuges. In contrast to conventional robotic experiments, where only the hand is perturbed, these gravitoinertial or immersive settings coherently plunge participants into new environments. However, radically different they are, perfect adaptation of motor responses are commonly reported. In object manipulation tasks, this translates into a good matching of the grasping force or grip force to the destabilizing load force. One possible bias in these protocols is the predictability of the forthcoming dynamics. Here we test whether the successful switching and adaptation processes observed in immersive environments are a consequence of the fact that participants can predict the perturbation schedule. We used a short arm human centrifuge to decouple the effects of space and time on the dynamics of an object manipulation task by adding an unnatural explicit position-dependent force. We created different dynamical contexts by asking 20 participants to move the object at three different paces. These contextual sessions were interleaved such that we could simulate concurrent learning. We assessed adaptation by measuring how grip force was adjusted to this unnatural load force. We found that the motor system can switch between new unusual dynamical contexts, as reported by surprisingly well-adjusted grip forces, and that this capacity is not a mere consequence of the ability to predict the time course of the upcoming dynamics. We posit that a coherent flow of multimodal sensory information born in a homogeneous milieu allows switching between dynamical contexts.

  19. Coherent Multimodal Sensory Information Allows Switching between Gravitoinertial Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Barbiero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the central nervous system is capable to switch between contexts critically depends on experimental details. Motor control studies regularly adopt robotic devices to perturb the dynamics of a certain task. Other approaches investigate motor control by altering the gravitoinertial context itself as in parabolic flights and human centrifuges. In contrast to conventional robotic experiments, where only the hand is perturbed, these gravitoinertial or immersive settings coherently plunge participants into new environments. However, radically different they are, perfect adaptation of motor responses are commonly reported. In object manipulation tasks, this translates into a good matching of the grasping force or grip force to the destabilizing load force. One possible bias in these protocols is the predictability of the forthcoming dynamics. Here we test whether the successful switching and adaptation processes observed in immersive environments are a consequence of the fact that participants can predict the perturbation schedule. We used a short arm human centrifuge to decouple the effects of space and time on the dynamics of an object manipulation task by adding an unnatural explicit position-dependent force. We created different dynamical contexts by asking 20 participants to move the object at three different paces. These contextual sessions were interleaved such that we could simulate concurrent learning. We assessed adaptation by measuring how grip force was adjusted to this unnatural load force. We found that the motor system can switch between new unusual dynamical contexts, as reported by surprisingly well-adjusted grip forces, and that this capacity is not a mere consequence of the ability to predict the time course of the upcoming dynamics. We posit that a coherent flow of multimodal sensory information born in a homogeneous milieu allows switching between dynamical contexts.

  20. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for bound-bound transitions in Fe XV is presented. The allowed electric dipole (E1) transitions were obtained from the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method which is based on the close coupling approximation. A total of 507 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 0 ≤ J ≤ 10 are found. They agree within 1% with the available observed energies. These energy levels yield a total of 27,812 E1, same-spin multiplets and intercombination transitions. The A values are in good agreement with those compiled by NIST and other existing values for most transitions. Forbidden transitions are obtained from a set of 20 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 5f using the relativistic code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS) in the Breit-Pauli approximation. From a set of 123 fine structure levels, a total of 6962 S and A values are presented for forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions. The energies from SS calculations agree with observed energies to within 1-3%. A values for E2, M1 transitions agree very well with the available values for most transitions while those for M2 transitions show variable agreement. The large set of transition parameters presented should be applicable for both diagnostics and spectral modeling in the X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical regions of astrophysical plasmas.

  1. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  2. Analysis of super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, D H [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of tile J{pi} = 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} super-allowed Fermi transitions within isospin triplets is limited in the precision of its outcome not by the accuracy of the experimental input data nor by the confidence with which the radiative corrections can be applied but by knowledge of the nuclear mismatch: the subversion of the isospin symmetry along the multiplets by the charge-dependence of the forces, both Coulomb and specifically nuclear. Theoretical estimates of the mismatch differ considerably from author to author, their direct application results in clear violation of tile hypothesis of conservation of the vector current and clear inconsistency with unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This paper pursues and elaborates the previous suggestion that, in these unsatisfactory circumstances, the best procedure is to look to the experimental data themselves to determine and eliminate the mismatch by appropriate extrapolation to Z=O. This is done: (i) without any prior correction for mismatch; (ii) after correction for the full theoretical mismatch; (iii) after correction for case-to-case fluctuations in the theoretical mismatch. These three procedures are individually statistically satisfactory and mutually consistent in their extrapolation to Z = 0 despite the variety of the theoretical mismatches on which, in varying degrees, they are based. The resultant unitarity test for the CKM matrix is IV{sub ud}I{sup 2} + IV{sub us}I{sup 2} + IV{sub ub}I{sup 2} = 1.0003 {+-} 0.0014. The associated value for the operational vector coupling constant is: G{sub v}{sup *} / (hc){sup 3} = (1.15155{+-}0.00064) x 10{sup -5} GeV{sup -2}. If unitarity of the CKM matrix is alternatively assumed one may conclude, from a similar analysis, that the mean charge of the fermionic fields between which beta-decay takes place is Q-bar = 0.172{+-}0.060 and that, at the 90% confidence level, b{sub F} < 2.6 x 10{sup -3} were b{sub F} is the relative effective scalar

  3. Analysis of super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of tile Jπ = 0 + → 0 + super-allowed Fermi transitions within isospin triplets is limited in the precision of its outcome not by the accuracy of the experimental input data nor by the confidence with which the radiative corrections can be applied but by knowledge of the nuclear mismatch: the subversion of the isospin symmetry along the multiplets by the charge-dependence of the forces, both Coulomb and specifically nuclear. Theoretical estimates of the mismatch differ considerably from author to author, their direct application results in clear violation of tile hypothesis of conservation of the vector current and clear inconsistency with unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This paper pursues and elaborates the previous suggestion that, in these unsatisfactory circumstances, the best procedure is to look to the experimental data themselves to determine and eliminate the mismatch by appropriate extrapolation to Z=O. This is done: (i) without any prior correction for mismatch; (ii) after correction for the full theoretical mismatch; (iii) after correction for case-to-case fluctuations in the theoretical mismatch. These three procedures are individually statistically satisfactory and mutually consistent in their extrapolation to Z = 0 despite the variety of the theoretical mismatches on which, in varying degrees, they are based. The resultant unitarity test for the CKM matrix is IV ud I 2 + IV us I 2 + IV ub I 2 = 1.0003 ± 0.0014. The associated value for the operational vector coupling constant is: G v * / (hc) 3 = (1.15155±0.00064) x 10 -5 GeV -2 . If unitarity of the CKM matrix is alternatively assumed one may conclude, from a similar analysis, that the mean charge of the fermionic fields between which beta-decay takes place is Q-bar = 0.172±0.060 and that, at the 90% confidence level, b F -3 were b F is the relative effective scalar coupling constant. Neutron decay is also discussed, with the provisional recommendations: G A * /(hc) 3

  4. Comprehensive survey of SNPs in the Affymetrix exon array using the 1000 Genomes dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Gamazon

    Full Text Available Microarray gene expression data has been used in genome-wide association studies to allow researchers to study gene regulation as well as other complex phenotypes including disease risks and drug response. To reach scientifically sound conclusions from these studies, however, it is necessary to get reliable summarization of gene expression intensities. Among various factors that could affect expression profiling using a microarray platform, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in target mRNA may lead to reduced signal intensity measurements and result in spurious results. The recently released 1000 Genomes Project dataset provides an opportunity to evaluate the distribution of both known and novel SNPs in the International HapMap Project lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. We mapped the 1000 Genomes Project genotypic data to the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0ST array (exon array, which had been used in our previous studies and for which gene expression data had been made publicly available. We also evaluated the potential impact of these SNPs on the differentially spliced probesets we had identified previously. Though the 1000 Genomes Project data allowed a comprehensive survey of the SNPs in this particular array, the same approach can certainly be applied to other microarray platforms. Furthermore, we present a detailed catalogue of SNP-containing probesets (exon-level and transcript clusters (gene-level, which can be considered in evaluating findings using the exon array as well as benefit the design of follow-up experiments and data re-analysis.

  5. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Places and Rates at Which Allowances Are Paid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential... Allowances Are Paid This appendix lists the places approved for a cost-of-living allowance and shows the...

