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Sample records for haplotype specific-sequencing reveals

  1. Fingerprinting the Asterid species using subtracted diversity array reveals novel species-specific sequences.

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    Nitin Mantri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asterids is one of the major plant clades comprising of many commercially important medicinal species. One of the major concerns in medicinal plant industry is adulteration/contamination resulting from misidentification of herbal plants. This study reports the construction and validation of a microarray capable of fingerprinting medicinally important species from the Asterids clade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled genomic DNA of 104 non-asterid angiosperm and non-angiosperm species was subtracted from pooled genomic DNA of 67 asterid species. Subsequently, 283 subtracted DNA fragments were used to construct an Asterid-specific array. The validation of Asterid-specific array revealed a high (99.5% subtraction efficiency. Twenty-five Asterid species (mostly medicinal representing 20 families and 9 orders within the clade were hybridized onto the array to reveal its level of species discrimination. All these species could be successfully differentiated using their hybridization patterns. A number of species-specific probes were identified for commercially important species like tea, coffee, dandelion, yarrow, motherwort, Japanese honeysuckle, valerian, wild celery, and yerba mate. Thirty-seven polymorphic probes were characterized by sequencing. A large number of probes were novel species-specific probes whilst some of them were from chloroplast region including genes like atpB, rpoB, and ndh that have extensively been used for fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subtracted Diversity Array technique is highly efficient in fingerprinting species with little or no genomic information. The Asterid-specific array could fingerprint all 25 species assessed including three species that were not used in constructing the array. This study validates the use of chloroplast genes for bar-coding (fingerprinting plant species. In addition, this method allowed detection of several new loci that can be

  2. Sequence analysis of mtDNA COI barcode region revealed three haplotypes within Culex pipiens assemblage.

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    Koosha, Mona; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohtarami, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world. However, members of this assemblage are morphologically indistinguishable or hard to distinguish and play distinct roles in transmission of the diseases. The current study aimed to provide further evidence on utility of the two most popular nuclear (ITS2-rDNA) and mitochondrial (COI barcode region) genetic markers to identify members of the assemblage. Culex pipiens assemblage specimens from different climate zones of Iran were collected and identified to species level based on morphological characteristics. Nucleotide sequences of the loci for the specimens plus available data in the GenBank were analyzed to find species specific genetic structures useful for diagnosis purposes. ITS2 region was highly divergent within species or populations suggesting lack of consistency as a reliable molecular marker. In contrast, sequence analysis of 710 bp of COI gene revealed three fixed haplotypes named here "C, T, H" within the assemblage which can be distinguished by HaeIII and AluI enzymes. There were a correlation between the haplotypes and the world climate regions, where the haplotypes H/T and C are present mainly in temperate and tropical regions of the world, respectively. In the New world, Australia, and Japan only haplotype H is found. In conjunction between tropical and temperate regions such Iran, China, and Turkey, a mix of C/H or C/H/T are present. Although, the haplotypes are not strictly species-specific, however, Cx. quinquefasciatus was mainly of haplotype C. Due to the lack of mating barrier and questionable taxonomic situation of the complex members, the mentioned haplotypes in combination with other morphological and molecular characters might be used to address the genetic structure of the studied populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta foraging at Drini Bay in Northern Albania: Genetic characterisation reveals new haplotypes

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    Can Yilmaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta was studied over 3 summers in a nearshore habitat, the Patoku area in the southern part of Driniki Bay, Albania. Tissue samples were collected from 40 loggerhead turtles incidentally captured in stavnike fish-traps (a type of pond-net. A fragment of 859 base-pair mt-DNA d-loop region was amplified from these turtles and compared with previously described haplotypes. Haplotype CC-A2.1 (93% was the dominant haplotype in the region. Two previously unknown haplotypes, CC-A6.1 and CC-A10.4, were decribed with this study. Furthermore, haplotype CC-A.2.8 was also observed which was previously recorded from Italy. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity were 0.14615 and 0.00017, respectively.

  4. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA

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    Nidia Gutiérrez-López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations and genetic origin (based on a previous study. We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038. Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80 with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1 for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach and four genetic groups (genetic approach. This common haplotype (ancient derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (FST = 0 and SAMOVA (FST = 0.04393 results. One population (Mazatán showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding.

  5. Short communication: new alleles of the bovine kappa-casein gene revealed by resequencing and haplotype inference analysis.

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    Chen, S Y; Costa, V; Azevedo, M; Baig, M; Malmakov, N; Luikart, G; Erhardt, G; Beja-Pereira, A

    2008-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that extensive undiscovered genetic diversity exists in important functional genes from domestic and wild cattle species (Bos spp.). We resequenced 483 bp of a key exon (exon IV) from the kappa (kappa)-casein gene (CSN3) for a panel of samples of domestic cattle from 8 countries and a close relative species, the gayal (Bos frontalis). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Haplotype inference revealed 12 haplotypes, of which 8 were newly discovered. Among these 8 new haplotypes, 5 differed by one nonsynonymous mutation and 3 differed by one silent mutation from previously well-characterized CSN3 alleles. From those, one was shared by the gayal and Zebu, was different from CSN3*B at position Ile136Thr, and showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the banteng, gaur, and yak. The other 7 new haplotypes were detected in our panel of worldwide local cattle breeds but were absent from previously reported commercial breeds. These results support the hypothesis that genetic diversity at the coding region of CSN3 has been underestimated. This study also highlights how important it is to resequence functionally important genes in worldwide local cattle breeds, many of which are threatened by extinction or replacement by commercial breeds.

  6. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

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    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  7. Genomic Identification of Founding Haplotypes Reveals the History of the Selfing Species Capsella rubella

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    Brandvain, Yaniv; Slotte, Tanja; Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Wright, Stephen I.; Coop, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes) present in C. rubella's founder(s). Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the transition to self

  8. Re-sequencing regions of the ovine Y chromosome in domestic and wild sheep reveals novel paternal haplotypes.

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    Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W

    2009-02-01

    The male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY) remains poorly characterized, yet sequence variants from this region have the potential to reveal the wild progenitor of domestic sheep or examples of domestic and wild paternal introgression. The 5' promoter region of the sex-determining gene SRY was re-sequenced using a subset of wild sheep including bighorn (Ovis canadensis), thinhorn (Ovis dalli spp.), urial (Ovis vignei), argali (Ovis ammon), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Seven novel SNPs (oY2-oY8) were revealed; these were polymorphic between but not within species. Re-sequencing and fragment analysis was applied to the MSY microsatellite SRYM18. It contains a complex compound repeat structure and sequencing of three novel size fragments revealed that a pentanucleotide element remained fixed, whilst a dinucleotide element displayed variability within species. Comparison of the sequence between species revealed that urial and argali sheep grouped more closely to the mouflon and domestic breeds than the pachyceriforms (bighorn and thinhorn). SNP and microsatellite data were combined to define six previously undetected haplotypes. Analysis revealed the mouflon as the only species to share a haplotype with domestic sheep, consistent with its status as a feral domesticate that has undergone male-mediated exchange with domestic animals. A comparison of the remaining wild species and domestic sheep revealed that O. aries is free from signatures of wild sheep introgression.

  9. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication.

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    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Pollinger, John P; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Han, Eunjung; Parker, Heidi G; Quignon, Pascale; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Boyko, Adam R; Earl, Dent A; Auton, Adam; Reynolds, Andy; Bryc, Kasia; Brisbin, Abra; Knowles, James C; Mosher, Dana S; Spady, Tyrone C; Elkahloun, Abdel; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Bannasch, Danika; Wilton, Alan; Shearman, Jeremy; Musiani, Marco; Cargill, Michelle; Jones, Paul G; Qian, Zuwei; Huang, Wei; Ding, Zhao-Li; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Bustamante, Carlos D; Ostrander, Elaine A; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2010-04-08

    Advances in genome technology have facilitated a new understanding of the historical and genetic processes crucial to rapid phenotypic evolution under domestication. To understand the process of dog diversification better, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of more than 48,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in dogs and their wild progenitor, the grey wolf. Here we show that dog breeds share a higher proportion of multi-locus haplotypes unique to grey wolves from the Middle East, indicating that they are a dominant source of genetic diversity for dogs rather than wolves from east Asia, as suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Furthermore, we find a surprising correspondence between genetic and phenotypic/functional breed groupings but there are exceptions that suggest phenotypic diversification depended in part on the repeated crossing of individuals with novel phenotypes. Our results show that Middle Eastern wolves were a critical source of genome diversity, although interbreeding with local wolf populations clearly occurred elsewhere in the early history of specific lineages. More recently, the evolution of modern dog breeds seems to have been an iterative process that drew on a limited genetic toolkit to create remarkable phenotypic diversity.

  10. Reliable reconstruction of HIV-1 whole genome haplotypes reveals clonal interference and genetic hitchhiking among immune escape variants

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    2014-01-01

    Background Following transmission, HIV-1 evolves into a diverse population, and next generation sequencing enables us to detect variants occurring at low frequencies. Studying viral evolution at the level of whole genomes was hitherto not possible because next generation sequencing delivers relatively short reads. Results We here provide a proof of principle that whole HIV-1 genomes can be reliably reconstructed from short reads, and use this to study the selection of immune escape mutations at the level of whole genome haplotypes. Using realistically simulated HIV-1 populations, we demonstrate that reconstruction of complete genome haplotypes is feasible with high fidelity. We do not reconstruct all genetically distinct genomes, but each reconstructed haplotype represents one or more of the quasispecies in the HIV-1 population. We then reconstruct 30 whole genome haplotypes from published short sequence reads sampled longitudinally from a single HIV-1 infected patient. We confirm the reliability of the reconstruction by validating our predicted haplotype genes with single genome amplification sequences, and by comparing haplotype frequencies with observed epitope escape frequencies. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis shows that the HIV-1 population undergoes selection driven evolution, with successive replacement of the viral population by novel dominant strains. We demonstrate that immune escape mutants evolve in a dependent manner with various mutations hitchhiking along with others. As a consequence of this clonal interference, selection coefficients have to be estimated for complete haplotypes and not for individual immune escapes. PMID:24996694

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequencing reveals novel haplotypes in a Polynesian population.

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    Miles Benton

    Full Text Available The high risk of metabolic disease traits in Polynesians may be partly explained by elevated prevalence of genetic variants involved in energy metabolism. The genetics of Polynesian populations has been shaped by island hoping migration events which have possibly favoured thrifty genes. The aim of this study was to sequence the mitochondrial genome in a group of Maoris in an effort to characterise genome variation in this Polynesian population for use in future disease association studies. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 20 non-admixed Maori subjects using Affymetrix technology. DNA diversity analyses showed the Maori group exhibited reduced mitochondrial genome diversity compared to other worldwide populations, which is consistent with historical bottleneck and founder effects. Global phylogenetic analysis positioned these Maori subjects specifically within mitochondrial haplogroup--B4a1a1. Interestingly, we identified several novel variants that collectively form new and unique Maori motifs--B4a1a1c, B4a1a1a3 and B4a1a1a5. Compared to ancestral populations we observed an increased frequency of non-synonymous coding variants of several mitochondrial genes in the Maori group, which may be a result of positive selection and/or genetic drift effects. In conclusion, this study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence data for a Maori population. Overall, these new data reveal novel mitochondrial genome signatures in this Polynesian population and enhance the phylogenetic picture of maternal ancestry in Oceania. The increased frequency of several mitochondrial coding variants makes them good candidates for future studies aimed at assessment of metabolic disease risk in Polynesian populations.

  12. Divergent haplotypes and human history as revealed in a worldwide survey of X-linked DNA sequence variation.

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    Shimada, Makoto K; Panchapakesan, Karuna; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Nato, Alejandro Q; Hey, Jody

    2007-03-01

    The population genetic history of a 10.1-kbp noncoding region of the human X chromosome was studied using the males of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel (672 individuals from 52 populations). The geographic distribution of patterns of variation was roughly consistent with previous studies, with the major exception that 1 highly divergent haplotype (haplotype X, hX) was observed at low frequency in widely scattered non-African populations and not at all observed in sub-Saharan African populations. Microsatellite (short tandem repeat) variation within the sequenced region was low among copies of hX, even though the estimated time of ancestry of hX and other sequences was 1.44 Myr. The estimated age of the common ancestor of all hX copies was 5,230 years (95% consistency index: 2,000-75,480 years). To further address the presence of hX in Africa, additional samples from Chad and Tanzania were screened. Five additional copies of hX were observed, consistent with a history in which hX was present in Africa prior to the migration of modern humans out of Africa and with eastern Africa being the source of non-African modern human populations. Taken together, these features of hX-that it is much older than other haplotypes and uncommon and patchily distributed throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia-present a cautionary tale for interpretations of human history.

  13. Mitochondrial coding genome analysis of tropical root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne) supports haplotype based diagnostics and reveals evidence of recent reticulate evolution.

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    Janssen, Toon; Karssen, Gerrit; Verhaeven, Myrtle; Coyne, Danny; Bert, Wim

    2016-03-04

    The polyphagous parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered to be the most significant nematode pest in sub-tropical and tropical agriculture. Despite the crucial need for correct diagnosis, identification of these pathogens remains problematic. The traditionally used diagnostic strategies, including morphometrics, host-range tests, biochemical and molecular techniques, now appear to be unreliable due to the recently-suggested hybrid origin of root-knot nematodes. In order to determine a suitable barcode region for these pathogens nine quickly-evolving mitochondrial coding genes were screened. Resulting haplotype networks revealed closely related lineages indicating a recent speciation, an anthropogenic-aided distribution through agricultural practices, and evidence for reticulate evolution within M. arenaria. Nonetheless, nucleotide polymorphisms harbor enough variation to distinguish these closely-related lineages. Furthermore, completeness of lineage sorting was verified by screening 80 populations from widespread geographical origins and variable hosts. Importantly, our results indicate that mitochondrial haplotypes are strongly linked and consistent with traditional esterase isozyme patterns, suggesting that different parthenogenetic lineages can be reliably identified using mitochondrial haplotypes. The study indicates that the barcode region Nad5 can reliably identify the major lineages of tropical root-knot nematodes.

  14. Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm

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    Oluwaseyi Shorinola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is an important cause of quality loss in many cereal crops and is particularly prevalent and damaging in wheat. Resistance to PHS is therefore a valuable target trait in many breeding programs. The Phs-A1 locus on wheat chromosome arm 4AL has been consistently shown to account for a significant proportion of natural variation to PHS in diverse mapping populations. However, the deployment of sprouting resistance is confounded by the fact that different candidate genes, including the tandem duplicated Plasma Membrane 19 (PM19 genes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (TaMKK3-A gene, have been proposed to underlie Phs-A1. To further define the Phs-A1 locus, we constructed a physical map across this interval in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We established close proximity of the proposed candidate genes which are located within a 1.2 Mb interval. Genetic characterization of diverse germplasm used in previous genetic mapping studies suggests that TaMKK3-A, and not PM19, is the major gene underlying the Phs-A1 effect in European, North American, Australian and Asian germplasm. We identified the non-dormant TaMKK3-A allele at low frequencies within the A-genome diploid progenitor Triticum urartu genepool, and show an increase in the allele frequency in modern varieties. In United Kingdom varieties, the frequency of the dormant TaMKK3-A allele was significantly higher in bread-making quality varieties compared to feed and biscuit-making cultivars. Analysis of exome capture data from 58 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions identified fourteen haplotypes across the extended Phs-A1 locus and four haplotypes for TaMKK3-A. Analysis of these haplotypes in a collection of United Kingdom and Australian cultivars revealed distinct major dormant and non-dormant Phs-A1 haplotypes in each country, which were either rare or absent in the opposing germplasm set. The diagnostic markers and haplotype information reported in the

  15. Sequence of the Gonium pectorale Mating Locus Reveals a Complex and Dynamic History of Changes in Volvocine Algal Mating Haplotypes

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    Takashi Hamaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-determining regions (SDRs or mating-type (MT loci in two sequenced volvocine algal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, exhibit major differences in size, structure, gene content, and gametolog differentiation. Understanding the origin of these differences requires investigation of MT loci from related species. Here, we determined the sequences of the minus and plus MT haplotypes of the isogamous 16-celled volvocine alga, Gonium pectorale, which is more closely related to the multicellular V. carteri than to C. reinhardtii. Compared to C. reinhardtii MT, G. pectorale MT is moderately larger in size, and has a less complex structure, with only two major syntenic blocs of collinear gametologs. However, the gametolog content of G. pectorale MT has more overlap with that of V. carteri MT than with C. reinhardtii MT, while the allelic divergence between gametologs in G. pectorale is even lower than that in C. reinhardtii. Three key sex-related genes are conserved in G. pectorale MT: GpMID and GpMTD1 in MT–, and GpFUS1 in MT+. GpFUS1 protein exhibited specific localization at the plus-gametic mating structure, indicating a conserved function in fertilization. Our results suggest that the G. pectorale–V. carteri common ancestral MT experienced at least one major reformation after the split from C. reinhardtii, and that the V. carteri ancestral MT underwent a subsequent expansion and loss of recombination after the divergence from G. pectorale. These data begin to polarize important changes that occurred in volvocine MT loci, and highlight the potential for discontinuous and dynamic evolution in SDRs.

  16. A thirteen-year analysis of Plasmodium falciparum populations reveals high conservation of the mutant pfcrt haplotype despite the withdrawal of chloroquine from national treatment guidelines in Gabon

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    Frank, M.; Lehners, N.; Mayengue, P.I.; Gabor, J.; Dal-Bianco, M.; Kombila, D.U.; Ngoma, G.M.; Supan, C.; Lell, B.; Ntoumi, F.; Grobusch, M.P.; Dietz, K.; Kremsner, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Chloroquine resistance (CR) decreased after the removal of chloroquine from national treatment guidelines in Malawi, Kenia and Tanzania. In this investigation the prevalence of the chloroquine resistance (CQR) conferring mutant pfcrt allele and its associated chromosomal haplotype were determined

  17. Detecting local haplotype sharing and haplotype association.

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    Xu, Hanli; Guan, Yongtao

    2014-07-01

    A novel haplotype association method is presented, and its power is demonstrated. Relying on a statistical model for linkage disequilibrium (LD), the method first infers ancestral haplotypes and their loadings at each marker for each individual. The loadings are then used to quantify local haplotype sharing between individuals at each marker. A statistical model was developed to link the local haplotype sharing and phenotypes to test for association. We devised a novel method to fit the LD model, reducing the complexity from putatively quadratic to linear (in the number of ancestral haplotypes). Therefore, the LD model can be fitted to all study samples simultaneously, and, consequently, our method is applicable to big data sets. Compared to existing haplotype association methods, our method integrated out phase uncertainty, avoided arbitrariness in specifying haplotypes, and had the same number of tests as the single-SNP analysis. We applied our method to data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium and discovered eight novel associations between seven gene regions and five disease phenotypes. Among these, GRIK4, which encodes a protein that belongs to the glutamate-gated ionic channel family, is strongly associated with both coronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis. A software package implementing methods described in this article is freely available at http://www.haplotype.org. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Y chromosomal haplotype characteristics of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in China.

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    Wang, Yutao; Xu, Lei; Yan, Wei; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu

    2015-07-10

    Investigations on the variation present at the male-specific Y chromosome region provide strong information to understand the origin and evolution of domestic sheep. One SNP OY1 (g.88A>G) in the upstream region of SRY gene, and the microsatellite SRYM18 locus within ovine Y chromosome were analyzed in one hundred and forty five samples collected from eleven breeds in China. SNP OY1 was analyzed using PCR-SSCP method and sequencing. Two different PCR-SSCP patterns represented two specific sequences with sequence analysis revealing SNP-OY1 (g.88A>G) were observed, while SNP A-OY1 showed the most common frequency (82.8%). Sequencing of the SRYM18 region revealed one novel size fragment (A2) with different repetitive units. Seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H12) and two novel haplotypes (Ha and Hb) were established using combined genotype analysis. H6 showed the highest frequency (43.4%) across all breeds, and H8 showed the second frequency (24.1%). Ha was only found in one breed (Tan), while Hb was present in three breeds (Gansu alpine, White Suffolk and Duolang). Our findings reveal one novel allele in SRYM18 region and two novel male haplotypes of domestic sheep in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of full-length mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences from Macaca fascicularis of different geographical origin reveals novel haplotypes.

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    Badhan, Anjna; Eichstaedt, Christina A; Almond, Neil M; Knapp, Leslie A; Rose, Nicola J

    2015-06-01

    Cynomolgus macaques are indigenous to Asia occupying a range of geographical areas. A non-indigenous population established on Mauritius approximately 500 years ago. Mauritian cynomolgus macaques are recognised as having low genetic diversity compared to Indonesian macaques, from which they originated. As cynomolgus macaques are widely used as a biomedical model, there have been many studies of their genetic relationships. However, population diversity and relationships have only been assessed through analysis of either the hypervariable region I or II separately within the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome in these macaques. Using sequencing, we defined haplotypes encompassing the full D-loop sequence for Mauritian and Indonesian cynomolgus macaques. We evaluated the haplotype relationships by constructing a median-joining network based on full-length D-loop sequences, which has not been reported previously. Our data allow a complete D-loop haplotype, including a hereto unreported polymorphic region, to be defined to aid the resolution of populations of cynomolgus macaques and which highlights the value in analysing both D-loop hypervariable regions in concert. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. HLA class II gene associations in African American Type 1 diabetes reveal a protective HLA-DRB1*03 haplotype

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    Howson, J M M; Roy, M S; Zeitels, L; Stevens, H; Todd, J A

    2013-01-01

    Aims Owing to strong linkage disequilibrium between markers, pinpointing disease associations within genetic regions is difficult in European ancestral populations, most notably the very strong association of the HLA-DRB1*03-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 haplotype with Type 1 diabetes risk, which is assumed to be because of a combination of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1. In contrast, populations of African ancestry have greater haplotype diversity, offering the possibility of narrowing down regions and strengthening support for a particular gene in a region being causal. We aimed to study the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region in African American Type 1 diabetes. Methods Two hundred and twenty-seven African American patients with Type 1 diabetes and 471 African American control subjects were tested for association at the HLA class II genes, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1 and 5147 single nucleotide polymorphisms across the major histocompatibility complex region using logistic regression models. Population admixture was accounted for with principal components analysis. Results Single nucleotide polymorphism marker associations were explained by the HLA associations, with the major peak over the class II loci. The HLA association overall was extremely strong, as expected for Type 1 diabetes, even in African Americans in whom diabetes diagnosis is heterogeneous. In addition, there were unique features: the HLA-DRB1*03 haplotype was split into HLA-DRB1*03:01, which confers greatest susceptibility in these samples (odds ratio 3.17, 95% CI 1.72–5.83) and HLA-DRB1*03:02, an allele rarely observed in Europeans, which confers the greatest protection in these African American samples (odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.09–0.55). Conclusions The unique diversity of the African HLA region we have uncovered supports a specific and major role for HLA-DRB1 in HLA-DRB1*03 haplotype-associated Type 1 diabetes risk. PMID:23398374

  1. Variation analysis and gene annotation of eight MHC haplotypes: the MHC Haplotype Project.

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    Horton, Roger; Gibson, Richard; Coggill, Penny; Miretti, Marcos; Allcock, Richard J; Almeida, Jeff; Forbes, Simon; Gilbert, James G R; Halls, Karen; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hart, Elizabeth; Howe, Kevin; Jackson, David K; Palmer, Sophie; Roberts, Anne N; Sims, Sarah; Stewart, C Andrew; Traherne, James A; Trevanion, Steve; Wilming, Laurens; Rogers, Jane; de Jong, Pieter J; Elliott, John F; Sawcer, Stephen; Todd, John A; Trowsdale, John; Beck, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is contained within about 4 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 6 and is recognised as the most variable region in the human genome. The primary aim of the MHC Haplotype Project was to provide a comprehensively annotated reference sequence of a single, human leukocyte antigen-homozygous MHC haplotype and to use it as a basis against which variations could be assessed from seven other similarly homozygous cell lines, representative of the most common MHC haplotypes in the European population. Comparison of the haplotype sequences, including four haplotypes not previously analysed, resulted in the identification of >44,000 variations, both substitutions and indels (insertions and deletions), which have been submitted to the dbSNP database. The gene annotation uncovered haplotype-specific differences and confirmed the presence of more than 300 loci, including over 160 protein-coding genes. Combined analysis of the variation and annotation datasets revealed 122 gene loci with coding substitutions of which 97 were non-synonymous. The haplotype (A3-B7-DR15; PGF cell line) designated as the new MHC reference sequence, has been incorporated into the human genome assembly (NCBI35 and subsequent builds), and constitutes the largest single-haplotype sequence of the human genome to date. The extensive variation and annotation data derived from the analysis of seven further haplotypes have been made publicly available and provide a framework and resource for future association studies of all MHC-associated diseases and transplant medicine.

  2. Sequences of 95 human MHC haplotypes reveal extreme coding variation in genes other than highly polymorphic HLA class I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul J; Norberg, Steven J; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Royce, Thomas; Wroblewski, Emily E; Dunn, Tamsen; Mann, Tobias; Alicata, Claudia; Hollenbach, Jill A; Chang, Weihua; Shults Won, Melissa; Gunderson, Kevin L; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The most polymorphic part of the human genome, the MHC, encodes over 160 proteins of diverse function. Half of them, including the HLA class I and II genes, are directly involved in immune responses. Consequently, the MHC region strongly associates with numerous diseases and clinical therapies. Notoriously, the MHC region has been intractable to high-throughput analysis at complete sequence resolution, and current reference haplotypes are inadequate for large-scale studies. To address these challenges, we developed a method that specifically captures and sequences the 4.8-Mbp MHC region from genomic DNA. For 95 MHC homozygous cell lines we assembled, de novo, a set of high-fidelity contigs and a sequence scaffold, representing a mean 98% of the target region. Included are six alternative MHC reference sequences of the human genome that we completed and refined. Characterization of the sequence and structural diversity of the MHC region shows the approach accurately determines the sequences of the highly polymorphic HLA class I and HLA class II genes and the complex structural diversity of complement factor C4A/C4B It has also uncovered extensive and unexpected diversity in other MHC genes; an example is MUC22, which encodes a lung mucin and exhibits more coding sequence alleles than any HLA class I or II gene studied here. More than 60% of the coding sequence alleles analyzed were previously uncharacterized. We have created a substantial database of robust reference MHC haplotype sequences that will enable future population scale studies of this complicated and clinically important region of the human genome. © 2017 Norman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Generation of physical map contig-specific sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang eJiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances of the next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed whole genome sequencing of many species. However, with the current sequencing technologies, the whole genome sequence assemblies often fall in short in one of the four quality measurements: accuracy, contiguity, connectivity, and completeness. In particular, small-sized contigs and scaffolds limit the applicability of whole genome sequences for genetic analysis. To enhance the quality of whole genome sequence assemblies, particularly the scaffolding capabilities, additional genomic resources are required. Among these, sequences derived from known physical locations offer great powers for scaffolding. In this mini-review, we will describe the principles, procedures and applications of physical-map-derived sequences, with the focus on physical map contig-specific sequences.

  4. Genomic sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype C and its comparison with haplotype A and B genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhui; Haapalainen, Minna; Schott, Thomas; Thompson, Sarah M; Smith, Grant R; Nissinen, Anne I; Pirhonen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes A and B of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso) are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially Zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes C, D and E are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. To date, one complete genome of haplotype B and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype A have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli. Here, we present the first genomic sequences obtained for the carrot-associated CLso. These two genomic sequences of haplotype C, FIN114 (1.24 Mbp) and FIN111 (1.20 Mbp), were obtained from carrot psyllids (Trioza apicalis) harboring CLso. Genomic comparisons between the haplotypes A, B and C revealed that the genome organization differs between these haplotypes, due to large inversions and other recombinations. Comparison of protein-coding genes indicated that the core genome of CLso consists of 885 ortholog groups, with the pan-genome consisting of 1327 ortholog groups. Twenty-seven ortholog groups are unique to CLso haplotype C, whilst 11 ortholog groups shared by the haplotypes A and B, are not found in the haplotype C. Some of these ortholog groups that are not part of the core genome may encode functions related to interactions with the different host plant and psyllid species.

  5. International Haplotype Mapping Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blocks thai allow efficient use of the gnome sequence for association studies. In order to realize the objective of creating a functional haplotype map that would be useful for most, if not all of the world's population, the. International ЫарМар Consortium was formed in. July 2001 and the project initiated in October 2002l0.

  6. Haplotype inference for present-absent genotype data using previously identified haplotypes and haplotype patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Tang, Jianming; Kaslow, Richard A; Zhang, Kui

    2007-09-15

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes vary considerably in their presence or absence on a specific regional haplotype. Because presence or absence of these genes is largely detected using locus-specific genotyping technology, the distinction between homozygosity and hemizygosity is often ambiguous. The performance of methods for haplotype inference (e.g. PL-EM, PHASE) for KIR genes may be compromised due to the large portion of ambiguous data. At the same time, many haplotypes or partial haplotype patterns have been previously identified and can be incorporated to facilitate haplotype inference for unphased genotype data. To accommodate the increased ambiguity of present-absent genotyping of KIR genes, we developed a hybrid approach combining a greedy algorithm with the Expectation-Maximization (EM) method for haplotype inference based on previously identified haplotypes and haplotype patterns. We implemented this algorithm in a software package named HAPLO-IHP (Haplotype inference using identified haplotype patterns) and compared its performance with that of HAPLORE and PHASE on simulated KIR genotypes. We compared five measures in order to evaluate the reliability of haplotype assignments and the accuracy in estimating haplotype frequency. Our method outperformed the two existing techniques by all five measures when either 60% or 25% of previously identified haplotypes were incorporated into the analyses. The HAPLO-IHP is available at http://www.soph.uab.edu/Statgenetics/People/KZhang/HAPLO-IHP/index.html. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Association of E26 Transformation Specific Sequence 1 Variants with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Chinese Han Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available E26 transformation specific sequence 1 (ETS-1 belongs to the ETS family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of various immune-related genes. Increasing evidence indicates that ETS-1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Recent research has provided evidence that ETS-1 might correlate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but it's not clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to identify whether polymorphisms of ETS-1 play a role in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA susceptibility and development in Chinese Han population.Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ETS-1 were selected based on HapMap data and previous associated studies. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 158 patients with RA and 192 healthy subjects. Genotyping was performed with polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting (PCR-HRM assay and the data was analyzed using SPSS17.0.A significantly positive correlation was observed between the SNP rs73013527 of ETS-1 and RA susceptibility, DAS28 and CRP (P<0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.028, respectively. Carriers of the haplotype CCT or TCT for rs4937333, rs11221332 and rs73013527 were associated with decreased risk of RA as compared to controls. No statistical significant difference was observed in the distribution of rs10893872, rs4937333 and rs11221332 genotypes between RA patients and controls.Our data further supports that ETS-1 has a relevant role in the pathogenesis and development of RA. Allele T of rs73013527 plays a protective role in occurrence of RA but a risk factor in the high disease activity. Rs10893872, rs11221332 and rs4937333 are not associated with RA susceptibility and clinical features.

  8. Mapping Haplotype-haplotype Interactions with Adaptive LASSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic etiology of complex diseases in human has been commonly viewed as a complex process involving both genetic and environmental factors functioning in a complicated manner. Quite often the interactions among genetic variants play major roles in determining the susceptibility of an individual to a particular disease. Statistical methods for modeling interactions underlying complex diseases between single genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs have been extensively studied. Recently, haplotype-based analysis has gained its popularity among genetic association studies. When multiple sequence or haplotype interactions are involved in determining an individual's susceptibility to a disease, it presents daunting challenges in statistical modeling and testing of the interaction effects, largely due to the complicated higher order epistatic complexity. Results In this article, we propose a new strategy in modeling haplotype-haplotype interactions under the penalized logistic regression framework with adaptive L1-penalty. We consider interactions of sequence variants between haplotype blocks. The adaptive L1-penalty allows simultaneous effect estimation and variable selection in a single model. We propose a new parameter estimation method which estimates and selects parameters by the modified Gauss-Seidel method nested within the EM algorithm. Simulation studies show that it has low false positive rate and reasonable power in detecting haplotype interactions. The method is applied to test haplotype interactions involved in mother and offspring genome in a small for gestational age (SGA neonates data set, and significant interactions between different genomes are detected. Conclusions As demonstrated by the simulation studies and real data analysis, the approach developed provides an efficient tool for the modeling and testing of haplotype interactions. The implementation of the method in R codes can be

  9. Segregation distortion of mouse t haplotypes the molecular basis emerges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimenti, J

    2000-06-01

    The t haplotype is an ancestral version of proximal mouse chromosome 17 that has evolved mechanisms to persist as an intact genomic variant in mouse populations. t haplotypes contain mutations that affect embryonic development, male fertility and male transmission ratio distortion (TRD). Collectively, these mutations drive the evolutionary success of t haplotypes, a phenomenon that remains one of the longstanding mysteries of mouse genetics. Molecular genetic analysis of TRD has been confounded by inversions that arose to lock together the various elements of this complex trait. Our first molecular glimpse of the TRD mechanism has finally been revealed with the cloning of the t complex responder (Tcr) locus, a chimeric kinase with a genetically cis active effect. Whereas + sperm in a +/t male have impaired flagellar function caused by the deleterious action of trans-active, t-haplotype-encoded 'distorters,' the mutant activity of Tcr counterbalances the distorter effects, maintaining the motility and fertilizing ability of t sperm.

  10. Haplotype hitchhiking promotes trait coselection in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lunwen; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-07-01

    Local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers with significant trait associations can reveal information on selective sweeps and genome diversity associated with important crop traits. Relationships between haplotype and phenotype diversity, coupled with analysis of gene content in conserved haplotype blocks, can provide insight into coselection for nonrelated traits. We performed genome-wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus. A locus on chromosome A01 showed opposite effects on leaf chlorophyll content and seed glucosinolate content, attributed to strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between orthologues of the chlorophyll biosynthesis genes EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEIN and CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE, and the glucosinolate synthesis gene ATP SULFURYLASE 1. Another conserved haplotype block, on chromosome A02, contained a number of chlorophyll-related genes in LD with orthologues of the key glucosinolate biosynthesis genes METHYLTHIOALKYMALATE SYNTHASE-LIKE 1 and 3. Multigene haplogroups were found to have a significantly greater contribution to variation for chlorophyll content than haplotypes for any single gene, suggesting positive effects of additive locus accumulation. Detailed reanalysis of population substructure revealed a clade of ten related accessions exhibiting high leaf chlorophyll and low seed glucosinolate content. These accessions each carried one of the above-mentioned haplotypes from A01 or A02, generally in combination with further chlorophyll-associated haplotypes from chromosomes A05 and/or C05. The phenotypic rather than pleiotropic correlations between leaf chlorophyll content index and seed GSL suggest that LD may have led to inadvertent coselection for these two traits. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and

  11. Ehapp2: Estimate haplotype frequencies from pooled sequencing data with prior database information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Chang; Sun, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the cost of large-scale re-sequencing, multiple individuals are pooled together and sequenced called pooled sequencing. Pooled sequencing could provide a cost-effective alternative to sequencing individuals separately. To facilitate the application of pooled sequencing in haplotype-based diseases association analysis, the critical procedure is to accurately estimate haplotype frequencies from pooled samples. Here we present Ehapp2 for estimating haplotype frequencies from pooled sequencing data by utilizing a database which provides prior information of known haplotypes. We first translate the problem of estimating frequency for each haplotype into finding a sparse solution for a system of linear equations, where the NNREG algorithm is employed to achieve the solution. Simulation experiments reveal that Ehapp2 is robust to sequencing errors and able to estimate the frequencies of haplotypes with less than 3% average relative difference for pooled sequencing of mixture of real Drosophila haplotypes with 50× total coverage even when the sequencing error rate is as high as 0.05. Owing to the strategy that proportions for local haplotypes spanning multiple SNPs are accurately calculated first, Ehapp2 retains excellent estimation for recombinant haplotypes resulting from chromosomal crossover. Comparisons with present methods reveal that Ehapp2 is state-of-the-art for many sequencing study designs and more suitable for current massive parallel sequencing.

  12. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  13. Haplotype block structure is conserved across mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, V.; Smits, B.M.; van de Belt, J.; Verheul, M.; Hubner, N.; Cuppen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation in genomes is organized in haplotype blocks, and species-specific block structure is defined by differential contribution of population history effects in combination with mutation and recombination events. Haplotype maps characterize the common patterns of linkage disequilibrium

  14. Dimensional Anxiety Mediates Linkage of GABRA2 Haplotypes With Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Schwartz, Lori; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2015-01-01

    The GABAAα2 receptor gene (GABRA2) modulates anxiety and stress response. Three recent association studies implicate GABRA2 in alcoholism, however in these papers both common, opposite-configuration haplotypes in the region distal to intron3 predict risk. We have now replicated the GABRA2 association with alcoholism in 331 Plains Indian men and women and 461 Finnish Caucasian men. Using a dimensional measure of anxiety, harm avoidance (HA), we also found that the association with alcoholism is mediated, or moderated, by anxiety. Nine SNPs were genotyped revealing two haplotype blocks. Within the previously implicated block 2 region, we identified the two common, opposite-configuration risk haplotypes, A and B. Their frequencies differed markedly in Finns and Plains Indians. In both populations, most block 2 SNPs were significantly associated with alcoholism. The associations were due to increased frequencies of both homozygotes in alcoholics, indicating the possibility of alcoholic subtypes with opposite genotypes. Congruently, there was no significant haplotype association. Using HA as an indicator variable for anxiety, we found haplotype linkage to alcoholism with high and low dimensional anxiety, and to HA itself, in both populations. High HA alcoholics had the highest frequency of the more abundant haplotype (A in Finns, B in Plains Indians); low HA alcoholics had the highest frequency of the less abundant haplotype (B in Finns, A in Plains Indians) (Finns: P α0.007, OR α2.1, Plains Indians: P α0.040, OR α1.9). Non-alcoholics had intermediate frequencies. Our results suggest that within the distal GABRA2 region is a functional locus or loci that may differ between populations but that alters risk for alcoholism via the mediating action of anxiety. PMID:16874763

  15. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Somalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose

    2005-01-01

    A total of 201 males from Somalia were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 with the PowerPlex Y kit (Promega). A total of 96 different haplotypes were observed and the haplotype diversity was 0.......9715. The number of unique haplotypes was 71 while the most common haplotype was observed 24 times....

  16. Detecting structure of haplotypes and local ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a two-layer hidden Markov model to detect the structure of haplotypes for unrelated individuals. This allows us to model two scales of linkage disequilibrium (one within a group of haplotypes and one between groups), thereby taking advantage of rich haplotype information to infer local an...

  17. Phenotype-haplotype correlation of IRF5 in systemic sclerosis: role of 2 haplotypes in disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieude, Philippe; Dawidowicz, Karen; Guedj, Mickaël; Legrain, Yona; Wipff, Julien; Hachulla, Eric; Diot, Elisabeth; Sibilia, Jean; Mouthon, Luc; Cabane, Jean; Amoura, Zahir; Crakowski, Jean-Luc; Carpentier, Patrick; Avouac, Jerome; Meyer, Olivier; Kahan, Andre; Boileau, Catherine; Allanore, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    Identification of an association between IRF5 rs2004640 and systemic sclerosis (SSc) has highlighted a key role for type 1 interferon (IFN). Additional functional IRF5 variants have been identified as autoimmune susceptibility factors. Our aim was to investigate whether IRF5 haplotypes confer susceptibility to SSc, and to perform genotype haplotype-phenotype correlation analyses. We genotyped IRF5 rs377385, rs2004640, and rs10954213 in 1623 individuals of French European Caucasian origin. SSc patient subphenotypes were analyzed according to cutaneous subsets and for SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis. Case-control studies of single markers revealed an association between IRF5 rs3757385, rs2004640, and rs10954213 variants and SSc. We identified an IRF5 risk haplotype "R" (p(adj) = 0.024, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.40) and a mirrored protective haplotype "P" (p(adj) = 8.8 x 10(-3), OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.90) for SSc susceptibility. Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses failed to detect any association with a single marker. By contrast, phenotype-haplotype correlation analysis was able to detect intra-cohort association and to discriminate SSc patients with from those without the following clinical traits: "R" and/or "P" haplotypes identified diffuse cutaneous SSc (p = 0.0081) and fibrosing alveolitis (p = 0.018). IRF5 haplotypes are more informative than single markers, suggesting that they could be helpful for risk stratification of SSc patients. Our study provides further evidence of a key role of IRF5 in SSc severity.

  18. HaplotypeCN: copy number haplotype inference with Hidden Markov Model and localized haplotype clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jen Lin

    Full Text Available Copy number variation (CNV has been reported to be associated with disease and various cancers. Hence, identifying the accurate position and the type of CNV is currently a critical issue. There are many tools targeting on detecting CNV regions, constructing haplotype phases on CNV regions, or estimating the numerical copy numbers. However, none of them can do all of the three tasks at the same time. This paper presents a method based on Hidden Markov Model to detect parent specific copy number change on both chromosomes with signals from SNP arrays. A haplotype tree is constructed with dynamic branch merging to model the transition of the copy number status of the two alleles assessed at each SNP locus. The emission models are constructed for the genotypes formed with the two haplotypes. The proposed method can provide the segmentation points of the CNV regions as well as the haplotype phasing for the allelic status on each chromosome. The estimated copy numbers are provided as fractional numbers, which can accommodate the somatic mutation in cancer specimens that usually consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The algorithm is evaluated on simulated data and the previously published regions of CNV of the 270 HapMap individuals. The results were compared with five popular methods: PennCNV, genoCN, COKGEN, QuantiSNP and cnvHap. The application on oral cancer samples demonstrates how the proposed method can facilitate clinical association studies. The proposed algorithm exhibits comparable sensitivity of the CNV regions to the best algorithm in our genome-wide study and demonstrates the highest detection rate in SNP dense regions. In addition, we provide better haplotype phasing accuracy than similar approaches. The clinical association carried out with our fractional estimate of copy numbers in the cancer samples provides better detection power than that with integer copy number states.

  19. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  20. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR prod...

  1. Estimating KIR Haplotype Frequencies on a Cohort of 10,000 Individuals: A Comprehensive Study on Population Variations, Typing Resolutions, and Reference Haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierra-Green, Cynthia; Roe, David; Jayaraman, Jyothi; Trowsdale, John; Traherne, James; Kuang, Rui; Spellman, Stephen; Maiers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) mediate human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity via activating or inhibiting signals. Although informative and functional haplotype patterns have been reported, most genotyping has been performed at resolutions that are structurally ambiguous. In order to leverage structural information given low-resolution genotypes, we performed experiments to quantify the effects of population variations, reference haplotypes, and genotyping resolutions on population-level haplotype frequency estimations as well as predictions of individual haplotypes. We genotyped 10,157 unrelated individuals in 5 populations (518 African American[AFA], 258 Asian or Pacific Islander[API], 8,245 European[EUR], 1,073 Hispanic[HIS], and 63 Native American[NAM]) for KIR gene presence/absence (PA), and additionally half of the AFA samples for KIR gene copy number variation (CNV). A custom EM algorithm was used to estimate haplotype frequencies for each population by interpretation in the context of three sets of reference haplotypes. The algorithm also assigns each individual the haplotype pairs of maximum likelihood. Generally, our haplotype frequency estimates agree with similar previous publications to within haplotypes. The exception is that estimates for NAM from the U.S. showed higher frequency association of cB02 with tA01 (+14%) instead of tB01 (-8.5%) compared to a previous study of NAM from south of the U.S. The higher-resolution CNV genotyping on the AFA samples allowed unambiguous haplotype-pair assignments for the majority of individuals, resulting in a 22% higher median typing resolution score (TRS), which measures likelihood of self-match in the context of population-specific haplo- and geno-types. The use of TRS to quantify reduced ambiguity with CNV data clearly revealed the few individuals with ambiguous genotypes as outliers. It is observed that typing resolution and reference haplotype set influence haplotype frequency

  2. Haplotypes in the lipoprotein lipase gene influence fasting insulin and discovery of a new risk haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mark O; Taylor, Kent D; Guo, Xiuqing; Hokanson, John E; Haffner, Steven M; Cui, Jinrui; Chen, Yii-Der I; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bergman, Richard N; Rotter, Jerome I

    2007-01-01

    Prior studies of Mexican Americans described association of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene haplotypes with insulin sensitivity/resistance and atherosclerosis. The most common haplotype (haplotype 1) was protective, whereas the fourth most common haplotype (haplotype 4) conferred risk for insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In this study of Hispanics in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study, we sought to replicate LPL haplotype association with insulin sensitivity/resistance. LPL haplotypes based on 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed for association with indexes of insulin sensitivity and other metabolic and adiposity measures. This study was conducted in the general community of San Antonio, Texas, and San Luis Valley, Colorado. Participants in this study were 978 members of 86 Hispanic families. LPL haplogenotype, metabolic phenotypes, and adiposity were measured in this study. The haplotype structure was identical with that observed in prior studies. Among 978 phenotyped subjects, haplotype 1 was associated with decreased fasting insulin (P = 0.01), and haplotype 4 was associated with increased fasting insulin (P = 0.02) and increased visceral fat mass (P = 0.002). Insulin sensitivity, derived from iv glucose tolerance testing, tended (P > 0.1) to be higher with haplotype 1 (S(I) = 1.72) and lower with haplotype 4 (S(I)=1.38). Haplotype 2 was associated with increases in fasting insulin, triglycerides (TGs), TG to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.01-0.04). This study independently replicates our prior results of LPL haplotypes 1 and 4 as associated with measures of insulin sensitivity and resistance, respectively. Haplotype 4 may confer insulin resistance by increasing visceral fat. Haplotype 2 was identified as a new risk haplotype, suggesting the complex nature of LPL's effect on features of the insulin resistance syndrome.

  3. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: application to Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Wenger, G D; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Bartolo, C; Moore, J W; Highsmith, W E

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. This simple, rapid method does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. The method may be used for other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, and for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  4. Estimating haplotype effects for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Martinussen, Torben; Silver, J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic association studies often investigate the effect of haplotypes on an outcome of interest. Haplotypes are not observed directly, and this complicates the inclusion of such effects in survival models. We describe a new estimating equations approach for Cox's regression model to assess haplo...... in this article to investigate possible haplotype effects of the PAF-receptor on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease, and compare our results to those based on the EM algorithm....

  5. The Longest Haplotype Reconstruction Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Riccardo

    The Longest Haplotype Reconstruction (LHR) problem has been introduced in Computational Biology for the reconstruction of the haplotypes of an individual, starting from a matrix of incomplete haplotype fragments. In this paper, we reconsider the LHR problem, proving that it is NP-hard even in the restricted case when the input matrix is error-free. Then, we investigate the approximation complexity of the problem, showing that it cannot be approximated within factor 2^{log^{δ}nm } for any constant δNP ⊆ DTIME[2 polylognm ]. Finally, we give a fixed-parameter algorithm, where the parameter is the size of the reconstructed haplotypes.

  6. Improved haplotype assembly using Xor genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayyed R

    2012-04-07

    Given a set of aligned fragments, haplotype assembly is the problem of finding the haplotypes from which the fragments have been read. The problem is important because haplotypes contain SNP information, which is essential to many genomic analyses such as the analysis of potential association between certain diseases and genetic variations. The current state-of-the-art haplotype assembly algorithm, HapSAT, does not exploit genotype information and only receives a read matrix as input. However, the imminent importance of haplotypes and inexpensiveness of genotype information motivate for exploiting genotype information to obtain more accurate haplotypes. In this paper, an improved haplotype assembly method, xGenHapSAT, is proposed, which exploits xor genotype information for more accurate haplotype assembly. Xor genotype information is even less expensive than full genotype information, e.g., using the Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC) technique. It is shown that using this inexpensively obtainable information significantly improves the accuracy of the assembled haplotypes. In addition, a new, more efficient, Max-2-SAT formulation is adopted in xGenHapSAT, which, on average, increases the speed of the algorithm. Moreover, the proposed xGenHapSAT method replaces the current state-of-the-art haplotype assembly method based on genotype information. Finally, our state-of-the-art haplotype assembly software, HapSoft, which includes both xGenHapSAT and HapSAT, is made freely available for research purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of cytochrome P450 1B1 haplotypes with head and neck cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Tridiv; Maurya, Shailendra S; Hasan, Feza; Singh, Arvind P; Khan, Anwar J; Hadi, Rahat; Singh, Sudhir; Bhatt, Madan L B; Parmar, Devendra

    2017-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms have been reported in several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, including CYP1B1 which metabolically activates procarcinogens present in tobacco to carcinogenic intermediates. This study used a case-control approach in North Indian population to determine associations between genetic variants in CYP1B1 and risk of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). We examined the genotype and haplotype frequencies at various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including SNPs previously reported in the promoter region and intron 1 of CYP1B1 in Caucasians. Using cycle sequencing, 9 SNPs were identified in the promoter region, intron 1, and exons 2 and 3. Haplotype analysis revealed that 5 SNPs (those in the promoter region, intron, and Arg48Gly and Ala119Ser in exon 2) were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). Cases with the T-A-T-G-T haplotype were significantly associated with increased risk of HNSCC. Interestingly, qRT-PCR studies revealed a significant increase in mRNA expression of CYP1B1 in peripheral blood isolated from cases with the T-A-T-G-T haplotype compared with cases with the C-G-C-C-G haplotype, and in cases compared to controls for both main haplotypes. The data thus provide evidence that CYP1B1 haplotypes could be more effective in predicting HNSCC risk. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:443-450, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  9. Haplotype resolved genomes : Computational challenges and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porubský, David

    2017-01-01

    Genomes of diploid organisms, like humans, are organized in pairs of chromosomes, one inherited from the father and one from the mother. Each homologous chromosome harbors a specific set of parental alleles, called haplotype. Unfortunately, to obtain haplotype information using current methods

  10. Extended Islands of Tractability for Parsimony Haplotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Rudolf; Guo, Jiong; Niedermeier, Rolf; Uhlmann, Johannes; Wang, Yihui; Weller, Mathias; Wu, Xi

    Parsimony haplotyping is the problem of finding a smallest size set of haplotypes that can explain a given set of genotypes. The problem is NP-hard, and many heuristic and approximation algorithms as well as polynomial-time solvable special cases have been discovered. We propose improved fixed-parameter tractability results with respect to the parameter "size of the target haplotype set" k by presenting an O *(k 4k )-time algorithm. This also applies to the practically important constrained case, where we can only use haplotypes from a given set. Furthermore, we show that the problem becomes polynomial-time solvable if the given set of genotypes is complete, i.e., contains all possible genotypes that can be explained by the set of haplotypes.

  11. Haplotype-based genetics in mice and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Haplotype blocks are conceptually defined as genomic segments harbouring sets of coupled polymorphisms that reflect a common ancestral origin. Experimentally, however, haplotype blocks are characterized using computational algorithms based on incomplete inventories of polymorphisms. Haplotype blocks

  12. Utilization and evaluation of CHO-specific sequence databases for mass spectrometry based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula; Hoffrogge, Raimund; Henry, Michael; Rupp, Oliver; Bort, Juan Hernandez; Clarke, Colin; Brinkrolf, Karina; Kelly, Shane; Müller, Benjamin; Doolan, Padraig; Hackl, Matthias; Beckmann, Tim Frederik; Noll, Thomas; Grillari, Johannes; Barron, Niall; Pühler, Alf; Clynes, Martin; Borth, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Recently released sequence information on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells promises to not only facilitate our understanding of these industrially important cell factories through direct analysis of the sequence, but also to enhance existing methodologies and allow new tools to be developed. In this article we demonstrate the utilization of CHO specific sequence information to improve mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic identification. The use of various CHO specific databases enabled the identification of 282 additional proteins, thus increasing the total number of identified proteins by 40-50%, depending on the sample source and methods used. In addition, a considerable portion of those proteins that were identified previously based on inter-species sequence homology were now identified by a larger number of peptides matched, thus increasing the confidence of identification. The new sequence information offers improved interpretation of proteomic analyses and will, in the years to come, prove vital to unraveling the CHO proteome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. rs2476601 T allele (R620W) defines high-risk PTPN22 type I diabetes-associated haplotypes with preliminary evidence for an additional protective haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, A K; Baschal, E E; Jasinski, J M; Boehm, B O; Bottini, N; Concannon, P; Julier, C; Morahan, G; Noble, J A; Polychronakos, C; She, J X; Eisenbarth, G S

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is the third major locus affecting risk of type I diabetes (T1D), after HLA-DR/DQ and INS. The most associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2476601, has a C->T variant and results in an arginine (R) to tryptophan (W) amino acid change at position 620. To assess whether this, or other specific variants, are responsible for T1D risk, the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium analyzed 28 PTPN22 SNPs in 2295 affected sib-pair (ASP) families. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analyses of haplotypes revealed that all three haplotypes with a T allele at rs2476601 were overtransmitted to affected children, and two of these three haplotypes showed statistically significant overtransmission (P=0.003 to P=5.9E-12). Another haplotype had decreased transmission to affected children (P=3.5E-05). All haplotypes containing the rs2476601 T allele were identical for all SNPs across PTPN22 and only varied at centromeric SNPs. When considering rs2476601 'C' founder chromosomes, a second haplotype (AGGGGC) centromeric of PTPN22 in the C1orf178 region was associated with protection from T1D (odds ratio=0.81, P=0.0005). This novel finding requires replication in independent populations. We conclude the major association of PTPN22 with T1D is likely due to the recognized non-synonymous SNP rs2476601 (R620W).

  14. CTLA-4 polymorphisms and haplotype correlate with survival in ALL after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related HLA-haplotype-mismatched donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X-Y; Wang, Y; Li, G-X; Qin, Y-Z; Wang, F-R; Xu, L-P; Chen, H; Han, W; Wang, J-Z; Zhang, X-H; Chang, Y-J; Liu, K-Y; Jiang, Z-F; Huang, X-J

    2016-04-27

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been established as an effective treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. Disease relapse remains a major cause of transplant failure. T cell homeostasis is critical to determine the potency of the GVT effect. Recent studies have shown the association of the CTLA-4 polymorphisms with the outcome after HLA-identical sibling allogeneic HSCT. In this study, we focused on four CTLA-4 polymorphisms, and analyzed the impact of donor genotypes and haplotypes on the conditions of 152 acute leukemia patients (ALL 83) after related HLA-haplotype- mismatched transplantation. The four SNP genotypes (-1661, -318, CT60 and +49) were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. ALL recipients of donors with +49 GG showed significantly lower OS (67.7 vs. 90.3 %, P = 0.015) than those with GA+AA. Multivariate analyses showed that +49 GG was an independent risk factor for OS (HR: 0.306, 95 % CI 0.111-0.842, P = 0.022) .23 ALL patients receiving mDLI showed significantly lower OS with +49 GG donor than those with GA+AA (30.0 vs. 83.1 %, P = 0.003). The haplotype analysis revealed only three haplotypes in the donor population -1661/-318/CT60/+49 i.e., ACGG, ACAA and GTGA, the frequencies were 64.1, 19.4 and 16.5 %, respectively. Donors with and without the ACGG/ACGG haplotype had the same effect on transplant outcomes as those with +49 GG and +49 GA+AA. In summary, the CTLA-4 +49 GG and the haplotype ACGG/ACGG reduced the overall survival in ALL after allo-HSCT from the related HLA-haplotype-mismatched donor, knowledge of the CTLA-4 polymorphism and haplotype may provide useful information for donor selection and individual application of immunosuppressive agents and immunotherapy.

  15. Alternative haplotype construction methods for genomic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, Dávid; Ducrocq, Vincent; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Croiseau, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Genomic evaluation methods today use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as genomic markers to trace quantitative trait loci (QTL). Today most genomic prediction procedures use biallelic SNP markers. However, SNP can be combined into short, multiallelic haplotypes that can improve genomic prediction due to higher linkage disequilibrium between the haplotypes and the linked QTL. The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify the haplotypes, which can be expected to be superior in genomic evaluation, as compared with either SNP or other haplotypes of the same size. We first identified the SNP (termed as QTL-SNP) from the bovine 50K SNP chip that had the largest effect on the analyzed trait. It was assumed that these SNP were not the causative mutations and they merely indicated the approximate location of the QTL. Haplotypes of 3, 4, or 5 SNP were selected from short genomic windows surrounding these markers to capture the effect of the QTL. Two methods described in this paper aim at selecting the most optimal haplotype for genomic evaluation. They assumed that if an allele has a high frequency, its allele effect can be accurately predicted. These methods were tested in a classical validation study using a dairy cattle population of 2,235 bulls with genotypes from the bovine 50K SNP chip and daughter yield deviations (DYD) on 5 dairy cattle production traits. Combining the SNP into haplotypes was beneficial with all tested haplotypes, leading to an average increase of 2% in terms of correlations between DYD and genomic breeding value estimates compared with the analysis when the same SNP were used individually. Compared with haplotypes built by merging the QTL-SNP with its flanking SNP, the haplotypes selected with the proposed criteria carried less under- and over-represented alleles: the proportion of alleles with frequencies 40% decreased, on average, by 17.4 and 43.4%, respectively. The correlations between DYD and genomic breeding value estimates

  16. Low enzymatic activity haplotypes of the human catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: enrichment for marker SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Nackley

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is an enzyme that plays a key role in the modulation of catechol-dependent functions such as cognition, cardiovascular function, and pain processing. Three common haplotypes of the human COMT gene, divergent in two synonymous and one nonsynonymous (val(158met position, designated as low (LPS, average (APS, and high pain sensitive (HPS, are associated with experimental pain sensitivity and risk of developing chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. APS and HPS haplotypes produce significant functional effects, coding for 3- and 20-fold reductions in COMT enzymatic activity, respectively. In the present study, we investigated whether additional minor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, accruing in 1 to 5% of the population, situated in the COMT transcript region contribute to haplotype-dependent enzymatic activity. Computer analysis of COMT ESTs showed that one synonymous minor SNP (rs769224 is linked to the APS haplotype and three minor SNPs (two synonymous: rs6267, rs740602 and one nonsynonymous: rs8192488 are linked to the HPS haplotype. Results from in silico and in vitro experiments revealed that inclusion of allelic variants of these minor SNPs in APS or HPS haplotypes did not modify COMT function at the level of mRNA folding, RNA transcription, protein translation, or enzymatic activity. These data suggest that neutral variants are carried with APS and HPS haplotypes, while the high activity LPS haplotype displays less linked variation. Thus, both minor synonymous and nonsynonymous SNPs in the coding region are markers of functional APS and HPS haplotypes rather than independent contributors to COMT activity.

  17. Exact coalescent simulation of new haplotype data from existing reference haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chul Joo; Marjoram, Paul

    2012-03-15

    We introduce a coalescent-based method (RECOAL) for the simulation of new haplotype data from a reference population of haplotypes. A coalescent genealogy for the reference haplotype data is sampled from the appropriate posterior probability distribution, then a coalescent genealogy is simulated which extends the sampled genealogy to include new haplotype data. The new haplotype data will, therefore, contain both some of the existing polymorphic sites and new polymorphisms added based on the structure of the simulated coalescent genealogy. This allows exact coalescent simulation of new haplotype data, compared with other methods which are more approximate in nature. We demonstrate the performance of our method using a variety of data simulated under a coalescent model, before applying it to data from the 1000 Genomes project.

  18. HLA class I haplotype diversity is consistent with selection for frequent existing haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Idan; Gragert, Loren; Fingerson, Stephanie; Maiers, Martin; Louzoun, Yoram

    2017-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains the most polymorphic genetic system in humans, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes of the adaptive immune system. High allelic diversity in HLA is argued to be maintained by balancing selection, such as negative frequency-dependent selection or heterozygote advantage. Selective pressure against immune escape by pathogens can maintain appreciable frequencies of many different HLA alleles. The selection pressures operating on combinations of HLA alleles across loci, or haplotypes, have not been extensively evaluated since the high HLA polymorphism necessitates very large sample sizes, which have not been available until recently. We aimed to evaluate the effect of selection operating at the HLA haplotype level by analyzing HLA A~C~B~DRB1~DQB1 haplotype frequencies derived from over six million individuals genotyped by the National Marrow Donor Program registry. In contrast with alleles, HLA haplotype diversity patterns suggest purifying selection, as certain HLA allele combinations co-occur in high linkage disequilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium is positive (Dij'>0) among frequent haplotypes and negative (Dij'haplotypes. Fitting the haplotype frequency distribution to several population dynamics models, we found that the best fit was obtained when significant positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) was incorporated. Finally, the Ewens-Watterson test of homozygosity showed excess homozygosity for 5-locus haplotypes within 23 US populations studied, with an average Fnd of 28.43. Haplotype diversity is most consistent with purifying selection for HLA Class I haplotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C), and was not inferred for HLA Class II haplotypes (-DRB1 and-DQB1). We discuss our empirical results in the context of evolutionary theory, exploring potential mechanisms of selection that maintain high linkage disequilibrium in MHC haplotype blocks.

  19. Haplotype Frequency Distribution in Northeastern European Saduria entomon (Crustacea: Isopoda) Populations. A Phylogeographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Jerzy

    2003-11-01

    The distribution pattern of mtDNA haplotypes in distinct populations of the glacial relict crustacean Saduria entomon was examined to assess phylogeographic relationships among them. Populations from the Baltic, the White Sea and the Barents Sea were screened for mtDNA variation using PCR-based RFLP analysis of a 1150 bp fragment containing part of the CO I and CO II genes. Five mtDNA haplotypes were recorded. An analysis of geographical heterogeneity in haplotype frequency distributions revealed significant differences among populations. The isolated populations of S. entomon have diverged since the retreat of the last glaciation. The geographical pattern of variation is most likely the result of stochastic (founder effect, genetic drift) mechanisms and suggests that the haplotype differentiation observed is probably older than the isolation of the Baltic and Arctic seas.

  20. Modeling Haplotype Block Variation Using Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspan, G.; Geiger, D.

    2006-01-01

    Models of background variation in genomic regions form the basis of linkage disequilibrium mapping methods. In this work we analyze a background model that groups SNPs into haplotype blocks and represents the dependencies between blocks by a Markov chain. We develop an error measure to compare the performance of this model against the common model that assumes that blocks are independent. By examining data from the International Haplotype Mapping project, we show how the Markov model over hap...

  1. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases.

  2. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Probabilistic Multilocus Haplotype Reconstruction in Outcrossing Tetraploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaozhi; Voorrips, Roeland E; Jansen, Johannes; Hackett, Christine A; Ho, Julie; Bink, Marco C A M

    2016-05-01

    For both plant (e.g., potato) and animal (e.g., salmon) species, unveiling the genetic architecture of complex traits is key to the genetic improvement of polyploids in agriculture. F1 progenies of a biparental cross are often used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in outcrossing polyploids, where haplotype reconstruction by identifying the parental origins of marker alleles is necessary. In this paper, we build a novel and integrated statistical framework for multilocus haplotype reconstruction in a full-sib tetraploid family from biallelic marker dosage data collected from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays or next-generation sequencing technology given a genetic linkage map. Compared to diploids, in tetraploids, additional complexity needs to be addressed, including double reduction and possible preferential pairing of chromosomes. We divide haplotype reconstruction into two stages: parental linkage phasing for reconstructing the most probable parental haplotypes and ancestral inference for probabilistically reconstructing the offspring haplotypes conditional on the reconstructed parental haplotypes. The simulation studies and the application to real data from potato show that the parental linkage phasing is robust to, and that the subsequent ancestral inference is accurate for, complex chromosome pairing behaviors during meiosis, various marker segregation types, erroneous genetic maps except for long-range disturbances of marker ordering, various amounts of offspring dosage errors (up to ∼20%), and various fractions of missing data in parents and offspring dosages. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. MHC haplotype analysis by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgard, M I; Tay, G K; Hiew, H L; Witt, C S; Ketheesan, N; Christiansen, F T; Dawkins, R L

    1998-01-01

    Conventional matching is based on numbers of alleles shared between donor and recipient. This approach, however, ignores the degree of relationship between alleles and haplotypes, and therefore the actual degree of difference. To address this problem, we have compared family members using a block matching technique which reflects differences in genomic sequences. All parents and siblings had been genotyped using conventional MHC typing so that haplotypes could be assigned and relatives could be classified as sharing 0, 1 or 2 haplotypes. We trained an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with subjects from 6 families (85 comparisons) to distinguish between relatives. Using the outputs of the ANN, we developed a score, the Histocompatibility Index (HI), as a measure of the degree of difference. Subjects from a further 3 families (106 profile comparisons) were tested. The HI score for each comparison was plotted. We show that the HI score is trimodal allowing the definition of three populations corresponding to approximately 0, 1 or 2 haplotype sharing. The means and standard deviations of the three populations were found. As expected, comparisons between family members sharing 2 haplotypes resulted in high HI scores with one exception. More interestingly, this approach distinguishes between the 1 and 0 haplotype groups, with some informative exceptions. This distinction was considered too difficult to attempt visually. The approach provides promise in the quantification of degrees of histocompatibility.

  5. Haplotype phasing by multi-assembly of shared haplotypes: phase-dependent interactions between rare variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Aguiar, Derek; Istrail, Sorin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose algorithmic strategies, Lander-Waterman-like statistical estimates, and genome-wide software for haplotype phasing by multi-assembly of shared haplotypes. Specifically, we consider four types of results which together provide a comprehensive workflow of GWAS data sets: (1) statistics of multi-assembly of shared haplotypes (2) graph theoretic algorithms for haplotype assembly based on conflict graphs of sequencing reads (3) inference of pedigree structure through haplotype sharing via tract finding algorithms and (4) multi-assembly of shared haplotypes of cases, controls, and trios. The input for the workflows that we consider are any of the combination of: (A) genotype data (B) next generation sequencing (NGS) (C) pedigree information. (1) We present Lander-Waterman-like statistics for NGS projects for the multi-assembly of shared haplotypes. Results are presented in Sec. 2. (2) In Sec. 3, we present algorithmic strategies for haplotype assembly using NGS, NGS + genotype data, and NGS + pedigree information. (3) This work builds on algorithms presented in Halldórsson et al. and are part of the same library of tools co-developed for GWAS workflows. (4) Section 3.3.1 contains algorithmic strategies for multi-assembly of GWAS data. We present algorithms for assembling large data sets and for determining and using shared haplotypes to more reliably assemble and phase the data. Workflows 1-4 provide a set of rigorous algorithms which have the potential to identify phase-dependent interactions between rare variants in linkage equilibrium which are associated with cases. They build on our extensive work on haplotype phasing, haplotype assembly, and whole genome assembly comparison.

  6. A hidden Markov model for haplotype inference for present-absent data of clustered genes using identified haplotypes and haplotype patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jihua; Chen, Guo-Bo; Zhi, Degui; Liu, Nianjun; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    The majority of killer cell immunoglobin-like receptor (KIR) genes are detected as either present or absent using locus-specific genotyping technology. Ambiguity arises from the presence of a specific KIR gene since the exact copy number (one or two) of that gene is unknown. Therefore, haplotype inference for these genes is becoming more challenging due to such large portion of missing information. Meantime, many haplotypes and partial haplotype patterns have been previously identified due to tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) among these clustered genes thus can be incorporated to facilitate haplotype inference. In this paper, we developed a hidden Markov model (HMM) based method that can incorporate identified haplotypes or partial haplotype patterns for haplotype inference from present-absent data of clustered genes (e.g., KIR genes). We compared its performance with an expectation maximization (EM) based method previously developed in terms of haplotype assignments and haplotype frequency estimation through extensive simulations for KIR genes. The simulation results showed that the new HMM based method outperformed the previous method when some incorrect haplotypes were included as identified haplotypes and/or the standard deviation of haplotype frequencies were small. We also compared the performance of our method with two methods that do not use previously identified haplotypes and haplotype patterns, including an EM based method, HPALORE, and a HMM based method, MaCH. Our simulation results showed that the incorporation of identified haplotypes and partial haplotype patterns can improve accuracy for haplotype inference. The new software package HaploHMM is available and can be downloaded at http://www.soph.uab.edu/ssg/files/People/KZhang/HaploHMM/haplohmm-index.html.

  7. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Olguín, Lizbeth; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ramírez Regalado, Belem; Fernández, Genny; Canto, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women. A case-control study was performed where 127 preeclamptic patients and 263 controls were included. Genotyped and haplotypes for the -768T→C, intron 4 variants, Glu298Asp of eNOS were determined by PCR and real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) was used to test for associations between genotype and preeclampsia under recessive, codominant and dominant models. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r2, and haplotype analysis was conducted. Women homozygous for the Asp298 allele showed an association of preeclampsia. In addition, analysis of the haplotype frequencies revealed that the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype was significantly more frequent in preeclamptic patients than in controls (0.143 vs. 0.041, respectively; OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.74–5.23; P = 2.9 × 10−4). Despite the Asp298 genotype in a recessive model associated with the presence of preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women, we believe that in this population the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype is a better genetic marker. PMID:21897002

  8. Phylogeny- and Parsimony-Based Haplotype Inference with Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberfeld, Michael; Tantau, Till

    Haplotyping, also known as haplotype phase prediction, is the problem of predicting likely haplotypes based on genotype data. One fast computational haplotyping method is based on an evolutionary model where a perfect phylogenetic tree is sought that explains the observed data. In their CPM 2009 paper, Fellows et al. studied an extension of this approach that incorporates prior knowledge in the form of a set of candidate haplotypes from which the right haplotypes must be chosen. While this approach may help to increase the accuracy of haplotyping methods, it was conjectured that the resulting formal problem constrained perfect phylogeny haplotyping might be NP-complete. In the present paper we present a polynomial-time algorithm for it. Our algorithmic ideas also yield new fixed-parameter algorithms for related haplotyping problems based on the maximum parsimony assumption.

  9. Separation of Y-chromosomal haplotypes from male DNA mixtures via multiplex haplotype-specific extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Nagy, Marion

    2015-11-01

    In forensic analysis, the interpretation of DNA mixtures is the subject of ongoing debate and requires expertise knowledge. Haplotype-specific extraction (HSE) is an alternative method that enables the separation of large chromosome fragments or haplotypes by using magnetic beads in conjunction with allele-specific probes. HSE thus allows physical separation of the components of a DNA mixture. Here, we present the first multiplex HSE separation of a Y-chromosomal haplotype consisting of six Yfiler short tandem repeat markers from a mixture of male DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of genealogy-based haplotypes on genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Fernando, Rohan L.; Su, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    on haplotypes instead of regression on individual markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction using haplotypes based on local genealogy information. Methods A total of 4429 Danish Holstein bulls were genotyped with the 50K SNP chip. Haplotypes were constructed using...... local genealogical trees. Effects of haplotype covariates were estimated with two types of prediction models: (1) assuming that effects had the same distribution for all haplotype covariates, i.e. the GBLUP method and (2) assuming that a large proportion (pi) of the haplotype covariates had zero effect......, i.e. a Bayesian mixture method. Results About 7.5 times more covariate effects were estimated when fitting haplotypes based on local genealogical trees compared to fitting individuals markers. Genealogy-based haplotype clustering slightly increased the accuracy of genomic prediction and, in some...

  11. An anomalous haplotype distribution of the arrestin domain-containing 4 gene (ARRDC4) haplotypes in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Bettina; Goldammer, Mark; Wojewoda, Agnieszka; Flügge, Jana; Johne, Andreas; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Roots, Ivar; Köpke, Karla

    2008-03-01

    Little was known about the sequence variability of the human Arrestin domain-containing 4 gene (ARRDC4). We sequenced its DNA from exon 2 to exon 8 in a sample of 92 Russians. Seven variants were identified; one of them has not been described yet. It causes an amino acid change from Thr to Met. Identified variants were genotyped in the complete sample of 253 unrelated men and women to analyze haplotype distribution. Fifteen haplotypes were inferred. Nine haplotypes had estimated frequencies > 1%. Ninety-five percent of all haplotypes were determined by five haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms. Haplotypes form two clades. The two most common haplotypes cover 76% of all haplotypes. The certainty of the haplotype reconstruction does not depend on the haplotype-inferring algorithms, but is a result of the anomalous haplotype distribution of ARRDC4, which makes this gene a suitable candidate gene for haplotype association studies. Interestingly, there is a great evolutionary distance between the two most common haplotypes, which could suggest a more complicated coalescent process with either past gene flow, selections, or bottlenecks.

  12. Determination of haplotypes at structurally complex regions using emulsion haplotype fusion PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson Jess

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping and massively-parallel sequencing projects result in a vast amount of diploid data that is only rarely resolved into its constituent haplotypes. It is nevertheless this phased information that is transmitted from one generation to the next and is most directly associated with biological function and the genetic causes of biological effects. Despite progress made in genome-wide sequencing and phasing algorithms and methods, problems assembling (and reconstructing linear haplotypes in regions of repetitive DNA and structural variation remain. These dynamic and structurally complex regions are often poorly understood from a sequence point of view. Regions such as these that are highly similar in their sequence tend to be collapsed onto the genome assembly. This is turn means downstream determination of the true sequence haplotype in these regions poses a particular challenge. For structurally complex regions, a more focussed approach to assembling haplotypes may be required. Results In order to investigate reconstruction of spatial information at structurally complex regions, we have used an emulsion haplotype fusion PCR approach to reproducibly link sequences of up to 1kb in length to allow phasing of multiple variants from neighbouring loci, using allele-specific PCR and sequencing to detect the phase. By using emulsion systems linking flanking regions to amplicons within the CNV, this led to the reconstruction of a 59kb haplotype across the DEFA1A3 CNV in HapMap individuals. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a novel use for emulsion haplotype fusion PCR in addressing the issue of reconstructing structural haplotypes at multiallelic copy variable regions, using the DEFA1A3 locus as an example.

  13. Extending partial haplotypes to full genome haplotypes using chromosome conformation capture data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Elazar, Shay; Chor, Benny; Yakhini, Zohar

    2016-09-01

    Complex interactions among alleles often drive differences in inherited properties including disease predisposition. Isolating the effects of these interactions requires phasing information that is difficult to measure or infer. Furthermore, prevalent sequencing technologies used in the essential first step of determining a haplotype limit the range of that step to the span of reads, namely hundreds of bases. With the advent of pseudo-long read technologies, observable partial haplotypes can span several orders of magnitude more. Yet, measuring whole-genome-single-individual haplotypes remains a challenge. A different view of whole genome measurement addresses the 3D structure of the genome-with great development of Hi-C techniques in recent years. A shortcoming of current Hi-C, however, is the difficulty in inferring information that is specific to each of a pair of homologous chromosomes. In this work, we develop a robust algorithmic framework that takes two measurement derived datasets: raw Hi-C and partial short-range haplotypes, and constructs the full-genome haplotype as well as phased diploid Hi-C maps. By analyzing both data sets together we thus bridge important gaps in both technologies-from short to long haplotypes and from un-phased to phased Hi-C. We demonstrate that our method can recover ground truth haplotypes with high accuracy, using measured biological data as well as simulated data. We analyze the impact of noise, Hi-C sequencing depth and measured haplotype lengths on performance. Finally, we use the inferred 3D structure of a human genome to point at transcription factor targets nuclear co-localization. The implementation available at https://github.com/YakhiniGroup/SpectraPh zohar.yakhini@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Joint haplotype phasing and genotype calling of multiple individuals using haplotype informative reads

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kui; Zhi, Degui

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Hidden Markov model, based on Li and Stephens model that takes into account chromosome sharing of multiple individuals, results in mainstream haplotype phasing algorithms for genotyping arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. However, existing methods based on this model assume that the allele count data are independently observed at individual sites and do not consider haplotype informative reads, i.e. reads that cover multiple heterozygous sites, which carry useful hap...