  6. Compassionate Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-10 - When depreciation deduction is allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When depreciation deduction is allowable. 1.167... Corporations § 1.167(a)-10 When depreciation deduction is allowable. (a) A taxpayer should deduct the proper depreciation allowance each year and may not increase his depreciation allowances in later years by reason of...

  8. Summary and overview of the allowance program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument, an emission allowance, that electric power producers will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system will be integrated into an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. The way state public utility commissions and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission respond to utility compliance actions will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and the cost of compliance to ratepayers. This chapter summarizes the CAAA, presenting dates for the implementation of the allowance system rule, and discusses conservation and renewable energy bonus allowances, EPA allowance sales and auctions, allowance pooling, exempt power facilities, election by additional resources, nitrogen oxides control, compliance planning third-party ownership, allowance property rights, and an example of utility compliance options with allowances. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  9. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5340 - How do I determine the allowable HAP loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the allowable HAP... Requirements § 63.5340 How do I determine the allowable HAP loss? (a) By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the allowable HAP loss in pounds from your leather finishing operation for the previous month. (b...

  11. 18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2.25 Conservation of Power... § 2.25 Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a... Commission provides for recovery of variable costs on an incremental basis, the Commission will allow...

  12. 41 CFR 301-74.7 - What is the conference lodging allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lodging allowance? 301-74.7 Section 301-74.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.7 What is the conference lodging allowance? The conference lodging...

  13. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. 413.89... Categories of Costs § 413.89 Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49198, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Principle. Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances are deductions...

  14. 41 CFR 102-85.95 - Who pays for the TI allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who pays for the TI allowance? 102-85.95 Section 102-85.95 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... GSA SPACE Tenant Improvement Allowance § 102-85.95 Who pays for the TI allowance? The customer agency...

  15. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 96.253 Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. (a)(1) After a...

  16. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 97.253 Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. (a)(1) After a compliance account is...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4141 Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations. (a) By November 17, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to...

  18. 26 CFR 1.912-1 - Exclusion of certain cost-of-living allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of certain cost-of-living allowances... Exclusion of certain cost-of-living allowances. (a) Amounts received by Government civilian personnel stationed outside the continental United States as cost-of-living allowances in accordance with regulations...

  19. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  20. Sickness allowance histories among disability retirees due to mental disorders: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Blomgren, Jenni; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to describe sickness allowance histories before disability retirement due to mental disorders and to examine whether receiving sickness allowance due to mental disorders and somatic conditions predicts future disability retirement. Pre-retirement sickness allowance histories were traced backwards for 7 years among Finnish residents aged 25-64 years who had retired due to mental disorders in 2011 (n=5.544). For each retiree, five sex- and age-matched controls were drawn from the non-retired population. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the risk for disability retirement by sickness allowance history and to control for the effects of educational level, social class, marital status and the urbanisation level of the municipality. The proportion of sickness allowance recipients increased steadily during the years preceding disability retirement, and was highest among those who retired due to bipolar disorders or depression. Those who had received sickness allowance due to mental disorders 6-7 years earlier had 6.5 times higher risk and those with sickness allowance 1-2 years earlier 11.7 times higher risk for disability retirement. Sickness allowance due to somatic conditions increased the risk for disability retirement 1.6-1.9 times. Sickness allowance most strongly predicted retirement due to bipolar disorders and depression. Adjustment for covariates had little effect. Those who retired due to mental disorders more often had sickness allowance due to both mental disorders and somatic conditions, but in particular sickness allowance due to mental disorders predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. 34 CFR 690.10 - Administrative cost allowance to participating schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative cost allowance to participating schools. 690.10 Section 690.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... General Definitions § 690.10 Administrative cost allowance to participating schools. (a) Subject to...

  2. 26 CFR 1.611-1 - Allowance of deduction for depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowance of deduction for depletion. 1.611-1... depletion. (a) Depletion of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber—(1) In general... mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion. In...

  3. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.19 Section 82.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled... Ineos Fluor Americas HCFC-22 2,546,305 Kivlan & Company HCFC-22 2,081,018 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2...

  4. 40 CFR 82.17 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.17 Section 82.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.17 Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled... 1,759,681 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2,383,835 Solvay Solexis HCFC-142b 6,541,764 [ 74 FR 66446, Dec...

  5. 19 CFR 151.23 - Allowance for moisture in raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance for moisture in raw sugar. 151.23...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.23 Allowance for moisture in raw sugar. Inasmuch as the absorption of sea water or moisture...

  6. Emission allowances and mitigation costs of China and India resulting from different effort-sharing approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Weitzel, Matthias; den Elzen, Michel G.J.; Hof, Andries F.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Peterson, Sonja; Narita, Daiju

    2012-01-01

    To meet ambitious global climate targets, mitigation effort in China and India is necessary. This paper presents an analysis of the scientific literature on how effort-sharing approaches affect emission allowances and abatement costs of China and India. We find that reductions for both China and India differ greatly in time, across- and within approaches and between concentration stabilisation targets. For China, allocated emission allowances in 2020 are substantially below baseline projections. Moreover, they may be below 2005 emission levels, particularly for low concentration targets (below 490 ppm CO 2 -eq). Effort-sharing approaches based on allocating reduction targets lead to relatively lower reductions for China than approaches that are based on allocating emission allowances. For 2050, emission allowances for China are 50–80% below 2005 levels for low concentration targets with minor differences between approaches. Still, mitigation costs of China (including emissions trading) remain mostly below global average. According to literature, Chinese emission allowances peak before 2025–2030 for low concentration targets. India’s emission allowances show high increases compared to 2005 levels. If emission trading is allowed, financial revenues from selling credits might compensate mitigation costs in most approaches, even for low concentration targets. India’s emission allowances peak around 2030–2040 for all concentration targets.

  7. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  8. 12 CFR 621.5 - Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and chargeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... according to generally accepted accounting principles. (b) Develop, adopt, and consistently apply policies... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for the allowance for loan losses... ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.5 Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and...

  9. 19 CFR 18.6 - Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.6 Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance. (a) When there has been a short shipment and the short-shipped...

  10. 20 CFR 670.630 - Are student allowances subject to Federal Payroll Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Payroll Taxes? 670.630 Section 670.630 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... student allowances subject to Federal Payroll Taxes? Yes, Job Corps student allowances are subject to Federal payroll tax withholding and social security taxes. Job Corps students are considered to be Federal...

  11. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable operating...

  12. 41 CFR 302-2.3 - What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation? 302-2.3 Section 302-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 41 CFR 301-1.3 - Who is eligible for TDY allowances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for TDY allowances? 301-1.3 Section 301-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.3 Who is eligible for TDY...

  14. 26 CFR 1.873-1 - Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.873-1 Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals. (a) General provisions—(1) Allocation of deductions. In...

  15. 77 FR 71741 - Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 240 Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The... and the continuing need for its Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and...

  16. 42 CFR 413.144 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on fully depreciated or partially depreciated assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on fully... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Capital-Related Costs § 413.144 Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on fully depreciated or partially depreciated assets. (a) Principle. Depreciation on assets being used by a...

  17. 40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General. The Administrator will allocate allowances from the Conservation and...

  18. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands unless...

  19. Material variability and repetitive member factors for the allowable properties of engineered wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that repetitive member allowable property adjustments should be larger for high-variability materials than for low-variability materials. We report analytic calculations and simulations that suggest that the order of such adjustments should be reversed, that is, given the manner in which allowable properties are currently calculated, as the...

  20. 20 CFR 209.14 - Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. 209.14 Section 209.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. For any employee who is paid a separation payment, the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.853-1 - Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. 1....853-1 Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. (a) In general. Under section 853, a regulated... paid by it pursuant to any income tax convention, as either a credit (under section 901) or as a...

  2. 40 CFR 73.90 - Allowance allocations for small diesel refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refineries. 73.90 Section 73.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Small Diesel Refineries § 73.90 Allowance allocations... application for certification, submitted to the address in § 73.13 of this chapter, shall include the...

  3. A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions

  4. Tendances Carbone no. 73 'Reforming the EU ETS, Act I: pushing back the allowance auction timetable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberola, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: On July 25 2012, the European Commission presented its first reform to re-calibrate the supply of allowances in EU ETS, via two proposals aimed at amending the ETS Directive and reviewing the auction regulations, in order to alter the auctioning timetable during the period between 2013 and 2020, with no legal risk. The aim is to withdraw a certain amount of the allowances auctioned in 2013, 2014 and 2015, in order to reintroduce that amount after 2018

  5. Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and  1,5 33 0,5   diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings

  6. Short-run allocation of emissions allowances and long-term goals for climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Wråke, Markus; Sterner, Thomas; Fischer, Carolyn; Burtraw, Dallas

    We use economic analysis to evaluate grandfathering, auctioning, and benchmarking approaches for allocation of emissions allowances and then discuss practical experience from European and American schemes. In principle, auctions are superior from the viewpoints of efficiency, fairness, transparency,

  7. 34 CFR 682.302 - Payment of special allowance on FFEL loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which special allowance is claimed under paragraph (f)(2)of this section, describes the role of such... section— (1) A tax-exempt obligation is an obligation the income of which is exempt from taxation under...

  8. Space allowance of young goats during transportation to slaughter = Beladingsdichtheid tijdens het wegtransport van jonge geiten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Lambooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research was performed during long distance road transportations of young goats (6-8 weeks). Effects of three space allowances on physiological responses (blood parameters, heart rate and body temperature) were measured.

  9. On Obtaining Design Allowables for Adhesives Used in the Bonded-Composite Repair of Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalkley, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A technique is documented, along with its experimental validation, for obtaining engineering-standard design allowables for structural adhesives used in the bonded/composite repair of aircraft structure...

  10. 46 CFR 167.60-15 - Manning and persons allowed to be carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certificates of Inspection § 167.60-15 Manning and persons allowed to be carried. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall specify in the Certificate of Inspection the...

  11. 77 FR 37909 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Relocation Allowances; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... are to allow for open transparency, an exchange of ideas, and provide agency flexibility. DATES: The... the category they would like to address, your name, company name or organization (if applicable...

  12. 18 CFR 367.4320 - Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction-Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4320 Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction—Credit. This...

  13. Manufacturer Allowances and Retailer Pass-Through Rates in a Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Yong Kim; Richard Staelin

    1999-01-01

    A commonly held belief has grocery and mass merchandise retailers gaining power relative to the upstream consumer package goods manufacturers. One of the major justifications for this belief is that manufacturers are now giving retailers more side payments such as trade allowances, slotting allowances, etc. However, a number of researchers have shown that these concessions have not translated into increased profit for the retailer relative to the manufacturer. This paper explores, via an anal...

  14. Recommendations for erosion-corrosion allowance for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.; Brehm, W.F.; Larrick, A.P.; Divine, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility carbon steel tanks will contain mixer pumps that circulate the waste. On the basis of flow characteristics of the system and data from the literature, an erosion allowance of 0.075 mm/y (3 mil/year) was recommended for the tank bottoms, in addition to the 0.025 mm/y (1 mil/year) general corrosion allowance

  15. Structure functions of the deuteron with allowance for meson exchange currents within QCD-VMD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The deuteron structure functions A(q 2 ), B(q 2 ) and tensor polarization T 20 (q 2 ) are studied within the QCD-VMD model. It is shown that the calculation of the structure functions with allowance for meson exchange currents does not allow us to improve the agreement with experiment at large transfer momenta where probably other degrees of freedom are to be taken into account. 24 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Tugcu; Mehmet Toygar; Ender Senol; I. Ozgur Can; Mukerrem Safali

    2007-01-01

    Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the S...

  17. The response of the Beijing carbon emissions allowance price (BJC) to macroeconomic and energy price indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Shihong; Nan, Xin; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiuying

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, China opened pilot carbon emission trading markets in seven provinces, where carbon emission allowances have now been traded for more than two years. In this paper, we employ a structural VAR model and the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance to study the dynamic relationships among the price of the carbon emission allowance, economic development and the price of energy. This paper's data cover the period from April 2, 2014 to November 6, 2015. This paper provides information that will be helpful to both investors and governmental policy makers. The results show that (1) an increase of one standard deviation in the coal price leads to an initial increase of approximately 0.1% in the Beijing carbon price. After 2 days, there is a decrease of less than 0.1%, and the price gradually increases by approximately 0.1% after 30 days; (2) the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance is mainly affected by its own historical price; (3) the Beijing carbon emission allowance price, crude oil price, natural gas price and economic development have positive – albeit non-significant – correlations. - Highlights: • This paper examines the response of the Beijing carbon emission allowance price. • A rise in coal prices will have different effects in different lag stages. • There are positive correlations between the BJC and economic development.

  18. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  19. Estimating sea-level allowances for Atlantic Canada under conditions of uncertain sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Greenan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the methodology of computing sea-level rise allowances for Atlantic Canada in the 21st century under conditions of uncertain sea-level rise. The sea-level rise allowances are defined as the amount by which an asset needs to be raised in order to maintain the same likelihood of future flooding events as that site has experienced in the recent past. The allowances are determined by combination of the statistics of present tides and storm surges (storm tides and the regional projections of sea-level rise and associated uncertainty. Tide-gauge data for nine sites from the Canadian Atlantic coast are used to derive the scale parameters of present sea-level extremes using the Gumbel distribution function. The allowances in the 21st century, with respect to the year 1990, were computed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A1FI emission scenario. For Atlantic Canada, the allowances are regionally variable and, for the period 1990–2050, range between –13 and 38 cm while, for the period 1990–2100, they range between 7 and 108 cm. The negative allowances in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence region are caused by land uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA.

  20. Stochastic Differential Equation Models for the Price of European CO2 Emissions Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugan Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the stochastic nature of emissions allowances is crucial for risk management in emissions trading markets. In this study, we discuss the emissions allowances spot price within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Powernext and European Climate Exchange. To compare the fitness of five stochastic differential equations (SDEs to the European Union allowances spot price, we apply regression theory to obtain the point and interval estimations for the parameters of the SDEs. An empirical evaluation demonstrates that the mean reverting square root process (MRSRP has the best fitness of five SDEs to forecast the spot price. To reduce the degree of smog, we develop a new trading scheme in which firms have to hand many more allowances to the government when they emit one unit of air pollution on heavy pollution days, versus one allowance on clean days. Thus, we set up the SDE MRSRP model with Markovian switching to analyse the evolution of the spot price in such a scheme. The analysis shows that the allowances spot price will not jump too much in the new scheme. The findings of this study could contribute to developing a new type of emissions trading.

  1. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20-44 in Finland during the period 1992-2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further birth more quickly, and (iii) whether the risk to proceed to a subsequent birth is related to educational level. The results show that women using the allowance have a higher risk of having a second and a third birth than women not using it. The risk of having a second birth is higher than that of having a third birth. Also, women using the allowance get their subsequent child sooner than women not using the allowance. No large educational differences in the effect of allowance use are found for second or third births.

  2. Parametric Method to Define Area of Allowable Configurations while Changing Position of Restricted Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, F. N.; Nefedov, D. I.; Rogoza, Yu A.; Zinchenko, Yu V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the findings related to the development of the module for automatic collision detection of the manipulator with restricted zones for virtual motion modeling. It proposes the parametric method for specifying the area of allowable joint configurations. The authors study the cases when restricted zones are specified using the horizontal plane or front-projection planes. The joint coordinate space is specified by rectangular axes in the direction of which the angles defining the displacements in turning pairs are laid off. The authors present the results of modeling which enabled to develop a parametric method for specifying a set of cross-sections defining the shape and position of allowable configurations in different positions of a restricted zone. All joint points that define allowable configurations refer to the indicated sections. The area of allowable configurations is specified analytically by using several kinematic surfaces that limit it. A geometric analysis is developed based on the use of the area of allowable configurations characterizing the position of the manipulator and reported restricted zones. The paper presents numerical calculations related to virtual simulation of the manipulator path performed by the mobile robot Varan when using the developed algorithm and restricted zones. The obtained analytical dependencies allow us to define the area of allowable configurations, which is a knowledge pool to ensure the intelligent control of the manipulator path in a predefined environment. The use of the obtained region to synthesize a joint trajectory makes it possible to correct the manipulator path to foresee and eliminate deadlocks when synthesizing motions along the velocity vector.