  15. Determination of haplotypes at structurally complex regions using emulsion haplotype fusion PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Jess; Armour, John A L

    2012-12-11

    Genotyping and massively-parallel sequencing projects result in a vast amount of diploid data that is only rarely resolved into its constituent haplotypes. It is nevertheless this phased information that is transmitted from one generation to the next and is most directly associated with biological function and the genetic causes of biological effects. Despite progress made in genome-wide sequencing and phasing algorithms and methods, problems assembling (and reconstructing linear haplotypes in) regions of repetitive DNA and structural variation remain. These dynamic and structurally complex regions are often poorly understood from a sequence point of view. Regions such as these that are highly similar in their sequence tend to be collapsed onto the genome assembly. This is turn means downstream determination of the true sequence haplotype in these regions poses a particular challenge. For structurally complex regions, a more focussed approach to assembling haplotypes may be required. In order to investigate reconstruction of spatial information at structurally complex regions, we have used an emulsion haplotype fusion PCR approach to reproducibly link sequences of up to 1kb in length to allow phasing of multiple variants from neighbouring loci, using allele-specific PCR and sequencing to detect the phase. By using emulsion systems linking flanking regions to amplicons within the CNV, this led to the reconstruction of a 59kb haplotype across the DEFA1A3 CNV in HapMap individuals. This study has demonstrated a novel use for emulsion haplotype fusion PCR in addressing the issue of reconstructing structural haplotypes at multiallelic copy variable regions, using the DEFA1A3 locus as an example.

  16. Genome-wide haplotype changes produced by artificial selection during modern rice breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamamoto, Eiji; Nagasaki, Hideki; Shibaya, Taeko; Yano, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    During the last 90 years, the breeding of rice has delivered cultivars with improved agronomic and economic characteristics. Crossing of different lines and successive artificial selection of progeny based on their phenotypes have changed the chromosomal constitution of the ancestors of modern rice; however, the nature of these changes is unclear. The recent accumulation of data for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rice has allowed us to investigate the change in haplotype structure and composition. To assess the impact of these changes during modern breeding, we studied 177 Japanese rice accessions, which were categorized into three groups: landraces, improved cultivars developed from 1931 to 1974 (the early breeding phase), and improved cultivars developed from 1975 to 2005 (the late breeding phase). Phylogenetic tree and structure analysis indicated genetic differentiation between non-irrigated (upland) and irrigated (lowland) rice groups as well as genetic structuring within the irrigated rice group that corresponded to the existence of three subgroups. Pedigree analysis revealed that a limited number of landraces and cultivars was used for breeding at the beginning of the period of systematic breeding and that 11 landraces accounted for 70% of the ancestors of the modern improved cultivars. The values for linkage disequilibrium estimated from SNP alleles and the haplotype diversity determined from consecutive alleles in five-SNP windows indicated that haplotype blocks became less diverse over time as a result of the breeding process. A decrease in haplotype diversity, caused by a reduced number of polymorphisms in the haplotype blocks, was observed in several chromosomal regions. However, our results also indicate that new haplotype polymorphisms have been generated across the genome during the breeding process. These findings will facilitate our understanding of the association between particular haplotypes and desirable phenotypes in

  17. Haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies from nuclear families with only one parent available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Flury, Christine; Simianer, Henner

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that haplotype inference through close relatives, especially from nuclear families can be an alternative strategy in determining the linkage phase. In this paper, haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies via expectation maximization (EM) algorithm including nuclear families with only one parent available is proposed. Parent and his (her) child are treated as parent-child pair with one shared haplotype. This reduces the number of potential haplotype pairs for both parent and child separately, resulting in a higher accuracy of the estimation. In a series of simulations, the comparisons of PHASE, GENEHUNTER, EM-based approach for complete nuclear families and our approach are carried out. In all situations, EM-based approach for trio data is comparable but slightly worse error rate than PHASE, our approach is slightly better and much faster than PHASE for incomplete trios, the performance of GENEHUNTER is very bad in simple nuclear family settings and dramatically decreased with the number of markers being increased. On the other hand, the comparison result of different sampling designs demonstrates that sampling trios is the most efficient design to estimate haplotype frequencies in populations under same genotyping cost.

  18. How well do HapMap haplotypes identify common haplotypes of genes? A comparison with haplotypes of 334 genes resequenced in the environmental genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jack A; Xu, Zong-Li; Kaplan, Norman L; Morris, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the International HapMap Project is the identification of common haplotypes in genes. However, HapMap uses an incomplete catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and might miss some common haplotypes. We examined this issue using data from the Environmental Genome Project (EGP) which resequenced 335 genes in 90 people, and thus, has a nearly complete catalogue of gene SNPs. The EGP identified a total of 45,243 SNPs, of which 10,780 were common SNPs (minor allele frequency >or=0.1). Using EGP common SNP genotype data, we identified 1,459 haplotypes with frequency >or=0.05 and we use these as "benchmark" haplotypes. HapMap release 16 had genotype information for 1,573 of 10,780 (15%) EGP common SNPs. Using these SNPs, we identified common HapMap haplotypes (frequency >or=0.05) in each of the four HapMap ethnic groups. To compare common HapMap haplotypes to EGP benchmark haplotypes, we collapsed benchmark haplotypes to the set of 1,573 SNPs. Ninety-eight percent of the collapsed benchmark haplotypes could be found as common HapMap haplotypes in one or more of the four HapMap ethnic groups. However, collapsing benchmark haplotypes to the set of SNPs available in HapMap resulted in a loss of haplotype information: 545 of 1,459 (37%) benchmark haplotypes were uniquely identified, and only 25% of genes had all their benchmark haplotypes uniquely identified. We resampled the EGP data to examine the effect of increasing the number of HapMap SNPs to 5 million, and estimate that approximately 40% of common SNPs in genes will be sampled and that half of the genes will have sufficient SNPs to identify all common haplotypes. This inability to distinguish common haplotypes of genes may result in loss of power when examining haplotype-disease association. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(1):133-7).

  19. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: Application to Duchenne muscula dystrophy carrier detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, T.W.; Wenger, G.D.; Moore, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis. It is based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. The method is simple, rapid, does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using 12 commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. As a result of expanding the number of detectable polymorphisms throughout the dystrophin gene, we show how the method can easily be combined with dinucleotide analysis to improve the accuracy of carrier detection in the nondeletion cases. The technique is also shown to be used as an effective screen for improving carrier detection in several families with deletions. The finding of heterozygosity within the deletion identifies the at-risk female as a noncarrier. Using this method, we have identified and incorporated 3 new dystrophin polymorphisms (one of which in exon 16 is unique to African Americans). The method may be used other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown, or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, or for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  20. An unusual haplotype structure on human chromosome 8p23 derived from the inversion polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libin; Zhang, Yuezheng; Kang, Jian; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Hongbin; Gao, Yang; Li, Chaohua; Pan, Hao; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Dunmei; Niu, Tianhua; Yang, Huanming; Zeng, Changqing

    2008-10-01

    Chromosomal inversion is an important type of genomic variations involved in both evolution and disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the refined genetic structure of a 3.8-Mb inversion polymorphism at chromosome 8p23. Using HapMap data of 1,073 SNPs generated from 209 unrelated samples from CEPH-Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU); Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI); and Asian (ASN) samples, which were comprised of Han Chinese from Beijing, China (CHB) and Japanese from Tokyo, Japan (JPT)-we successfully deduced the inversion orientations of all their 418 haplotypes. In particular, distinct haplotype subgroups were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA). Such genetic substructures were consistent with clustering patterns based on neighbor-joining tree reconstruction, which revealed a total of four haplotype clades across all samples. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a subset of 10 HapMap samples verified their inversion orientations predicted by PCA or phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Positioning of the outgroup haplotype within one of YRI clades suggested that Human NCBI Build 36-inverted order is most likely the ancestral orientation. Furthermore, the population differentiation test and the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis in this region discovered multiple selection signals, also in a population-specific manner. A positive selection signal was detected at XKR6 in the ASN population. These results revealed the correlation of inversion polymorphisms to population-specific genetic structures, and various selection patterns as possible mechanisms for the maintenance of a large chromosomal rearrangement at 8p23 region during evolution. In addition, our study also showed that haplotype-based clustering methods, such as PCA, can be applied in scanning for cryptic inversion polymorphisms at a genome-wide scale.

  1. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Nielsen, Karsten; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2005-01-01

    A total of 185 unrelated Danish males were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 using the kits PowerPlex Y (Promega), ReliaGene Y-Plex 6 and ReliaGene Y-Plex 5 (Reliagene Technologies). A total of 163 diff...... different haplotypes were observed and among these, 144 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity was 0.9985. In DYS392, a variant allele migrating as a 10.2 allele was observed. Sequencing of the allele showed a deletion upstream the repeated area....

  2. Quantitative trait locus and haplotype analyses of wild and crop-mimic traits in U.S. weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispan, Muhamad S; Zhang, Lihua; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-06-21

    Conspecific weeds retained characteristics from wild ancestors and also developed crop mimicries for adaptation and competitiveness. This research was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the wild and crop-mimic traits and to determine haplotype variants for QTL-rich regions in U.S. weedy rice. An F2 population from the cross between a cultivated (EM93-1) and a U.S. weedy (US1) rice line was evaluated for six wild and eight crop-mimic traits in a greenhouse to identify the QTL. A core collection of 27 U.S. weedy red rice lines and 14 AA-genome wild rice lines were determined for the haplotype variants. A total of 49 QTL were identified, with 45 collocated as clusters on 14 genomic segments. The number of haplotypes across the 14 segments was lower in the weedy (6.1 ± 2.4) than in the wild (7.5 ± 1.8) rice sample. Both samples shared ~50% haplotypes (wild-like). The EM93-1-like haplotypes accounted for a greater proportion (30 ± 26%) of the haplotypes in the weedy than in the wild (7 ± 10%) rice. Based on haplotype patterns for the 14 QTL cluster regions, 26 of the 28 red rice lines were clustered into two groups corresponding to the black-hull awned and straw-hull awnless morphological types, respectively. The QTL analysis demonstrated that conspecific weed-crop differentiation involved many genomic segments with multiple loci regulating natural variation for adaptation and competitiveness. The haplotype analysis revealed that U.S. weedy rice retained large blocks of linkage disequilibrium for the multiple loci from the wild relatives and also incorporated haplotypes from cultivars.

  3. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ming An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5 of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2 were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3 and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5 and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg. In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits.

  4. SLCO1B1 *15 haplotype is associated with rifampin-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Min; Chen, Lei; Deng, Guo-Hong; Tan, Wen-Ting; Dan, Yun-Jie; Wang, Rong-Quan; Chen, Wen-Sheng

    2012-07-01

    The organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, encoded by SLCO1B1) plays an important role in the transport of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, such as bile acids and rifampin. In this study, the association between OATP1B1 polymorphisms and rifampin hepatotoxicity was investigated using integrated population genetic analysis and functional studies. A total of 273 unrelated patients treated with rifampin were recruited. The allele frequencies were examined in patients with drug (rifampin)-induced liver injury (DILI) (n = 118) and without (non-DILI) (n = 155). Functional analyses were conducted to determine whether the inhibition of bile acids by rifampin was associated with OATP1B1 variants. In the present study, 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OATP1B1 were detected in a Chinese population, with two of them causing an amino acid change (rs2306283 and rs4149056). The haplotypes constructed by these two SNPs were OATP1B1 *1a, *1b, *5 and *15, with their respective frequencies being 23.44, 66.30, 0.73 and 9.52% in a total of 273 individuals. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the *15 haplotype was associated with susceptibility to DILI (p = 0.03, OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.05-3.96). The frequency of the *15 haplotype in DILI patients was significantly higher than that in non-DILI patients (p = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, the *15 haplotype was associated with susceptibility to cholestatic/mixed injury (p = 0.03, OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.06-5.02). Functional assessment of the OATP1B1 *15 haplotype revealed that the activity of bile acid uptake was markedly reduced compared to the three other haplotypes. In the inhibition study, the inhibition by rifampin in the *15 haplotype was greater compared to that in the other haplotypes. These results suggest that the OATP1B1 *15 haplotype is an important predisposing factor for rifampin-induced liver injury.

  5. Different origin and dispersal of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum haplotypes between Eastern Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraka, Vito; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Nag, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the dispersal and origin of sulfadoxine resistance lineages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo compared with East African.......3 and 7.7 kb) flanking the Pfdhps gene were assayed. Evolutionary analysis revealed a shared origin of Pfdhps haplotypes in East Africa, with a distinct population clustering in DR Congo. Furthermore, in Tanzania there was an independent distinct origin of Pfdhps SGEGA resistant haplotype. In Uganda...... and Tanzania, gene flow patterns contribute to the dispersal and shared origin of parasites carrying double- and triple-mutant Pfdhps haplotypes associated with poor outcomes of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy using SP (IPTp-SP). However, the origins of the Pfdhps haplotypes in DR Congo...

  6. Comparative analysis of haplotype association mapping algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletcher Mathew T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding the genetic causes of quantitative traits is a complex and difficult task. Classical methods for mapping quantitative trail loci (QTL in miceuse an F2 cross between two strains with substantially different phenotype and an interval mapping method to compute confidence intervals at each position in the genome. This process requires significant resources for breeding and genotyping, and the data generated are usually only applicable to one phenotype of interest. Recently, we reported the application of a haplotype association mapping method which utilizes dense genotyping data across a diverse panel of inbred mouse strains and a marker association algorithm that is independent of any specific phenotype. As the availability of genotyping data grows in size and density, analysis of these haplotype association mapping methods should be of increasing value to the statistical genetics community. Results We describe a detailed comparative analysis of variations on our marker association method. In particular, we describe the use of inferred haplotypes from adjacent SNPs, parametric and nonparametric statistics, and control of multiple testing error. These results show that nonparametric methods are slightly better in the test cases we study, although the choice of test statistic may often be dependent on the specific phenotype and haplotype structure being studied. The use of multi-SNP windows to infer local haplotype structure is critical to the use of a diverse panel of inbred strains for QTL mapping. Finally, because the marginal effect of any single gene in a complex disease is often relatively small, these methods require the use of sensitive methods for controlling family-wise error. We also report our initial application of this method to phenotypes cataloged in the Mouse Phenome Database. Conclusion The use of inbred strains of mice for QTL mapping has many advantages over traditional methods. However, there are also

  7. PLCz functional haplotypes modulating promoter transcriptional activity are associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pan

    Full Text Available The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT, H2H2 (GCGC, H3H3 (ATAT, and H4H4 (ACAC, were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as

  8. An improved preprocessing algorithm for haplotype inference by pure parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mun-Ho; Kang, Seung-Ho; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2014-08-01

    The identification of haplotypes, which encode SNPs in a single chromosome, makes it possible to perform a haplotype-based association test with disease. Given a set of genotypes from a population, the process of recovering the haplotypes, which explain the genotypes, is called haplotype inference (HI). We propose an improved preprocessing method for solving the haplotype inference by pure parsimony (HIPP), which excludes a large amount of redundant haplotypes by detecting some groups of haplotypes that are dispensable for optimal solutions. The method uses only inclusion relations between groups of haplotypes but dramatically reduces the number of candidate haplotypes; therefore, it causes the computational time and memory reduction of real HIPP solvers. The proposed method can be easily coupled with a wide range of optimization methods which consider a set of candidate haplotypes explicitly. For the simulated and well-known benchmark datasets, the experimental results show that our method coupled with a classical exact HIPP solver run much faster than the state-of-the-art solver and can solve a large number of instances that were so far unaffordable in a reasonable time.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D; Mahalovich, Mary F; Means, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic mitochondrial DNA marker, with results offering insights into how geographical and climatological processes drove the modern evolutionary structure of tree species in the region. We amplified the mtDNA nad1 second intron minisatellite region for 3,100 trees representing 104 populations, and sequenced all length variants. We estimated population-level haplotypic diversity and determined diversity partitioning among varieties, races and populations. After aligning sequences of minisatellite repeat motifs, we evaluated evolutionary relationships among haplotypes. The geographical structuring of the 10 haplotypes corresponded with division between Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties. Pacific haplotypes clustered with high bootstrap support, and appear to have descended from Rocky Mountain haplotypes. A greater proportion of diversity was partitioned between Rocky Mountain races than between Pacific races. Areas of highest haplotypic diversity were the southern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, northwestern California, and southern Nevada. Pinus ponderosa haplotype distribution patterns suggest a complex phylogeographic history not revealed by other genetic and morphological data, or by the sparse paleoecological record. The results appear consistent with long-term divergence between the Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties, along with more recent divergences not well-associated with race. Pleistocene refugia may have existed in areas of high haplotypic diversity, as well as the Great Basin, Southwestern United States/northern Mexico, and the High Plains.

  10. Different origin and dispersal of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum haplotypes between Eastern Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Vito; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Nag, Sidsel; Ishengoma, Deus S; Madebe, Rashid A; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Lutumba, Pascal; Alifrangis, Michael; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the dispersal and origin of sulfadoxine resistance lineages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo compared with East African Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) haplotypes. The analysis involved 264 isolates collected from patients with uncomplicated malaria from Tanzania, Uganda and DR Congo. Isolates were genotyped for Pfdhps mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613. Three microsatellite loci (0.8, 4.3 and 7.7 kb) flanking the Pfdhps gene were assayed. Evolutionary analysis revealed a shared origin of Pfdhps haplotypes in East Africa, with a distinct population clustering in DR Congo. Furthermore, in Tanzania there was an independent distinct origin of Pfdhps SGEGA resistant haplotype. In Uganda and Tanzania, gene flow patterns contribute to the dispersal and shared origin of parasites carrying double- and triple-mutant Pfdhps haplotypes associated with poor outcomes of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy using SP (IPTp-SP). However, the origins of the Pfdhps haplotypes in DR Congo and Eastern Africa sites are different. The genetic structure demonstrated a divergent and distinct population cluster predominated by single-mutant Pfdhps haplotypes at the DR Congo site. This reflects the limited dispersal of double- and triple-mutant Pfdhps haplotypes in DR Congo. This study highlights the current genetic structure and dispersal of high-grade Pfdhps resistant haplotypes, which is important to guide implementation of SP in malaria chemoprevention strategies in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. iHAP – integrated haplotype analysis pipeline for characterizing the haplotype structure of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yun Ping

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of genotype data from large-scale efforts that catalog the genetic variants of different populations have given rise to new avenues for multifactorial disease association studies. Recent work shows that genotype data from the International HapMap Project have a high degree of transferability to the wider population. This implies that the design of genotyping studies on local populations may be facilitated through inferences drawn from information contained in HapMap populations. Results To facilitate analysis of HapMap data for characterizing the haplotype structure of genes or any chromosomal regions, we have developed an integrated web-based resource, iHAP. In addition to incorporating genotype and haplotype data from the International HapMap Project and gene information from the UCSC Genome Browser Database, iHAP also provides capabilities for inferring haplotype blocks and selecting tag SNPs that are representative of haplotype patterns. These include block partitioning algorithms, block definitions, tag SNP definitions, as well as SNPs to be "force included" as tags. Based on the parameters defined at the input stage, iHAP performs on-the-fly analysis and displays the result graphically as a webpage. To facilitate analysis, intermediate and final result files can be downloaded. Conclusion The iHAP resource, available at http://ihap.bii.a-star.edu.sg, provides a convenient yet flexible approach for the user community to analyze HapMap data and identify candidate targets for genotyping studies.

  12. [Beta globin haplotypes in hemoglobin S carriers in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Claudia Liliana; Morales, Olga Lucía; Echeverri, Sandra Johanna; Isaza, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The hemoglobin S (HbS) mutation is accompanied by other mutations in the region of chromosome 11 known as "beta globin cluster". The pattern of combination of these polymorphisms giving rise to the haplotypes that co-inherit the HbS mutation, are called haplotypes bs, and are of great epidemiological and clinical significance. The frequencies of major haplotypes associated with S beta-globin gene was determined in Colombian patients heterozygous for hemoglobin S. As part of the national neonatal screening program at Clínica Colsanitas, located in major cities of Colombia, nearly 1,200 children from different areas of the country were examined for hemoglobinopathies. The sickle cell trait was identified as the most common. S beta-globin gene haplotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzymes in 33 children with AS hemoglobin electrophoretic patterns (carrier state). In addition, electrophoretic patterns of hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin levels and hematologic parameters of each individual were identified. The most frequent haplotypes in Colombia were the Bantú haplotype (36.4 %), followed by Senegal (30.3 %), Benin (21.2 %) and Cameroon (12.1 %) haplotypes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the AS phenotype in all patients, and fetal hemoglobin levels below 1%. Other hematological parameters were normal in all cases. The HbS haplotypes found more frequently in the sample were of African origin, and their distribution varied according to the place of origin of the individual. The most frequent corresponded to the Bantu haplotype.

  13. Reconstruction of Haplotype-Blocks Selected during Experimental Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Susanne U; Barton, Nicholas H; Schlötterer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The genetic analysis of experimentally evolving populations typically relies on short reads from pooled individuals (Pool-Seq). While this method provides reliable allele frequency estimates, the underlying haplotype structure remains poorly characterized. With small population sizes and adaptive variants that start from low frequencies, the interpretation of selection signatures in most Evolve and Resequencing studies remains challenging. To facilitate the characterization of selection targets, we propose a new approach that reconstructs selected haplotypes from replicated time series, using Pool-Seq data. We identify selected haplotypes through the correlated frequencies of alleles carried by them. Computer simulations indicate that selected haplotype-blocks of several Mb can be reconstructed with high confidence and low error rates, even when allele frequencies change only by 20% across three replicates. Applying this method to real data from D. melanogaster populations adapting to a hot environment, we identify a selected haplotype-block of 6.93 Mb. We confirm the presence of this haplotype-block in evolved populations by experimental haplotyping, demonstrating the power and accuracy of our haplotype reconstruction from Pool-Seq data. We propose that the combination of allele frequency estimates with haplotype information will provide the key to understanding the dynamics of adaptive alleles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Expression efficiency of NAT2 haplotypes in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Han Sung; Lee, Jin Sol; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Shin, Hee Jung; Kang, Tae Sun; Park, Hyun Joo; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Chung, Myeon Woo

    2017-04-04

    Since NAT2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are responsible for the efficacy of arylamines and hydrazine drugs, defining the effects of these SNPs in various ethnicities is an important factor in the development of personalized medicine. In the present study, we examined the expression efficiency of NAT2 using promoter haplotypes identified in a Korean population. To construct NAT2 promoter haplotypes, seven NAT2 promoter SNPs (rs4646241, rs4646242, rs4646243, rs4646267, rs4345600, rs4271002 and rs4646246) were genotyped in a total of 192 Korean subjects. A luciferase assay was performed using the three commonest haplotypes to evaluate enzyme expression level of NAT2 promoter haplotypes. The most common haplotype (TACGAGG) showed the lowest enzyme expression level (0.72 ± 0.06 relative light units (RLU)/[β-galactosidase]). The second (CGTAAGA) and third (TATAACA) commonest haplotypes showed intermediate and the highest enzyme expression level (0.99 ± 0.05 and 1.45 ± 0.11 RLU/[β-galactosidase]), respectively. Haplotype comparison among populations showed that Asian populations had a high proportion of the haplotype for lowest enzyme expression. Haplotype frequencies of Caucasian and African ethnicities were markedly different from those of Korean ethnicity. Results from the present study should contribute to the expansion of our current understanding of the pharmacogenetics field.

  15. Early Sex Identification in Date Palm by Male-Specific Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Pushpa; Mitra, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a dioecious plant, and sex of the seedlings can be determined only at the time of first flowering which takes 4-5 years. Female date palm plants are of economic importance as they bear the fruit. Therefore, sex identification at an early stage is highly desirable. DNA-based markers are useful for early sex detection. In this chapter, we describe male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to identify sex in date palm at the seedling stage. Genomic DNA is isolated separately from both male and female date palm genotypes. Amplification of this genomic DNA isolated from male and female plants using the SCAR primers results in an amplicon of 406 bp in both female and male samples and a unique amplicon of 354 bp only in male samples. Based on this amplification pattern, the sex of date palm seedlings can be predicted.

  16. Modulative effects of COMT haplotype on age-related associations with brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-06-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), located on chromosome 22q11.2, encodes an enzyme critical for dopamine flux in the prefrontal cortex. Genetic variants of COMT have been suggested to functionally manipulate prefrontal morphology and function in healthy adults. This study aims to investigate modulative roles of individuals COMT SNPs (rs737865, val158met, rs165599) and its haplotypes in age-related brain morphology using an Asian sample with 174 adults aged from 21 to 80 years. We showed an age-related decline in cortical thickness of the dorsal visual pathway, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral angular gyrus, right superior frontal cortex, and age-related shape compression in the basal ganglia as a function of the genotypes of the individual COMT SNPs, especially COMT val158met. Using haplotype trend regression analysis, COMT haplotype probabilities were estimated and further revealed an age-related decline in cortical thickness in the default mode network (DMN), including the posterior cingulate, precuneus, supramarginal and paracentral cortex, and the ventral visual system, including the occipital cortex and left inferior temporal cortex, as a function of the COMT haplotype. Our results provided new evidence on an antagonistic pleiotropic effect in COMT, suggesting that genetically programmed neural benefits in early life may have a potential bearing towards neural susceptibility in later life. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2068-2082, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. BrEPS: a flexible and automatic protocol to compute enzyme-specific sequence profiles for functional annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomburg D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models for the simulation of metabolic networks require the accurate prediction of enzyme function. Based on a genomic sequence, enzymatic functions of gene products are today mainly predicted by sequence database searching and operon analysis. Other methods can support these techniques: We have developed an automatic method "BrEPS" that creates highly specific sequence patterns for the functional annotation of enzymes. Results The enzymes in the UniprotKB are identified and their sequences compared against each other with BLAST. The enzymes are then clustered into a number of trees, where each tree node is associated with a set of EC-numbers. The enzyme sequences in the tree nodes are aligned with ClustalW. The conserved columns of the resulting multiple alignments are used to construct sequence patterns. In the last step, we verify the quality of the patterns by computing their specificity. Patterns with low specificity are omitted and recomputed further down in the tree. The final high-quality patterns can be used for functional annotation. We ran our protocol on a recent Swiss-Prot release and show statistics, as well as a comparison to PRIAM, a probabilistic method that is also specialized on the functional annotation of enzymes. We determine the amount of true positive annotations for five common microorganisms with data from BRENDA and AMENDA serving as standard of truth. BrEPS is almost on par with PRIAM, a fact which we discuss in the context of five manually investigated cases. Conclusions Our protocol computes highly specific sequence patterns that can be used to support the functional annotation of enzymes. The main advantages of our method are that it is automatic and unsupervised, and quite fast once the patterns are evaluated. The results show that BrEPS can be a valuable addition to the reconstruction of metabolic networks.

  18. Functional Haplotypes in Interleukin 4 Gene Associated with Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovazzi, Giovana; Medeiros, Marcell Costa de; Pigossi, Suzane Cristina; Finoti, Livia Sertori; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Rossa, Carlos; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli

    2017-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an infectious inflammatory disease that affects tooth-supporting structures and in which dental plaque bacteria, immune mechanisms and genetic predisposition play important roles. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine with relevant action in imbalances in inflamed periodontal tissue. Individuals carrying the TCI/CCI genotype (S-haplotype) of the IL-4 gene are 5 times more susceptible to CP, whereas the CTI/TTD genotype (P-haplotype) confers protection against CP. Compared with the S-haplotype, subjects with the P-haplotype produce higher levels of the IL-4 protein after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the functionality of IL-4 haplotypes in immune cells to obtain insight into the influence of these genetic variations in regulating immune responses to CP-associated bacteria. Peripheral blood was collected from 6 subjects carrying each haplotype, and their immune cells were challenged with periodontopathogens to compare responses of the different haplotypes with regard to gene expression, protein secretion and the immunophenotype of T helper responses. We found higher IL-4 mRNA and protein levels in the P-haplotype, which also presented higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, cells from S-haplotype subjects responded with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. S-haplotype individuals exhibited significantly greater polarization toward the Th1 phenotype, whereas the P-haplotype was associated with an attenuated response to periodontopathogens, with suggestive skewing toward Th2/M2 phenotypes. In conclusion, IL-4 genetic variations associated with susceptibility to or protection against chronic periodontitis are directly associated with influencing the response of immune cells to periodontopathogens.

  19. Effects of ploidy level and haplotype on variation of photosynthetic traits: Novel evidence from two Fragaria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gao

    Full Text Available To reveal the effects of ploidy level and haplotype on photosynthetic traits, we chose 175 genotypes of wild strawberries belonging to two haplotypes at two types of ploidy levels (diploidy and tetraploidy and measured photosynthetic traits. Our results revealed that ploidy significantly affected the characteristics of light-response curves, CO2-response curves, and leaf gas exchange parameters, except intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci. Tetraploid species had a lower light saturation point (LSP and CO2 saturation point (CSP, higher light compensation point (LCP, dark respiration (Rd, and CO2 compensation point (CCP than diploid species. Furthermore, tetraploid species have lower photosynthetic capacity than diploid species, including net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductivity (Gs, and transpiration rate (Tr. In addition, haplotype had a significant effect on LSP, CSP, Tr, and Ci as well as a significant interactive effect between ploidy and haplotype on the maximal photosynethic rate of the light-response curve and Rd. Most of the variance existed within haplotypes among individuals. These results suggest that polyploidization was the main driver for the evolution of photosynthesis with increasing ploidy level (i.e. from diploidy to tetraploidy in Fragaria species, while the origin of a chromosome could also affect the photosynthetic traits and the polyploidization effect on photosynthetic traits.

  20. HLA Haplotype Validator for quality assessments of HLA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Mack, Steven J; Udell, Julia; Noonan, David A; Ozanne, Steven; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Prestegaard, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    HLA alleles are observed in specific haplotypes, due to Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) between particular alleles. Haplotype frequencies for alleles in strong LD have been established for specific ethnic groups and racial categories. Application of high-resolution HLA typing using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is becoming a common practice in research and clinical laboratory settings. HLA typing errors using NGS occasionally occur due to allelic sequence imbalance or misalignment. Manual inspection of HLA genotypes is labor intensive and requires an in-depth knowledge of HLA alleles and haplotypes. We developed the "HLA Haplotype Validator (HLAHapV)" software, which inspects an HLA genotype for both the presence of common and well-documented alleles and observed haplotypes. The software also reports warnings when rare alleles, or alleles that do not belong to recognized haplotypes, are found. The software validates observable haplotypes in genotype data, providing increased confidence regarding the accuracy of the HLA typing, and thus reducing the effort involved in correcting potential HLA typing errors. The HLAHapV software is a powerful tool for quality control of HLA genotypes prior to the application of downstream analyses. We demonstrate the use of the HLAHapV software for identifying unusual haplotypes, which can lead to finding potential HLA typing errors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Haplotype-resolved genome sequencing of a Gujarati Indian individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman, Jacob O; Mackenzie, Alexandra P; Adey, Andrew; Hiatt, Joseph B; Patwardhan, Rupali P; Sudmant, Peter H; Ng, Sarah B; Alkan, Can; Qiu, Ruolan; Eichler, Evan E; Shendure, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Haplotype information is essential to the complete description and interpretation of genomes, genetic diversity and genetic ancestry. Although individual human genome sequencing is increasingly routine, nearly all such genomes are unresolved with respect to haplotype. Here we combine the throughput of massively parallel sequencing with the contiguity information provided by large-insert cloning to experimentally determine the haplotype-resolved genome of a South Asian individual. A single fosmid library was split into a modest number of pools, each providing ∼3% physical coverage of the diploid genome. Sequencing of each pool yielded reads overwhelmingly derived from only one homologous chromosome at any given location. These data were combined with whole-genome shotgun sequence to directly phase 94% of ascertained heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into long haplotype blocks (N50 of 386 kilobases (kbp)). This method also facilitates the analysis of structural variation, for example, to anchor novel insertions to specific locations and haplotypes.

  2. Evidence and Consequence of a Highly Adapted Clonal Haplotype within the Australian Ascochyta rabiei Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mehmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. (syn. Phoma rabiei population has low genotypic diversity with only one mating type detected to date, potentially precluding substantial evolution through recombination. However, a large diversity in aggressiveness exists. In an effort to better understand the risk from selective adaptation to currently used resistance sources and chemical control strategies, the population was examined in detail. For this, a total of 598 isolates were quasi-hierarchically sampled between 2013 and 2015 across all major Australian chickpea growing regions and commonly grown host genotypes. Although a large number of haplotypes were identified (66 through short sequence repeat (SSR genotyping, overall low gene diversity (Hexp = 0.066 and genotypic diversity (D = 0.57 was detected. Almost 70% of the isolates assessed were of a single dominant haplotype (ARH01. Disease screening on a differential host set, including three commonly deployed resistance sources, revealed distinct aggressiveness among the isolates, with 17% of all isolates identified as highly aggressive. Almost 75% of these were of the ARH01 haplotype. A similar pattern was observed at the host level, with 46% of all isolates collected from the commonly grown host genotype Genesis090 (classified as “resistant” during the term of collection identified as highly aggressive. Of these, 63% belonged to the ARH01 haplotype. In conclusion, the ARH01 haplotype represents a significant risk to the Australian chickpea industry, being not only widely adapted to the diverse agro-geographical environments of the Australian chickpea growing regions, but also containing a disproportionately large number of aggressive isolates, indicating fitness to survive and replicate on the best resistance sources in the Australian germplasm.

  3. COI haplotype groups in Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and their morphospecies associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Lodema, M; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2014-07-03

    Discocriconemella inarata is transferred to Mesocriconema inaratum based on its phylogenetic position on the COI tree as well as previous phylogenetic analyses using 18S, ITS1, and cytochrome b nucleotide sequences. This study indicates that some of the species considered cosmopolitan in their distribution are actually multispecies polyphyletic groupings and an accurate assessment of Mesocriconema species distributions will benefit from molecular determination of haplotype relationships. The groups revealed by COI analysis should provide a useful framework for the evaluation of additional Mesocriconema species and will improve the reliability of designating taxonomic units in studies of nematode biodiversity. 

  4. General Framework for Meta-Analysis of Haplotype Association Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jing Hua; An, Ping; Guo, Xiuqing; Jensen, Richard A; Marten, Jonathan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Meidtner, Karina; Boeing, Heiner; Campbell, Archie; Rice, Kenneth M; Scott, Robert A; Yao, Jie; Schulze, Matthias B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Province, Michael A; Rotter, Jerome I; Hayward, Caroline; Goodarzi, Mark O; Meigs, James B; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-04-01

    For complex traits, most associated single nucleotide variants (SNV) discovered to date have a small effect, and detection of association is only possible with large sample sizes. Because of patient confidentiality concerns, it is often not possible to pool genetic data from multiple cohorts, and meta-analysis has emerged as the method of choice to combine results from multiple studies. Many meta-analysis methods are available for single SNV analyses. As new approaches allow the capture of low frequency and rare genetic variation, it is of interest to jointly consider multiple variants to improve power. However, for the analysis of haplotypes formed by multiple SNVs, meta-analysis remains a challenge, because different haplotypes may be observed across studies. We propose a two-stage meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype analysis results. In the first stage, each cohort estimate haplotype effect sizes in a regression framework, accounting for relatedness among observations if appropriate. For the second stage, we use a multivariate generalized least square meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype effect estimates from multiple cohorts. Haplotype-specific association tests and a global test of independence between haplotypes and traits are obtained within our framework. We demonstrate through simulation studies that we control the type-I error rate, and our approach is more powerful than inverse variance weighted meta-analysis of single SNV analysis when haplotype effects are present. We replicate a published haplotype association between fasting glucose-associated locus (G6PC2) and fasting glucose in seven studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and we provide more precise haplotype effect estimates. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. KIR and HLA haplotype analysis in a family lacking the KIR 2DL1-2DP1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodić, S; Ademović-Sazdanić, D

    2015-06-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster exhibits extensive allelic and haplotypic diversity that is observed as presence/absence of genes, resulting in expansion and contraction of KIR haplotypes and by allelic variation of individual KIR genes. We report a case of KIR pseudogene 2DP1 and 2DL1 gene absence in members of one family with the children suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor low resolution genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-specific primers (SSP)/sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) method and haplotype assignment was done by gene content analysis. Both parents and the maternal grandfather, shared the same Cen-B2 KIR haplotype, containing KIR 3DL3, -2DS2, -2DL2 and -3DP1 genes. The second haplotype in the KIR genotype of the mother and grandfather was Tel-A1 with KIR 2DL4 (normal and deleted variant), -3DL1, -22 bp deletion variant of the 2DS4 gene and -3DL2, while the second haplotype in the KIR genotype of the father was Tel-B1 with 2DL4 (normal variant), -3DS1, -2DL5, -2DS5, -2DS1 and 3DL2 genes. Haplotype analysis in all three offsprings revealed that the children inherited the Cen-B2 haplotype with the same gene content but two of the children inherited a deleted variant of the 2DL4 gene, while the third child inherited a normal one. The second haplotype of all three offspring contained KIR 2DL4, -2DL5, -2DS1, -2DS4 (del 22bp variant), -2DS5, -3DL1 and -3DL2 genes, which was the basis of the assumption that there is a hybrid haplotype and that the present 3DL1 gene is a variant of the 3DS1 gene. Due to consanguinity among the ancestors, the results of KIR segregation analysis showed the existence of a very rare KIR genotype in the offspring. The family who is the subject of this case is even more interesting because the father was 10/10 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched to his daughter, all members of the family have the "best

  6. KIR and HLA haplotype analysis in a family lacking the KIR 2DL1-2DP1 genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodić, S; Ademović-Sazdanić, D

    2015-01-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster exhibits extensive allelic and haplotypic diversity that is observed as presence/absence of genes, resulting in expansion and contraction of KIR haplotypes and by allelic variation of individual KIR genes. We report a case of KIR pseudogene 2DP1 and 2DL1 gene absence in members of one family with the children suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor low resolution genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-specific primers (SSP)/sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) method and haplotype assignment was done by gene content analysis. Both parents and the maternal grandfather, shared the same Cen-B2 KIR haplotype, containing KIR 3DL3, -2DS2, -2DL2 and -3DP1 genes. The second haplotype in the KIR genotype of the mother and grandfather was Tel-A1 with KIR 2DL4 (normal and deleted variant), -3DL1, -22 bp deletion variant of the 2DS4 gene and -3DL2, while the second haplotype in the KIR genotype of the father was Tel-B1 with 2DL4 (normal variant), -3DS1, -2DL5, -2DS5, -2DS1 and 3DL2 genes. Haplotype analysis in all three offsprings revealed that the children inherited the Cen-B2 haplotype with the same gene content but two of the children inherited a deleted variant of the 2DL4 gene, while the third child inherited a normal one. The second haplotype of all three offspring contained KIR 2DL4, -2DL5, -2DS1, -2DS4 (del 22bp variant), -2DS5, -3DL1 and -3DL2 genes, which was the basis of the assumption that there is a hybrid haplotype and that the present 3DL1 gene is a variant of the 3DS1 gene. Due to consanguinity among the ancestors, the results of KIR segregation analysis showed the existence of a very rare KIR genotype in the offspring. The family who is the subject of this case is even more interesting because the father was 10/10 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched to his daughter, all members of the family have the

  7. HapCol: Accurate and Memory-efficient Haplotype Assembly from Long Reads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Pirola (Yuri); S. Zaccaria (Simone); R. Dondi (Riccardo); G.W. Klau (Gunnar); N. Pisanti (Nadia); P. Bonizzoni (Paola)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractMotivation: Haplotype assembly is the computational problem of reconstructing haplotypes in diploid organisms and is of fundamental importance for characterizing the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the expression of phenotypic traits. Haplotype assembly highly benefits from

  8. HLA-DRB4 gene encoded HLA-DR53 specificity segregating with the HLA-DR7, -DQ9 haplotype: unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, N M; van der Horst, A R; van de Weerd, M J; de Waal, L P; Bontrop, R E

    1998-02-01

    HLA phenotyping of a leukemia patient of Caucasoid origin revealed the presence of the serological HLA-DR53 specificity. Comprehensive pedigree analysis demonstrated that the HLA-DR53 specificity segregated with the HLA-DR7, -DQ3 haplotype. High resolution PCR- SSP genotyping of the HLA class II genes revealed the presence of the HLA-DRB4*0101101 allele segregating together with the HLA-DRB1*0701, -DQA1*0201 and DQB1*03032 alleles. This finding is in contrast to known linkages in that thus far, the HLA-DR7, -DQ9 haplotype has only been described in association with the non-expressed HLA-DRB4*0103102N allele. The existence of this "novel" haplotype may be explained by a homologous recombinational event that occurred between the HLA-DR7, -DR53, -DQ2 and the HLA-DR7, -DQ9 haplotypes.