  3. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tugcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Gulhane Military Medical Academy between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2006. There were 87 reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances. The mean age of the cases was 25.93 ±5.8 years (20-43 years. The most frequent condition requiring monetary support was gun shot wounds (42.6%. The most frequent location of the wounds was the head (31% and there was an increase in the duration of work leave caused by disabilities (p<0.05. The aim of this study was to determine problems which physicians face when they write reports required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances and to underline the points concerning writing those reports based on the relevant laws. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 475-478

  4. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  5. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  6. Forecasting the Allocation Ratio of Carbon Emission Allowance Currency for 2020 and 2030 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Zeng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries and scholars have used various strategies to improve and optimize the allocation ratios for carbon emission allowances. This issue is more urgent for China due to the uneven development across the country. This paper proposes a new method that divides low-carbon economy development processes into two separate periods: from 2020 to 2029 and from 2030 to 2050. These two periods have unique requirements and emissions reduction potential; therefore, they must involve different allocation methods, so that reduction behaviors do not stall the development of regional low-carbon economies. During the first period, a more deterministic economic development approach for the carbon emission allowance allocation ratio should be used. During the second period, more adaptive and optimized policy guidance should be employed. We developed a low-carbon economy index evaluation system using the entropy weight method to measure information filtering levels. We conducted vector autoregressive correlation tests, consulted 60 experts for the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, and we conducted max-min standardized data processing tests. This article presents first- and second-period carbon emission allowance models in combination with a low-carbon economy index evaluation system. Finally, we forecast reasonable carbon emission allowance allocation ratios for China for the periods starting in 2020 and 2030. A good allocation ratio for the carbon emission allowance can help boost China’s economic development and help the country reach its energy conservation and emissions reduction goals.

  7. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  8. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tugcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Gulhane Military Medical Academy between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2006. There were 87 reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances. The mean age of the cases was 25.93 ±5.8 years (20-43 years. The most frequent condition requiring monetary support was gun shot wounds (42.6%. The most frequent location of the wounds was the head (31% and there was an increase in the duration of work leave caused by disabilities (p<0.05. The aim of this study was to determine problems which physicians face when they write reports required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances and to underline the points concerning writing those reports based on the relevant laws. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 475-478

  9. Measurement of the super-allowed branching ratio of $^{22}$Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the super-allowed branching ratio and the half-life of $^{22}$Mg, one of the least-well-measured $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$ transitions of the 14 nuclei used to determine V$_{ud}$ and to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We propose measurements which should allow to significantly improve the precision on the super-allowed branching ratio employing a precisely efficiency calibrated germanium detector and on the half-life. As no method exists to greatly improve (e.g. an order of magnitude) on previous results, the branching ratio and the half-life have to be measured several times with independent methods and in independent experiments.

  10. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Allowance Prices, Trade Flows, Competitiveness Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, G.; Peterson, S.

    2004-03-01

    The upcoming European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is one of the more controversial climate policy instruments. Predictions about its likely impact and its performance can at present only be made to a certain degree. As long as the National Allocations Plans are not finally settled the overall supply of allowances is not determined. In this paper we will identify key features and key impacts of the EU ETS by scanning the range of likely allocation plans using the simulation model DART. The analysis of the simulation results highlights a number of interesting details in terms of allowance trade flows between member countries, of allowance prices, and in terms of the role of the accession countries in the ETS

  11. Optimization of the allowed levels of radioactive contamination on a virtual market of polluted provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.Yi.

    1997-01-01

    The goal is to optimize the allowed levels of 137 Cs contamination of food products according to the ALARA principle. The model creates a virtual market of contaminated daily portions of various products, their contamination being distributed log normally with the same parameters as in real products. The consumer requests portions and wasters contaminated until one obtains 365 acceptable portions of every product per year. The cost of wastering is high at a low allowed level. The floating price of irradiation depends on the yearly consumption of 137 Cs and is stated very high when the last value approaches the dose limit (risk aversive function). Varying allowed levels, it is possible to minimize the cost of wastering and total cost of wastering and irradiation. The iterative algorithm is proposed

  12. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for meson exchange currents. Retardation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.; Sus'kov, S.Eh.

    1992-01-01

    The electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for retardation effects in meson exchange currents (MEC) has been investigated depending on vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. It is shown that the retardation effects should be taken into account in MEC at large transfer momenta (t>12 fm -2 ). It is found for the differential cross section that the contribution of MEC is strongly dependent on the vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. The role of p-meson contribution in MEC with allowance for retardation effects has been investigated. It is shown that the inclusion of retardation effects leads to the decrease of the p-meson influence at large transfer momenta. The radial dependence of the matrix elements with allowance for retardation effects has been studied. It was shown that the inclusion of meson exchange currents is essentially important in the range of r=1-1.5 fm when t -2 . 34 refs.; 12 figs

  13. Tendances Carbone no. 83 'Reduction in free allowances for phase 3 of the EU ETS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberola, Emilie; Sartor, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: In early September, the European Commission decided on the amount of free allowances attributed to industrial installations for phase 3 of the EU ETS, thus completing a process begun in 2009. This decision followed the examination of Member State proposals and their National Implementation Measures (NIM) with regard to two principal criteria: their compatibility with harmonized allocation rules and their consistency with benchmark values. The allocation proposals of all States were all approved with the exception of the allocation of 20 installations which are to be revised. In line with the ETS Directive, a correction factor was then applied so that these allocations do not exceed the maximum amount of free allocation allowed

  14. Auction design for the allocation of carbon emission allowances: uniform or discriminatory price?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; wei, yi-ming

    2010-01-01

    Only four states used auction in Phase Ⅰ (2005-2007) of the European Union Emission Trading System, of which four used a uniform-price sealed auction format. Here we discuss whether the auction should adopt a uniform-price or discriminatory-price format using an agent-based carbon allowances...... auction model established for the purpose. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) when carbon allowances are relatively scarce, the government should use a discriminatory-price auction; when carbon allowances are relatively abundant, the government should use a uniform-price auction. (2) Uncertainty......) The uniform-price auction is relatively insensitive to market structure. However, a monopoly market is more likely to develop under the discriminatory-price auction format. The results of the model have some policy implications for designing carbon market mechanisms in the future....

  15. A Springloaded Metal-Ligand Mesocate Allows Access to Trapped Intermediates of Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Paul M; Holloway, Lauren R; Lyon, Yana; Onishi, Nicole C; Beran, Gregory J O; Julian, Ryan R; Hooley, Richard J

    2018-04-02

    A strained, "springloaded" Fe 2 L 3 iminopyridine mesocate shows highly variable reactivity upon postassembly reaction with competitive diamines. The strained assembly is reactive toward transimination in minutes at ambient temperature and allows observation of kinetically trapped intermediates in the self-assembly pathway. When diamines are used that can only form less favored cage products upon full equilibration, trapped ML 3 fragments with pendant, "hanging" NH 2 groups are selectively formed instead. Slight variations in diamine structure have large effects on the product outcome: less rigid diamines convert the mesocate to more favored self-assembled cage complexes under mild conditions and allow observation of heterocomplex intermediates in the displacement pathway. The mesocate allows control of equilibrium processes and direction of product outcomes via small, iterative changes in added subcomponent structure and provides a method of accessing metal-ligand cage structures not normally observed in multicomponent Fe-iminopyridine self-assembly.

  16. Real options theory to the pricing of allowances contract to carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Leticia Takahashi; Parente, Virginia; Goldemberg, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a pricing model contract for allowances to emit carbon through Real Options. Emissions allowances are equivalent tons of carbon traded between Annex I countries from companies that have the ability to reduce their emissions beyond what is assigned to it. The surplus of emission reductions produced by these companies may be sold in the emissions market. Thus, this work can contribute to improving the management of contractual risk and enable companies estimated the price at which a contract can be signed. Properly evaluate the contracts that the market environment is a challenge for companies. The historic low of information and randomness in the price of carbon allowances in the spot market suggest extreme caution in its use. (author)

  17. Differences in Sickness Allowance Receipt between Swedish Speakers and Finnish Speakers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina S. Reini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.

  18. Analyzing electric utility NO{sub x} emission allowance trading strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selker, F.

    2005-04-01

    This article presented a computer model designed to help power producers negotiate the nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) emission allowance (EA) market. Created in 1999, the EA market poses a serious constraint to utilities and has the potential to substantially increase total power productions costs and to force plant shutdowns if emissions exceed limits. The market was created in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, with the goal of effectively reducing the cost of summer ozone levels. Over 450 sources in the Northeast regions receive an allocation of NO{sub x} allowances to cover their NO{sub x} emissions during the May to September period. Various uncertainties created by the market were examined, including late summer heat waves and nuclear outages, both of which could boost emissions during times when offsets are difficult to initiate. Weather, planning and plant outages were also discussed. Supply shortages were considered along with issues concerning the model's ability to assess options and uncertainties. The feasibility of the emissions allowance acting as a viable buffer was also evaluated. It was noted that the net cost of buying and selling allowances during the NO{sub x} season varied with inventory levels. A hypothetical analysis of a NO{sub x} inventory was presented. It was suggested that purchasing options to buy allowances offered another hedge against NO{sub x} EA shortages and noncompliance. It was concluded that the model allowed users to explore the cost and risk tradeoffs of various combinations. 5 figs.

  19. Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xian; Wei, Yi-Ming; Yu, Shiwei

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO 2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO 2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO 2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO 2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed

  20. Public Interest vs. Interest Groups: Allowance Allocation in the EU Emission Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Niels; Oberndorfer, Ulrich (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)); Boehringer, Christoph (Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    We assess the political-economy determinants of allowance allocation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). A common-agency model suggests that the government considers the preferences of sectoral interest groups when allocating emissions permits, so that industries with a more powerful lobby face a lower regulatory burden. An empirical analysis of the first trading phase of the EU ETS corroborates our theoretical prediction, but also reveals that the political-economy determinants of permit allocation are more complex. Employing instrumental-variable estimation technique, we find that large carbon emitters that were represented by powerful interest groups received higher levels of emissions allowances

  1. Allowable spent LWR fuel storage temperatures in inert gases, nitrogen, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.R.; Cunningham, M.E.; Simonen, E.P.; Thomas, L.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Barnhart, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Spent fuel in inert dry storage is now a reality in the US; recommended maximum temperature-time conditions are specified in an IBM PC-compatible code. However, spent fuel cannot yet be stored in air because the data and theory needed for predicting allowable temperatures are still being developed. Tests to determine the behavior of spent UO 2 fragments and breached rod specimens in air are providing data that will be used to determine the temperatures that can be allowed for fuel stored in air. 13 refs., 5 figs

  2. Mechanisms of dust grain charging in plasma with allowance for electron emission processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol’kov, S. I.; Savin, V. N., E-mail: moped@onego.ru [Petrozavodsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The process of dust grain charging is described with allowance for secondary, ion-induced, photoelectric, and thermal electron emission from the grain surface. The roughness of the grain surface is taken into account. An intermediate charging regime involving ion–atom collisions and electron ionization in the perturbed plasma region is analyzed using the moment equations and Poisson’s equation. A calculation method is proposed that allows one to take into account the influence of all the above effects and determine the radius of the plasma region perturbed by the dust grain.

  3. Photocleavable DNA barcode-antibody conjugates allow sensitive and multiplexed protein analysis in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasti, Sarit S; Liong, Monty; Peterson, Vanessa M; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-11-14

    DNA barcoding is an attractive technology, as it allows sensitive and multiplexed target analysis. However, DNA barcoding of cellular proteins remains challenging, primarily because barcode amplification and readout techniques are often incompatible with the cellular microenvironment. Here we describe the development and validation of a photocleavable DNA barcode-antibody conjugate method for rapid, quantitative, and multiplexed detection of proteins in single live cells. Following target binding, this method allows DNA barcodes to be photoreleased in solution, enabling easy isolation, amplification, and readout. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of protein biomarkers in a variety of cancer cells.

  4. Child Home Care Allowance: Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Anni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I study the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 19-44 in Finland. I use register data from the Finnish Census Panel (FCP) on 254 465 women who had a second or third child during 1993 to 2007. I apply discrete-time event-history analysis to examine whether women using the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of three have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing – ...

  5. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20?44 in Finland during the period 1992?2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further...

  6. The Impact on New Hampshire's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This analysis, co-authored by the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies (IGLSS) and UCLA’s Williams Project on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on New Hampshire’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $500,000 each year for the State. This net impact will be the result of savings in expenditures on state means-teste...

  7. The Impact of Washington's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth; Lau, Holning S.

    2006-01-01

    This analysis estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on Washington’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $3.9 million to $5.7 million each year for the State. This net impact will result from savings in expenditures on state means-tested public benefits programs and from an increase in sales tax revenue from weddings and wedding-related tourism.

  8. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  9. Banking behavior under uncertainty: Evidence from the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier; Sevi, Benoit

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine portfolio management of emission allowances in the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance Trading Program, to determine whether utilities have a real motive to bank when risk increases. We test a theoretical model linking the motivation of the firm to accumulate permits in order to prepare itself to face a risky situation in the future. Empirical estimation using data for years 2001 to 2004 provides evidence of a relationship between banking behavior and uncertainty the utility is facing with. (authors)

  10. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  11. U.S.: proposed federal legislation to allow condom distribution and HIV testing in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Anna

    2007-05-01

    Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) is reintroducing legislation in the U.S. House of Representatives that would require federal correctional facilities to allow community organizations to distribute condoms and provide voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and STDs for inmates. The bill has been referred to the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security.

  12. Experimental comparison of impact of auction format on carbon allowance market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    auction and English clock auction) with heterogeneous bidders (coal power plants and gas power plants) from four perspectives (carbon price, auction efficiency, demand withholding and fluctuations in power supplies). Possibilities of collusion among bidders and impacts of allowance banking and penalty...

  13. Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...

  14. 42 CFR 413.134 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation based on asset costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the owner of record is established by reference to the hospital's or SNF's recorded historical cost of... normal economic and technological changes; climatic and other local conditions; and the provider's policy... the purchase price for the purpose of determining allowable historical cost. (9) Net book value. The...

  15. 42 CFR 413.98 - Purchase discounts and allowances, and refunds of expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial management income. However, modern accounting theory holds that income is not derived from a... credit allowed on account of an overcollection. (c) Normal accounting treatment—Reduction of costs. All... are not income. If they are received in the same accounting period in which the purchases were made or...

  16. Improving the attractiveness of CDM projects through allowing and incorporating options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, David G.; Ballouz, Joseph J.; Balatbat, Maria C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward a proposal that, within Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, investors be allowed to benefit from options; this will require a CDM rule change. Through the presence of options, the downside risk resulting from low carbon prices and/or low achieved emission reductions on projects can be limited, while any upside resulting from high carbon prices and/or high achieved emission reductions can be taken advantage of. It is demonstrated that the presence of options improves the financial attractiveness of CDM projects, and this is at no detriment to any stakeholder. The flow-on from the proposal is that more CDM projects should be realisable if options are available, and this in turn will lead to reduced global emissions and improved sustainability. The proposal is supported by the necessary theory and is demonstrated on two registered CDM projects, one on hydropower and one on wind power. - Highlights: • The paper proposes that options be allowed within CDM projects. • Introducing options will require a CDM rule change. • Options improve the financial attractiveness of CDM projects. • Allowing options comes at no cost or detriment to any party. • Allowing options is a win–win situation to both society and the project proponent.

  17. 75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the Commissioner... cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, as well as topics covered at the hearing by: (1) e-mail... considering ways to quickly identify diseases and other serious medical conditions that obviously meet the...

  18. 34 CFR 658.40 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 658.40 Section 658.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE...

  19. 34 CFR 660.40 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 660.40 Section 660.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM What Conditions...

  20. A fluorescent probe which allows highly specific thiol labeling at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas W.; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Hansen, Rosa E.

    2012-01-01

    and properties of a thiol-specific reagent, fluorescent cyclic activated disulfide (FCAD), which includes the fluorescein moiety as fluorophore and utilizes a variation of thiol-disulfide exchange chemistry. The leaving-group character of FCAD makes it reactive at pH 3, allowing modification at low pH, limiting...

  1. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  2. 46 CFR 131.915 - Persons allowed in pilothouse and on navigational bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons allowed in pilothouse and on navigational bridge. 131.915 Section 131.915 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE... bridge. No person may be in the pilothouse while the vessel is under way, unless connected with the...

  3. Vulnerabilities of Bluetooth Data Channel that Allow Intruders to Wiretrap User’s Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Minin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the cryptography attack on Bluetooth handsfree headset. The authors describe the situation when hackers could eavesdrop mobile phones talks if a person is using the Bluetooth headset. The vulnerability in the authentication process allows hackers to crack PIN code and to decipher the packets transmitted between the headset and the mobile phone.

  4. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by December 11, 2001 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2001.

  5. 76 FR 13111 - Compassionate Allowances for Autoimmune Disease, Office of the Commissioner; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    [email protected] ; or Mail to Jamillah Jackson, Deputy Director, Office of Compassionate Allowances and....gov . You may also mail inquiries about this hearing to Jamillah Jackson, Deputy Director, Office of... Security--Disability Insurance; 96.006, Supplemental Security Income.) Dated: March 3, 2011. Michael J...

  6. 38 CFR 3.552 - Adjustment of allowance for aid and attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attendance allowance will be continued where the pensionable disability is blindness (visual acuity 5/200 or... except as to disabilities specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (See paragraph (k) of this... continued during hospitalization where the disability is paraplegia involving paralysis of both lower...