  9. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Are molecular haplotypes worth the time and expense? A cost-effective method for applying molecular haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Levenstien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Because current molecular haplotyping methods are expensive and not amenable to automation, many researchers rely on statistical methods to infer haplotype pairs from multilocus genotypes, and subsequently treat these inferred haplotype pairs as observations. These procedures are prone to haplotype misclassification. We examine the effect of these misclassification errors on the false-positive rate and power for two association tests. These tests include the standard likelihood ratio test (LRTstd and a likelihood ratio test that employs a double-sampling approach to allow for the misclassification inherent in the haplotype inference procedure (LRTae. We aim to determine the cost-benefit relationship of increasing the proportion of individuals with molecular haplotype measurements in addition to genotypes to raise the power gain of the LRTae over the LRTstd. This analysis should provide a guideline for determining the minimum number of molecular haplotypes required for desired power. Our simulations under the null hypothesis of equal haplotype frequencies in cases and controls indicate that (1 for each statistic, permutation methods maintain the correct type I error; (2 specific multilocus genotypes that are misclassified as the incorrect haplotype pair are consistently misclassified throughout each entire dataset; and (3 our simulations under the alternative hypothesis showed a significant power gain for the LRTae over the LRTstd for a subset of the parameter settings. Permutation methods should be used exclusively to determine significance for each statistic. For fixed cost, the power gain of the LRTae over the LRTstd varied depending on the relative costs of genotyping, molecular haplotyping, and phenotyping. The LRTae showed the greatest benefit over the LRTstd when the cost of phenotyping was very high relative to the cost of genotyping. This situation is likely to occur in a replication study as opposed to a whole-genome association study.

  11. VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limdi, Nita A; Beasley, T Mark; Crowley, Michael R; Goldstein, Joyce A; Rieder, Mark J; Flockhart, David A; Arnett, Donna K; Acton, Ronald T; Liu, Nianjun

    2008-10-01

    Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African-Americans compared with European-Americans. This has lead investigators to hypothesize that assessment of VKORC1 haplotypes may help capture a greater proportion of the variability in dose for this under-represented group. However, the inadequate representation of African-Americans and the assessment of a few VKORC1 polymorphisms have hindered this effort. To determine if VKORC1 haplotypes or haplotype groups explain a higher variability in warfarin dose, we comprehensively assessed VKORC1 polymorphisms in 273 African-Americans and 302 European-Americans. The influence of VKORC1 polymorphisms, race-specific haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose was evaluated in race-stratified multivariable analyses after accounting for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *5, *6 and *11) and clinical covariates. VKORC1 explained 18% (30% with CYP2C9) variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 5% (8% with CYP2C9) among African-Americans. Four common haplotypes in European-Americans and twelve in African-Americans were identified. In each race VKORC1 haplotypes emerged into two groups: low-dose (Group A) and high-dose (Group B). African-Americans had a lower frequency of Group A haplotype (10.6%) compared with European-Americans (35%, p haplotype or haplotype groups was similar to that of a single informative polymorphism. Our findings support the use of CYP2C9, VKORC1 polymorphisms (rs9934438 or rs9923231) and clinical covariates to predict warfarin dose in both African- and European-Americans. A uniform set of common polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1, and limited clinical covariates can be used to improve warfarin dose prediction for a racially diverse population.

  12. Allelic variation of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) gene: detection of polymorphisms, analysis of the promoter region, and extended haplotype estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.H.; Lange, Marianne; Lillevang, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    , consistent with the [T](n) and the [GT](n) regions reported in a Japanese study. Putative haplotypes for the established SNP and repeat polymorphisms have been estimated by computational analysis. Sequencing of similar to3500 by of the upstream region of ICOS revealed an additional eight SNP of which two...

  13. Decoding Genetic Variations: Communications-Inspired Haplotype Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljiz, Zrinka; Vikalo, Haris

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies allow fast and affordable sequencing of individual genomes and thus enable unprecedented studies of genetic variations. Information about variations in the genome of an individual is provided by haplotypes, ordered collections of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Knowledge of haplotypes is instrumental in finding genes associated with diseases, drug development, and evolutionary studies. Haplotype assembly from high-throughput sequencing data is challenging due to errors and limited lengths of sequencing reads. The key observation made in this paper is that the minimum error-correction formulation of the haplotype assembly problem is identical to the task of deciphering a coded message received over a noisy channel-a classical problem in the mature field of communication theory. Exploiting this connection, we develop novel haplotype assembly schemes that rely on the bit-flipping and belief propagation algorithms often used in communication systems. The latter algorithm is then adapted to the haplotype assembly of polyploids. We demonstrate on both simulated and experimental data that the proposed algorithms compare favorably with state-of-the-art haplotype assembly methods in terms of accuracy, while being scalable and computationally efficient.

  14. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean – Adriatic – marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes. PMID:19284692

  15. Simultaneous inference of haplotypes and alleles at a causal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice eLarribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new methodology which jointly infers haplotypes and the causal alleles at a gene influencing a given trait. Often in human genetic studies, the available data consists of genotypes (series of genetic markers along the chromosomes and a phenotype. However, for many genetic analyses, one needs haplotypes instead of genotypes. Our methodology is not only able to estimate haplotypes conditionally on the disease status, but is also able to infer the alleles at the unknown disease locus. Some applications of our methodology are in genetic mapping and in genetic counselling.

  16. Fitchi: haplotype genealogy graphs based on the Fitch algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschiner, Michael

    2016-04-15

    : In population genetics and phylogeography, haplotype genealogy graphs are important tools for the visualization of population structure based on sequence data. In this type of graph, node sizes are often drawn in proportion to haplotype frequencies and edge lengths represent the minimum number of mutations separating adjacent nodes. I here present Fitchi, a new program that produces publication-ready haplotype genealogy graphs based on the Fitch algorithm. http://www.evoinformatics.eu/fitchi.htm : michaelmatschiner@mac.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Class I gene regulation of haplotype preference may influence antiviral immunity in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1989-01-01

    and (C-H-2dm2 X C3) F1 hybrids revealed that the dominance of the H-2d haplotype was controlled by H-2Ld. The ability of this gene to down-regulate the generation of an H-2k-restricted response did not seem to reflect antigenic mimicry since H-2k-restricted LCMV-specific Tc did not lyse H-2d expressing...... targets. In regard to the in vivo significance of haplotype preference it was found that (C X C3) F1 mice expressed an earlier and stronger virus-specific delayed type hypersensitivity response and exerted a more efficient virus control than did (C-H-2dm2 X C3) F1. Taken together these findings suggest...

  18. Probing and characterizing the high specific sequences of ssDNA aptamer against SGIV-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Yu, Qing; Zhou, Lingli; Dong, Dexin; Wei, Shina; Ya, Hanzheng; Chen, Bo; Qin, Qiwei

    2018-02-15

    As the major viral pathogen of grouper aquaculture, Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) has caused great economic losses in China and Southeast Asia. In the previous study, we have generated highly specific ssDNA aptamers against SGIV-infected grouper spleen cells (GS) by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment technology (SELEX), in which Q2 had the highest binding affinity of 16.43 nM. In this study, we would try to identify the specific sequences in the aptamer Q2 that exhibited the high binding affinity to SGIV-infected cells by truncating the original Q2 into some different specific segments. We first evaluated the specificity and binding affinity of these truncated aptamers to SGIV-infected cells by flow cytometry, fluorescent imaging of cells and aptamer-based enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA). We then performed cytotoxicity analysis, assessment of the inhibitory effects upon SGIV infection and the celluar internalization kinetics of each truncated aptamer. Compared to the initial Q2, one of the truncated aptamer Q2-C5 showed a 3-fold increase in the binding affinity for SGIV-infected cells, and held more effective inhibitory effects, higher internalization kinetics and stability. Hence, the aptamer's truncated methods could be applied in the research of identifying aptamer's key sequences. The shorter, structure optimizing aptamer showed more excellent performance over the originally selected aptamer, which could potentially be applied in developing commercial detection probes for the early and rapid diagnosis of SGIV infection, and highly specific therapeutic drugs against SGIV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of 16S rDNA and Metagenomic Sequences Revealed Microbial Community and Host-Specific Sequences of Canadian Geese Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing concern regarding the public health risks associated with waterfowl fecal pollution as a result of the increase in geese populations (Branta canadensis) in or near U.S. and Canadian recreational waters. Currently, there are no methods that can be used to de...

  20. Power laws for heavy-tailed distributions: modeling allele and haplotype diversity for the national marrow donor program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Slater

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Measures of allele and haplotype diversity, which are fundamental properties in population genetics, often follow heavy tailed distributions. These measures are of particular interest in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. Donor/Recipient suitability for HSCT is determined by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA similarity. Match predictions rely upon a precise description of HLA diversity, yet classical estimates are inaccurate given the heavy-tailed nature of the distribution. This directly affects HSCT matching and diversity measures in broader fields such as species richness. We, therefore, have developed a power-law based estimator to measure allele and haplotype diversity that accommodates heavy tails using the concepts of regular variation and occupancy distributions. Application of our estimator to 6.59 million donors in the Be The Match Registry revealed that haplotypes follow a heavy tail distribution across all ethnicities: for example, 44.65% of the European American haplotypes are represented by only 1 individual. Indeed, our discovery rate of all U.S. European American haplotypes is estimated at 23.45% based upon sampling 3.97% of the population, leaving a large number of unobserved haplotypes. Population coverage, however, is much higher at 99.4% given that 90% of European Americans carry one of the 4.5% most frequent haplotypes. Alleles were found to be less diverse suggesting the current registry represents most alleles in the population. Thus, for HSCT registries, haplotype discovery will remain high with continued recruitment to a very deep level of sampling, but population coverage will not. Finally, we compared the convergence of our power-law versus classical diversity estimators such as Capture recapture, Chao, ACE and Jackknife methods. When fit to the haplotype data, our estimator displayed favorable properties in terms of convergence (with respect to sampling depth and accuracy (with respect to diversity

  1. Power laws for heavy-tailed distributions: modeling allele and haplotype diversity for the national marrow donor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Noa; Louzoun, Yoram; Gragert, Loren; Maiers, Martin; Chatterjee, Ansu; Albrecht, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Measures of allele and haplotype diversity, which are fundamental properties in population genetics, often follow heavy tailed distributions. These measures are of particular interest in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Donor/Recipient suitability for HSCT is determined by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) similarity. Match predictions rely upon a precise description of HLA diversity, yet classical estimates are inaccurate given the heavy-tailed nature of the distribution. This directly affects HSCT matching and diversity measures in broader fields such as species richness. We, therefore, have developed a power-law based estimator to measure allele and haplotype diversity that accommodates heavy tails using the concepts of regular variation and occupancy distributions. Application of our estimator to 6.59 million donors in the Be The Match Registry revealed that haplotypes follow a heavy tail distribution across all ethnicities: for example, 44.65% of the European American haplotypes are represented by only 1 individual. Indeed, our discovery rate of all U.S. European American haplotypes is estimated at 23.45% based upon sampling 3.97% of the population, leaving a large number of unobserved haplotypes. Population coverage, however, is much higher at 99.4% given that 90% of European Americans carry one of the 4.5% most frequent haplotypes. Alleles were found to be less diverse suggesting the current registry represents most alleles in the population. Thus, for HSCT registries, haplotype discovery will remain high with continued recruitment to a very deep level of sampling, but population coverage will not. Finally, we compared the convergence of our power-law versus classical diversity estimators such as Capture recapture, Chao, ACE and Jackknife methods. When fit to the haplotype data, our estimator displayed favorable properties in terms of convergence (with respect to sampling depth) and accuracy (with respect to diversity estimates). This

  2. Haplotype hitchhiking promotes trait coselection in Brassica napus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Lunwen; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    .... We performed genome‐wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus...

  3. Bayesian genomic selection: the effect of haplotype lenghts and priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Janss, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Breeding values for animals with marker data are estimated using a genomic selection approach where data is analyzed using Bayesian multi-marker association models. Fourteen model scenarios with varying haplotype lengths, hyper parameter and prior distributions were compared to find the scenario...... well. Correlations were 0.77-0.89 and predicted breeding values were biased. In addition the models seemed to over fit the genomic part of the variation. Highest correlations and most unbiased results were obtained when SNP markers were joined into haplotypes. Especially the scenarios with 5-SNP...... haplotypes gave promising results (distance between adjacent SNPs is 0.1 cM evenly over the genome). All correlations were 0.99 and regression coefficients were 0.99-1.01. Models with 5-SNP markers seemed robust to hyper parameter and prior changes. Haplotypes up to 40 SNPs also gave good results. However...

  4. An artificial neural network for estimating haplotype frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Kevin C; Baechle, Daniel

    2005-12-30

    The problem of estimating haplotype frequencies from population data has been considered by numerous investigators, resulting in a wide variety of possible algorithmic and statistical solutions. We propose a relatively unique approach that employs an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the most likely haplotype frequencies from a sample of population genotype data. Through an innovative ANN design for mapping genotype patterns to diplotypes, we have produced a prototype that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach, with provisional results that correlate well with estimates produced by the expectation maximization algorithm for haplotype frequency estimation. Given the computational demands of estimating haplotype frequencies for 20 or more single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the ANN approach is promising because its design fits well with parallel computing architectures.

  5. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  6. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang

    2015-01-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome...... of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should...... shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb...

  7. An artificial neural network for estimating haplotype frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Baechle Daniel; Cartier Kevin C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The problem of estimating haplotype frequencies from population data has been considered by numerous investigators, resulting in a wide variety of possible algorithmic and statistical solutions. We propose a relatively unique approach that employs an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the most likely haplotype frequencies from a sample of population genotype data. Through an innovative ANN design for mapping genotype patterns to diplotypes, we have produced a prototype that d...

  8. Minimum Conflict Individual Haplotyping from SNP Fragments and Related Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Yun Wu; Rui-Sheng Wang; Xiang-Sun Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The Minimum Error Correction (MEC) is an important model for haplotype reconstruction from SNP fragments. However, this model is effective only when the error rate of SNP fragments is low. In this paper, we propose a new computational model called Minimum Conflict Individual Haplotyping (MCIH) as an extension to MEC. In contrast to the conventional approaches, the new model employs SNP fragment information and also related genotype information, thereby a high accurate inference can be expecte...

  9. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  10. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Yunis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family, Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family, Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families, Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family, Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family, Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family. for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1. Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  11. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  12. Haplotype Reconstruction in Large Pedigrees with Many Untyped Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Jing

    Haplotypes, as they specify the linkage patterns between dispersed genetic variations, provide important information for understanding the genetics of human traits. However haplotypes are not directly available from current genotyping platforms, and hence there are extensive investigations of computational methods to recover such information. Two major computational challenges arising in current family-based disease studies are large family sizes and many ungenotyped family members. Traditional haplotyping methods can neither handle large families nor families with missing members. In this paper, we propose a method which addresses these issues by integrating multiple novel techniques. The method consists of three major components: pairwise identical-bydescent (IBD) inference, global IBD reconstruction and haplotype restoring. By reconstructing the global IBD of a family from pairwise IBD and then restoring the haplotypes based on the inferred IBD, this method can scale to large pedigrees, and more importantly it can handle families with missing members. Compared with existing methods, this method demonstrates much higher power to recover haplotype information, especially in families with many untyped individuals.

  13. Genetic variation and haplotype structures of innate immunity genes in eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagya, Bijan B.; Bhattacharya, Paramita; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Dey, Biplab; Dey, Uposoma; Ghosh, Trina; Maiti, Sujit; Majumder, Partha P.; Mishra, Kankadeb; Mukherjee, Sinchita; Mukherjee, Souvik; Narayanasamy, K.; Poddar, Sonia; Roy, Neeta Sarkar; Sengupta, Priya; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sur, Dipika; Sutradhar, Debabrata; Wagener, Diane K.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports results of an extensive and comprehensive study of genetic diversity in 12 genes of the innate immune system in a population of eastern India. Genomic variation was assayed in 171 individuals by resequencing ~75 kb of DNA comprising these genes in each individual. Almost half of the 548 DNA variants discovered was novel. DNA sequence comparisons with human and chimpanzee reference sequences revealed evolutionary features indicative of natural selection operating among individuals, who are residents of an area with a high load of microbial and other pathogens. Significant differences in allele and haplotype frequencies of the study population were observed with the HapMap populations. Gene and haplotype diversities were observed to be high. The genetic positioning of the study population among the HapMap populations based on data of the innate immunity genes substantially differed from what has been observed for Indian populations based on data of other genes. The reported range of variation in SNP density in the human genome is one SNP per 1.19 kb (chromosome 22) to one SNP per 2.18 kb (chromosome 19). The SNP density in innate immunity genes observed in this study (>3 SNPs kb−1) exceeds the highest density observed for any autosomal chromosome in the human genome. The extensive genomic variation and the distinct haplotype structure of innate immunity genes observed among individuals have possibly resulted from the impact of natural selection. PMID:18396467

  14. Worldwide distribution of the MYH9 kidney disease susceptibility alleles and haplotypes: evidence of historical selection in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available MYH9 was recently identified as renal susceptibility gene (OR 3-8, p or = 60% than in European Americans (< 4%, revealing a genetic basis for a major health disparity. The population distributions of MYH9 risk alleles and the E-1 risk haplotype and the demographic and selective forces acting on the MYH9 region are not well explored. We reconstructed MYH9 haplotypes from 4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning introns 12-23 using available data from HapMap Phase II, and by genotyping 938 DNAs from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP. The E-1 risk haplotype followed a cline, being most frequent within sub-Saharan African populations (range 50-80%, less frequent in populations from the Middle East (9-27% and Europe (0-9%, and rare or absent in Asia, the Americas, and Oceania. The fixation indexes (F(ST for pairwise comparisons between the risk haplotypes for continental populations were calculated for MYH9 haplotypes; F(ST ranged from 0.27-0.40 for Africa compared to other continental populations, possibly due to selection. Uniquely in Africa, the Yoruba population showed high frequency extended haplotype length around the core risk allele (C compared to the alternative allele (T at the same locus (rs4821481, iHs = 2.67, as well as high population differentiation (F(ST(CEU vs. YRI = 0.51 in HapMap Phase II data, also observable only in the Yoruba population from HGDP (F(ST = 0.49, pointing to an instance of recent selection in the genomic region. The population-specific divergence in MYH9 risk allele frequencies among the world's populations may prove important in risk assessment and public health policies to mitigate the burden of kidney disease in vulnerable populations.

  15. BMP4 and FGF3 haplotypes increase the risk of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Inácio; Amaral, Marcus Vinícius; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Lira, Daisy Anne; Quinelato, Valquiria; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Casado, Priscila Ladeira

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether genetic variants can be correlated with tendinopathy in elite male volleyball athletes. Case-control study. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms within BMP4, FGF3, FGF10, FGFR1 genes were investigated in 138 elite volleyball athletes, aged between 18 and 35 years, who undergo 4-5h of training per day: 52 with tendinopathy and 86 with no history of pain suggestive of tendinopathy in patellar, Achilles, shoulder, and hip abductors tendons. The clinical diagnostic criterion was progressive pain during training, confirmed by magnetic resonance image. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples. Genetic markers were genotyped using TaqMan real-time PCR. Chi-square test compared genotypes and haplotype differences between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the significance of covariates and incidence of tendinopathy. Statistical analysis revealed participant age (p=0.005) and years of practice (p=0.004) were risk factors for tendinopathy. A significant association between BMP4 rs2761884 (p=0.03) and tendinopathy was observed. Athletes with a polymorphic genotype have 2.4 times more susceptibility to tendinopathy (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.10-5.19). Also, association between disease and haplotype TTGGA in BMP4 (p=0.01) was observed. The FGF3 TGGTA haplotype showed a tendency of association with tendinopathy (p=0.05), and so did FGF10 rs900379. FGFR1 showed no association with disease. These findings indicate that haplotypes in BMP4 and FGF3 genes may contribute to the tendon disease process in elite volleyball athletes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of ATG16L1 gene haplotype with inflammatory bowel disease in Indians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Pugazhendhi

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is characterized by multigenic inheritance. Defects in autophagy related genes are considered to show genetic heterogeneity between populations. We evaluated the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the autophagy related 16 like 1 (ATG16L1 gene with IBD in Indians. The ATG16L1 gene was genotyped for ten different SNPs using DNA extracted from peripheral blood of 234 patients with Crohn's disease (CD, 249 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and 393 healthy controls The SNPs rs2241880, rs4663396, rs3792106, rs10210302, rs3792109, rs2241877, rs6737398, rs11682898, rs4663402 and rs4663421 were genotyped using the Sequenom MassArray platform. PLINK was used for the association analysis and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD values. Haplotype analysis was done using Haploview. All SNPs were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in cases and controls. The G allele at rs6737398 exhibited a protective association with both CD and UC. The T allele at rs4663402 and C allele at rs4663421 were positively associated with CD and UC. The T allele at rs2241877 exhibited protective association with UC only. The AA genotype at rs4663402 and the GG genotype at rs4663421 were protectively associated with both CD and UC. Haplotype analysis revealed that all the SNPs in tight LD (D' = 0.76-1.0 and organized in a single haplotype block. Haplotype D was positively associated with IBD (P = 5.8 x 10-6 for CD and 0.002 for UC. SNPs in ATG16L1 were associated with IBD in Indian patients. The relevance to management of individual patients requires further study.

  17. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, estradiol, progesterone and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Quataert, Ina; Jansen, Myrthe; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-02-01

    Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week. At both sessions E2 and P4 were assessed in saliva. Tests included implicit and explicit positive and negative affect, attentional blink accuracy, emotional memory, emotion recognition, and risky decision-making (gambling). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes had higher implicit happiness scores than MR-haplotype 2 heterozygotes (p=0.031) and MR-haplotype 1/3 carriers (p<0.001). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes also had longer reaction times to happy faces in an emotion recognition test than MR-haplotype 1/3 (p=0.001). Practice effects were observed for most measures. The pattern of correlations between information processing and P4 or E2 differed between sessions, as well as the moderating effects of the MR genotype. In the first session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of P4 on implicit anxiety (sr=-0.30; p=0.005): higher P4 was associated with reduction in implicit anxiety, but only in MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes (sr=-0.61; p=0.012). In the second session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of E2 on the recognition of facial expressions of happiness (sr=-0.21; p=0.035): only in MR-haplotype 1/3 higher E2 was correlated with happiness recognition (sr=0.29; p=0.005). In the second session higher E2 and P4 were negatively correlated with accuracy in lag2 trials of the attentional blink task (p<0.001). Thus NC women, compared to OC-users, performed worse on lag 2 trials (p=0.041). The higher implicit happiness scores of MR-haplotype

  18. A systematic search for SNPs/haplotypes associated with disease phenotypes using a haplotype-based stepwise procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Li, Shuying Sue; Chien, Jason W; Andriesen, Jessica; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2008-12-22

    Genotyping technologies enable us to genotype multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within selected genes/regions, providing data for haplotype association analysis. While haplotype-based association analysis is powerful for detecting untyped causal alleles in linkage-disequilibrium (LD) with neighboring SNPs/haplotypes, the inclusion of extraneous SNPs could reduce its power by increasing the number of haplotypes with each additional SNP. Here, we propose a haplotype-based stepwise procedure (HBSP) to eliminate extraneous SNPs. To evaluate its properties, we applied HBSP to both simulated and real data, generated from a study of genetic associations of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) gene with pulmonary function in a cohort of patients following bone marrow transplantation. Under the null hypothesis, use of the HBSP gave results that retained the desired false positive error rates when multiple comparisons were considered. Under various alternative hypotheses, HBSP had adequate power to detect modest genetic associations in case-control studies with 500, 1,000 or 2,000 subjects. In the current application, HBSP led to the identification of two specific SNPs with a positive validation. These results demonstrate that HBSP retains the essence of haplotype-based association analysis while improving analytic power by excluding extraneous SNPs. Minimizing the number of SNPs also enables simpler interpretation and more cost-effective applications.

  19. On the relationship between an Asian haplotype on chromosome 6 that reduces androstenone levels in boars and the differential expression of SULT2A1 in the testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Androstenone is one of the major compounds responsible for boar taint, a pronounced urine-like odor produced when cooking boar meat. Several studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for androstenone level on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 6. For one of the candidate genes in the region SULT2A1, a difference in expression levels in the testis has been shown at the protein and RNA level. Results Haplotypes were predicted for the QTL region and their effects were estimated showing that haplotype 1 was consistently related with a lower level, and haplotype 2 with a higher level of androstenone. A recombinant haplotype allowed us to narrow down the QTL region from 3.75 Mbp to 1.94 Mbp. An RNA-seq analysis of the liver and testis revealed six genes that were differentially expressed between homozygotes of haplotypes 1 and 2. Genomic sequences of these differentially expressed genes were checked for variations within potential regulatory regions. We identified one variant located within a CpG island that could affect expression of SULT2A1 gene. An allele-specific expression analysis in the testis did not show differential expression between the alleles of SULT2A1 located on the different haplotypes in heterozygous animals. However a synonymous mutation C166T (SSC6: 49,117,861 bp in Sscrofa 10.2; C/T) was identified within the exon 2 of SULT2A1 for which the haplotype 2 only had the C allele which was higher expressed than the T allele, indicating haplotype-independent allelic-imbalanced expression between the two alleles. A phylogenetic analysis for the 1.94 Mbp region revealed that haplotype 1, associated with low androstenone level, originated from Asia. Conclusions Differential expression could be observed for six genes by RNA-seq analysis. No difference in the ratio of C:T expression of SULT2A1 for the haplotypes was found by the allele-specific expression analysis, however, a difference in expression between the C over T allele was found for a

  20. The DAOA/G30 locus and affective disorders: haplotype based association study in a polydiagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DAOA/G30 (D-amino acid oxidase activator gene complex at chromosomal region 13q32-33 is one of the most intriguing susceptibility loci for the major psychiatric disorders, although there is no consensus about the specific risk alleles or haplotypes across studies. Methods In a case-control sample of German descent (affective psychosis: n = 248; controls: n = 188 we examined seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around DAOA/G30 (rs3916966, rs1935058, rs2391191, rs1935062, rs947267, rs3918342, and rs9558575 for genetic association in a polydiagnostic approach (ICD 10; Leonhard's classification. Results No single marker showed evidence of overall association with affective disorder neither in ICD10 nor Leonhard's classification. Haplotype analysis revealed no association with recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar disorder according to ICD10, within Leonhard's classification manic-depression was associated with a 3-locus haplotype (rs2391191, rs1935062, and rs3916966; P = 0.022 and monopolar depression with a 5-locus combination at the DAOA/G30 core region (P = 0.036. Conclusion Our data revealed potential evidence for partially overlapping risk haplotypes at the DAOA/G30 locus in Leonhard's affective psychoses, but do not support a common genetic contribution of the DAOA/G30 gene complex to the pathogenesis of affective disorders.

  1. Comparison of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen haplotype frequencies in different ethnic groups: Consequences of sampling fluctuation and haplotype frequency distribution tail truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Derek James; Tomich, Alannah; Garnier, Federico; Marry, Evelyne; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution haplotype frequency estimations and descriptive metrics are becoming increasingly popular for accurately describing human leukocyte antigen diversity. In this study, we compared sample sets of publically available haplotype frequencies from different populations to characterize the consequences of unequal sample size on haplotype frequency estimation. We found that for low samples sizes (a few thousand), haplotype frequencies were overestimated, affecting all descriptive metrics of the underlying distribution, such as most frequent haplotype, the number of haplotypes, and the mean/median frequency. This overestimation was a result of random sample fluctuation and truncation of the tail end of the frequency distribution that comprises the least frequent haplotypes. Finally, we simulated balanced datasets through resampling and contrasted the disparities of descriptive metrics among equal and unequal datasets. This simulation resulted in the global description of the most frequent human leukocyte antigen haplotypes worldwide. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Modern breeding of these species is hampered by their complex heterozygous genomic structures that determine species phenotype and are broken by sexual hybridisation. Nevertheless, a large amount of diversity is present in the citrus gene pool, and breeding to allow inclusion of desirable traits is of paramount importance. However, the efficient mobilization of citrus biodiversity in innovative breeding schemes requires previous understanding of Citrus origins and genomic structures. Haplotyping of multiple gene fragments along the whole genome is a powerful approach to reveal the admixture genomic structure of current species and to resolve the evolutionary history of the gene pools. In this study, the efficiency of parallel sequencing with 454 methodology to decipher the hybrid structure of modern citrus species was assessed by analysis of 16 gene fragments on chromosome 2. 454 amplicon libraries were established using the Fluidigm array system for 48 genotypes and 16 gene fragments from chromosome 2. Haplotypes were established from the reads of each accession and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the haplotypic data for each gene fragment. The length of 454 reads and the level of differentiation between the ancestral taxa of modern citrus allowed efficient haplotype phylogenetic assignations for 12 of the 16 gene fragments. The analysis of the mixed genomic structure of modern species and cultivars (i) revealed C. maxima introgressions in modern mandarins, (ii) was

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor haplotype and metabolic syndrome: the Lifelines cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Koper, Jan W; van den Akker, Erica L T; Franco, Oscar H; Stolk, Ronald P; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2016-12-01

    An excess of glucocorticoids (Cushing's syndrome) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene influence sensitivity to glucocorticoids and have been associated with aspects of MetS. However, results are inconsistent, perhaps due to the heterogeneity of the studied populations and limited samples. Furthermore, the possible association between functional GR SNPs and prevalence of MetS remains unexplored. Cross-sectional population-based cohort study. MetS presence and carriage of functional GR SNPs (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK, GR-9beta) were determined in 12 552 adult participants from Lifelines, a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. GR SNPs were used to construct GR haplotypes. Five haplotypes accounted for 99.9% of all GR haplotypes found. No main effects of functional GR haplotypes on MetS were found, but the association of GR haplotype 4 (containing N363S) with MetS was influenced by interaction with age, sex and education status (P haplotype 4 increased MetS presence in younger men (at or below the median age of 47; odds ratio 1.77, P = 0.005) and in people of low education status (odds ratio 1.48, P = 0.039). A glucocorticoid receptor haplotype that confers increased sensitivity to glucocorticoids appears to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but only among younger men and less educated individuals, suggesting gene-environment interactions. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Different DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 haplotypes confer different risk for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshiekh, S; Zhao, L P; Lernmark, Å; Geraghty, D E; Naluai, Å T; Agardh, D

    2017-08-01

    Celiac disease is associated with the HLA-DR3-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 and DR4-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 haplotypes. In addition, there are currently over 40 non-HLA loci associated with celiac disease. This study extends previous analyses on different HLA haplotypes in celiac disease using next generation targeted sequencing. Included were 143 patients with celiac disease and 135 non-celiac disease controls investigated at median 9.8 years (1.4-18.3 years). PCR-based amplification of HLA and sequencing with Illumina MiSeq technology were used for extended sequencing of the HLA class II haplotypes HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1 and DQB1, respectively. Odds ratios were computed marginally for every allele and haplotype as the ratio of allelic frequency in patients and controls as ratio of exposure rates (RR), when comparing a null reference with equal exposure rates in cases and controls. Among the extended HLA haplotypes, the strongest risk haplotype for celiac disease was shown for DRB3*01:01:02 in linkage with DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (RR = 6.34; P-value celiac disease among non-Scandinavians (RR = 7.94; P = .011). The data also revealed 2 distinct celiac disease risk DR3-DQA1*05:01-DQB*02:01 haplotypes distinguished by either the DRB3*01:01:02 or DRB3*02:02:01 alleles, indicating that different DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 haplotypes confer different risk for celiac disease. The associated risk of celiac disease for DR3-DRB3*01:01:02-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 is predominant among patients of Scandinavian ethnicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mitochondrial haplotype analysis for differentiation of isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F N; Coffey, M D

    2012-02-01

    Although Phytophthora cinnamomi is heterothallic, there are few instances of successful crossing in laboratory experiments, and analysis of field populations indicates a clonally reproducing population. In the absence of sexual recombination, the ability to monitor mitochondrial haplotypes may provide an additional tool for identification of clonal isolates and analysis of population structure. To determine mitochondrial haplotypes for this species, seven mitochondrial loci spanning a total of 6,961 bp were sequenced for 62 isolates representing a geographically diverse collection of isolates with A1 and A2 mating type. Three of the regions were primarily intergenic regions between trnG and rns, rns and nad3, and nad6 and cox1, while the remaining loci spanned cox2, nad9, rps10, and secY coding regions and some of the flanking spacer regions. In total, 45 mitochondrial haplotypes were identified (75% of the total isolates examined) with differences due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, totaling 152 bp) and length mutations (17 indels >2 bp representing a total of 910 bp in length). SNPs were the predominate mutation in the four coding regions and their flanking intergenic regions, while both SNPs and length mutations were observed in the three primarily intergenic regions. Some of the length mutations in these regions were due to addition or loss of unique sequences while others were due to variable numbers of subrepeats (in the trnG-rns region, there were 3 to 12 copies of a 24-bp subrepeat sequence that differentiated 17 haplotypes). Network analysis of the haplotypes identified eight primary clades, with the most divergent clade representing primarily A1 isolates collected from Papua New Guinea. The isolate grouping in the network corresponded to mating type and previously published isozyme classifications, with three exceptions: a haplotype representing an A1 mating type (H29) was placed well within the A2 mating type haplotype grouping, one haplotype

  6. Molecular characterization of a long range haplotype affecting protein yield and mastitis susceptibility in Norwegian Red cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Ben J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous fine mapping studies in Norwegian Red cattle (NRC in the region 86-90.4 Mb on Bos taurus chromosome 6 (BTA6 has revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL for protein yield (PY around 88 Mb and a QTL for clinical mastitis (CM around 90 Mb. The close proximity of these QTLs may partly explain the unfavorable genetic correlation between these two traits in NRC. A long range haplotype covering this region was introduced into the NRC population through the importation of a Holstein-Friesian bull (1606 Frasse from Sweden in the 1970s. It has been suggested that this haplotype has a favorable effect on milk protein content but an unfavorable effect on mastitis susceptibility. Selective breeding for milk production traits is likely to have increased the frequency of this haplotype in the NRC population. Results Association mapping for PY and CM in NRC was performed using genotypes from 556 SNPs throughout the region 86-97 Mb on BTA6 and daughter-yield-deviations (DYDs from 2601 bulls made available from the Norwegian dairy herd recording system. Highest test scores for PY were found for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within and surrounding the genes CSN2 and CSN1S2, coding for the β-casein and αS2-casein proteins. High coverage re-sequencing by high throughput sequencing technology enabled molecular characterization of a long range haplotype from 1606 Frasse encompassing these two genes. Haplotype analysis of a large number of descendants from this bull indicated that the haplotype was not markedly disrupted by recombination in this region. The haplotype was associated with both increased milk protein content and increased susceptibility to mastitis, which might explain parts of the observed genetic correlation between PY and CM in NRC. Plausible causal polymorphisms affecting PY were detected in the promoter region and in the 5'-flanking UTR of CSN1S2. These polymorphisms could affect transcription or translation of

  7. Molecular characterization of a long range haplotype affecting protein yield and mastitis susceptibility in Norwegian Red cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeland, Marte; Grove, Harald; Kent, Matthew; Taylor, Simon; Svendsen, Morten; Hayes, Ben J; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2011-08-11

    Previous fine mapping studies in Norwegian Red cattle (NRC) in the region 86-90.4 Mb on Bos taurus chromosome 6 (BTA6) has revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for protein yield (PY) around 88 Mb and a QTL for clinical mastitis (CM) around 90 Mb. The close proximity of these QTLs may partly explain the unfavorable genetic correlation between these two traits in NRC. A long range haplotype covering this region was introduced into the NRC population through the importation of a Holstein-Friesian bull (1606 Frasse) from Sweden in the 1970s. It has been suggested that this haplotype has a favorable effect on milk protein content but an unfavorable effect on mastitis susceptibility. Selective breeding for milk production traits is likely to have increased the frequency of this haplotype in the NRC population. Association mapping for PY and CM in NRC was performed using genotypes from 556 SNPs throughout the region 86-97 Mb on BTA6 and daughter-yield-deviations (DYDs) from 2601 bulls made available from the Norwegian dairy herd recording system. Highest test scores for PY were found for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and surrounding the genes CSN2 and CSN1S2, coding for the β-casein and α(S2)-casein proteins. High coverage re-sequencing by high throughput sequencing technology enabled molecular characterization of a long range haplotype from 1606 Frasse encompassing these two genes. Haplotype analysis of a large number of descendants from this bull indicated that the haplotype was not markedly disrupted by recombination in this region. The haplotype was associated with both increased milk protein content and increased susceptibility to mastitis, which might explain parts of the observed genetic correlation between PY and CM in NRC. Plausible causal polymorphisms affecting PY were detected in the promoter region and in the 5'-flanking UTR of CSN1S2. These polymorphisms could affect transcription or translation of CSN1S2 and thereby affect the amount

  8. HLA Haplotypes and Genotypes Frequencies in Brazilian Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Ângela Sippert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens (HLA have a pivotal role in immune response and may be involved in antigen recognition of periodontal pathogens. However, the associations of HLA with chronic periodontitis (CP have not been previously studied in the Brazilian population. In an attempt to clarify the issue of genetic predisposition to CP, we examined the distribution of HLA alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in patients from Southern Brazil. One hundred and eight CP patients and 151 healthy and unrelated controls with age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched were HLA investigated by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific oligonucleotides. To exclude smoking as a predisposing factor, statistical analyses were performed in the total sample and in nonsmoking individuals. The significant results showed a positive association of the A∗02/HLA-B∗40 haplotype with CP (total samples: 4.2% versus 0%, Pc = 0.03; nonsmokers: 4.3% versus 0%, Pc = 0.23 and a lower frequency of HLA-B∗15/HLA-DRB1∗11 haplotype in CP compared to controls (total samples: 0.0% versus 4.3%, Pc = 0.04; nonsmokers: 0 versus 5.1%, Pc = 1.0. In conclusion, the HLA-A∗02/B∗40 haplotype may contribute to the development of CP, while HLA-B∗15/DRB1∗11 haplotype might indicate resistance to disease among Brazilians.

  9. Haplotype richness in refugial areas: phylogeographical structure of Saxifraga callosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, F; Minuto, L; Casazza, G; Labra, M; Sala, F

    2009-07-01

    This paper illustrates the phylogeographical structure of Saxifraga callosa in order to describe its genetic richness in refugial areas and to reconstruct its glacial history. S. callosa is a species spread throughout south-east France and Italy with a high distribution in the Maritime Alps. Four chloroplast microsatellite and AFLP markers were analyzed in populations of S. callosa. The size variants of all tested loci amount to 11 different haplotypes. Intrapopulational haplotype variation was found in two of the populations analyzed: on the Mt. Toraggio in the Maritime Alps, and in the Apuan Alps. On the other hand, no intrapopulational variation was found in 25 populations, most of which were sampled from isolated areas. Analysis of the haplotype distribution showed that population subdivision across all populations was high (G (ST) = 0.899). Moreover, its genetic structure was studied using AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis. The study legitimated inferred conclusions about the phylogeographical structure of the species and identified centers of diversity. Considerations concerning genetic structure and divergence among three major clades (Maritime Alps, Apuan Alps and Apennines), the patchy distribution of haplotypes, and the high number of private haplotypes support the proposal that S. callosa survived in some refugia within the Italian Peninsula refugium, and that mainly northern populations of refugia were involved in postglacial recolonization.

  10. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, oral contraceptives and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, D A; de Kloet, E R; van Hemert, A M; de Rijk, R H; Van der Does, A J W

    2015-02-12

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) affect mood in some women and may have more subtle effects on emotional information processing in many more users. Female carriers of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) haplotype 2 have been shown to be more optimistic and less vulnerable to depression. To investigate the effects of oral contraceptives on emotional information processing and a possible moderating effect of MR haplotype. Cross-sectional study in 85 healthy premenopausal women of West-European descent. We found significant main effects of oral contraceptives on facial expression recognition, emotional memory and decision-making. Furthermore, carriers of MR haplotype 1 or 3 were sensitive to the impact of OCs on the recognition of sad and fearful faces and on emotional memory, whereas MR haplotype 2 carriers were not. Different compounds of OCs were included. No hormonal measures were taken. Most naturally cycling participants were assessed in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. Carriers of MR haplotype 2 may be less sensitive to depressogenic side-effects of OCs. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vivo Characterization of Human APOA5 Haplotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chapman-Helleboid, Audrey; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-10-01

    Increased plasma triglycerides concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies support a reproducible genetic association between two minor haplotypes in the human apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) and increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. We thus sought to investigate the effect of these minor haplotypes (APOA5*2 and APOA5*3) on ApoAV plasma levels through the precise insertion of single-copy intact APOA5 haplotypes at a targeted location in the mouse genome. While we found no difference in the amount of human plasma ApoAV in mice containing the common APOA5*1 and minor APOA5*2 haplotype, the introduction of the single APOA5*3 defining allele (19W) resulted in 3-fold lower ApoAV plasma levels consistent with existing genetic association studies. These results indicate that S19W polymorphism is likely to be functional and explain the strong association of this variant with plasma triglycerides supporting the value of sensitive in vivo assays to define the functional nature of human haplotypes.

  12. HLA Haplotypes and Genotypes Frequencies in Brazilian Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; Silva, Cléverson de Oliveira e; Ayo, Christiane Maria; Marques, Silvia Barbosa Dutra; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have a pivotal role in immune response and may be involved in antigen recognition of periodontal pathogens. However, the associations of HLA with chronic periodontitis (CP) have not been previously studied in the Brazilian population. In an attempt to clarify the issue of genetic predisposition to CP, we examined the distribution of HLA alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in patients from Southern Brazil. One hundred and eight CP patients and 151 healthy and unrelated controls with age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched were HLA investigated by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific oligonucleotides. To exclude smoking as a predisposing factor, statistical analyses were performed in the total sample and in nonsmoking individuals. The significant results showed a positive association of the A∗02/HLA-B∗40 haplotype with CP (total samples: 4.2% versus 0%, P c = 0.03; nonsmokers: 4.3% versus 0%, P c = 0.23) and a lower frequency of HLA-B∗15/HLA-DRB1∗11 haplotype in CP compared to controls (total samples: 0.0% versus 4.3%, P c = 0.04; nonsmokers: 0 versus 5.1%, P c = 1.0). In conclusion, the HLA-A∗02/B∗40 haplotype may contribute to the development of CP, while HLA-B∗15/DRB1∗11 haplotype might indicate resistance to disease among Brazilians. PMID:26339134

  13. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  14. The frequent and conserved DR3-B8-A1 extended haplotype confers less diabetes risk than other DR3 haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschal, E E; Aly, T A; Jasinski, J M; Steck, A K; Johnson, K N; Noble, J A; Erlich, H A; Eisenbarth, G S

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and implement methodology that would aid in the analysis of extended high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes combined with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in relation to type 1 diabetes risk. High-density SNP genotype data (2918 SNPs) across the MHC from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (1240 families), in addition to HLA data, were processed into haplotypes using PedCheck and Merlin, and extended DR3 haplotypes were analysed. With this large dense set of SNPs, the conservation of DR3-B8-A1 (8.1) haplotypes spanned the MHC (>/=99% SNP identity). Forty-seven individuals homozygous for the 8.1 haplotype also shared the same homozygous genotype at four 'sentinel' SNPs (rs2157678 'T', rs3130380 'A', rs3094628 'C' and rs3130352 'T'). Conservation extended from HLA-DQB1 to the telomeric end of the SNP panels (3.4 Mb total). In addition, we found that the 8.1 haplotype is associated with lower risk than other DR3 haplotypes by both haplotypic and genotypic analyses [haplotype: p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) = 0.65; genotype: p = 6.3 x 10(-5), OR = 0.27]. The 8.1 haplotype (from genotypic analyses) is associated with lower risk than the high-risk DR3-B18-A30 haplotype (p = 0.01, OR = 0.23), but the DR3-B18-A30 haplotype did not differ from other non-8.1 DR3 haplotypes relative to diabetes association. The 8.1 haplotype demonstrates extreme conservation (>3.4 Mb) and is associated with significantly lower risk for type 1 diabetes than other DR3 haplotypes.

  15. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchard, Neil; Elzein, Abier; Trafford, Clare; Rockett, Kirk; Pinder, Margaret; Jallow, Muminatou; Harding, Rosalind; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; McKenzie, Colin

    2007-08-10

    The sickle (betas) mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB) occurs on five "classical" betas haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the betas allele - a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes - has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical betas haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical betas haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI). The most common betas sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P haplotypes were highly conserved, with very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) extending a megabase across the betas mutation. Two different classical betas haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of betas haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from beta-globin.

  16. Trichinella nativa haplotypes in Russia show diversity in cytochrome oxidase mtDNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaya, Irina M; Spiridonov, Sergei E

    2016-11-15

    Partial nucleotide sequences of the two mitochondrial genes (cytB and COI) were obtained for 13 Trichinella isolates from different regions of the Russian Federation. All the cytB mtDNA sequences were identical with the sequences of T. nativa from Canada, showing no nucleotide differences between isolates. Analysis of partial COI mtDNA sequence confirmed the species identification and revealed differences between the studied isolates. Two T. nativa haplotypes, represented in the studied material by four samples, demonstrate limited geographical distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Grouping preprocess for haplotype inference from SNP and CNV data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Hiroyuki; Chigira, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Tomoyo; Inoue, Masato [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kamatani, Naoyuki, E-mail: masato.inoue@eb.waseda.ac.j [Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 10-22, Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0054 (Japan)

    2009-12-01

    The method of statistical haplotype inference is an indispensable technique in the field of medical science. The authors previously reported Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium-based haplotype inference that could manage single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We recently extended the method to cover copy number variation (CNV) data. Haplotype inference from mixed data is important because SNPs and CNVs are occasionally in linkage disequilibrium. The idea underlying the proposed method is simple, but the algorithm for it needs to be quite elaborate to reduce the calculation cost. Consequently, we have focused on the details on the algorithm in this study. Although the main advantage of the method is accuracy, in that it does not use any approximation, its main disadvantage is still the calculation cost, which is sometimes intractable for large data sets with missing values.

  18. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunxian; Gmitter, Fred G

    2013-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for comparison. There were a total of 567,297 ESTs belonging to 27 cultivars in varying numbers and consequentially yielding different numbers of haplotype-based quality SNPs. Sweet orange (SO) had the most (213,830) ESTs, generating 11,182 quality SNPs in 3,327 out of 4,228 usable contigs. Summed from all the individually mining results, a total of 25,417 quality SNPs were discovered - 15,010 (59.1%) were transitions (AG and CT), 9,114 (35.9%) were transversions (AC, GT, CG, and AT), and 1,293 (5.0%) were insertion/deletions (indels). A vast majority of SNP-containing contigs consisted of only 2 haplotypes, as expected, but the percentages of 2 haplotype contigs varied widely in these citrus cultivars. BLAST of the 25,417 25-mer SNP oligos to the Clementine reference genome scaffolds revealed 2,947 SNPs had "no hits found", 19,943 had 1 unique hit / alignment, 1,571 had one hit and 2+ alignments per hit, and 956 had 2+ hits and 1+ alignment per hit. Of the total 24,293 scaffold hits, 23,955 (98.6%) were on the main scaffolds 1 to 9, and only 338 were on 87 minor scaffolds. Most alignments had 100% (25/25) or 96% (24/25) nucleotide identities, accounting for 93% of all the alignments. Considering almost all the nucleotide discrepancies in the 24/25 alignments were at the SNP sites, it served well as in silico validation of these SNPs, in addition to and consistent with the rate (81%) validated by sequencing and SNaPshot assay. High-quality EST-SNPs from different citrus genotypes were detected, and

  19. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. Results In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for comparison. There were a total of 567,297 ESTs belonging to 27 cultivars in varying numbers and consequentially yielding different numbers of haplotype-based quality SNPs. Sweet orange (SO) had the most (213,830) ESTs, generating 11,182 quality SNPs in 3,327 out of 4,228 usable contigs. Summed from all the individually mining results, a total of 25,417 quality SNPs were discovered – 15,010 (59.1%) were transitions (AG and CT), 9,114 (35.9%) were transversions (AC, GT, CG, and AT), and 1,293 (5.0%) were insertion/deletions (indels). A vast majority of SNP-containing contigs consisted of only 2 haplotypes, as expected, but the percentages of 2 haplotype contigs varied widely in these citrus cultivars. BLAST of the 25,417 25-mer SNP oligos to the Clementine reference genome scaffolds revealed 2,947 SNPs had “no hits found”, 19,943 had 1 unique hit / alignment, 1,571 had one hit and 2+ alignments per hit, and 956 had 2+ hits and 1+ alignment per hit. Of the total 24,293 scaffold hits, 23,955 (98.6%) were on the main scaffolds 1 to 9, and only 338 were on 87 minor scaffolds. Most alignments had 100% (25/25) or 96% (24/25) nucleotide identities, accounting for 93% of all the alignments. Considering almost all the nucleotide discrepancies in the 24/25 alignments were at the SNP sites, it served well as in silico validation of these SNPs, in addition to and consistent with the rate (81%) validated by sequencing and SNaPshot assay. Conclusions High-quality EST-SNPs from different

  20. Haplotype analysis of TLR4 gene and its effects on milk somatic cell score in Chinese commercial cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing Ping; Luoreng, Zhuo Ma; Gao, Shu Xin; Guo, Dong Sheng; Li, Jun Ya; Gao, Xue; Xu, Shang Zhong; Li, Feng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin Ren

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a very complex and common disease of dairy cattle and a major source of economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the bovine TLR4 was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. This study aimed to analyze the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype and somatic cell score (SCS) in 404 Chinese commercial dairy cattle including Chinese Holstein, Sanhe cattle and Chinese Simmental breeds. The polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods were used for detecting genotype and allele frequency distribution of the two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064), statistical results showed that T allele at rs8193062 and C allele at rs8193064 were the predominate alleles. Moreover, six SNPs, including two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064) and four SNPs (rs8193060, rs8193069, rs29017188, rs8193046) which were chosen according the polymorphism level for the same cattle populations in previous studies, were used for haplotype analysis, the results revealed that twenty-one haplotypes were found in the mentioned animals, of which, Hap1 (30.5 %) and Hap2 (30.4 %) were the most common haplotypes. Hap2, Hap4 and Hap12 might negatively effect on milk SCS, whereas Hap13 might positively effect on milk SCS. The results in this study might assist in marker assisted selection and provided some reference to be implemented in breeding programs to improve the mastitis resistance of dairy cattle.

  1. Prion gene haplotypes of U.S. cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harhay Gregory P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. Characterizing linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype networks within the bovine prion gene (PRNP is important for 1 testing rare or common PRNP variation for an association with BSE and 2 interpreting any association of PRNP alleles with BSE susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms and haplotypes within PRNP from the promoter region through the 3'UTR in a diverse sample of U.S. cattle genomes. Results A 25.2-kb genomic region containing PRNP was sequenced from 192 diverse U.S. beef and dairy cattle. Sequence analyses identified 388 total polymorphisms, of which 287 have not previously been reported. The polymorphism alleles define PRNP by regions of high and low LD. High LD is present between alleles in the promoter region through exon 2 (6.7 kb. PRNP alleles within the majority of intron 2, the entire coding sequence and the untranslated region of exon 3 are in low LD (18.0 kb. Two haplotype networks, one representing the region of high LD and the other the region of low LD yielded nineteen different combinations that represent haplotypes spanning PRNP. The haplotype combinations are tagged by 19 polymorphisms (htSNPS which characterize variation within and across PRNP. Conclusion The number of polymorphisms in the prion gene region of U.S. cattle is nearly four times greater than previously described. These polymorphisms define PRNP haplotypes that may influence BSE susceptibility in cattle.

  2. HLA-G Haplotypes Are Differentially Associated with Asthmatic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ribeyre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G, a HLA class Ib molecule, interacts with receptors on lymphocytes such as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells to influence immune responses. Unlike classical HLA molecules, HLA-G expression is not found on all somatic cells, but restricted to tissue sites, including human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC. Individual variation in HLA-G expression is linked to its genetic polymorphism and has been associated with many pathological situations such as asthma, which is characterized by epithelium abnormalities and inflammatory cell activation. Studies reported both higher and equivalent soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G expression in different cohorts of asthmatic patients. In particular, we recently described impaired local expression of HLA-G and abnormal profiles for alternatively spliced isoforms in HBEC from asthmatic patients. sHLA-G dosage is challenging because of its many levels of polymorphism (dimerization, association with β2-microglobulin, and alternative splicing, thus many clinical studies focused on HLA-G single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictive biomarkers, but few analyzed HLA-G haplotypes. Here, we aimed to characterize HLA-G haplotypes and describe their association with asthmatic clinical features and sHLA-G peripheral expression and to describe variations in transcription factor (TF binding sites and alternative splicing sites. HLA-G haplotypes were differentially distributed in 330 healthy and 580 asthmatic individuals. Furthermore, HLA-G haplotypes were associated with asthmatic clinical features showed. However, we did not confirm an association between sHLA-G and genetic, biological, or clinical parameters. HLA-G haplotypes were phylogenetically split into distinct groups, with each group displaying particular variations in TF binding or RNA splicing sites that could reflect differential HLA-G qualitative or quantitative expression, with tissue-dependent specificities. Our results, based on a

  3. HapFlow: visualizing haplotypes in sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mitchell J; Bachmann, Nathan L; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-02-01

    HapFlow is a python application for visualizing haplotypes present in sequencing data. It identifies variant profiles present and reads and creates an abstract visual representation of these profiles to make haplotypes easier to identify. HapFlow is freely available (under a GPL license) for download (for Mac OS X, Unix and Microsoft Windows) from github (http://mjsull.github.io/HapFlow). apolking@usc.edu.au. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. RET variants and haplotype analysis in a cohort of Czech patients with Hirschsprung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Vaclavikova

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is a congenital aganglionosis of myenteric and submucosal plexuses in variable length of the intestine. This study investigated the influence and a possible modifying function of RET proto-oncogene's single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in the development and phenotype of the disease in Czech patients. Genotyping of 14 SNPs was performed using TaqMan Genotyping Assays and direct sequencing. The frequencies of SNPs and generated haplotypes were statistically evaluated using chi-square test and the association with the risk of HSCR was estimated by odds ratio. SNP analysis revealed significant differences in frequencies of 11 polymorphic RET variants between 162 HSCR patients and 205 unaffected controls. Particularly variant alleles of rs1864410, rs2435357, rs2506004 (intron 1, rs1800858 (exon 2, rs1800861 (exon 13, and rs2565200 (intron 19 were strongly associated with increased risk of HSCR (p<0.00000 and were over-represented in males vs. females. Conversely, variant alleles of rs1800860, rs1799939 and rs1800863 (exons 7, 11, 15 had a protective role. The haploblock comprising variants in intron 1 and exon 2 was constructed. It represented a high risk of HSCR, however, the influence of other variants was also found after pruning from effect of this haploblock. Clustering patients according to genotype status in haploblock revealed a strong co-segregation with several SNPs and pointed out the differences between long and short form of HSCR. This study involved a large number of SNPs along the entire RET proto-oncogene with demonstration of their risk/protective role also in haplotype and diplotype analysis in the Czech population. The influence of some variant alleles on the aggressiveness of the disease and their role in gender manifestation differences was found. These data contribute to worldwide knowledge of the genetics of HSCR.

  5. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallow Muminatou

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sickle (βs mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB occurs on five "classical" βs haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the βs allele – a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes – has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical βs haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical βs haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI. Results The most common βs sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P s mutation. Conclusion Two different classical βs haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of βs haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from β-globin.

  6. Distinct haplotypes of dhfr and dhps among Plasmodium falciparum isolates in an area of high level of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saai, Salma; Kheir, Amani; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Al-Ghazali, Aisha; Nwakanma, Davis; Swedberg, Göte; Babiker, Hamza A

    2009-09-01

    Typing of polymorphic microsatellites that are linked to drug resistance genes has shed light on the origin and pattern of spread of some anti-malarial drugs. Recent surveys revealed spread of a high-level pyrimethemine resistant lineage of Plasmodium falciparum, of Asian origin, across Africa. Here, we examined mutations in dihydrofolate reductase, dhfr [chromsosome 4], the dihydropteroate synthase, dhps [chromosome 8] associated with resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and neighboring microsatellites among P. falciparum isolates in Asar village, eastern Sudan. This area lies at the fringes of malaria endemicity, where the remote P. falciparum parasites have some distinct genetic characteristics. Overall, 89% (84/94) of the examined isolates carried double mutations at dhfr (N51I and S108N), but the 59R and I164L mutations were not seen. Similarly, the majority, 43% (35/81) of the isolates carried double mutations at dhps (437G, 540E). Analysis of neighboring microsatellites revealed one major dhfr haplotype with mutations (51I, 108N) and one dhps haplotype with mutations (436S, 437G, 540E). These haplotypes differ from the major ones thought to drive resistance to SP across Africa. The resistant haplotypes of dhfr and dhps, in Asar, share some microsatellites with the wild genotypes suggesting that they were generated locally. Among isolates successfully examined, 40% shared identical haplotypes of the 2 loci, comprising a dominant resistant lineage. Undoubtedly, this lineage plays an important role in clinical failure to SP in this area.

  7. Incorporating single-locus tests into haplotype cladistic analysis in case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In case-control studies, genetic associations for complex diseases may be probed either with single-locus tests or with haplotype-based tests. Although there are different views on the relative merits and preferences of the two test strategies, haplotype-based analyses are generally believed to be more powerful to detect genes with modest effects. However, a main drawback of haplotype-based association tests is the large number of distinct haplotypes, which increases the degrees of freedom for corresponding test statistics and thus reduces the statistical power. To decrease the degrees of freedom and enhance the efficiency and power of haplotype analysis, we propose an improved haplotype clustering method that is based on the haplotype cladistic analysis developed by Durrant et al. In our method, we attempt to combine the strengths of single-locus analysis and haplotype-based analysis into one single test framework. Novel in our method is that we develop a more informative haplotype similarity measurement by using p-values obtained from single-locus association tests to construct a measure of weight, which to some extent incorporates the information of disease outcomes. The weights are then used in computation of similarity measures to construct distance metrics between haplotype pairs in haplotype cladistic analysis. To assess our proposed new method, we performed simulation analyses to compare the relative performances of (1 conventional haplotype-based analysis using original haplotype, (2 single-locus allele-based analysis, (3 original haplotype cladistic analysis (CLADHC by Durrant et al., and (4 our weighted haplotype cladistic analysis method, under different scenarios. Our weighted cladistic analysis method shows an increased statistical power and robustness, compared with the methods of haplotype cladistic analysis, single-locus test, and the traditional haplotype-based analyses. The real data analyses also show that our proposed method

  8. HLA class II haplotypes in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Lizette M; Baltazar, Luz M; Lopez-Cardona, Maria G; Olivares, Norma; Ramos, Cesar; Salazar, Mario; Sandoval, Lucila; Lorenz, Matthias G O; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Paterson, Andrew D; Rivas, Fernando

    2004-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which polymorphisms within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been associated to its etiology. For this study, HLA-DQB1, DQA1, and DRB1 genes were typed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer in 237 individuals, taken from 74 families, who had a member with SLE, and who had their residence in the western region of Mexico; as well as in 159 ethnically matched healthy volunteers taken from 32 families. Genotype and allele frequency analysis was performed in 74 SLE patients and 54 unrelated controls. Precise three-loci identification of independent haplotypes was performed in 48 patients and 54 controls by familial segregation. Genotype distribution at each loci was concordant with Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium in the control group. In general, no genotype effect was observed in SLE patients. Allele distribution comparison showed in the SLE group a significant increase of HLA-DQA1*0102, DQB1*0402, and DRB1*15; whereas alleles HLA-DQB1*0303 and *0501 were significantly decreased. SLE patients showed haplotype DQB1*0602-DQA1-*0102-DRB1*15 increased. As expected, patients with SLE have a reduced haplotype genetic diversity. The associations found in this study are related to an ancestral haplotype that has been observed in SLE populations of different origins.

  9. Intragenic haplotype analysis of common HFE mutations in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 2. Intragenic haplotype analysis of common HFE mutations in the Portuguese population. Sandra Toste Luís Relvas Catarina Pinto Celeste Bento Augusto Abade M. Letícia Ribeiro Licínio Manco.

  10. Direct chromosome-length haplotyping by single-cell sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porubský, David; Sanders, Ashley D; van Wietmarschen, Niek; Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Spierings, Diana C J; Bevova, Marianna R; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter Michael

    2016-01-01

    Haplotypes are fundamental to fully characterize the diploid genome of an individual, yet methods to directly chart the unique genetic makeup of each parental chromosome are lacking. Here we introduce single-cell DNA template strand sequencing (Strand-seq) as a novel approach to phasing diploid

  11. Dense and accurate whole-chromosome haplotyping of individual genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porubsky, David; Garg, Shilpa; Sanders, Ashley D.; Korbel, Jan O.; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Marschall, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The diploid nature of the human genome is neglected in many analyses done today, where a genome is perceived as a set of unphased variants with respect to a reference genome. This lack of haplotype-level analyses can be explained by a lack of methods that can produce dense and accurate

  12. Geographical distribution of a specific mitochondrial haplotype of Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh BOUKEF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severity of disease caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici throughout world cereal growing regions has elicited much debate on the potential evolutionary mechanism conferring high adaptability of the pathogen to diverse climate conditions and different wheat hosts (Triticum durum and T. aestivum. Specific mitochondrial DNA sequence was used to investigate geographic distribution of the type 4 haplotype (mtRFLP4 within 1363 isolates of Z. tritici originating from 21 countries. The mtRFLP4 haplotype was detected from both durum and bread wheat hosts with greater frequency on durum wheat. The distribution of mtRFLP4 was limited to populations sampled from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea region. Greater frequencies of mtRFLP4 were found in Tunisia (87% and Algeria (60%. The haplotype was absent within European, Australian, North and South American populations except Argentina. While alternative hypotheses such as climatic adaptation could not be ruled out, it is postulated that mtRFLP4 originated in North Africa (e.g. Tunisia or Algeria as an adaptation to durum wheat as the prevailing cereal crop. The specialized haplotype has subsequently spread as indicated by lower frequency of occurrence in the surrounding Mediterranean countries and on bread wheat hosts.

  13. Genetics of chloroquine-resistant malaria: a haplotypic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Awasthi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and rapid spread of chloroquine resistance (CQR in Plasmodium falciparum have triggered the identification of several genetic target(s in the P. falciparum genome. In particular, mutations in the Pfcrt gene, specifically, K76T and mutations in three other amino acids in the region adjoining K76 (residues 72, 74, 75 and 76, are considered to be highly related to CQR. These various mutations form several different haplotypes and Pfcrt gene polymorphisms and the global distribution of the different CQR- Pfcrt haplotypes in endemic and non-endemic regions of P. falciparum malaria have been the subject of extensive study. Despite the fact that the Pfcrt gene is considered to be the primary CQR gene in P. falciparum , several studies have suggested that this may not be the case. Furthermore, there is a poor correlation between the evolutionary implications of the Pfcrt haplotypes and the inferred migration of CQR P. falciparum based on CQR epidemiological surveillance data. The present paper aims to clarify the existing knowledge on the genetic basis of the different CQR- Pfcrt haplotypes that are prevalent in worldwide populations based on the published literature and to analyse the data to generate hypotheses on the genetics and evolution of CQR malaria.

  14. Association of specific haplotype of TNFα with Helicobacter pylori ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 3. Association of specific haplotype of TNF with Helicobacter pylori-mediated duodenal ulcer in eastern Indian population. Meenakshi Chakravorty Dipanjana Datta De Abhijit Choudhury Amal Santra Susanta Roychoudhury. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 3 ...

  15. Rapid haplotype reconstruction in predigrees with dense marker maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2004-01-01

    Reconstruction of marker phases is not straightforward when parents are untyped. In these cases information from other relatives has to be used. In dense marker maps, however, the space of possible haplotype configurations tends to be too large for procedures such as Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMC)

  16. Quantitative trait loci and the relevance of phased haplotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl

    underlying gentic control both as traditional linkage studies relying on genetic maps and as GWAS where an approach of phasing haplotypes within the QTL have been conducted to validate the regions. Overall, regions of interest have been identified for chronic pleuritis and osteochondrosis in addition to meat...

  17. Haplotype and genetic relationship of 27 Y-STR loci in Han population of Chaoshan area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hua TIAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR loci included in Yfiler® Plus kit in Han population of Chaoshan area, and explore the population genetic relationships and evaluate its application value on forensic medicine. Methods  By detecting 795 unrelated Chaoshan Han males with Yfiler® Plus kit, haplotype frequencies and population genetics parameters of the 27 Y-STR loci were statistically analyzed and compared with available data of other populations from different races and regions for analyzing the genetic distance and clustering relation of Chaoshan Han population. Results  Seven hundred and eighty-seven different haplotypes were observed in 795 unrelated male individuals, of which 779 haplotypes were unique, and 8 haplotypes occurred twice. The haplotype diversity (HD was 0.999975 with discriminative capacity (DC of 98.99%. The gene diversity (GD at the 27 Y-STR loci ranged from 0.3637(DYS391 to 0.9559(DYS385a/b. Comparing with Asian reference populations, the genetic distance (Rst between Chaoshan Han and Guangdong Han was the smallest (0.0036, while it was relatively larger between Chaoshan Han and Gansu Tibetan population (0.0935. The multi-dimensional scaling (MDS plot based on Rst values was similar to the results of clustering analysis. Conclusion  Multiplex detection of the 27 Y-STR loci reveals a highly polymorphic genetic distribution in Chaoshan Han population, which demonstrates the important significance of Yfiler® Plus kit for establishing a Y-STR database, studying population genetics, and for good practice in forensic medicine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.08

  18. CTG expansion & haplotype analysis in DM1 gene in healthy Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojasaffar, Bahareh; Moradin, Neda; Kahrizi, Kimia; Cobo, Ana Maria; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2008-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is due to an unstable expansion of CTG repeat in the DMPK gene (19q13.3). The CTG repeat is highly polymorphic (5 to 37) in healthy individuals. According to the hypothesis that expanded (CTG)n alleles originated from larger normal alleles, there may exist a correlation between the prevalence of DM1 and the frequency of large size normal alleles. Strong linkage disequilibrium between different length alleles and the three biallelic markers, Alu, Hinf1 and Taq1, has been reported. To determine the distribution of normal alleles, the frequency of larger normal alleles and analysis of the three biallelic markers, in healthy Iranian controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted on two hundred unrelated healthy individuals from different ethnic groups living in Iran to determine the size of the alleles. Markers were analyzed by PCR/RFLP on 174 chromosomes from other control healthy individuals. Our data reveals that 23.7% of alleles had 5 CTG repeats and 7.2% of alleles had > 18 CTG repeats. The analysis of haplotypes revealed that 75% of CTG5 and 80% of CTG > 18 had the (+++) haplotype. The frequency of alleles with CTG > 18 in Iran is similar to that of Western Europe and Japan.

  19. Nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity of RTCS gene in China elite maize inbred lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enying Zhang

    Full Text Available The maize RTCS gene, encoding a LOB domain transcription factor, plays important roles in the initiation of embryonic seminal and postembryonic shoot-borne root. In this study, the genomic sequences of this gene in 73 China elite inbred lines, including 63 lines from 5 temperate heteroric groups and 10 tropic germplasms, were obtained, and the nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity were detected. A total of 63 sequence variants, including 44 SNPs and 19 indels, were identified at this locus, and most of them were found to be located in the regions of UTR and intron. The coding region of this gene in all tested inbred lines carried 14 haplotypes, which encoding 7 deferring RTCS proteins. Analysis of the polymorphism sites revealed that at least 6 recombination events have occurred. Among all 6 groups tested, only the P heterotic group had a much lower nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and selection analysis also revealed that only this group was under strong negative selection. However, the set of Huangzaosi and its derived lines possessed a higher nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and no selection signal were identified.

  20. Accurate estimation of haplotype frequency from pooled sequencing data and cost-effective identification of rare haplotype carriers by overlapping pool sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Chang; Sun, Xiao

    2015-02-15

    A variety of hypotheses have been proposed for finding the missing heritability of complex diseases in genome-wide association studies. Studies have focused on the value of haplotype to improve the power of detecting associations with disease. To facilitate haplotype-based association analysis, it is necessary to accurately estimate haplotype frequencies of pooled samples. Taking advantage of databases that contain prior haplotypes, we present Ehapp based on the algorithm for solving the system of linear equations to estimate the frequencies of haplotypes from pooled sequencing data. Effects of various factors in sequencing on the performance are evaluated using simulated data. Our method could estimate the frequencies of haplotypes with only about 3% average relative difference for pooled sequencing of the mixture of 10 haplotypes with total coverage of 50×. When unknown haplotypes exist, our method maintains excellent performance for haplotypes with actual frequencies >0.05. Comparisons with present method on simulated data in conjunction with publicly available Illumina sequencing data indicate that our method is state of the art for many sequencing study designs. We also demonstrate the feasibility of applying overlapping pool sequencing to identify rare haplotype carriers cost-effectively. Ehapp (in Perl) for the Linux platforms is available online (http://bioinfo.seu.edu.cn/Ehapp/). xsun@seu.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A breast cancer risk haplotype in the caspase-8 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Neil Duncan; Abo, Ryan; Rigas, Sushila Harkisandas; Frank, Bernd; Lin, Wei-Yu; Brock, Ian Wallace; Shippen, Adam; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy Prakash; Reed, Malcolm Walter Ronald; Bartram, Claus Rainer; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Engel, Christoph; Burwinkel, Barbara; Cannon-Albright, Lisa Anne; Allen-Brady, Kristina; Camp, Nicola Jane; Cox, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Recent large-scale studies have been successful in identifying common, low-penetrance variants associated with common cancers. One such variant in the caspase-8 (CASP8) gene, D302H (rs1045485), has been confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk, although the functional effect of this polymorphism (if any) is not yet clear. In order to further map the CASP8 gene with respect to breast cancer susceptibility, we performed extensive haplotype analyses using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) chosen to tag all common variations in the gene (tSNP). We used a staged study design based on 3,200 breast cancer and 3,324 control subjects from the United Kingdom, Utah, and Germany. Using a haplotype-mining algorithm in the UK cohort, we identified a four-SNP haplotype that was significantly associated with breast cancer and that was superior to any other single or multi-locus combination (P=8.0 x 10(-5)), with a per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of 1.30 (1.12-1.49). The result remained significant after adjustment for the multiple testing inherent in mining techniques (false discovery rate, q=0.044). As expected, this haplotype includes the D302H locus. Multicenter analyses on a subset of the tSNPs yielded consistent results. This risk haplotype is likely to carry one or more underlying breast cancer susceptibility alleles, making it an excellent candidate for resequencing in homozygous individuals. An understanding of the mode of action of these alleles will aid risk assessment and may lead to the identification of novel treatment targets in breast cancer.

  2. Inferring Selection Intensity and Allele Age from Multilocus Haplotype Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenging task to infer selection intensity and allele age from population genetic data. Here we present a method that can efficiently estimate selection intensity and allele age from the multilocus haplotype structure in the vicinity of a segregating mutant under positive selection. We use a structured-coalescent approach to model the effect of directional selection on the gene genealogies of neutral markers linked to the selected mutant. The frequency trajectory of the selected allele follows the Wright-Fisher model. Given the position of the selected mutant, we propose a simplified multilocus haplotype model that can efficiently model the dynamics of the ancestral haplotypes under the joint influence of selection and recombination. This model approximates the ancestral genealogies of the sample, which reduces the number of states from an exponential function of the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to a quadratic function. That allows parameter inference from data covering DNA regions as large as several hundred kilo-bases. Importance sampling algorithms are adopted to evaluate the probability of a sample by exploring the space of both allele frequency trajectories of the selected mutation and gene genealogies of the linked sites. We demonstrate by simulation that the method can accurately estimate selection intensity for moderate and strong positive selection. We apply the method to a data set of the G6PD gene in an African population and obtain an estimate of 0.0456 (95% confidence interval 0.0144−0.0769) for the selection intensity. The proposed method is novel in jointly modeling the multilocus haplotype pattern caused by recombination and mutation, allowing the analysis of haplotype data in recombining regions. Moreover, the method is applicable to data from populations under exponential growth and a variety of other demographic histories. PMID:23797107

  3. Worldwide genealogy of Entamoeba histolytica: an overview to understand haplotype distribution and infection outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermeño, Valeria; Ximénez, Cecilia; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Valenzuela, Olivia; Rascón, Edgar; Diaz, Daniel; Cerritos, René

    2013-07-01

    Although Entamoeba histolytica is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites, how the different strains of this species are distributed all over the world and how different genotypes are associated with the infection outcome are yet to be fully understood. Recently, the use of a number of molecular markers has made the characterization of several genotypes in those regions with high incidence of amoebiasis possible. This work proposes the first genealogy of E. histolytica, with an haplotype network based on two tRNA gene-linked array of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) reported until today, and 47 sequences from 39 new isolates of Mexican Amoebic Liver Abscesses (ALA) samples. One hundred and three sequences were obtained from D-A locus, their information about the geographic region of isolation as well as clinical diagnosis were also collected. One hundred and five sequences from N-K2 locus were also obtained as well as the region of isolation, but the information about clinical diagnosis was not available in all cases. The most abundant and widely distributed haplotype in the world is the one of E. histolytica HM1:IMSS strain. This was found in Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, China and USA and is associated to symptomatic patients as well as asymptomatic cyst passers. Many other haplotypes were found only in a single country. Both genealogies suggest that there are no lineages within the networks that may be related to a particular geographic region or infection outcome. A concatenated analysis of the two molecular markers revealed 12 different combinations, which suggests the possibility of genetic recombination events. The present study is the first to propose a global genealogy of this species and suggests that there are still many genotypes to be discovered. The genotyping of new isolates will help to understand the great diversity and genetic structure of this parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TG haplotype in the LRP8 is associated with myocardial infarction in south Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammed; Bhat, Shivarama; Nizamuddin, Sheikh; Mustak, Mohammed S

    2017-10-12

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a complex multifactorial cardiovascular disease. India experiences a much greater burden of MI, also suggesting an experimental increase of this burden in the future. The absolute reasons for MI are context dependent and differ with different geographical settings. Several reports indicate that SNPs that are associated with certain diseases in other populations may not be associated with Indian population. It is, therefore, important to validate the association of SNPs. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 8 (LRP8) gene plays central role in human lipoprotein metabolism as it facilitates the clearance of bad cholesterol LDL, VLDL from plasma and is reported to be associated with MI in the western population. However, this gene has not been studied in the South Indian population. We aim to test the role of the LRP8 gene variants correlating with the lipid profile in MI patients in South Indian population. We sequenced regions of SNPs rs10788952, rs7546246, rs2297660 and rs5174 of LRP8 in 100 MI patients and 100 age-matched controls. Our result revealed a total of 4 variations. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with MI (p>0.973). Interestingly, haplotype based association analysis showed TG and CG of rs10788952 and rs7546246 significantly associated with MI (p<0.01 and p<0.00005) and in particular, haplotype TG was positively correlated with the risk of MI, as this increased the LDL and total cholesterol level in MI patients in south Indians. Our results suggest that haplotype TG is a risk factor for MI in South Indian population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Development of a Y-STR 12-plex PCR system and haplotype ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) dodecaplex. PCR system for 12 loci has been developed, and using this system allele frequencies and haplotypes were determined in a Korean male population. From a study of 320 unre- lated Korean males, 254 different haplotypes were identi- fied. The haplotype diversity ...