  7. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  8. Effect of space allowance and flooring on the behavior of pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, S G; Øyrehagen, O; Bøe, K E

    2017-05-01

    Space allowance recommendations for pregnant ewes vary considerably. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on activity, lying position, displacements, and aggressive interactions in pregnant ewes. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with space allowance (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 m/ewe) and type of flooring (straw bedding and expanded metal flooring) as the main factors. A total of 48 pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 8 ewes in each group. All groups were exposed to each treatment for 7 d. The ewes were video recorded for 24 h at the end of each treatment period and general activity, lying position in the pen, and social lying position were scored every 15 min. Displacements and aggressive interactions were scored continuously from 1030 to 1430 h. Mean lying time ( flooring had no significant effect on general activity. Ewes in the straw bedding treatment spent more time lying in the middle of the pen than ewes on expanded metal ( flooring. Hence, recommended space allowance for pregnant ewes should not be lower than 1.50 m/ewe.

  9. 30 CFR 220.011 - Schedule of allowable direct and allocable joint costs and credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE... NPSL operations are allowable provided that such employees work “full time” on some particular aspect... incidental expenses of the employee and members of his immediate family and transportation of his household...

  10. Personal Carbon Allowances with Focus on the Energy Systems in the UK and Denmark (in Russian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamentals of Personal Carbon Allowances (PCAs)and analyzes its merits and problems.The UK and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional set-up are quite different between the two countries. It is concluded that PCA...

  11. 76 FR 48863 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Standard Mileage Rate for Moving Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances--Standard Mileage Rate for Moving Purposes AGENCY: Office... agencies will reimburse an employee for using a privately owned vehicle for relocation on a worldwide basis...), Office of Travel, Transportation and Asset Management (MT), General Services Administration at (202) 208...

  12. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public... public meeting. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration (GSA) is revising the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and effectiveness...

  13. 76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public... and the general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel efficiency and.... Flynn, Deputy Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset Management. [FR Doc. 2011-19482 Filed 8...

  14. 41 CFR 302-1.1 - Who is eligible for relocation expense allowances under this chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service to an agency as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5721; (d) An employee performing travel in accordance... to the same or different Government agency. (f) A student trainee assigned to any position upon... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-GENERAL RULES Applicability...

  15. 50 CFR 29.1 - May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges? 29.1 Section 29.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules...

  16. Deriving allowable properties of lumber : a practical guide for interpretation of ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Bendtsen; William L. Galligan

    1978-01-01

    The ASTM standards for establishing clear wood mechanical properties and for deriving structural grades and related allowable properties for visually graded lumber can be confusing and difficult for the uninitiated to interpret. This report provides a practical guide to using these standards for individuals not familiar with their application. Sample stress...

  17. Introducing CO2 Allowances, Higher Prices For All Consumers; Higher Revenues For Whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.; Ozdemir, O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introducing a ceiling on total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and allowing polluting industries to buy and sell permits to meet it (known as a cap-and-trade system) affects investment strategies, generation quantities, and prices in electricity markets. In this paper we analyze these

  18. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; withdrawal for consumption. 19.18 Section 19.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... wastage; withdrawal for consumption. (a) Except where absolute deductions have been allowed in the... entered for consumption or for warehouse, during a 12-month period beginning on the first day of the month...

  20. 75 FR 22805 - Federal Travel Regulation; Relocation Allowances; Standard Data Dictionary for Collection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Proposed GSA Bulletin FTR 10-XXX; Docket 2010-0009; Sequence 1] Federal Travel Regulation; Relocation Allowances; Standard Data Dictionary for Collection of Transaction... GSA is posting online a proposed FTR bulletin that contains the data dictionary that large Federal...

  1. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the United...

  2. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless...

  3. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the minimum... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure...

  4. 34 CFR 675.45 - Allowable costs, Federal share, and institutional share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... education, financial self-help, and community service-learning opportunities. (3) Carry out activities in... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs, Federal share, and institutional share. 675.45 Section 675.45 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued...

  5. The monodromy property for K3 surfaces allowing a triple-point-free model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Annelies Kristien J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study under which conditions K3 surfaces allowing a triple-point-free model satisfy the monodromy property. This property is a quantitative relation between the geometry of the degeneration of a Calabi-Yau variety X and the monodromy action on the cohomology of...... X: a Calabi- Yau variety X satisfies the monodromy property if poles of the motivic zeta function ZX,ω(T) induce monodromy eigenvalues on the cohomology of X. Let k be an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0, and set K = k((t)). In this thesis, we focus on K3 surfaces over K allowing a triple-point...... is very precise, which allows to use a combination of geometrical and combinatorial techniques to check the monodromy property in practice. The first main result is an explicit computation of the poles of ZX,ω(T) for a K3 surface X allowing a triple-point-free model and a volume form ! on X. We show that...

  6. Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule Allow Parents the Right to See Their Children's Medical Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule allow parents the right to see their children’s medical records? Answer: Yes, the Privacy Rule generally ... as the child’s personal representative could endanger the child. Date Created: 12/19/2002 Content ... last reviewed on July 26, 2013 ...

  7. Global but fair. Controvert the climatic change, allow development; Global aber gerecht. Klimawandel bekaempfen, Entwicklung ermoeglichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book includes the following chapters: global but fair: climate compatible development for everybody; climatic change consequences und vulnerabilities; ethic dimension: fairness in the context of climatic change and poverty; options and challenges for emissions abatement; options for the adaptation to the climatic change; global deal for climate and development policy; convert the climatic change, allow development: ten political messages.

  8. 78 FR 44969 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for Allowing Avian Hunting in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... environmental impact statement will not be prepared unless additional information which may affect this decision... INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for Allowing Avian Hunting in Designated Areas Along the Rio Grande...

  9. 13 CFR 305.6 - Allowable methods of procurement for construction services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable methods of procurement for construction services. 305.6 Section 305.6 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... advertisement for bids and shall include the following, as applicable: (1) Justification for the proposed method...

  10. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit's control period heat input... control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired or oil-fired, for a calendar year under... allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance...

  11. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit's control period heat input for... control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired or oil-fired, for a calendar year under... baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations under...

  12. Allowable graphs of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bich Nguyen

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... Non-linear Schrödinger equation; graphs; characteristic polynomial; .... Allowable graphs of the NLS and their applications. 795 ...... nonlinear Schroödinger equation, J. Algebra Appl. 16 (2017) 37 pp., https://doi.org/10.1142/.

  13. Allowable outage analysis for the LOFT CIS and reflood assist bypass valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, J.E.; Matthews, S.D.

    1977-06-01

    To determine the outage time allowable for a typical 1 of 2 redundant valve configuration, a Markov model was created to analyze the various operating states for the valves. Since no performance criteria have been specified, an availability model was constructed with regard to the valve outage

  14. 40 CFR 280.94 - Allowable mechanisms and combinations of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of the financial test under this rule, the financial statements of the owner or operator are not consolidated with the financial statements of the guarantor. [53 FR 43370, Oct. 26, 1988, as amended at 58 FR... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.94 Allowable mechanisms and...

  15. In-stem labelling allows visualization of DNA strand displacements by distinct fluorescent colour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrois, Sebastian; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2013-05-21

    The combination of thiazole orange (TO) and thiazole red (TR) as an internal pair of fluorescent DNA base surrogates ("DNA traffic lights") allows us to follow at least two consecutive DNA strand displacements in real time through a distinct fluorescence colour change from green to red and vice versa.

  16. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.66 What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed? If we do not act within the timeframes established under § 203... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if MMS does not act in the time...

  17. 78 FR 7802 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Allowance in Duties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... burden hours or to CBP Form 4315. Type of Review: Extension (without change). Affected Public: Businesses... change to the burden hours. This document is published to obtain comments from the public and affected..., or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Application for Allowance in...

  18. 30 CFR 206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lessor to market the production for the mutual benefit of you and the lessor, then MMS will require that... maintenance expenses, overhead, and either depreciation and a return on undepreciated capital investment (in... allowable expenses. (iv) You may use either depreciation with a return on undepreciable capital investment...

  19. Allowing for Reflection Time does not Change Behavior in Dictator and Cheating Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Gneezy, Uri; Kajackaite, Agne

    2018-01-01

    Reaction time, usually measured in seconds, has been shown to be correlated with decisions in experimental games. In this paper, we study how allowing for a full day of “reflection time” alters behavior. We compare behavior in dictator and cheating games when participants make immediate choices...