  6. Large-Scale Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and Haplotype Analyses, Using Dense SNP Maps, of 199 Drug-Related Genes in 752 Subjects: the Analysis of the Association between Uncommon SNPs within Haplotype Blocks and the Haplotypes Constructed with Haplotype-Tagging SNPs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamatani, Naoyuki; Sekine, Akihiro; Kitamoto, Takuya; Iida, Aritoshi; Saito, Susumu; Kogame, Akifumi; Inoue, Eisuke; Kawamoto, Manabu; Harigai, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2004-01-01

    ...) and haplotypes in 199 drug-related genes, through use of 4,190 SNPs in 752 control subjects. Drug-related genes, like other genes, have a haplotype-block structure, and a few haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs...

  7. Functional epistasis on a common MHC haplotype associated with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Jon Waarst; Kranc, Kamil R; Ke, Xiayi

    2006-01-01

    report that the human MHC HLA-DR2 haplotype, which predisposes to multiple sclerosis, shows more extensive linkage disequilibrium than other common caucasian HLA haplotypes in the DR region and thus seems likely to have been maintained through positive selection. Characterization of two multiple...... disequilibrium in this and perhaps other HLA haplotypes....

  8. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O' Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent with haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.

  9. HLA-DRB1 shared epitope-dependent DR-DQ haplotypes are associated with both anti-CCP-positive and -negative rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese Han.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    Full Text Available The association between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA class II and rheumatoid arthritis (RA has been extensively studied, but few reported DR-DQ haplotype. Here we investigated the association of HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DR-DQ haplotypes with RA susceptibility and with anti-CCP antibodies in 281 RA patients and 297 control in Han population. High-resolution genotyping were performed. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE-encoding allele *0405 displayed the most significant RA association (P = 1.35×10(-6. The grouped DRB1 SE alleles showed great association with RA (P = 3.88×10(-13. The DRB1 DRRAA alleles displayed significant protective effects (P = 0.021. The SE-dependent DR-DQ haplotype SE-DQ3/4/5 remained strong association with both anti-CCP -positive (P = 3.71×10(-13 and -negative RA (P = 3.89×10(-5. Our study revealed that SE alleles and its haplotypes SE-DQ3/4/5 were highly associated with RA susceptibility in Han population. The SE-DQ3/4/5 haplotypes were associated with both anti-CCP positive RA and -negative RA.

  10. Selection of haplotype variables from a high-density marker map for genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyabano, Beatriz Cd; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens S

    2015-08-01

    Using haplotype blocks as predictors rather than individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may improve genomic predictions, since haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with the quantitative trait loci than are individual SNPs. It has also been hypothesized that an appropriate selection of a subset of haplotype blocks can result in similar or better predictive ability than when using the whole set of haplotype blocks. This study investigated genomic prediction using a set of haplotype blocks that contained the SNPs with large effects estimated from an individual SNP prediction model. We analyzed protein yield, fertility and mastitis of Nordic Holstein cattle, and used high-density markers (about 770k SNPs). To reach an optimum number of haplotype variables for genomic prediction, predictions were performed using subsets of haplotype blocks that contained a range of 1000 to 50 000 main SNPs. The use of haplotype blocks improved the prediction reliabilities, even when selection focused on only a group of haplotype blocks. In this case, the use of haplotype blocks that contained the 20 000 to 50 000 SNPs with the highest effect was sufficient to outperform the model that used all individual SNPs as predictors (up to 1.3 % improvement in prediction reliability for mastitis, compared to individual SNP approach), and the achieved reliabilities were similar to those using all haplotype blocks available in the genome data (from 0.6 % lower to 0.8 % higher reliability). Haplotype blocks used as predictors can improve the reliability of genomic prediction compared to the individual SNP model. Furthermore, the use of a subset of haplotype blocks that contains the main SNP effects from genomic data could be a feasible approach to genomic prediction in dairy cattle, given an increase in density of genotype data available. The predictive ability of the models that use a subset of haplotype blocks was similar to that obtained using either all haplotype blocks

  11. Haplotype association analysis of human disease traits using genotype data of unrelated individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    . Based on the popular logistic regression model, we present a new approach for haplotype association analysis of human disease traits. Using haplotype-based parameterization, our model infers the effects of specific haplotypes (point estimation) and constructs confidence interval for the risks...... on the well-known logistic regression model is a useful tool for haplotype association analysis of human disease traits....... unphased multi-locus genotype data, ranging from the early approach by the simple gene-counting method to the recent work using the generalized linear model. However, these methods are either confined to case – control design or unable to yield unbiased point and interval estimates of haplotype effects...

  12. Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis identifies haplotype-specific methylation in the FTO type 2 diabetes and obesity susceptibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Bell

    Full Text Available Recent multi-dimensional approaches to the study of complex disease have revealed powerful insights into how genetic and epigenetic factors may underlie their aetiopathogenesis. We examined genotype-epigenotype interactions in the context of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D, focussing on known regions of genomic susceptibility. We assayed DNA methylation in 60 females, stratified according to disease susceptibility haplotype using previously identified association loci. CpG methylation was assessed using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on a targeted array (MeDIP-chip and absolute methylation values were estimated using a Bayesian algorithm (BATMAN. Absolute methylation levels were quantified across LD blocks, and we identified increased DNA methylation on the FTO obesity susceptibility haplotype, tagged by the rs8050136 risk allele A (p = 9.40×10(-4, permutation p = 1.0×10(-3. Further analysis across the 46 kb LD block using sliding windows localised the most significant difference to be within a 7.7 kb region (p = 1.13×10(-7. Sequence level analysis, followed by pyrosequencing validation, revealed that the methylation difference was driven by the co-ordinated phase of CpG-creating SNPs across the risk haplotype. This 7.7 kb region of haplotype-specific methylation (HSM, encapsulates a Highly Conserved Non-Coding Element (HCNE that has previously been validated as a long-range enhancer, supported by the histone H3K4me1 enhancer signature. This study demonstrates that integration of Genome-Wide Association (GWA SNP and epigenomic DNA methylation data can identify potential novel genotype-epigenotype interactions within disease-associated loci, thus providing a novel route to aid unravelling common complex diseases.

  13. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Une, Yumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2014-05-13

    The international trade in amphibians is believed to have increased the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the fungal pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, which has caused a rapid decline in amphibian populations worldwide. We surveyed amphibians imported into Japan and those held in captivity for a long period or bred in Japan to clarify the Bd infection status. Samples were taken from 820 individuals of 109 amphibian species between 2008 and 2011 and were analyzed by a nested-PCR assay. Bd prevalence in imported amphibians was 10.3% (58/561), while it was 6.9% (18/259) in those in private collections and commercially bred amphibians in Japan. We identified the genotypes of this fungus using partial DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Sequencing of PCR products of all 76 Bd-positive samples revealed 11 haplotypes of the Bd ITS region. Haplotype A (DNA Data Bank of Japan accession number AB435211) was found in 90% (52/58) of imported amphibians. The results show that Bd is currently entering Japan via the international trade in exotic amphibians as pets, suggesting that the trade has indeed played a major role in the spread of Bd.

  14. Extended HLA-D region haplotype associated with celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, M.D.; Smith, J.R.; Austin, R.K.; Kelleher, D.; Nepom, G.T.; Volk, B.; Kagnoff, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease has one of the strongest associations with HLA (human leukocyte antigen) class II markers of the known HLA-linked diseases. This association is primarily with the class II serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2. The authors previously described a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) characterized by the presence of a 4.0-kilobase Rsa I fragment derived from an HLA class II ..beta..-chain gene, which distinguishes the class II HLA haplotype of celiac disease patients from those of many serologically matched controls. They now report the isolation of this ..beta..-chain gene from a bacteriophage genomic library constructed from the DNA of a celiac disease patient. Based on restriction mapping and differential hybridization with class II cDNA and oligonucleotide probes, this gene was identified as one encoding an HLA-DP ..beta..-chain. This celiac disease-associated HLA-DP ..beta..-chain gene was flanked by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..-chain genes and, therefore, was probably in its normal chromosomal location. The HLA-DP..cap alpha..-chain genes of celiac disease patients also were studied by RFLP analysis. Celiac disease is associated with a subset of HLA-DR3, -DQw2 haplotypes characterized by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-chain gene RFLPs. Within the celiac-disease patient population, the joint segregation of these HLA-DP genes with those encoding the serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2 indicates: (i) that the class II HLA haplotype associated with celiac disease is extended throughout the entire HLA-D region, and (ii) that celiac-disease susceptibility genes may reside as far centromeric on this haplotype as the HLA-DP subregion.

  15. Investigation of extended Y chromosome STR haplotypes in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerenza, D; Aneli, S; Di Gaetano, C; Critelli, R; Piazza, A; Matullo, G; Culigioni, C; Robledo, R; Robino, C; Calò, C

    2017-03-01

    Y-chromosomal variation of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 32 short tandem repeat (STR) loci was evaluated in Sardinia in three open population groups (Northern Sardinia, n=40; Central Sardinia, n=56; Southern Sardinia, n=91) and three isolates (Desulo, n=34; Benetutti, n=45, Carloforte, n=42). The tested Y-STRs consisted of Yfiler® Plus markers and the seven rapidly mutating (RM) loci not included in the YFiler® Plus kit (DYF399S1, DYF403S1ab, DYF404S1, DYS526ab, DYS547, DYS612, and DYS626). As expected, inclusion of additional Y-STR loci increased haplotype diversity (h), though complete differentiation of male lineages was impossible even by means of RM Y-STRs (h=0.99997). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that the three open populations were fairly homogeneous, whereas signs of genetic heterogeneity could be detected when the three isolates were also included in the analysis. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that, even for extended haplotypes including RM Y-STR markers, Sardinians were clearly differentiated from populations of the Italian peninsula and Sicily. The only exception was represented by the Carloforte sample that, in accordance with its peculiar population history, clustered with Northern/Central Italian populations. The introduction of extended forensic Y-STR panels, including highly variable RM Y-STR markers, is expected to reduce the impact of population structure on haplotype frequency estimations. However, our results show that the availability of geographically detailed reference databases is still important for the assessment of the evidential value of a Y-haplotype match. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduced and Native Haplotypes of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wildlife in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    Recent detection of a European-type haplotype of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in a newly enzootic region in British Columbia prompted efforts to determine if this haplotype was present elsewhere in wildlife in western Canada. In coyote (Canis latrans) definitive hosts in an urban region in central Saskatchewan (SK), we found a single haplotype of E. multilocularis that was most similar to a haplotype currently established in the core of this parasite's distribution in Europe and to the European-type haplotype found in coyotes and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in British Columbia. We found six haplotypes of E. multilocularis from deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) intermediate hosts in southwestern SK that were closely related to, and one haplotype indistinguishable from, a haplotype previously reported in the adjacent north-central US. This is a higher level of diversity than has previously been recognized for this parasite, which suggests that the population native to central North America is well established, rather than a recent introduction from the Arctic. These findings, in combination with recent cases of alveolar hydatid cysts in dogs in Canada, raise concerns that European haplotypes of E. multilocularis may be increasing in distribution within wildlife in Canada. European haplotypes may pose greater risks to veterinary and human health than native haplotypes long established in central North America.

  17. Haplotype reconstruction error as a classical misclassification problem: introducing sensitivity and specificity as error measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lamina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistically reconstructing haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes, can lead to falsely classified haplotypes. This can be an issue when interpreting haplotype association results or when selecting subjects with certain haplotypes for subsequent functional studies. It was our aim to quantify haplotype reconstruction error and to provide tools for it. METHODS AND RESULTS: By numerous simulation scenarios, we systematically investigated several error measures, including discrepancy, error rate, and R(2, and introduced the sensitivity and specificity to this context. We exemplified several measures in the KORA study, a large population-based study from Southern Germany. We find that the specificity is slightly reduced only for common haplotypes, while the sensitivity was decreased for some, but not all rare haplotypes. The overall error rate was generally increasing with increasing number of loci, increasing minor allele frequency of SNPs, decreasing correlation between the alleles and increasing ambiguity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, with the analytical approach presented here, haplotype-specific error measures can be computed to gain insight into the haplotype uncertainty. This method provides the information, if a specific risk haplotype can be expected to be reconstructed with rather no or high misclassification and thus on the magnitude of expected bias in association estimates. We also illustrate that sensitivity and specificity separate two dimensions of the haplotype reconstruction error, which completely describe the misclassification matrix and thus provide the prerequisite for methods accounting for misclassification.

  18. The effect of using genealogy-based haplotypes for genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edriss, Vahid; Fernando, Rohan L; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens S; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2013-03-06

    Genomic prediction uses two sources of information: linkage disequilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci, and additive genetic relationships between individuals. One way to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction is to capture more linkage disequilibrium by regression on haplotypes instead of regression on individual markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction using haplotypes based on local genealogy information. A total of 4429 Danish Holstein bulls were genotyped with the 50K SNP chip. Haplotypes were constructed using local genealogical trees. Effects of haplotype covariates were estimated with two types of prediction models: (1) assuming that effects had the same distribution for all haplotype covariates, i.e. the GBLUP method and (2) assuming that a large proportion (π) of the haplotype covariates had zero effect, i.e. a Bayesian mixture method. About 7.5 times more covariate effects were estimated when fitting haplotypes based on local genealogical trees compared to fitting individuals markers. Genealogy-based haplotype clustering slightly increased the accuracy of genomic prediction and, in some cases, decreased the bias of prediction. With the Bayesian method, accuracy of prediction was less sensitive to parameter π when fitting haplotypes compared to fitting markers. Use of haplotypes based on genealogy can slightly increase the accuracy of genomic prediction. Improved methods to cluster the haplotypes constructed from local genealogy could lead to additional gains in accuracy.

  19. HaploForge: A Comprehensive Pedigree Drawing and Haplotype Visualisation Web Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mehmet; Medlar, Alan; Mozere, Monika; Kleta, Robert; Stanescu, Horia

    2017-08-14

    Haplotype reconstruction is an important tool for understanding the aetiology of human disease. Haplotyping infers the most likely phase of observed genotypes conditional on constraints imposed by the genotypes of other pedigree members. The results of haplotype reconstruction, when visualised appropriately, show which alleles are identical by descent despite the presence of untyped individuals. When used in concert with linkage analysis, haplotyping can help delineate a locus of interest and provide a succinct explanation for the transmission of the trait locus. Unfortunately, the design choices made by existing haplotype visualisation programs do not scale to large numbers of markers. Indeed, following haplotypes from generation to generation requires excessive scrolling back and forth. In addition, the most widely-used program for haplotype visualisation produces inconsistent recombination artefacts for the X chromosome. To resolve these issues, we developed HaploForge, a novel web application for haplotype visualisation and pedigree drawing. HaploForge takes advantage of HTML5 to be fast, portable and avoid the need for local installation. It can accurately visualise autosomal and X-linked haplotypes from both outbred and consanguineous pedigrees. Haplotypes are coloured based on identity by descent using a novel A* search algorithm and we provide a flexible viewing mode to aid visual inspection. HaploForge can currently process haplotype reconstruction output from Allegro, GeneHunter, Merlin and Simwalk. HaploForge is licensed under GPLv3 and is hosted and maintained via GitHub. Supplementary data is available from Bioinformatics online.

  20. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Miller, Robert N G; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; MBéguié-A-MBéguié, Didier; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2010-07-16

    Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp.), two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW). Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year divergence time for these M. balbisiana haplotypes. A

  1. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert NG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp., two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW. Results Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year

  2. Minimum Conflict Individual Haplotyping from SNP Fragments and Related Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Minimum Error Correction (MEC is an important model for haplotype reconstruction from SNP fragments. However, this model is effective only when the error rate of SNP fragments is low. In this paper, we propose a new computational model called Minimum Conflict Individual Haplotyping (MCIH as an extension to MEC. In contrast to the conventional approaches, the new model employs SNP fragment information and also related genotype information, thereby a high accurate inference can be expected. We first prove the MCIH problem to be NP-hard. To evaluate the practicality of the new model we design an exact algorithm (a dynamic programming procedure to implement MCIH on a special data structure. The numerical experience indicates that it is fairly effective to use MCIH at the cost of related genotype information, especially in the case of SNP fragments with a high error rate. Moreover, we present a feed-forward neural network algorithm to solve MCIH for general data structure and large size instances. Numerical results on real biological data and simulation data show that the algorithm works well and MCIH is a potential alternative in individual haplotyping.

  3. Minimum conflict individual haplotyping from SNP fragments and related genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Wei

    2007-02-16

    The Minimum Error Correction (MEC) is an important model for haplotype reconstruction from SNP fragments. However, this model is effective only when the error rate of SNP fragments is low. In this paper, we propose a new computational model called Minimum Conflict Individual Haplotyping (MCIH) as an extension to MEC. In contrast to the conventional approaches, the new model employs SNP fragment information and also related genotype information, thereby a high accurate inference can be expected. We first prove the MCIH problem to be NP-hard. To evaluate the practicality of the new model we design an exact algorithm (a dynamic programming procedure) to implement MCIH on a special data structure. The numerical experience indicates that it is fairly effective to use MCIH at the cost of related genotype information, especially in the case of SNP fragments with a high error rate. Moreover, we present a feed-forward neural network algorithm to solve MCIH for general data structure and large size instances. Numerical results on real biological data and simulation data show that the algorithm works well and MCIH is a potential alternative in individual haplotyping.

  4. Joint haplotype assembly and genotype calling via sequential Monte Carlo algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soyeon; Vikalo, Haris

    2015-07-16

    Genetic variations predispose individuals to hereditary diseases, play important role in the development of complex diseases, and impact drug metabolism. The full information about the DNA variations in the genome of an individual is given by haplotypes, the ordered lists of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on chromosomes. Affordable high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies enable routine acquisition of data needed for the assembly of single individual haplotypes. However, state-of-the-art high-throughput sequencing platforms generate data that is erroneous, which induces uncertainty in the SNP and genotype calling procedures and, ultimately, adversely affect the accuracy of haplotyping. When inferring haplotype phase information, the vast majority of the existing techniques for haplotype assembly assume that the genotype information is correct. This motivates the development of methods capable of joint genotype calling and haplotype assembly. We present a haplotype assembly algorithm, ParticleHap, that relies on a probabilistic description of the sequencing data to jointly infer genotypes and assemble the most likely haplotypes. Our method employs a deterministic sequential Monte Carlo algorithm that associates single nucleotide polymorphisms with haplotypes by exhaustively exploring all possible extensions of the partial haplotypes. The algorithm relies on genotype likelihoods rather than on often erroneously called genotypes, thus ensuring a more accurate assembly of the haplotypes. Results on both the 1000 Genomes Project experimental data as well as simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed approach enables highly accurate solutions to the haplotype assembly problem while being computationally efficient and scalable, generally outperforming existing methods in terms of both accuracy and speed. The developed probabilistic framework and sequential Monte Carlo algorithm enable joint haplotype assembly and genotyping in a computationally

  5. Combining an Evolution-guided Clustering Algorithm and Haplotype-based LRT in Family Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Su-Yun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the international HapMap project, many studies have been conducted to investigate the association between complex diseases and haplotype variants. Such haplotype-based association studies, however, often face two difficulties; one is the large number of haplotype configurations in the chromosome region under study, and the other is the ambiguity in haplotype phase when only genotype data are observed. The latter complexity may be handled based on an EM algorithm with family data incorporated, whereas the former can be more problematic, especially when haplotypes of rare frequencies are involved. Here based on family data we propose to cluster long haplotypes of linked SNPs in a biological sense, so that the number of haplotypes can be reduced and the power of statistical tests of association can be increased. Results In this paper we employ family genotype data and combine a clustering scheme with a likelihood ratio statistic to test the association between quantitative phenotypes and haplotype variants. Haplotypes are first grouped based on their evolutionary closeness to establish a set containing core haplotypes. Then, we construct for each family the transmission and non-transmission phase in terms of these core haplotypes, taking into account simultaneously the phase ambiguity as weights. The likelihood ratio test (LRT is next conducted with these weighted and clustered haplotypes to test for association with disease. This combination of evolution-guided haplotype clustering and weighted assignment in LRT is able, via its core-coding system, to incorporate into analysis both haplotype phase ambiguity and transmission uncertainty. Simulation studies show that this proposed procedure is more informative and powerful than three family-based association tests, FAMHAP, FBAT, and an LRT with a group consisting exclusively of rare haplotypes. Conclusions The proposed procedure takes into account the

  6. Phenotypic and genetic effects of recessive haplotypes on yield, longevity, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J B; Null, D J; VanRaden, P M

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypes from the August 2015 US national genetic evaluation were used to compute phenotypic effects of 18 recessive haplotypes in Ayrshire (n=1), Brown Swiss (n=5), Holstein (n=10), and Jersey (n=2) cattle on milk, fat, and protein yields, somatic cell score (SCS), single-trait productive life (PL), daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), heifer conception rate (HCR), and cow conception rate (CCR). The haplotypes evaluated were Ayrshire haplotype 1, Brown Swiss haplotypes 1 and 2, spinal dysmyelination, spinal muscular atrophy, Weaver Syndrome, brachyspina, Holstein cholesterol deficiency, Holstein haplotypes 1 to 5, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, complex vertebral malformation, mulefoot (syndactyly), and Jersey haplotypes 1 and 2. When causal variants are unknown and tests are based only on single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes, it can sometimes be difficult to accurately determine carrier status. For example, 2 Holstein haplotypes for cholesterol deficiency have the same single nucleotide polymorphism genotype, but only one of them carries the causative mutation. Genotyped daughters of carrier bulls included in the analysis ranged from 8 for Weaver Syndrome to 17,869 for Holstein haplotype 3. Lactation records preadjusted for nongenetic factors and direct genomic values (DGV) were used to estimate phenotypic and genetic effects of recessive haplotypes, respectively. We found no phenotypic or genetic differences between carriers and noncarriers of Ayrshire or Brown Swiss defects. Several associations were noted for Holstein haplotypes, including fat and HCR for Holstein haplotype 0 carriers; milk, protein, SCS, PL, and fertility for Holstein haplotype 1; protein, PL, CCR, and HCR for Holstein haplotype 2; milk, protein, and fertility for Holstein haplotype 4; and protein yield and DPR for Holstein haplotype 5. There were no differences among bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers, but complex vertebral malformation affected fat yield and mulefoot

  7. Combining an evolution-guided clustering algorithm and haplotype-based LRT in family association studies.

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    Lee, Mei-Hsien; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Huang, Su-Yun; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate

    2011-05-19

    With the completion of the international HapMap project, many studies have been conducted to investigate the association between complex diseases and haplotype variants. Such haplotype-based association studies, however, often face two difficulties; one is the large number of haplotype configurations in the chromosome region under study, and the other is the ambiguity in haplotype phase when only genotype data are observed. The latter complexity may be handled based on an EM algorithm with family data incorporated, whereas the former can be more problematic, especially when haplotypes of rare frequencies are involved. Here based on family data we propose to cluster long haplotypes of linked SNPs in a biological sense, so that the number of haplotypes can be reduced and the power of statistical tests of association can be increased. In this paper we employ family genotype data and combine a clustering scheme with a likelihood ratio statistic to test the association between quantitative phenotypes and haplotype variants. Haplotypes are first grouped based on their evolutionary closeness to establish a set containing core haplotypes. Then, we construct for each family the transmission and non-transmission phase in terms of these core haplotypes, taking into account simultaneously the phase ambiguity as weights. The likelihood ratio test (LRT) is next conducted with these weighted and clustered haplotypes to test for association with disease. This combination of evolution-guided haplotype clustering and weighted assignment in LRT is able, via its core-coding system, to incorporate into analysis both haplotype phase ambiguity and transmission uncertainty. Simulation studies show that this proposed procedure is more informative and powerful than three family-based association tests, FAMHAP, FBAT, and an LRT with a group consisting exclusively of rare haplotypes. The proposed procedure takes into account the uncertainty in phase determination and in transmission, utilizes

  8. ParaHaplo 2.0: a program package for haplotype-estimation and haplotype-based whole-genome association study using parallel computing

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    Kamatani Naoyuki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of haplotype-based association tests can improve the power of genome-wide association studies. Since the observed genotypes are unordered pairs of alleles, haplotype phase must be inferred. However, estimating haplotype phase is time consuming. When millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are analyzed in genome-wide association study, faster methods for haplotype estimation are required. Methods We developed a program package for parallel computation of haplotype estimation. Our program package, ParaHaplo 2.0, is intended for use in workstation clusters using the Intel Message Passing Interface (MPI. We compared the performance of our algorithm to that of the regular permutation test on both Japanese in Tokyo, Japan and Han Chinese in Beijing, China of the HapMap dataset. Results Parallel version of ParaHaplo 2.0 can estimate haplotypes 100 times faster than a non-parallel version of the ParaHaplo. Conclusion ParaHaplo 2.0 is an invaluable tool for conducting haplotype-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The need for fast haplotype estimation using parallel computing will become increasingly important as the data sizes of such projects continue to increase. The executable binaries and program sources of ParaHaplo are available at the following address: http://en.sourceforge.jp/projects/parallelgwas/releases/

  9. Haplotype variation in the ACE gene in global populations, with special reference to India, and an alternative model of evolution of haplotypes.

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    Farheen, Shabana; Basu, Analabha; Majumder, Partha P

    2011-12-01

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) is known to be associated with human cardiovascular and psychiatric pathophysiology. We have undertaken a global survey of the haplotypes in ACE gene to study diversity and to draw inferences on the nature of selective forces that may be operating on this gene. We have investigated the haplotype profiles reconstructed using polymorphisms in the regulatory (rs4277405, rs4459609, rs1800764, rs4292, rs4291), exonic (rs4309, rs4331, rs4343), and intronic (rs4340; Alu [I/D]) regions covering 17.8 kb of the ACE gene. We genotyped these polymorphisms in a large number of individuals drawn from 15 Indian ethnic groups and estimated haplotype frequencies. We compared the Indian data with available data from other global populations. Globally, five major haplotypes were observed. High-frequency haplotypes comprising mismatching alleles at the loci considered were seen in all populations. The three most frequent haplotypes among Africans were distinct from the major haplotypes of other world populations. We have studied the evolution of the two major haplotypes (TATATTGIA and CCCTCCADG), one of which contains an Alu insertion (I) and the other a deletion (D), seen most frequently among Caucasians (68%), non-African HapMap populations (65-88%), and Indian populations (70-95%) in detail. The two major haplotypes among Caucasians are reported to represent two distinct clades A and B. Earlier studies have postulated that a third clade C (represented by the haplotypes TACATCADG and TACATCADA) arose from an ancestral recombination event between A and B. We find that a more parsimonious explanation is that clades A and B have arisen by recombination between haplotypes belonging to clade C and a high-frequency African haplotype CCCTTCGIA. The haplotypes, which according to our hypothesis are the putative non-recombinants (PuNR), are uncommon in all non-African populations (frequency range 0-12%). Conversely, the frequencies of the putative

  10. The haplotype of two FSHR polymorphisms in ovarian cancer--a potential role of ethnology in risk modification.

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    Heubner, Martin; Riemann, Kathrin; Otterbach, Friedrich; Kimmig, Rainer; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Siffert, Winfried; Wimberger, Pauline

    2009-03-01

    The precise role of gonadotropins in the carcinogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains uncertain. Recently, the haplotype of two single nucleotide polymorphisms, Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), has been described as a risk factor for ovarian cancer in Chinese women. In this study we investigated the impact of this haplotype regarding the risk to develop ovarian cancer as well as possible effects upon the clinical course in a Caucasian patient sample. Determination of genotypes in 115 patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer and 115 age-matched controls was performed by Pyrosequencing for Thr307Ala and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for Asn680Ser. Analysis of the genotypes revealed almost complete linkage disequilibrium of both SNPs. The distribution of genotypes was not statistically significant different between ovarian cancer patients and age-matched controls. Clinical parameters such as overall survival, CA12-5 elevation at primary diagnosis, age at diagnosis, FIGO stage, grading, and platinum resistance were not statistically significantly different regarding genotypes. We could not confirm the FSHR Ala307-Ser680 haplotype as a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer in Caucasian women. Hence, the modification of tumor risk may be affected by the ethnology of the patient collective. We could not find any associations of clinical parameters or course of the disease with the different genotypes.

  11. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

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    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility.

  12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of non-coding area in the CP gene are correlated with Parkinson's disease.

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    Zhao, Na; Xiao, Jianqiu; Zheng, Zhiyong; Fei, Guoqiang; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2015-04-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that ceruloplasmin (CP) dysmetabolism is correlated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the causes of decreased serum CP levels in PD patients remain to be clarified. This study aimed to explore the potential association between genetic variants of the CP gene and PD. Clinical features, serum CP levels, and the CP gene (both promoter and coding regions) were analyzed in 60 PD patients and 50 controls. A luciferase reporter system was used to investigate the function of promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). High-density comparative genomic hybridization microarrays were also used to detect large-scale copy-number variations in CP and an additional 47 genes involved in PD and/or copper/iron metabolism. The frequencies of eight SNPs (one intronic SNP and seven promoter SNPs of the CP gene) and their haplotypes were significantly different between PD patients, especially those with lowered serum CP levels, and controls. However, the luciferase reporter system revealed no significant effect of the risk haplotype on promoter activity of the CP gene. Neither these SNPs nor their haplotypes were correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr staging of PD. The results of this study suggest that common genetic variants of CP are associated with PD and further investigation is needed to explore their functions in PD.

  13. Functionality and opposite roles of two interleukin 4 haplotypes in immune cells.

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    Anovazzi, G; Medeiros, M C; Pigossi, S C; Finoti, L S; Souza Moreira, T M; Mayer, M P A; Zanelli, C F; Valentini, S R; Rossa-Junior, C; Scarel-Caminaga, R M

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines expression can be influenced by polymorphisms in their respective coding genes. We associated the CTI/TTD haplotype (Hap-1) and TCI/CCI haplotype (Hap-2) in the IL4 gene formed by the -590, +33 and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms with the severity of chronic periodontitis in humans. The functionality of these IL4 haplotypes in the response of immune cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) with Ionomycin and IL-1β (as inflammatory stimuli) was evaluated. Gene expression (quantitative real-time PCR), profile of secreted cytokines (multiplex) and phenotypic polarization of T cells (flow cytometry) were the outcomes assessed. Green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid constructs containing specific IL4 haplotype were transiently transfected into JM cells to assess the influence of the individual haplotypes on promoter activity. In response to inflammatory stimuli the immune cells from Hap-1 haplotype had increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL4; conversely, the Hap-2 haplotype showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The haplotype CTI proved to be the most important for the regulation of IL4 promoter, regardless of the nature of the inflammatory stimulation; whereas the polymorphism in the promoter region had the least functional effect. In conclusion, IL4 haplotypes studied are functional and trigger opposite immune responses: anti-inflammatory (Hap-1) and pro-inflammatory (Hap-2). In addition, we identified the CTI haplotype as the main responsible for the regulation of IL4 transcriptional activity.

  14. BCL11A enhancer haplotypes and fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia.

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    Sebastiani, P; Farrell, J J; Alsultan, A; Wang, S; Edward, H L; Shappell, H; Bae, H; Milton, J N; Baldwin, C T; Al-Rubaish, A M; Naserullah, Z; Al-Muhanna, F; Alsuliman, A; Patra, P K; Farrer, L A; Ngo, D; Vathipadiekal, V; Chui, D H K; Al-Ali, A K; Steinberg, M H

    2015-03-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels in sickle cell anemia patients vary. We genotyped polymorphisms in the erythroid-specific enhancer of BCL11A to see if they might account for the very high HbF associated with the Arab-Indian (AI) haplotype and Benin haplotype of sickle cell anemia. Six BCL112A enhancer SNPs and their haplotypes were studied in Saudi Arabs from the Eastern Province and Indian patients with AI haplotype (HbF ~20%), African Americans (HbF ~7%), and Saudi Arabs from the Southwestern Province (HbF ~12%). Four SNPs (rs1427407, rs6706648, rs6738440, and rs7606173) and their haplotypes were consistently associated with HbF levels. The distributions of haplotypes differ in the 3 cohorts but not their genetic effects: the haplotype TCAG was associated with the lowest HbF level and the haplotype GTAC was associated with the highest HbF level and differences in HbF levels between carriers of these haplotypes in all cohorts were approximately 6%. Common HbF BCL11A enhancer haplotypes in patients with African origin and AI sickle cell anemia have similar effects on HbF but they do not explain their differences in HbF. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Genotypes and haplotypes in the insulin-like growth factors, their receptors and binding proteins in relation to plasma metabolic levels and mammographic density

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    Chanock Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for breast cancer. It is believed that one third of breast cancers are derived from breasts with more than 50% density. Mammographic density is affected by age, BMI, parity, and genetic predisposition. It is also greatly influenced by hormonal and growth factor changes in a woman's life cycle, spanning from puberty through adult to menopause. Genetic variations in genes coding for hormones and growth factors involved in development of the breast are therefore of great interest. The associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes from the IGF pathway on mammographic density and circulating levels of IGF1, its binding protein IGFBP3, and their ratio in postmenopausal women are reported here. Methods Samples from 964 postmenopausal Norwegian women aged 55-71 years were collected as a part of the Tromsø Mammography and Breast Cancer Study. All samples were genotyped for 25 SNPs in IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFALS and IGFBP3 using Taqman (ABI. The main statistical analyses were conducted with the PROC HAPLOTYPE procedure within SAS/GENETICS™ (SAS 9.1.3. Results The haplotype analysis revealed six haploblocks within the studied genes. Of those, four had significant associations with circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 and/or mammographic density. One haplotype variant in the IGF1 gene was found to be associated with mammographic density. Within the IGF2 gene one haplotype variant was associated with levels of both IGF1 and IGFBP3. Two haplotype variants in the IGF2R were associated with the level of IGF1. Both variants of the IGFBP3 haplotype were associated with the IGFBP3 level and indicate regulation in cis. Conclusion Polymorphisms within the IGF1 gene and related genes were associated with plasma levels of IGF1, IGFBP3 and mammographic density in this study of postmenopausal women.

  16. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three native Sarawak populations (Iban, Bidayuh and Melanau) in East Malaysia.

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    Chang, Yuet Meng; Swaran, Yuvaneswari; Phoon, Yoong Keat; Sothirasan, Kavin; Sim, Hang Thiew; Lim, Kong Boon; Kuehn, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    17 Y-STRs (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) have been analyzed in 320 male individuals from Sarawak, an eastern state of Malaysia on the Borneo island using the AmpFlSTR Y-filer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). These individuals were from three indigenous ethnic groups in Sarawak comprising of 103 Ibans, 113 Bidayuhs and 104 Melanaus. The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three groups. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 87.6% of the haplotypic variation was found within population and 12.4% between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.124, p=0.000). This study has revealed that the indigenous populations in Sarawak are distinctly different to each other, and to the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians), with the Melanaus having a strikingly high degree of shared haplotypes within. There are rare unusual variants and microvariants that were not present in Malaysian Malay, Chinese or Indian groups. In addition, occurrences of DYS385 duplications which were only noticeably present in Chinese group previously was also observed in the Iban group whilst null alleles were detected at several Y-loci (namely DYS19, DYS392, DYS389II and DYS448) in the Iban and Melanau groups.

  17. A genetic algorithm based method for stringent haplotyping of family data

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    Besnier, Francois; Carlborg, Örjan

    2009-01-01

    Background The linkage phase, or haplotype, is an extra level of information that in addition to genotype and pedigree can be useful for reconstructing the inheritance pattern of the alleles in a pedigree, and computing for example Identity By Descent probabilities. If a haplotype is provided, the precision of estimated IBD probabilities increases, as long as the haplotype is estimated without errors. It is therefore important to only use haplotypes that are strongly supported by the available data for IBD estimation, to avoid introducing new errors due to erroneous linkage phases. Results We propose a genetic algorithm based method for haplotype estimation in family data that includes a stringency parameter. This allows the user to decide the error tolerance level when inferring parental origin of the alleles. This is a novel feature compared to existing methods for haplotype estimation. We show that using a high stringency produces haplotype data with few errors, whereas a low stringency provides haplotype estimates in most situations, but with an increased number of errors. Conclusion By including a stringency criterion in our haplotyping method, the user is able to maintain the error rate at a suitable level for the particular study; one can select anything from haplotyped data with very small proportion of errors and a higher proportion of non-inferred haplotypes, to data with phase estimates for every marker, when haplotype errors are tolerable. Giving this choice makes the method more flexible and useful in a wide range of applications as it is able to fulfil different requirements regarding the tolerance for haplotype errors, or uncertain marker-phases. PMID:19761594

  18. Hap-seq: an optimal algorithm for haplotype phasing with imputation using sequencing data.

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    He, Dan; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

    2013-02-01

    Inference of haplotypes, or the sequence of alleles along each chromosome, is a fundamental problem in genetics and is important for many analyses, including admixture mapping, identifying regions of identity by descent, and imputation. Traditionally, haplotypes are inferred from genotype data obtained from microarrays using information on population haplotype frequencies inferred from either a large sample of genotyped individuals or a reference dataset such as the HapMap. Since the availability of large reference datasets, modern approaches for haplotype phasing along these lines are closely related to imputation methods. When applied to data obtained from sequencing studies, a straightforward way to obtain haplotypes is to first infer genotypes from the sequence data and then apply an imputation method. However, this approach does not take into account that alleles on the same sequence read originate from the same chromosome. Haplotype assembly approaches take advantage of this insight and predict haplotypes by assigning the reads to chromosomes in such a way that minimizes the number of conflicts between the reads and the predicted haplotypes. Unfortunately, assembly approaches require very high sequencing coverage and are usually not able to fully reconstruct the haplotypes. In this work, we present a novel approach, Hap-seq, which is simultaneously an imputation and assembly method that combines information from a reference dataset with the information from the reads using a likelihood framework. Our method applies a dynamic programming algorithm to identify the predicted haplotype, which maximizes the joint likelihood of the haplotype with respect to the reference dataset and the haplotype with respect to the observed reads. We show that our method requires only low sequencing coverage and can reconstruct haplotypes containing both common and rare alleles with higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art imputation methods.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of variant haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of protein phosphatase 2A-Bδ gene.

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    Hui-Feng Chen

    Full Text Available Serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a trimeric holoenzyme that plays an integral role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The substrate specificity and (subcellular localization of the PP2A holoenzymes are highly regulated by interaction with a family of regulatory B subunits (PP2A-Bs. The regulatory subunit PP2A-B/PR55δ (PP2A-Bδ is involving in the dephosphorylation of PP2A substrates and is crucial for controlling entry into and exit from mitosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of PP2A-Bδ gene (PPP2R2D remain largely unknown. To explore genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of PPP2R2D gene as well as their frequent haplotypes in the Han Chinese population and determine whether such variations have an impact on transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from 70 healthy Chinese donors and sequenced for identifying genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PPP2R2D. Four genetic variants were identified in the 1836 bp 5'-flanking region of PPP2R2D. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns and haplotype profiles were constructed for the genetic variants. Using serially truncated human PPP2R2D promoter luciferase constructs, we found that a 601 bp (-540 nt to +61 nt fragment constitutes the core promoter region. The subcloning of individual 5'-flanking fragment revealed the existence of three haplotypes in the distal promoter of PPP2R2D. The luciferase reporter assay showed that different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. The EMSA revealed that the -462 G>A variant influences DNA-protein interactions involving the nuclear factor 1 (NF1. In vitro reporter gene assay indicated that cotransfection of NF1/B expression plasmid could positively regulate the activity of PPP2R2D proximal promoter. Introduction of exogenous NF1/B expression plasmid further confirmed that the NF1 involves in the regulation of PPP2R2D gene expression. Our findings

  20. Program death 1 (PD1) haplotyping in patients with breast carcinoma.

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    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Naeimi, Sirous; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Ghaderi, Abbas; Erfani, Nasrollah

    2011-08-01

    Located on chromosome 2q37.3, the programmed death 1 (PD1) gene encodes for PD-1 (also known as CD279), a negative co-stimulator in the immune system. PD-1 renders potent inhibitory effects on T and B lymphocytes as well as monocyte responses. Expression of PD-1 ligands by tumor cells has been reported to contribute in immune system evasion. We aimed, in current study, to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in PD1 gene, +7146 G to A (PD-1.3) and +7785 C to T (PD-1.5 or +872), with susceptibility and/or progression of breast carcinoma. Four hundred forty-three women with breast cancer and 328 age-sex match healthy donors were recruited in present study. Genotyping was performed using Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Arlequin software package was used to check for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibration and to determine the haplotypes. Results revealed no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles at PD-1.3 (P=0.252 and 0.279 for genotypes and alleles, respectively) and PD-1.5 positions (P=0.522 and 0.278 for genotypes and alleles, respectively). Four haplotypes were observed among populations with no differences in the frequency between patients and controls. Our results also revealed no association between PD1 genotypes and tumor stage, tumor size, tumor grade, lymph node involvement, vascular invasion, distant metastasis, and Nottingham prognostic index. Present data do not confirm association of PD-1.3 (+7146) G/A and PD-1.5 (+7785 or +872) C/T genetic markers with susceptibility of Iranians to breast cancer.

  1. Melatonin Receptor 1B Gene Polymorphisms, Haplotypes and Susceptibility to Schizophrenia

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    Saravani Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin has an important role in the regulation of human sleep circadian rhythms. Sleep disturbances commonly exist in schizophrenia (SCZ patients. To begin its performance, melatonin must interact to its receptor. In the present study, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs of melatonin receptor gene 1 B (MTN1B with SCZ development in Iranian population were investigated. The current case-control study was performed on 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy control (HC subjects. NESTED-PCR and ARMS-PCR modified methods (combination and ARMSPCR method were used on the genotype. The impact of MTN1B rs3781637 (T/C and rs10830963(C/G polymorphism variants on the risk SCZ in the sample of Iranian population was investigated. The findings showed significant association between MTN1B rs10830963(C/G variant and SCZ (OR=2.78, 95%CI=1.25-6.25, P=0.012, GG vs. CC, OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.09-2.51, P=0.021 G vs. C, OR=3.85 95%CI=.89-8.33, P<0.0001, GG vs. CC+CG. There was no association between MTN1B rs3781637 (T/C and SCZ risk. In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that TG and CC haplotype of rs3781637 (T/C and rs10830963 (C/G polymorphisms were associated with SCZ risk (P=0.039 and protective (P<0.0001 effects, respectively. The findings revealed that MTN1B rs10830963 (C/G polymorphism was associated with the risk of SCZ; while another SNP rs3781637 (T/C MTN1B gene did not show any risk/protection association with SCZ. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to approve the results.

  2. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

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    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  3. Leveraging reads that span multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms for haplotype inference from sequencing data.

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    Yang, Wen-Yun; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Wang, Zhanyong; He, Dan; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2013-09-15

    Haplotypes, defined as the sequence of alleles on one chromosome, are crucial for many genetic analyses. As experimental determination of haplotypes is extremely expensive, haplotypes are traditionally inferred using computational approaches from genotype data, i.e. the mixture of the genetic information from both haplotypes. Best performing approaches for haplotype inference rely on Hidden Markov Models, with the underlying assumption that the haplotypes of a given individual can be represented as a mosaic of segments from other haplotypes in the same population. Such algorithms use this model to predict the most likely haplotypes that explain the observed genotype data conditional on reference panel of haplotypes. With rapid advances in short read sequencing technologies, sequencing is quickly establishing as a powerful approach for collecting genetic variation information. As opposed to traditional genotyping-array technologies that independently call genotypes at polymorphic sites, short read sequencing often collects haplotypic information; a read spanning more than one polymorphic locus (multi-single nucleotide polymorphic read) contains information on the haplotype from which the read originates. However, this information is generally ignored in existing approaches for haplotype phasing and genotype-calling from short read data. In this article, we propose a novel framework for haplotype inference from short read sequencing that leverages multi-single nucleotide polymorphic reads together with a reference panel of haplotypes. The basis of our approach is a new probabilistic model that finds the most likely haplotype segments from the reference panel to explain the short read sequencing data for a given individual. We devised an efficient sampling method within a probabilistic model to achieve superior performance than existing methods. Using simulated sequencing reads from real individual genotypes in the HapMap data and the 1000 Genomes projects, we show

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase haplotype associated with migraine and aura.

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    de O S Mansur, Thiago; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabiola; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-05-01

    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder with a clear neurogenic inflammatory component apparently including enhanced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Excessive NO amounts possibly contributing to migraine are derived from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We tested the hypothesis that two functional, clinically relevant iNOS genetic polymorphisms (C(-1026)A-rs2779249 and G2087A-rs2297518) are associated with migraine with or without aura. We studied 142 healthy women without migraine (control group) and 200 women with migraine divided into two groups: 148 with migraine without aura (MWA) and 52 with aura (MA). Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman(®) allele discrimination assays. The PHASE 2.1 software was used to estimate the haplotypes. The A allele for the G2087A polymorphism was more commonly found in the MA group than in the MWA group (28 vs. 18%; P 0.05). The haplotype combining both A alleles for the two polymorphisms was more commonly found in the MA group than in the control group or in the MWA group (19 vs. 10 or 8%; P = 0.0245 or 0.0027, respectively). Our findings indicate that the G2087A and the C(-1026)A polymorphism in the iNOS gene affect the susceptibility to migraine with aura when their effects are combined within haplotypes, whereas the G2087A affects the susceptibility to aura in migraine patients. These finding may have therapeutic implications when examining the effects of selective iNOS inhibitors.

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.

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    Rajeevan, M S; Smith, A K; Dimulescu, I; Unger, E R; Vernon, S D; Heim, C; Reeves, W C

    2007-03-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a significant public health problem of unknown etiology, the pathophysiology has not been elucidated, and there are no characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Some studies have indicated an association of CFS with deregulation of immune functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In this study, we examined the association of sequence variations in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) with CFS because NR3C1 is a major effector of the HPA axis. There were 137 study participants (40 with CFS, 55 with insufficient symptoms or fatigue, termed as ISF, and 42 non-fatigued controls) who were clinically evaluated and identified from the general population of Wichita, KS. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NR3C1 were tested for association of polymorphisms and haplotypes with CFS. We observed an association of multiple SNPs with chronic fatigue compared to non-fatigued (NF) subjects (P fatigue (by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and with symptoms (assessed by the Centers for Disease Control Symptom Inventory). Subjects homozygous for the major allele of all associated SNPs were at increased risk for CFS with odds ratios ranging from 2.61 (CI 1.05-6.45) to 3.00 (CI 1.12-8.05). Five SNPs, covering a region of approximately 80 kb, demonstrated high linkage disequilibrium (LD) in CFS, but LD gradually declined in ISF to NF subjects. Furthermore, haplotype analysis of the region in LD identified two associated haplotypes with opposite alleles: one protective and the other conferring risk of CFS. These results demonstrate NR3C1 as a potential mediator of chronic fatigue, and implicate variations in the 5' region of NR3C1 as a possible mechanism through which the alterations in HPA axis regulation and behavioural characteristics of CFS may manifest.

  6. Fetal Haemoglobin and β-globin Gene Cluster Haplotypes among Sickle Cell Patients in Chhattisgarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Sanjana; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Thakur, Amar Singh

    2013-02-01

    Foetal Haemoglobin (HbF) is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anaemia, which varies dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. The patients with SCA display a remarkable variability in the disease severity. High HbF levels and the β-globin gene cluster haplotypes influence the clinical presentation of sickle cell disease. To identify the genetic modifiers which influence the disease severity, we conducted a β-globin haplotype analysis in the sickle cell disease patients of Chhattisgarh. The foetal haemoglobin and the β-globin gene haplotypes of the sickle cell trait and the sickle cell disease patients from Chhattisgarh were investigated. A total of 100 sickle cell patients (SS), 50 sickle cell trait patients (AS) and 50 healthy control individuals were included in the present study. The distribution of the β-globin gene haplotype was done by the PCR-RFLP method. PCR-RFLP showed that the homozygous Arab-Indian haplotype (65%) was the most frequent one, followed by the heterozygous Arab-Indian haplotype (11%) in the sickle cell patients (SS), while the AS patients had a higher frequency of the heterozygous Arab-Indian haplotype (38%) in comparison to homozygous one (32%). Four atypical haplotypes, 3 Benin and 1 Cameroon were also observed, although they were in lower frequencies. In the present study, the HbF levels were higher in the AS and the SS patients, with one or two Arab-Indian haplotypes as compared to the other haplotypes. The presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype as the predominant haplotype might be suggestive of a gene flow to/from Saudi-Arabia or India and it was associated with higher HbF levels and a milder disease severity.

  7. High-Density SNP Genotyping to Define β-Globin Locus Haplotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S.; Quinn, Charles T.; Onyekwere, Onyinye C.; Pace, Betty S.

    2008-01-01

    Five major β-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, β-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the β-locus, which consists of five functional β-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have n...

  8. A phased SNP-based classification of sickle cell anemia HBB haplotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikho, Elmutaz M.; Farrell, John J.; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Qutub, Hatem; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Chui, David H. K.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Murphy, George J.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Sebastiani, Paola; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia causes severe complications and premature death. Five common ?-globin gene cluster haplotypes are each associated with characteristic fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. As HbF is the major modulator of disease severity, classifying patients according to haplotype is useful. The first method of haplotype classification used restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ?-globin gene cluster. This is labor int...

  9. Revealing phenotype-associated functional differences by genome-wide scan of ancient haplotype blocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritsuko Onuki

    Full Text Available Genome-wide scans for positive selection have become important for genomic medicine, and many studies aim to find genomic regions affected by positive selection that are associated with risk allele variations among populations. Most such studies are designed to detect recent positive selection. However, we hypothesize that ancient positive selection is also important for adaptation to pathogens, and has affected current immune-mediated common diseases. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a novel linkage disequilibrium-based pipeline, which aims to detect regions associated with ancient positive selection across populations from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data. By applying this pipeline to the genotypes in the International HapMap project database, we show that genes in the detected regions are enriched in pathways related to the immune system and infectious diseases. The detected regions also contain SNPs reported to be associated with cancers and metabolic diseases, obesity-related traits, type 2 diabetes, and allergic sensitization. These SNPs were further mapped to biological pathways to determine the associations between phenotypes and molecular functions. Assessments of candidate regions to identify functions associated with variations in incidence rates of these diseases are needed in the future.

  10. HAPLOWSER: a whole-genome haplotype browser for personal genome and metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Woo-Cheol; Waterman, Michael S; Park, Sanghyun; Li, Lei M

    2009-09-15

    Haplotype assembly is becoming a very important tool in genome sequencing of human and other organisms. Although haplotypes were previously inferred from genome assemblies, there has never been a comparative haplotype browser that depicts a global picture of whole-genome alignments among haplotypes of different organisms. We introduce a whole-genome HAPLotype brOWSER (HAPLOWSER), providing evolutionary perspectives from multiple aligned haplotypes and functional annotations. Haplowser enables the comparison of haplotypes from metagenomes, and associates conserved regions or the bases at the conserved regions with functional annotations and custom tracks. The associations are quantified for further analysis and presented as pie charts. Functional annotations and custom tracks that are projected onto haplotypes are saved as multiple files in FASTA format. Haplowser provides a user-friendly interface, and can display alignments of haplotypes with functional annotations at any resolution. Haplowser, written in Java, supports multiple platforms including Windows and Linux. Haplowser is publicly available at http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/haplowser .

  11. SDhaP: haplotype assembly for diploids and polyploids via semi-definite programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2015-04-03

    The goal of haplotype assembly is to infer haplotypes of an individual from a mixture of sequenced chromosome fragments. Limited lengths of paired-end sequencing reads and inserts render haplotype assembly computationally challenging; in fact, most of the problem formulations are known to be NP-hard. Dimensions (and, therefore, difficulty) of the haplotype assembly problems keep increasing as the sequencing technology advances and the length of reads and inserts grow. The computational challenges are even more pronounced in the case of polyploid haplotypes, whose assembly is considerably more difficult than in the case of diploids. Fast, accurate, and scalable methods for haplotype assembly of diploid and polyploid organisms are needed. We develop a novel framework for diploid/polyploid haplotype assembly from high-throughput sequencing data. The method formulates the haplotype assembly problem as a semi-definite program and exploits its special structure - namely, the low rank of the underlying solution - to solve it rapidly and with high accuracy. The developed framework is applicable to both diploid and polyploid species. The code for SDhaP is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/sdhap . Extensive benchmarking tests on both real and simulated data show that the proposed algorithms outperform several well-known haplotype assembly methods in terms of either accuracy or speed or both. Useful recommendations for coverages needed to achieve near-optimal solutions are also provided.

  12. Estimating haplotype relative risks on human survival in population-based association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Bathum, Lise; Zhao, Jing Hua; Yashin, Anatoli I; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare; Kruse, Torben A

    2005-01-01

    Association-based linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is an increasingly important tool for localizing genes that show potential influence on human aging and longevity. As haplotypes contain more LD information than single markers, a haplotype-based LD approach can have increased power in detecting associations as well as increased robustness in statistical testing. In this paper, we develop a new statistical model to estimate haplotype relative risks (HRRs) on human survival using unphased multilocus genotype data from unrelated individuals in cross-sectional studies. Based on the proportional hazard assumption, the model can estimate haplotype risk and frequency parameters, incorporate observed covariates, assess interactions between haplotypes and the covariates, and investigate the modes of gene function. By introducing population survival information available from population statistics, we are able to develop a procedure that carries out the parameter estimation using a nonparametric baseline hazard function and estimates sex-specific HRRs to infer gene-sex interaction. We also evaluate the haplotype effects on human survival while taking into account individual heterogeneity in the unobserved genetic and nongenetic factors or frailty by introducing the gamma-distributed frailty into the survival function. After model validation by computer simulation, we apply our method to an empirical data set to measure haplotype effects on human survival and to estimate haplotype frequencies at birth and over the observed ages. Results from both simulation and model application indicate that our survival analysis model is an efficient method for inferring haplotype effects on human survival in population-based association studies.

  13. Statistical analysis for haplotype-based matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zheng, G; Li, Z

    2006-12-01

    Using unphased genotype data, we studied statistical inference for association between a disease and a haplotype in matched case-control studies. Statistical inference for haplotype data is complicated due to ambiguity of genotype phases. An estimating equation-based method is developed for estimating odds ratios and testing disease-haplotype association. The method potentially can also be applied to testing haplotype-environment interaction. Simulation studies show that the proposed method has good performance. The performance of the method in the presence of departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is also studied.

  14. Inheritance of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype in recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Astrid M; Nielsen, Henriette S; Steffensen, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH) (HLA-A1, C7, B8, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3, DQ2) is a remarkably long and conserved haplotype in the human major histocompatibility complex. It has been associated with both beneficial and detrimental effects, consistent with antagonistic...... pleiotropy. It has also been proposed that the survival of long, conserved haplotypes may be due to gestational drive, i.e. selective miscarriage of fetuses who have not inherited the haplotype from a heterozygous mother. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses...

  15. A Highly Significant Association between a COMT Haplotype and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, Sagiv; Bronstein, Michal; Sternfeld, Meira; Pisanté-Shalom, Anne; Lev-Lehman, Efrat; Weizman, Avraham; Reznik, Ilya; Spivak, Baruch; Grisaru, Nimrod; Karp, Leon; Schiffer, Richard; Kotler, Moshe; Strous, Rael D.; Swartz-Vanetik, Marnina; Knobler, Haim Y.; Shinar, Eilat; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Yakir, Benjamin; Risch, Neil; Zak, Naomi B.; Darvasi, Ariel

    2002-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have placed the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the limelight as a candidate gene for schizophrenia. One of these is its biochemical function in metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters; another is the microdeletion, on chromosome 22q11, that includes the COMT gene and causes velocardiofacial syndrome, a syndrome associated with a high rate of psychosis, particularly schizophrenia. The interest in the COMT gene as a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia has led to numerous linkage and association analyses. These, however, have failed to produce any conclusive result. Here we report an efficient approach to gene discovery. The approach consists of (i) a large sample size—to our knowledge, the present study is the largest case-control study performed to date in schizophrenia; (ii) the use of Ashkenazi Jews, a well defined homogeneous population; and (iii) a stepwise procedure in which several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are scanned in DNA pools, followed by individual genotyping and haplotype analysis of the relevant SNPs. We found a highly significant association between schizophrenia and a COMT haplotype (P=9.5×10-8). The approach presented can be widely implemented for the genetic dissection of other common diseases. PMID:12402217

  16. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  17. Data on haplotype-supported immunoglobulin germline gene inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kirik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data that defines IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy chain variable germline gene inference using sequences of IgM-encoding transcriptomes obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology are described. Such inference is used to establish personalized germline gene sets for in-depth antibody repertoire studies and to detect new antibody germline genes from widely available immunoglobulin-encoding transcriptome data sets. Specifically, the data has been used to validate (Parallel antibody germline gene and haplotype analyses support the validity of immunoglobulin germline gene inference and discovery (DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.03.012 (Kirik et al., 2017 [1] the inference process. This was accomplished based on analysis of the inferred germline genes’ association to the donors’ different haplotypes as defined by their different, expressed IGHJ alleles and/or IGHD genes/alleles. The data is important for development of validated germline gene databases containing entries inferred from immunoglobulin-encoding transcriptome sequencing data sets, and for generation of valid, personalized antibody germline gene repertoires.

  18. Improved haplotype-based detection of ongoing selective sweeps towards an application in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Karl J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing amount of genome information allows us to address various questions regarding the molecular evolution and population genetics of different species. Such genome-wide data sets including thousands of individuals genotyped at hundreds of thousands of markers require time-efficient and powerful analysis methods. Demography and sampling introduce a bias into present population genetic tests of natural selection, which may confound results. Thus, a modification of test statistics is necessary to introduce time-efficient and unbiased analysis methods. Results We present an improved haplotype-based test of selective sweeps in samples of unequally related individuals. For this purpose, we modified existing tests by weighting the contribution of each individual based on its uniqueness in the entire sample. In contrast to previous tests, this modified test is feasible even for large genome-wide data sets of multiple individuals. We utilize coalescent simulations to estimate the sensitivity of such haplotype-based test statistics to complex demographic scenarios, such as population structure, population growth and bottlenecks. The analysis of empirical data from humans reveals different results compared to previous tests. Additionally, we show that our statistic is applicable to empirical data from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall, the modified test leads to a slight but significant increase of power to detect selective sweeps among all demographic scenarios. Conclusions The concept of this modification might be applied to other statistics in population genetics to reduce the intrinsic bias of demography and sampling. Additionally, the combination of different test statistics may further improve the performance of tests for natural selection.

  19. Chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia patients is associated with HBB(*)S haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Izabel C J; Rocha, Lillianne B S; Barbosa, Maritza C; Elias, Darcielle B D; Querioz, José A N; Freitas, Max Vitor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia P

    2014-02-01

    The chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with several factors such as the following: endothelial damage; increased production of reactive oxygen species; hemolysis; increased expression of adhesion molecules by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Genetic characteristics affecting the clinical severity of SCA include variations in the hemoglobin F (HbF) level, coexistence of alpha-thalassemia, and the haplotype associated with the HbS gene. The different haplotypes of SCA are Bantu, Benin, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian. These haplotypes are associated with ethnic groups and also based on the geographical origin. Studies have shown that the Bantu haplotype is associated with higher incidence of clinical complications than the other haplotypes and is therefore considered to have the worst prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 in patients with SCA and also to assess the haplotypes associated with beta globin cluster S (HBB(*)S). We analyzed a total of 62 patients who had SCA and had been treated with hydroxyurea; they had received a dose ranging between 15 and 25 (20.0±0.6)mg/kg/day for 6-60 (18±3.4)months; their data were compared with those for 30 normal individuals. The presence of HbS was detected and the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our study demonstrated that SCA patients have increased inflammatory profile when compared to the healthy individuals. Further, analysis of the association between the haplotypes and inflammatory profile showed that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were greater in subjects with the Bantu/Bantu haplotype than in subjects with the Benin/Benin haplotype. The Bantu/Benin haplotype individuals had lower levels of cytokines than those with

  20. Study of the optimum haplotype length to build genomic relationship matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdosi, Mohammad H; Henshall, John; Tier, Bruce

    2016-09-29

    As genomic data becomes more abundant, genomic prediction is more routinely used to estimate breeding values. In genomic prediction, the relationship matrix ([Formula: see text]), which is traditionally used in genetic evaluations is replaced by the genomic relationship matrix ([Formula: see text]). This paper considers alternative ways of building relationship matrices either using single markers or haplotypes of different lengths. We compared the prediction accuracies and log-likelihoods when using these alternative relationship matrices and the traditional [Formula: see text] matrix, for real and simulated data. For real data, we built relationship matrices using 50k genotype data for a population of Brahman cattle to analyze three traits: scrotal circumference (SC), age at puberty (AGECL) and weight at first corpus luteum (WTCL). Haplotypes were phased with hsphase and imputed with BEAGLE. The relationship matrices were built using three methods based on haplotypes of different lengths. The log-likelihood was considered to define the optimum haplotype lengths for each trait and each haplotype-based relationship matrix. Based on simulated data, we showed that the inverse of [Formula: see text] matrix and the inverse of the haplotype relationship matrices for methods using one-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phased haplotypes provided coefficients of determination (R(2)) close to 1, although the estimated genetic variances differed across methods. Using real data and multiple SNPs in the haplotype segments to build the relationship matrices provided better results than the [Formula: see text] matrix based on one-SNP haplotypes. However, the optimal haplotype length to achieve the highest log-likelihood depended on the method used and the trait. The optimal haplotype length (7 to 8 SNPs) was similar for SC and AGECL. One of the haplotype-based methods achieved the largest increase in log-likelihood for SC, i.e. from -1330 when using [Formula: see text] to

  1. Genetic relationships among native americans based on beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  2. Kullback–Leibler divergence for detection of rare haplotype common disease association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shili

    2015-01-01

    Rare haplotypes may tag rare causal variants of common diseases; hence, detection of such rare haplotypes may also contribute to our understanding of complex disease etiology. Because rare haplotypes frequently result from common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), focusing on rare haplotypes is much more economical compared with using rare single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) from sequencing, as SNPs are available and ‘free' from already amassed genome-wide studies. Further, associated haplotypes may shed light on the underlying disease causal mechanism, a feat unmatched by SNV-based collapsing methods. In recent years, data mining approaches have been adapted to detect rare haplotype association. However, as they rely on an assumed underlying disease model and require the specification of a null haplotype, results can be erroneous if such assumptions are violated. In this paper, we present a haplotype association method based on Kullback–Leibler divergence (hapKL) for case–control samples. The idea is to compare haplotype frequencies for the cases versus the controls by computing symmetrical divergence measures. An important property of such measures is that both the frequencies and logarithms of the frequencies contribute in parallel, thus balancing the contributions from rare and common, and accommodating both deleterious and protective, haplotypes. A simulation study under various scenarios shows that hapKL has well-controlled type I error rates and good power compared with existing data mining methods. Application of hapKL to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) shows a strong association of the complement factor H (CFH) gene with AMD, identifying several individual rare haplotypes with strong signals. PMID:25735482

  3. Kullback-Leibler divergence for detection of rare haplotype common disease association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shili

    2015-11-01

    Rare haplotypes may tag rare causal variants of common diseases; hence, detection of such rare haplotypes may also contribute to our understanding of complex disease etiology. Because rare haplotypes frequently result from common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), focusing on rare haplotypes is much more economical compared with using rare single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) from sequencing, as SNPs are available and 'free' from already amassed genome-wide studies. Further, associated haplotypes may shed light on the underlying disease causal mechanism, a feat unmatched by SNV-based collapsing methods. In recent years, data mining approaches have been adapted to detect rare haplotype association. However, as they rely on an assumed underlying disease model and require the specification of a null haplotype, results can be erroneous if such assumptions are violated. In this paper, we present a haplotype association method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence (hapKL) for case-control samples. The idea is to compare haplotype frequencies for the cases versus the controls by computing symmetrical divergence measures. An important property of such measures is that both the frequencies and logarithms of the frequencies contribute in parallel, thus balancing the contributions from rare and common, and accommodating both deleterious and protective, haplotypes. A simulation study under various scenarios shows that hapKL has well-controlled type I error rates and good power compared with existing data mining methods. Application of hapKL to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) shows a strong association of the complement factor H (CFH) gene with AMD, identifying several individual rare haplotypes with strong signals.

  4. Characterization of Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes and haplotypes in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X; Wang, M; Zhou, H; Wu, X; Yang, L; Xu, C; Yuan, X; Zhang, J; Li, L; Wu, D; He, J

    2013-11-01

    We performed Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotyping on 1271 individuals of Chinese Han origin including 102 families and 965 unrelated individuals. The families (with one child and both parents) were subjected for haplotype analysis. Forty-one different genotypes were identified. The frequencies of the KIR genotypes found in the family panel were confirmed by those found in the unrelated panel. The family study showed segregation of one A haplotype and at least 15 unique B haplotypes. The most commonly observed haplotypes in group B were B1, B2, and B3, present at a frequency of 10.05%, 6.62%, and 4.90%, respectively. On the basis of the combination of KIR genes, six centromeric and seven telomeric gene motifs have been identified. Motif cB02 was the most frequent haplotype B specific centromeric segment while tB01 was the most frequent haplotype B specific telomeric segment. The distinct distribution of KIR haplotypes in each population may reflect the history of directional and balancing selection of different races. The gene combinations of group A and B1/B2/B3 haplotype were the most frequent genotypes named as Bx1, Bx2, and Bx3, present at a frequency of 13.72%, 7.35%, and 4.41% in the family panel, and at a frequency of 15.86%, 10.15%, and 5.80% in the unrelated panel, respectively. Overall, this study showed the diversity of KIR haplotypes and genotypes in Chinese Han population and developed a criterion for distinguish KIR haplotypes/genotypes for the population. KIR genotyping and haplotype analysis should be useful for selection of the most optimum donor grafts with favorable KIR gene content for transplants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products.

  6. Musical Aptitude Is Associated with AVPR1A-Haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Liisa T.; Onkamo, Päivi; Raijas, Pirre; Karma, Kai; Järvelä, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Artistic creativity forms the basis of music culture and music industry. Composing, improvising and arranging music are complex creative functions of the human brain, which biological value remains unknown. We hypothesized that practicing music is social communication that needs musical aptitude and even creativity in music. In order to understand the neurobiological basis of music in human evolution and communication we analyzed polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A), serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), catecol-O-methyltranferase (COMT), dopamin receptor D2 (DRD2) and tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), genes associated with social bonding and cognitive functions in 19 Finnish families (n = 343 members) with professional musicians and/or active amateurs. All family members were tested for musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test; KMT) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch (SP) and for time (ST). Data on creativity in music (composing, improvising and/or arranging music) was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. Here we show for the first time that creative functions in music have a strong genetic component (h2 = .84; composing h2 = .40; arranging h2 = .46; improvising h2 = .62) in Finnish multigenerational families. We also show that high music test scores are significantly associated with creative functions in music (p<.0001). We discovered an overall haplotype association with AVPR1A gene (markers RS1 and RS3) and KMT (p = 0.0008; corrected p = 0.00002), SP (p = 0.0261; corrected p = 0.0072) and combined music test scores (COMB) (p = 0.0056; corrected p = 0.0006). AVPR1A haplotype AVR+RS1 further suggested a positive association with ST (p = 0.0038; corrected p = 0.00184) and COMB (p = 0.0083; corrected p = 0.0040) using haplotype-based association test HBAT. The results suggest that the neurobiology of music perception and production is likely to be

  7. Musical aptitude is associated with AVPR1A-haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Liisa T; Onkamo, Päivi; Raijas, Pirre; Karma, Kai; Järvelä, Irma

    2009-05-20

    Artistic creativity forms the basis of music culture and music industry. Composing, improvising and arranging music are complex creative functions of the human brain, which biological value remains unknown. We hypothesized that practicing music is social communication that needs musical aptitude and even creativity in music. In order to understand the neurobiological basis of music in human evolution and communication we analyzed polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A), serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), catecol-O-methyltranferase (COMT), dopamin receptor D2 (DRD2) and tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), genes associated with social bonding and cognitive functions in 19 Finnish families (n = 343 members) with professional musicians and/or active amateurs. All family members were tested for musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test; KMT) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch (SP) and for time (ST). Data on creativity in music (composing, improvising and/or arranging music) was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. Here we show for the first time that creative functions in music have a strong genetic component (h(2) = .84; composing h(2) = .40; arranging h(2) = .46; improvising h(2) = .62) in Finnish multigenerational families. We also show that high music test scores are significantly associated with creative functions in music (p<.0001). We discovered an overall haplotype association with AVPR1A gene (markers RS1 and RS3) and KMT (p = 0.0008; corrected p = 0.00002), SP (p = 0.0261; corrected p = 0.0072) and combined music test scores (COMB) (p = 0.0056; corrected p = 0.0006). AVPR1A haplotype AVR+RS1 further suggested a positive association with ST (p = 0.0038; corrected p = 0.00184) and COMB (p = 0.0083; corrected p = 0.0040) using haplotype-based association test HBAT. The results suggest that the neurobiology of music perception and production is likely to be related to the pathways affecting intrinsic

  8. Musical aptitude is associated with AVPR1A-haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa T Ukkola

    Full Text Available Artistic creativity forms the basis of music culture and music industry. Composing, improvising and arranging music are complex creative functions of the human brain, which biological value remains unknown. We hypothesized that practicing music is social communication that needs musical aptitude and even creativity in music. In order to understand the neurobiological basis of music in human evolution and communication we analyzed polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A, serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, catecol-O-methyltranferase (COMT, dopamin receptor D2 (DRD2 and tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, genes associated with social bonding and cognitive functions in 19 Finnish families (n = 343 members with professional musicians and/or active amateurs. All family members were tested for musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test; KMT and Carl Seashores tests for pitch (SP and for time (ST. Data on creativity in music (composing, improvising and/or arranging music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. Here we show for the first time that creative functions in music have a strong genetic component (h(2 = .84; composing h(2 = .40; arranging h(2 = .46; improvising h(2 = .62 in Finnish multigenerational families. We also show that high music test scores are significantly associated with creative functions in music (p<.0001. We discovered an overall haplotype association with AVPR1A gene (markers RS1 and RS3 and KMT (p = 0.0008; corrected p = 0.00002, SP (p = 0.0261; corrected p = 0.0072 and combined music test scores (COMB (p = 0.0056; corrected p = 0.0006. AVPR1A haplotype AVR+RS1 further suggested a positive association with ST (p = 0.0038; corrected p = 0.00184 and COMB (p = 0.0083; corrected p = 0.0040 using haplotype-based association test HBAT. The results suggest that the neurobiology of music perception and production is likely to be related to the pathways affecting intrinsic attachment

  9. Effects of the number of markers per haplotype and clustering of haplotypes on the accuracy of QTL mapping and prediction of genomic breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of haplotype definition on the precision of QTL-mapping and on the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values. In a multiple QTL model using identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities between haplotypes, various haplotype definitions were tested i.e. including 2, 6, 12 or 20 marker alleles and clustering base haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55, 0.75 or 0.95. Simulated data contained 1100 animals with known genotypes and phenotypes and 1000 animals with known genotypes and unknown phenotypes. Genomes comprising 3 Morgan were simulated and contained 74 polymorphic QTL and 383 polymorphic SNP markers with an average r2 value of 0.14 between adjacent markers. The total number of haplotypes decreased up to 50% when the window size was increased from two to 20 markers and decreased by at least 50% when haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55 instead of > 0.95 were clustered. An intermediate window size led to more precise QTL mapping. Window size and clustering had a limited effect on the accuracy of predicted total breeding values, ranging from 0.79 to 0.81. Our conclusion is that different optimal window sizes should be used in QTL-mapping versus genome-wide breeding value prediction. PMID:19284677

  10. Effects of the number of markers per haplotype and clustering of haplotypes on the accuracy of QTL mapping and prediction of genomic breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrooten Chris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of haplotype definition on the precision of QTL-mapping and on the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values. In a multiple QTL model using identity-by-descent (IBD probabilities between haplotypes, various haplotype definitions were tested i.e. including 2, 6, 12 or 20 marker alleles and clustering base haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55, 0.75 or 0.95. Simulated data contained 1100 animals with known genotypes and phenotypes and 1000 animals with known genotypes and unknown phenotypes. Genomes comprising 3 Morgan were simulated and contained 74 polymorphic QTL and 383 polymorphic SNP markers with an average r2 value of 0.14 between adjacent markers. The total number of haplotypes decreased up to 50% when the window size was increased from two to 20 markers and decreased by at least 50% when haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55 instead of > 0.95 were clustered. An intermediate window size led to more precise QTL mapping. Window size and clustering had a limited effect on the accuracy of predicted total breeding values, ranging from 0.79 to 0.81. Our conclusion is that different optimal window sizes should be used in QTL-mapping versus genome-wide breeding value prediction.

  11. Exploiting next-generation sequencing to solve the haplotyping puzzle in polyploids: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motazedi, E.; Finkers, H.J.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Ridder, de D.

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes are the units of inheritance in an organism, and many genetic analyses depend on their precise determination. Methods for haplotyping single individuals use the phasing information available in next-generation sequencing reads, by matching overlapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms while

  12. Mapping of HLA- DQ haplotypes in a group of Danish patients with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Hermansen, Mette N; Pedersen, Merete F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cost-effective identification of HLA- DQ risk haplotypes using the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technique has recently been applied in the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) in four European populations. The objective of the study was to map risk HLA- DQ haplotypes in a group...

  13. The JAK2 46/1 haplotype in Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Smalberg (Jasper); S. Darwish Murad (Sarwa); E.M. Koehler (Edith); A. Plessier (Aurelie); S. Seijo (Susana); J. Trebicka (Jonel); M. Primignani (Massimo); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); J.C. García-Pagán (Juan Carlos); D.C. Valla (Dominique Charle); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe germline JAK2 46/1 haplotype has been associated with the development of JAK2V617F-positive as well as JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In this study we examined the role of the 46/1 haplotype in the etiology and clinical presentation of patients with

  14. The Prognostic Value of Haplotypes in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund

    2010-01-01

    was to investigate the prognostic importance of haplotypes in the VEGF-A gene in patients with CRC. The study included 486 patients surgically resected for stage II and III CRC, divided into two independent cohorts. Three SNPs in the VEGF-A gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Haplotypes were estimated...