  20. 78 FR 41720 - CampCo Petition to Allow Commercial Distribution of Tritium Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ...-32-8; NRC-2013-0078] CampCo Petition to Allow Commercial Distribution of Tritium Markers AGENCY... distribution of tritium markers for use under exemption from licensing requirements. DATES: Submit comments by... illumination markers containing tritium. On July 5, 2012 (ADAMS Accession No. ML121580046), the NRC requested...

  1. 48 CFR 52.216-26 - Payments of Allowable Costs Before Definitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and placed in the production process for use on the contract; (iii) Direct labor; (iv) Direct travel; (v) Other direct in-house costs; and (vi) Properly allocable and allowable indirect costs as shown on... Costs Before Definitization. 52.216-26 Section 52.216-26 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  2. 75 FR 61478 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Notice Allowing Post-Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. RM06-16-010; RM06-16-011] Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Notice Allowing Post-Technical Conference Comments September 24, 2010. On September 23, 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission conducted a...

  3. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Social and Statutory Conditions; Tel. 72862-74474

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2000/2001 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 28, 2000 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1,2000.

  4. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance of DoD contracts; (2) Existing facilities, either Government or nongovernment, cannot meet program... effort which results in the special use allowance being excessive compared to the Government research... Defense contracts. FAR 31.3 governs how much the Government will reimburse the institution for the...

  5. 38 CFR 21.324 - Reduction or termination dates of subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowance for courses in which the veteran receives grades that will count in the grade point average... following a term in which the grades the veteran receives include both those that count in the grade point average and nonpunitive grades, and the case manager does not find mitigating circumstances: (i) VA will...

  6. Performance and goats behavior in pasture of Andropogon grass under different forage allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Louçana da Costa Araújo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished to evaluate the behavior and performance of goats in to grazing on grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst Hack. cv. Planaltina submitted to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% BW/day, under continuous grazing. The experimental design to assess the grazing behaviour was randomized blocks in a split-plot with five replicates within the block. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months May and June. While for evaluation of animal performance was in complete block design with five replicates within the block. The different forage allowance did not cause structural changes in the pasture, except in height. However, there was an increase of dead material, leaf/stem ratio and reducing of height during the grazing period. The behavioral variables were not affected by forage allowance, except for the time of displacement, whereby goats spent more time in pastures with offer of 11% BW. The goats remained most part of the time in grazing and idle, corresponding to 89% and 5% of the evaluation time, respectively. Higher bit rate was observed in June, among the offerings, and 15 and 19% BW. The ingestive and grazing behaviour in goats is changed by the accumulation of dead material and stem in pasture from Andropogon grass during at rainy season. The forage supply 11% of BW increases the time of displacement of goats grazing on Andropogon grass. The management of grazing Andropogon grass with forage allowance being 11 and 19% of BW provides low weight gains in goats during the rainy season.

  7. Administrative Cicular No. 31 (Rev. 2) - International indemnity and non-resident allowance

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 2) entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 23 June 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208547.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 1) also entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance" of October 2007. The main changes reflect the decision taken in the framework of the five-yearly review to extend eligibility for international indemnity to all staff members, as well to introduce a distinction between current staff members and those recruited as from 1st September 2016. For the latter, the international indemnity will be calculated as a percentage of the minimum salary of the grade into which they are recruited; the amount granted to the former will not change, and is now expressed ...

  8. REMINDER - extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of 1 July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  9. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October, 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of1st July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  10. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  11. Current observations with a decaying cosmological constant allow for chaotic cyclic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, George F.R.; Platts, Emma; Weltman, Amanda; Sloan, David

    2016-01-01

    We use the phase plane analysis technique of Madsen and Ellis [1] to consider a universe with a true cosmological constant as well as a cosmological 'constant' that is decaying. Time symmetric dynamics for the inflationary era allows eternally bouncing models to occur. Allowing for scalar field dynamic evolution, we find that if dark energy decays in the future, chaotic cyclic universes exist provided the spatial curvature is positive. This is particularly interesting in light of current observations which do not yet rule out either closed universes or possible evolution of the cosmological constant. We present only a proof of principle, with no definite claim on the physical mechanism required for the present dark energy to decay

  12. Pressurizer /Auxiliary Spray Piping Stress Analysis For Determination Of Lead Shielding Maximum Allow Able Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet

  13. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year) received an email in July inviting them to fill in a declaration of situation for dependent children in EDH. If this declaration has not yet been completed, you are requested to do so (one declaration for each child concerned) WITHOUT DELAY, by using the following link: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/ChildAllowance/ The deadline was September 30. If no declaration is sent to our service by October 13, 2006, the child allowance, as well as automatic health insurance membership, will cease on the first day of the month following the end of the last school year (according to the school certificate in our possession or, in the absence of precise information, on July 1, 2006). School fees Service Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862

  14. Analysis of oil lubricated, fluid film, thrust bearings with allowance for temperature dependent viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C. H. T.; Malanoski, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was performed to seek a fluid-film thrust bearing design intended to be part of a high-speed, hybrid (rolling element/fluid film) bearing configuration. The base line used is a design previously tested. To improve the accuracy of theoretical predictions of load capacity, flow rate, and friction power loss, an analytical procedure was developed to include curvature effects inherent in thrust bearings and to allow for the temperature rise in the fluid due to viscous heating. Also, a narrow-groove approximation in the treatment of the temperature field was formulated to apply the procedure to the Whipple thrust bearing. A comparative trade-off study was carried out assuming isothermal films; its results showed the shrouded-step design to be superior to the Whipple design for the intended application. An extensive parametric study was performed, employing isoviscous calculations, to determine the optimized design, which was subsequently recalculated allowing for temperature effects.

  15. Reminder: extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2013/2014 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2013 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2013/2014, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel.: 72862 / 71421

  16. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education fees service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  17. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2011/2012 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2011 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2011/2012, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  18. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (work placement contract, evidence of sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  19. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2012/2013 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a   SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2012 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2012/2013, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  20. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of July 1, 2007. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  1. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of 1 July 2007. School Fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  2. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2009/2010 school year), for whom a dependent child’s allowance is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2009 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the 2009/2010 school year, we will be obliged to stop payment of the dependent child’s allowance as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees service (33-1-017) HR Department - Tel. 72862

  3. Benefits and drawbacks of per diems: Do allowances distort good governance in the health sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2009-01-01

    Per diems, or daily allowances, are an important mechanism for reimbursing work‑related expenses, encouraging participation in professional development activities, and motivating under‑paid employees. Yet, sometimes employees may abuse per diem policies by falsifying travel reports or inflating workshop budgets for private gain. In addition, the possibility of earning per diem can have a distorting impact on programme design, management decisions, and how employees spend their time. Drawing o...

  4. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  5. Poor Government Oversight of Anham and Its Subcontracting Procedures Allowed Questionable Costs To Go Undetected

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-30

    contractor purchasing system review of Anham. Management Comments and Audit Response The Defense Contract Mangement Agency and the U.S. Central... Introduction 1  Background 1  Government Agency Roles and Oversight Responsibilities 4  Objectives 7  Weak Government Oversight Resulted in Significant...Subcontracting Procedures Allowed Questionable Costs To Go Undetected SIGIR 11-022 July 30, 2011 Introduction Since 2003, the United States Government

  6. ATTILA 2 S. A technical and interactive test language for architecture allowing simultaneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batllo, M.

    1980-01-01

    The name ATTILA 2 S is inspired from ATLAS, test language adopted by the Department of Defence of America (D.O.D.) but cannot be implemented on our installation. ATTILA 2 S is principally characterized by: its technical vocabulary (P.O.L.), its interactivity, its simultaneity with main job (Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing allowed by multiprocessors architecture. This language has been developed for the Paris C.R.T. system (Photographies analysis system) on Control Data Cyber 72 computer [fr

  7. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Energy List for 2013; Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA). Energielijst 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) is a tax system by means of which the Dutch government supports companies with investments in energy-saving equipment and renewable energy. This brochure explains the assets eligible for EIA and how the scheme works [Dutch] De Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA) is een fiscale regeling waarmee de overheid ondersteuning biedt voor bedrijven bij investeringen in energiebesparende bedrijfsmiddelen en duurzame energie. In deze brochure wordt uitgelegd welke bedrijfsmiddelen in aanmerking komen voor EIA en hoe de regeling werkt.

  8. A comment on the viability of the allowance for corporate equity

    OpenAIRE

    John Isaac

    1997-01-01

    This article, acknowledging the potentially important general attractions of the allowance for corporate equity (ACE), looks at some of its more specific implications. On corporate taxes, the article looks at questions about the implied revenue-neutral rate of corporation tax (and redistribution of the tax burden); the effects on cash flow of both government and companies; and what would become a crucially important charge on capital gains. On income tax, the article comments on the implicati...

  9. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Annual report 2012; Energie-Investeringsaftrek (EIA). Jaarverslag 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    By means of the Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) the Ministry of Economic Affairs supports investments of businesses, industrial associations and other parties in accelerating innovative, energy saving sustainable initiatives and technologies. In this report the results for 2012 are presented [Dutch] Met de EIA ondersteunt het Ministerie van Economische Zaken bedrijven bij het investeren in innovatieve, energiebesparende en duurzame technieken. In dit verslag over 2012 worden resultaten weergegeven.

  10. The Taxation of Military Pay and Allowances: A View from 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    compensation systems that have evolved have r common characteristic in that they provide a basic wage or salary which reimburs ,-,!rthe individual for...service, the law requires that the Government subsist the ran. And if the Government does not subsist that man, then we will have to reimburse him for...Allowances are essentially intended to be reimbursements for specific costs of the individual member in carrying out his official duties. They include

  11. Rare variant association analysis in case-parents studies by allowing for missing parental genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Xiang, Yang; Xu, Chao; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hongwen

    2018-01-15

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of rare variants. Family-based design is commonly used to effectively control for population admixture and substructure, which is more prominent for rare variants. Case-parents studies, as typical strategies in family-based design, are widely used in rare variant-disease association analysis. Current methods in case-parents studies are based on complete case-parents data; however, parental genotypes may be missing in case-parents trios, and removing these data may lead to a loss in statistical power. The present study focuses on testing for rare variant-disease association in case-parents study by allowing for missing parental genotypes. In this report, we extended the collapsing method for rare variant association analysis in case-parents studies to allow for missing parental genotypes, and investigated the performance of two methods by using the difference of genotypes between affected offspring and their corresponding "complements" in case-parent trios and TDT framework. Using simulations, we showed that, compared with the methods just only using complete case-parents data, the proposed strategy allowing for missing parental genotypes, or even adding unrelated affected individuals, can greatly improve the statistical power and meanwhile is not affected by population stratification. We conclude that adding case-parents data with missing parental genotypes to complete case-parents data set can greatly improve the power of our strategy for rare variant-disease association.

  12. Outpatient-based scalp surgery without shaving and allowing use of shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Soon-Kwon; Park, Kwan-Woong; Im, Soo-Bin; Shin, Won-Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2012-02-01

    To assess the authors' experience of wound management following scalp mass surgery after introducing a policy of leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo. The authors retrospectively reviewed 93 patients who underwent outpatient-based excision of a scalp or skull mass. Surgical complications, mass depth, and maximal mass size were analyzed. All of the surgeries were performed without shaving around the lesion; the hair was simply parted along the proposed incision, and the parting was maintained using adhesive plasters. Routine antiseptic scalp preparations, skin closure with staples after mass excision, and topical ointment on the day following surgery were used, and use of shampoo was allowed. The staples were removed on postoperative days 7-10. The masses were located in the skin (23 cases), subcutaneously (64 cases), and subgaleally (6 cases). All patients except one had satisfactory wound healing. No infections occurred. Leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo can be applied in wound management after scalp mass surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extension of the DIRAC workload management system to allow use of distributed windows resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y Y; Harrison, K; Parker, M A; Lyutsarev, V; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2008-01-01

    The DIRAC Workload Management System of the LHCb experiment allows coordinated use of globally distributed computing power and data storage. The system was initially deployed on the Linux platforms, where it has been used very successfully both for collaboration-wide production activities and for single-user physics studies. To increase the resources available to LHCb, DIRAC has been extended so that it also allows use of Microsoft Windows machines. As DIRAC is mostly written in Python, a large part of the code base was already platform independent, but Windows-specific solutions have had to be found in areas such as certificate-based authentication and secure file transfers, where .NetGridFTP has been used. In addition, new code has been written to deal with the way that jobs are run and monitored under Windows, enabling interaction with Microsoft Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003 on sets of machines were this is available. The result is a system that allows users transparent access to Linux and Windows distributed resources. This paper gives details of the Windows-specific developments for DIRAC; outlines the experience gained in deploying the system at a number of sites, and reports on the performance achieved running the LHCb data-processing applications

  14. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches

  15. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  16. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT SPORTS EXPERIENCE ON THE ALLOWED MEANS OF STIMULATING RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Allowed stimulating means of recovery are considered substances and physiological processes that act through the increase in performance athletes and to more efficient recovery and improvement of sports results, which are very difficult to achieve the usual training methods of training, and it can be considered useful until used as a supplement to training. If the rational use, it significantly increases the resistance of the organism in Training athletes and competition loads and favorably affect the elimination of general and local fatigue. The aim of the research consists of testing and analyzing the attitudes of different sports experience on the allowed means of stimulating recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different sports experience (I group (62 – 4-8 years of sports experience, II group (58 – 9-14 years of sports experience. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal categories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been applied. Generally it can be concluded that players with less experience attach less importance to some of the allowed recovery stimulus, and that the level of information increases with sports experience.

  17. Process of coke less without waste treatment of direct vanadium allowing steel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisienko, V.G.; Droujinina, O.G.; Morozova, V.A.; Ladigina, N.V.; Yusfin, Yu.S.; Parenkev, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new methods of steel production are now conducted with the purpose of energy consumption and harmful emissions reduction. The choice of technology and equipment in this case plays a marginal role. It is well known that vanadium alloying steel has increased service properties. The known classical scheme of vanadium steel melting is very power-intensive, as includes such power-intensive processes as blast furnace process and chemical processing of vanadium slag therewith sintering and by-product coke processes are accompanied by significant harmful emissions. In so doing the vanadium losses may run to 60%. In view of requests of environment protection and economical efficiency the new process of coke less without wastes processing of vanadium-bearing raw material with direct vanadium allowing of steel - LP-process is developed. Its purpose is the melting on the basis of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite of vanadium allowing steel with increase of vanadium concentration in steel and diminution of vanadium losses without application coke and natural gas with use of any coals and carbon-bearing wastes. LP-process consists of three aggregates and corresponding processes: process of liquid-phase reduction, process of vanadium-bearing pellets metallization in the shaft furnace, and process of alloying steel melting in the arc electric furnace. The obtained results have shown, that the LP-process is more energy saving on a comparison with other methods of vanadium allowing steel production. (Original)

  18. Allowance officers Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies on the eve of the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of historical material provides information on measures of state and military administration on the eve of the First World War to improve the welfare of Russian officers and Austro-Hungary, through various forms of material incentives, which are reflected in the cash payments, promotions, awards and social guarantees. On the basis of archival materials of the study period, open scientific publications and Internet resources there are disclosed the features of the destination of salaries, various allowances and compensations Russian army in comparison to the Austro-Hungarian army, who spoke Russian opponent in the First World War. The author notes that the existing system of money allowances in the Russian army was more advantageous than in the Austro-Hungarian army. However, neither one nor the other could not fully meet the needs of the majority of officers of both armies, entered as opponents in the First World War. One of its major shortcomings, both in Russia and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was a wide gap in the amounts of all kinds of money allowances between chief officers, staff officers and generals.

  19. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  20. Research report on design allowable values of structural materials for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The present report is composed of following two main parts. i) review and re-evaluation on test results by FCI Sub-committee studies, performed from 1973 to 1976, ii) review on procedures for determining design allowable values of structural materials for LMFBR components. Re-evaluation works have been made on monotonic tensile properties at elevated temperatures, creep and creep rupture properties, creep-fatigue properties (strain rate and tensile strain hold time effects on strain fatigue properties at elevated temperatures) of Types 316 and 304 stainless steel and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel (base and weld metals) produced in Japan. In the first half of the present report, creep-fatigue test results obtained by FCI Sub-committee studies are subjected to re-evaluation by the present P-FCI Sub-committee. Reviews have been made on testing methods on FCI's-creep-fatigue experiments with other test data of the test materials; high temperature monotonic tensile data, creep and creep rupture data, and origin of the test materials. The data of FCI studies are compared with other reference data obtained by several Japanese laboratories. In the latter half of the present report, procedures including ASME's are reviewed for setting design allowable values for LMFBR components on the basis of high temperature strength properties obtained with materials produced in Japan. A creep rupture data of Japanese steels are issued and examined to make proposal for a design allowable stress of S sub(t) through parameter survey. (author)