  15. Haplotype analysis of the 4p16.3 region in Portuguese families with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S; Lee, Jong-Min; Gögele, Martin; D'Elia, Yuri; Pichler, Irene; Sequeiros, Jorge; Pramstaller, Peter P; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Alonso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary choreic movements, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes, caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in HTT. We characterized the genetic diversity of the HD mutation by performing an extensive haplotype analysis of ∼1Mb region flanking HTT in over 300 HD families of Portuguese origin. We observed that haplotype A, marked by HTT delta2642, was enriched in HD chromosomes and carried the two largest expansions reported in the Portuguese population. However, the most frequent HD haplotype B carried one of the largest (+12 CAGs) expansions, which resulted in an allele class change to full penetrance. Despite having a normal CAG distribution skewed to the higher end of the range, these two core haplotypes had similar expanded CAG repeat sizes compared to the other major core haplotypes (C and D) and there was no statistical difference in transmitted repeat instability across haplotypes. We observed a diversity of HTT region haplotypes in both normal and expanded chromosomes, representative of more than one ancestral chromosome underlying HD in Portugal, where multiple independent events on distinct chromosome 4 haplotypes have given rise to expansion into the pathogenic range. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessing transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ haplotypes through seed potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conflicting data has previously been reported concerning the impact of zebra chip disease transmission through seed tubers. These discrepancies may be due to the experimental design of each study, whereby different pathogen haplotypes, insect vector haplotypes, and potato plant varieties were used....

  17. Haplotype sharing tests of linkage disequilibrium in a Hutterite asthma data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinson, DF; Nolte, [No Value; Meerman, GJT

    2001-01-01

    The Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 genome scan data set for "strict" asthma in a Hutterite population was analyzed using haplotype sharing analysis (HSA), which tests for differences in mean length of haplotype sharing around each marker for pairs of chromosomes in cases versus controls. The regions

  18. Interactions "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum"-Bactericera cockerelli: Haplotype Effect on Vector Fitness and Gene Expression Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianxiu; Saenkham, Panatda; Levy, Julien; Ibanez, Freddy; Noroy, Christophe; Mendoza, Azucena; Huot, Ordom; Meyer, Damien F; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso) has emerged as a serious threat world-wide. Five Lso haplotypes have been identified so far. Haplotypes A and B are present in the Americas and/or New Zealand, where they are vectored to solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). The fastidious nature of these pathogens has hindered the study of the interactions with their eukaryotic hosts (vector and plant). To understand the strategies used by these pathogens to infect their vector, the effects of each Lso haplotype (A or B) on psyllid fitness was investigated, and genome-wide transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analyses were performed to evaluate Lso gene expression in association with its vector. Results showed that psyllids infected with haplotype B had significantly lower percentage of nymphal survival compared to psyllids infected with haplotype A. Although overall gene expression across Lso genome was similar between the two Lso haplotypes, differences in the expression of key candidate genes were found. Among the 16 putative type IV effector genes tested, four of them were differentially expressed between Lso haplotypes, while no differences in gene expression were measured by qPCR or transcriptomic analysis for the rest of the genes. This study provides new information regarding the pathogenesis of Lso haplotypes in their insect vector.

  19. Haplotype sharing analysis with SNPs in candidate genes : The genetic analysis workshop 12 example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C; Beckmann, L; Majoram, P; Meerman, GT; Chang-Claude, J

    Haplotype sharing analysis was used to investigate the association of affection status with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes within candidate gene 1 in one sample each from the isolated and the general population of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 simulated data. Gene 1 has direct

  20. The targetable A1 Huntington disease haplotype has distinct Amerindian and European origins in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Chris; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Collins, Jennifer A; Wright, Galen; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Veliz-Otani, Diego; Ketelaar, Maria E; Slama, Ramy A; Ross, Colin J; Mazzetti, Pilar; Hayden, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. HD occurs worldwide, but the causative mutation is found on different HTT haplotypes in distinct ethnic groups. In Latin America, HD is thought to have European origins, but indigenous Amerindian ancestry has not been investigated. Here, we report dense HTT haplotypes in 62 mestizo Peruvian HD families, 17 HD families from across Latin America, and 42 controls of defined Peruvian Amerindian ethnicity to determine the origin of HD in populations of admixed Amerindian and European descent. HD in Peru occurs most frequently on the A1 HTT haplotype (73%), as in Europe, but on an unexpected indigenous variant also found in Amerindian controls. This Amerindian A1 HTT haplotype predominates over the European A1 variant among geographically disparate Latin American controls and in HD families from across Latin America, supporting an indigenous origin of the HD mutation in mestizo American populations. We also show that a proportion of HD mutations in Peru occur on a C1 HTT haplotype of putative Amerindian origin (14%). The majority of HD mutations in Latin America may therefore occur on haplotypes of Amerindian ancestry rather than on haplotypes resulting from European admixture. Despite the distinct ethnic ancestry of Amerindian and European A1 HTT, alleles on the parent A1 HTT haplotype allow for development of identical antisense molecules to selectively silence the HD mutation in the greatest proportion of patients in both Latin American and European populations.

  1. Frequency-based haplotype reconstruction from deep sequencing data of bacterial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Tamayo, Sergio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Swings, Toon; Van den Bergh, Bram; Dubey, Akanksha; Steenackers, Hans; Michiels, Jan; Fostier, Jan; Marchal, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Clonal populations accumulate mutations over time, resulting in different haplotypes. Deep sequencing of such a population in principle provides information to reconstruct these haplotypes and the frequency at which the haplotypes occur. However, this reconstruction is technically not trivial, especially not in clonal systems with a relatively low mutation frequency. The low number of segregating sites in those systems adds ambiguity to the haplotype phasing and thus obviates the reconstruction of genome-wide haplotypes based on sequence overlap information. Therefore, we present EVORhA, a haplotype reconstruction method that complements phasing information in the non-empty read overlap with the frequency estimations of inferred local haplotypes. As was shown with simulated data, as soon as read lengths and/or mutation rates become restrictive for state-of-the-art methods, the use of this additional frequency information allows EVORhA to still reliably reconstruct genome-wide haplotypes. On real data, we show the applicability of the method in reconstructing the population composition of evolved bacterial populations and in decomposing mixed bacterial infections from clinical samples. PMID:25990729

  2. ECTracker--an efficient algorithm for haplotype analysis and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Wong, Limsoon; Leong, Tze-Yun; Lai, Pohsan

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at discovering the genetic variations of hemophilia A patients through examining the combination of molecular haplotypes present in hemophilia A and normal local populations using data mining methods. Data mining methods that are capable of extracting understandable and expressive patterns and also capable of making predictions based on inferences made on the patterns were explored in this work. An algorithm known as ECTracker is proposed and its performance compared with some common data mining methods such as artificial neural network, support vector machine, naive Bayesian, and decision tree (C4.5). Experimental studies and analyses show that ECTracker has comparatively good predictive accuracies in classification when compared to methods that can only perform classification. At the same time, ECTracker is also capable of producing easily comprehensible and expressive patterns for analytical purposes by experts.

  3. Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fritz

    Full Text Available The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1% showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals. Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4 including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total. Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina, SLC35A3 (CVM, APAF1 (HH1 and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.

  4. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  5. Association of the Common Genetic Polymorphisms and Haplotypes of the Chymase Gene with Left Ventricular Mass in Male Patients with Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowska-Baranowska, Ewa; Gora, Jaroslaw; Baranowski, Rafal; Stoklosa, Patrycjusz; Gadomska vel Betka, Lucja; Pedzich-Placha, Ewa; Milkowska, Malogrzata; Koblowska, Marta K.; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Placha, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between polymorphisms and haplotypes of the chymase 1 gene (CMA1) and the left ventricular mass index (LVM/BSA) in a large cohort of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Additionally, the gender differences in cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy were analyzed. The genetic background may affect the myocardial response to pressure overload. In human cardiac tissue, CMA1 is involved in angiotensin II production and TGF-β activation, which are two major players in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy and fibrosis. Preoperative echocardiographic data from 648 patients with significant symptomatic AS were used. The LVM/BSA was significantly lower (p<0.0001), but relative wall thickness (RWT) was significantly higher (p = 0.0009) in the women compared with the men. The haplotypes were reconstructed using six genotyped polymorphisms: rs5248, rs4519248, rs1956932, rs17184822, rs1956923, and rs1800875. The haplotype h1.ACAGGA was associated with higher LVM/BSA (p = 9.84×10−5), and the haplotype h2.ATAGAG was associated with lower LVM/BSA (p = 0.0061) in men, and no significant differences were found in women. Two polymorphisms within the promoter region of the CMA1 gene, namely rs1800875 (p = 0.0067) and rs1956923 (p = 0.0015), influenced the value of the LVM/BSA in males. The polymorphisms and haplotypes of the CMA1 locus are associated with cardiac hypertrophy in male patients with symptomatic AS. Appropriate methods for the indexation of heart dimensions revealed substantial sex-related differences in the myocardial response to pressure overload. PMID:24823657

  6. HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton James C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B phenotype and haplotype frequencies in Alabama index patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and selective IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD, and in control subjects. Methods Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls. Results A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385, A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308, and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000, and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p p p = 0.0166. Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the index cases. Conclusions CVID and IgGSD in adults are significantly associated with several HLA haplotypes, many of which are also common in the Alabama Caucasian population. Immunoglobulin phenotype variability

  7. HapCUT2: robust and accurate haplotype assembly for diverse sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Peter; Bafna, Vineet; Bansal, Vikas

    2017-05-01

    Many tools have been developed for haplotype assembly-the reconstruction of individual haplotypes using reads mapped to a reference genome sequence. Due to increasing interest in obtaining haplotype-resolved human genomes, a range of new sequencing protocols and technologies have been developed to enable the reconstruction of whole-genome haplotypes. However, existing computational methods designed to handle specific technologies do not scale well on data from different protocols. We describe a new algorithm, HapCUT2, that extends our previous method (HapCUT) to handle multiple sequencing technologies. Using simulations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from multiple different data types-dilution pool sequencing, linked-read sequencing, single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, and proximity ligation (Hi-C) sequencing-we show that HapCUT2 rapidly assembles haplotypes with best-in-class accuracy for all data types. In particular, HapCUT2 scales well for high sequencing coverage and rapidly assembled haplotypes for two long-read WGS data sets on which other methods struggled. Further, HapCUT2 directly models Hi-C specific error modalities, resulting in significant improvements in error rates compared to HapCUT, the only other method that could assemble haplotypes from Hi-C data. Using HapCUT2, haplotype assembly from a 90× coverage whole-genome Hi-C data set yielded high-resolution haplotypes (78.6% of variants phased in a single block) with high pairwise phasing accuracy (∼98% across chromosomes). Our results demonstrate that HapCUT2 is a robust tool for haplotype assembly applicable to data from diverse sequencing technologies. © 2017 Edge et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Haplotype assembly in polyploid genomes and identical by descent shared tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Derek; Istrail, Sorin

    2013-07-01

    Genome-wide haplotype reconstruction from sequence data, or haplotype assembly, is at the center of major challenges in molecular biology and life sciences. For complex eukaryotic organisms like humans, the genome is vast and the population samples are growing so rapidly that algorithms processing high-throughput sequencing data must scale favorably in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency. Furthermore, current models and methodologies for haplotype assembly (i) do not consider individuals sharing haplotypes jointly, which reduces the size and accuracy of assembled haplotypes, and (ii) are unable to model genomes having more than two sets of homologous chromosomes (polyploidy). Polyploid organisms are increasingly becoming the target of many research groups interested in the genomics of disease, phylogenetics, botany and evolution but there is an absence of theory and methods for polyploid haplotype reconstruction. In this work, we present a number of results, extensions and generalizations of compass graphs and our HapCompass framework. We prove the theoretical complexity of two haplotype assembly optimizations, thereby motivating the use of heuristics. Furthermore, we present graph theory-based algorithms for the problem of haplotype assembly using our previously developed HapCompass framework for (i) novel implementations of haplotype assembly optimizations (minimum error correction), (ii) assembly of a pair of individuals sharing a haplotype tract identical by descent and (iii) assembly of polyploid genomes. We evaluate our methods on 1000 Genomes Project, Pacific Biosciences and simulated sequence data. HapCompass is available for download at http://www.brown.edu/Research/Istrail_Lab/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. HapCompass: a fast cycle basis algorithm for accurate haplotype assembly of sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Derek; Istrail, Sorin

    2012-06-01

    Genome assembly methods produce haplotype phase ambiguous assemblies due to limitations in current sequencing technologies. Determining the haplotype phase of an individual is computationally challenging and experimentally expensive. However, haplotype phase information is crucial in many bioinformatics workflows such as genetic association studies and genomic imputation. Current computational methods of determining haplotype phase from sequence data--known as haplotype assembly--have difficulties producing accurate results for large (1000 genomes-type) data or operate on restricted optimizations that are unrealistic considering modern high-throughput sequencing technologies. We present a novel algorithm, HapCompass, for haplotype assembly of densely sequenced human genome data. The HapCompass algorithm operates on a graph where single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are nodes and edges are defined by sequence reads and viewed as supporting evidence of co-occurring SNP alleles in a haplotype. In our graph model, haplotype phasings correspond to spanning trees. We define the minimum weighted edge removal optimization on this graph and develop an algorithm based on cycle basis local optimizations for resolving conflicting evidence. We then estimate the amount of sequencing required to produce a complete haplotype assembly of a chromosome. Using these estimates together with metrics borrowed from genome assembly and haplotype phasing, we compare the accuracy of HapCompass, the Genome Analysis ToolKit, and HapCut for 1000 Genomes Project and simulated data. We show that HapCompass performs significantly better for a variety of data and metrics. HapCompass is freely available for download (www.brown.edu/Research/Istrail_Lab/).

  10. Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Angola show the StctVMNT haplotype in the pfcrt gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective treatment remains a mainstay of malaria control, but it is unfortunately strongly compromised by drug resistance, particularly in Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite. Although P. falciparum chemoresistance is well recognized all over the world, limited data are available on the distribution and prevalence of pfcrt and pfmdr1 haplotypes that mediate resistance to commonly used drugs and that show distinct geographic differences. Methods Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples collected in 2007 at four municipalities of Luanda, Angola, were genotyped using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes were assessed and haplotype prevalences were determined. Results and Discussion The most prevalent pfcrt haplotype was StctVMNT (representing amino acids at codons 72-76). This result was unexpected, since the StctVMNT haplotype has previously been seen mainly in parasites from South America and India. The CVIET, CVMNT and CVINT drug-resistance haplotypes were also found, and one previously undescribed haplotype (CVMDT) was detected. Regarding pfmdr1, the most prevalent haplotype was YEYSNVD (representing amino acids at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246). Wild haplotypes for pfcrt and pfmdr1 were uncommon; 3% of field isolates harbored wild type pfcrt (CVMNK), whereas 21% had wild type pfmdr1 (NEYSNVD). The observed predominance of the StctVMNT haplotype in Angola could be a result of frequent travel between Brazil and Angola citizens in the context of selective pressure of heavy CQ use. Conclusions The high prevalence of the pfcrt SVMNT haplotype and the pfmdr1 86Y mutation confirm high-level chloroquine resistance and might suggest reduced efficacy of amodiaquine in Angola. Further studies must be encouraged to examine the in vitro sensitivity of pfcrt SVMNT parasites to artesunate and amodiaquine for better conclusive data. PMID:20565881

  11. Beta2 adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) haplotype pair (2/4) is associated with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Li Ping; Baltic, Svetlana; Ferreira, Manuel; Temple, Suzanna; Waterer, Grant; Thompson, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) polymorphisms including ADRβ2+46G>A have been reported to cause adverse outcomes in mild asthmatics. The extent to which ADRβ2 polymorphisms and in particular their haplotypes contribute to severe asthma is unknown. To determine the association of ADRβ2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with asthma severity. Caucasians (n = 2979) were genotyped for 11 ADRβ2 polymorphisms. The cohort (mean age 39.6, 60% female) included 2296 non-asthmatics, 386 mild asthmatics, 172 moderate asthmatics and 125 severe asthmatics. Haplotype frequency and haplotype pair for each subject was determined using the PHASE algorithm. The three asthmatic cohorts were comparable in age and gender but were distinguishable from each other in terms of symptoms, spirometry, medication use and health care utilisation (p haplotypes were identified and no association was found with asthma diagnosis or severity per se. Haplotype pair 2/4 was associated with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 1.42, p = 0.0008) but not with asthma per se. Prevalence of haplotype pair 2/2 appeared to decrease with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 0.78, p = 0.067). Two new haplotypes were identified, occurring exclusively in asthmatics at a frequency of ≥ 1%. In addition, a positive association between carriage of ADRβ2 +523*C and increased risk of atopy was discovered. ADRβ2 haplotype pair 2/4 is associated with severe asthma and is consistent with findings of poor bronchodilator response in mild asthmatics who are also haplotype 2/4.

  12. HapCUT2: robust and accurate haplotype assembly for diverse sequencing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Peter; Bafna, Vineet; Bansal, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Many tools have been developed for haplotype assembly—the reconstruction of individual haplotypes using reads mapped to a reference genome sequence. Due to increasing interest in obtaining haplotype-resolved human genomes, a range of new sequencing protocols and technologies have been developed to enable the reconstruction of whole-genome haplotypes. However, existing computational methods designed to handle specific technologies do not scale well on data from different protocols. We describe a new algorithm, HapCUT2, that extends our previous method (HapCUT) to handle multiple sequencing technologies. Using simulations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from multiple different data types—dilution pool sequencing, linked-read sequencing, single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, and proximity ligation (Hi-C) sequencing—we show that HapCUT2 rapidly assembles haplotypes with best-in-class accuracy for all data types. In particular, HapCUT2 scales well for high sequencing coverage and rapidly assembled haplotypes for two long-read WGS data sets on which other methods struggled. Further, HapCUT2 directly models Hi-C specific error modalities, resulting in significant improvements in error rates compared to HapCUT, the only other method that could assemble haplotypes from Hi-C data. Using HapCUT2, haplotype assembly from a 90× coverage whole-genome Hi-C data set yielded high-resolution haplotypes (78.6% of variants phased in a single block) with high pairwise phasing accuracy (∼98% across chromosomes). Our results demonstrate that HapCUT2 is a robust tool for haplotype assembly applicable to data from diverse sequencing technologies. PMID:27940952

  13. Haplotype Phasing and Inheritance of Copy Number Variants in Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priit; Kaplinski, Lauris; Nagirnaja, Liina; Veidenberg, Andres; Möls, Märt; Nelis, Mari; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Laan, Maris; Remm, Maido

    2015-01-01

    DNA copy number variants (CNVs) that alter the copy number of a particular DNA segment in the genome play an important role in human phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. A number of CNVs overlapping with genes have been shown to confer risk to a variety of human diseases thus highlighting the relevance of addressing the variability of CNVs at a higher resolution. So far, it has not been possible to deterministically infer the allelic composition of different haplotypes present within the CNV regions. We have developed a novel computational method, called PiCNV, which enables to resolve the haplotype sequence composition within CNV regions in nuclear families based on SNP genotyping microarray data. The algorithm allows to i) phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes in the copy number variable regions, ii) resolve the allelic copies of rearranged DNA sequence within the haplotypes and iii) infer the heritability of identified haplotypes in trios or larger nuclear families. To our knowledge this is the first program available that can deterministically phase null, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraploid genotypes in CNV loci. We applied our method to study the composition and inheritance of haplotypes in CNV regions of 30 HapMap Yoruban trios and 34 Estonian families. For 93.6% of the CNV loci, PiCNV enabled to unambiguously phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes and follow their transmission in the corresponding families. Furthermore, allelic composition analysis identified the co-occurrence of alternative allelic copies within 66.7% of haplotypes carrying copy number gains. We also observed less frequent transmission of CNV-carrying haplotypes from parents to children compared to normal haplotypes and identified an emergence of several de novo deletions and duplications in the offspring. PMID:25853576

  14. Haplotype structure of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene in 814 Danish Caucasian subjects and association with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Kamp; Nielsen, Morten; Koefoed, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2). By the use of five SNPs (G46A, C79G, C491T, C523A, G1053C) for identification of ADRB2 haplotypes in 814 Danish Caucasians, we investigated whether ADRB2 haplotypes are associated...... with body mass index (BMI). The SNPs showed organization into 13 distinct haplotypes and 41 haplotype pairs. The study identified four common haplotypes: ACCCC (10.1 +/- 0.3 %), ACCCG (27.9 +/- 0.3 %), GCCAC (10.8 +/- 0.1 %) and GGCCG (41.0 +/- 0.2 %) (frequencies (SD), seen in 91 % of the population....... In the total population (mean age +/- SD: 50 +/- 16 years), BMI was not related to haplotype pairs, individual SNPs or allelic haplotypes. However, in subjects haplotype groups (p = 0.014) but were not related...

  15. Haplotype identity between individuals who share a CFTR mutation allele ''identical by descent'' : Demonstration of the usefulness of the haplotype-sharing concept for gene mapping in real populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, HG; vanderMeulen, MA; Rozen, R; Halley, DJJ; Scheffer, H; tenKate, LP; Buys, CHCM; teMeerman, GJ

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the A455E mutation, in both the French Canadian and the Dutch population, share a common haplotype over distances of up to 25 cM. French Canadian patients with the 621+1G-->T mutation share a common haplotype of more than 14 cM. In contrast, haplotypes containing

  16. Haplotype identity between individuals who share a CFTR mutation allele "identical by descent" : demonstration of the usefulness of the haplotype-sharing concept for gene mapping in real populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H G; van der Meulen, M A; Rozen, R; Halley, D J; Scheffer, H; ten Kate, L P; Buys, C H; te Meerman, G J

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the A455E mutation, in both the French Canadian and the Dutch population, share a common haplotype over distances of up to 25 cM. French Canadian patients with the 621+1G-->T mutation share a common haplotype of more than 14 cM. In contrast, haplotypes containing

  17. A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purps, Josephine; Siegert, Sabine; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Alves, Cíntia; Salazar, Renato; Angustia, Sheila M.T.; Santos, Lorna H.; Anslinger, Katja; Bayer, Birgit; Ayub, Qasim; Wei, Wei; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Bafalluy, Miriam Baeta; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Egyed, Balazs; Balitzki, Beate; Tschumi, Sibylle; Ballard, David; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Barrantes, Xinia; Bäßler, Gerhard; Wiest, Tina; Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Davis, Carey; Budowle, Bruce; Burri, Helen; Borer, Urs; Koller, Christoph; Carvalho, Elizeu F.; Domingues, Patricia M.; Chamoun, Wafaa Takash; Coble, Michael D.; Hill, Carolyn R.; Corach, Daniel; Caputo, Mariela; D’Amato, Maria E.; Davison, Sean; Decorte, Ronny; Larmuseau, Maarten H.D.; Ottoni, Claudio; Rickards, Olga; Lu, Di; Jiang, Chengtao; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jonkisz, Anna; Frank, William E.; Furac, Ivana; Gehrig, Christian; Castella, Vincent; Grskovic, Branka; Haas, Cordula; Wobst, Jana; Hadzic, Gavrilo; Drobnic, Katja; Honda, Katsuya; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Di; Li, Yan; Hu, Shengping; Chen, Shenglan; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Lessig, Rüdiger; Jakovski, Zlatko; Ilievska, Tanja; Klann, Anja E.; García, Cristina Cano; de Knijff, Peter; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Kondili, Aikaterini; Miniati, Penelope; Vouropoulou, Maria; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Lindner, Iris; Mansour, Issam; Al-Azem, Mouayyad; Andari, Ansar El; Marino, Miguel; Furfuro, Sandra; Locarno, Laura; Martín, Pablo; Luque, Gracia M.; Alonso, Antonio; Miranda, Luís Souto; Moreira, Helena; Mizuno, Natsuko; Iwashima, Yasuki; Neto, Rodrigo S. Moura; Nogueira, Tatiana L.S.; Silva, Rosane; Nastainczyk-Wulf, Marina; Edelmann, Jeanett; Kohl, Michael; Nie, Shengjie; Wang, Xianping; Cheng, Baowen; Núñez, Carolina; Pancorbo, Marian Martínez de; Olofsson, Jill K.; Morling, Niels; Onofri, Valerio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Pamjav, Horolma; Volgyi, Antonia; Barany, Gusztav; Pawlowski, Ryszard; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pelotti, Susi; Pepinski, Witold; Abreu-Glowacka, Monica; Phillips, Christopher; Cárdenas, Jorge; Rey-Gonzalez, Danel; Salas, Antonio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Toscanini, Ulises; Piccinini, Andrea; Piglionica, Marilidia; Baldassarra, Stefania L.; Ploski, Rafal; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Jastrzebska, Emila; Robino, Carlo; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U.; Guevara, Evelyn; Salvador, Jazelyn; Ungria, Maria Corazon De; Rodriguez, Jae Joseph Russell; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schlauderer, Nicola; Saukko, Pekka; Schneider, Peter M.; Sirker, Miriam; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Oh, Yu Na; Skitsa, Iulia; Ampati, Alexandra; Smith, Tobi-Gail; Calvit, Lina Solis de; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Capal, Thomas; Tillmar, Andreas; Nilsson, Helena; Turrina, Stefania; De Leo, Domenico; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cortellini, Venusia; Wetton, Jon H.; Gwynne, Gareth M.; Jobling, Mark A.; Whittle, Martin R.; Sumita, Denilce R.; Wolańska-Nowak, Paulina; Yong, Rita Y.Y.; Krawczak, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael; Roewer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent. PMID:24854874

  18. The relationship between mitochondrial DNA haplotype and the reproductive capacity of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Te-Sha; Rajasekar, Sriram; St John, Justin C

    2016-05-18

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome encodes key proteins of the electron transfer chain, which produces the vast majority of cellular ATP. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) present in the mature oocyte acts as a template for all mtDNA that is replicated during development to meet the specific energy requirements of each tissue. Individuals that share a maternal lineage cluster into groupings known as mtDNA haplotypes. MtDNA haplotypes confer advantages and disadvantages to an organism and this affects its phenotype. In livestock, certain mtDNA haplotypes are associated with improved milk and meat quality, whilst, other species, mtDNA haplotypes have shown increased longevity, growth and susceptibility to diseases. In this work, we have set out to determine whether mtDNA haplotypes influence reproductive capacity. This has been undertaken using a pig model. To determine the genetic diversity of domestic pigs in Australia, we have sequenced the D-loop region of 368 pigs, and identified five mtDNA haplotypes (A to E). To assess reproductive capacity, we compared oocyte maturation, fertilization and development to blastocyst, and found that there were significant differences for maturation and fertilization amongst the haplotypes. We then determined that haplotypes C, D and E produced significantly larger litters. When we assessed the conversion of developmentally competent oocytes and their subsequent developmental stages to offspring, we found that haplotypes A and B had the lowest reproductive efficiencies. Amongst the mtDNA haplotypes, the number of mtDNA variants harbored at >25 % correlated with oocyte quality. MtDNA copy number for developmentally competent oocytes positively correlated with the level of the 16383delC variant. This variant is located in the conserved sequence box II, which is a regulatory region for mtDNA transcription and replication. We have identified five mtDNA haplotypes in Australian domestic pigs indicating that genetic diversity is

  19. Prediction of haplotypes for ungenotyped animals and its effect on marker-assisted breeding value estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In livestock populations, missing genotypes on a large proportion of animals are a major problem to implement the estimation of marker-assisted breeding values using haplotypes. The objective of this article is to develop a method to predict haplotypes of animals that are not genotyped using mixed model equations and to investigate the effect of using these predicted haplotypes on the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding value estimation. Methods For genotyped animals, haplotypes were determined and for each animal the number of haplotype copies (nhc) was counted, i.e. 0, 1 or 2 copies. In a mixed model framework, nhc for each haplotype were predicted for ungenotyped animals as well as for genotyped animals using the additive genetic relationship matrix. The heritability of nhc was assumed to be 0.99, allowing for minor genotyping and haplotyping errors. The predicted nhc were subsequently used in marker-assisted breeding value estimation by applying random regression on these covariables. To evaluate the method, a population was simulated with one additive QTL and an additive polygenic genetic effect. The QTL was located in the middle of a haplotype based on SNP-markers. Results The accuracy of predicted haplotype copies for ungenotyped animals ranged between 0.59 and 0.64 depending on haplotype length. Because powerful BLUP-software was used, the method was computationally very efficient. The accuracy of total EBV increased for genotyped animals when marker-assisted breeding value estimation was compared with conventional breeding value estimation, but for ungenotyped animals the increase was marginal unless the heritability was smaller than 0.1. Haplotypes based on four markers yielded the highest accuracies and when only the nearest left marker was used, it yielded the lowest accuracy. The accuracy increased with increasing marker density. Accuracy of the total EBV approached that of gene-assisted BLUP when 4-marker haplotypes were used with a

  20. Diversity of extended HLA-DRB1 haplotypes in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerström, Annika; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Lahtela, L Elisa; Paakkanen, Riitta; Eronen, Katja T; Seppänen, Mikko; Lokki, Marja-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, 6p21) codes for traditional HLA and other host response related genes. The polymorphic HLA-DRB1 gene in MHC Class II has been associated with several complex diseases. In this study we focus on MHC haplotype structures in the Finnish population. We explore the variability of extended HLA-DRB1 haplotypes in relation to the other traditional HLA genes and a selected group of MHC class III genes. A total of 150 healthy Finnish individuals were included in the study. Subjects were genotyped for HLA alleles (HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1). The polymorphism of TNF, LTA, C4, BTNL2 and HLA-DRA genes was studied with 74 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). The C4A and C4B gene copy numbers and a 2-bp silencing insertion at exon 29 in C4A gene were analysed with quantitative genomic realtime-PCR. The allele frequencies for each locus were calculated and haplotypes were constructed using both the traditional HLA alleles and SNP blocks. The most frequent Finnish A∼B∼DR -haplotype, uncommon in elsewhere in Europe, was A*03∼B*35∼DRB1*01∶01. The second most common haplotype was a common European ancestral haplotype AH 8.1 (A*01∼B*08∼DRB1*03∶01). Extended haplotypes containing HLA-B, TNF block, C4 and HLA-DPB1 strongly increased the number of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes showing variability in the extended HLA-DRB1 haplotype structures. On the contrary, BTNL2 block and HLA-DQB1 were more conserved showing linkage with the HLA-DRB1 alleles. We show that the use of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes rather than single HLA-DRB1 alleles is advantageous when studying the polymorphisms and LD patters of the MHC region. For disease association studies the HLA-DRB1 haplotypes with various MHC markers allows us to cluster haplotypes with functionally important gene variants such as C4 deficiency and cytokines TNF and LTA, and provides hypotheses for further assessment. Our study corroborates the importance of studying population-specific MHC

  1. Haplotype association and synergistic effect of human aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene polymorphisms causing susceptibility to essential hypertension in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi, Uppuluri Mohana; Swapna, Nagalingam; Padma, Gunda; Vishnupriya, Satti; Padma, Tirunilai

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a key enzyme involved in the terminal steps of aldosterone biosynthesis. Genetic variability in CYP11B2 gene has been associated with heterogeneous aldosterone production, which can affect sodium homeostasis and thereby regulation of blood pressure. Hence, the present study was aimed to explore the single-locus variations, haplotype and epistasis patterns of CYP11B2 (C-344T, intron-2 gene conversion and Lys173Arg) gene polymorphisms, and the risk contributed by them to the development of essential hypertension (EHT). A total of 279 hypertensive patients and 200 normotensive controls were enrolled in this study. C-344T and Lys173Arg polymorphisms of CYP11B2 gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method and intron-2 gene conversion (IC) polymorphism by allele-specific PCR analysis. Single-locus analysis revealed significant association of CYP11B2 C-344T and Lys173Arg polymorphisms with EHT (p < 0.05). Considering the sexes, Lys173 allele was found to be at risk for hypertension in males (OR 1.40; 95% CI = 1.01-1.96). Unphased haplotype analysis revealed H1 (T-Conv-Lys; p = 0.0017) to have significant risk for EHT, while haplotype H4 (T-Wt-Arg) had a significant protective effect. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) interaction analysis found the overall best model with C-344T and IC polymorphisms exhibiting strong synergistic effect. The present study revealed a strong synergistic effect of CYP11B2 C-344T and IC polymorphisms causing susceptibility to EHT and haplotype H1 (-344T-Conv-Lys173) as the risk-conferring factor for hypertension predisposition.

  2. Role of TGF-β1 haplotypes in the occurrence of myocardial infarction in young Italian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frea Simone

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 gene play an important role in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI, however no investigation has been conducted so far in young AMI patients. In this study, we evaluated the influence of TGF-β1 polymorphisms/haplotypes on the onset and progression of AMI in young Italian population. Methods 201 cases and 201 controls were genotyped for three TGF-β1 polymorphisms (G-800A, C-509T and Leu10Pro. The main follow-up end-points (mean follow-up, 107 ± 49 months were death, myocardial infarction or revascularization procedures. Results Significant risk factors were smoking (p -4, family history for coronary artery disease (p -4, hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.001 and hypertension (p = 0.002. The C-509T and Leu10Pro polymorphisms showed significant differences (p = 0.026 and p = 0.004 between cases and controls. The most common haplotypes revealed a possible protective effect (GCT, OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57–0.99, p = 0.042 and an increased risk of AMI (GTC, OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13–2.02, p = 0.005, respectively. No statistical differences were observed in genotype distribution in the follow-up study between the two groups: 61 patients with subsequent events (13 deaths and 108 without events. Conclusion Even though our results need to be further confirmed in larger studies, this is the first study reporting on a possible role of TGFβ1 common haplotypes in the onset of AMI in young patients.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of the DJ-1 gene promoter associated with the susceptibility to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Danial; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Salimi, Saeedeh

    2017-09-20

    In this study, we evaluate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of the DJ-1 gene, g.-6_+10del, and g.168_185del with male infertility susceptibility. Four hundred and twenty-two male infertile patients and 285 fertile male controls were recruited. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. In silico analysis was performed by EPD, ElemeNT, SNPnexus, and PROMO to predict the potential functions of rs901561484 and rs373653682 polymorphisms. The Del (D) allele carriers of DJ-1 g.-6_+10del polymorphism were significantly associated with the risk of male infertility in total infertile, asthenozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia patients. Moreover, the Del (D) allele of DJ-1 g.-6_+10del polymorphism significantly increased in total male infertile, asthenozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia groups. In addition, the frequencies of different genotypes and the Del allele and Dup allele carriers of DJ-1 g.168_185del gene polymorphisms were associated with male infertility in total infertile and four different sub-group patients. Furthermore, haplotype analysis of DJ-1 g.-6_+10del and g.168_185del polymorphisms revealed that the D-Dup and I-Del haplotype frequencies significantly increased the risk of male infertility, while I-Ins haplotypes were associated with a decreased risk of male infertility in total and sub-group patients. The in silico analysis showed that the presence of Ins and/or Dup alleles of the DJ-1 g.-6_+10del and g.168_185del polymorphisms could provide additional binding sites of more nuclear factors and probably affect transcriptional activity. Our study presents evidence of a strong association between functional polymorphisms of the DJ-1 promoter, g.-6_+10del, and g.168_185del with the risk of male infertility.

  4. Polymorphisms and haplotype analysis of IL-4Ralpha Q576R and I75V in patients with penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Zheng; Yang, Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2009-09-01

    The interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-4R genes are linked to allergic diseases and atopy and elevated serum IgE levels closely follow the presentation of penicillin allergy. We have evaluated the association between specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, polymorphisms of IL-4Ralpha, and penicillin allergy. Eight types of specific IgE to penicillins were detected with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in 242 patients with penicillin allergy and 220 control subjects. Polymorphisms of IL-4Ralpha Q576R and IL-4Ralpha I75V were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The polymorphisms and haplotype of IL-4Ralpha Q576R and I75V were analyzed. For IL-4Ralpha Q576R, the frequency of the AA genotype was higher in patients with penicillin allergy (76 vs. 64%, P = 0.005). The A allele occurred more frequently in the penicillin-allergic patients than in the controls (87 vs. 80%, P = 0.003). For IL-4Ralpha I75V, the AA genotype was more likely to be detected in the urticaria group than in the control group (32 vs. 19%, P = 0.049). Haplotype analysis revealed that Q576/I75 was more frequently found in patients with penicillin allergy than in controls (42 vs. 35%, P = 0.037). The IL4Ralpha Q576 allele is related to penicillin allergy, and the IL-4Ralpha I75 allele is associated with the symptom of urticaria. The Q576/I75 haplotype may be related with an allergy to penicillin.

  5. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. KIR haplotypes defined by segregation analysis in 59 Centre d’Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. P.; Single, R. M.; Wilson, M. J.; Trowsdale, J.

    2012-01-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster exhibits extensive allelic and haplotypic diversity. Variation at the locus is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, reminiscent of the HLA loci. Characterization of diversity at the KIR locus has progressed over the past several years, particularly since the sequence of entire KIR haplotypes have become available. To determine the extent of KIR haplotypic variability among individuals of northern European descent, we genotyped 59 CEPH families for presence/absence of all KIR genes and performed limited allelic subtyping at several KIR loci. A total of 20 unique haplotypes differing in gene content were identified, the most common of which was the previously defined A haplotype (f=0.52). Several unusual haplotypes that probably arose as a consequence of unequal crossing over events were also identified. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated strong negative and positive LD between several pairs of genes, values that may be useful in determining haplotypic structure when family data are not available. These data provide a resource to aid in the interpretation of disease association data involving individuals of European descent. PMID:18972110

  7. KIR haplotypes defined by segregation analysis in 59 Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M P; Single, R M; Wilson, M J; Trowsdale, J; Carrington, M

    2008-12-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster exhibits extensive allelic and haplotypic diversity. Variation at the locus is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, reminiscent of the HLA loci. Characterization of diversity at the KIR locus has progressed over the past several years, particularly since the sequence of entire KIR haplotypes have become available. To determine the extent of KIR haplotypic variability among individuals of northern European descent, we genotyped 59 CEPH families for presence/absence of all KIR genes and performed limited allelic subtyping at several KIR loci. A total of 20 unique haplotypes differing in gene content were identified, the most common of which was the previously defined A haplotype (f = 0.52). Several unusual haplotypes that probably arose as a consequence of unequal crossing over events were also identified. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated strong negative and positive LD between several pairs of genes, values that may be useful in determining haplotypic structure when family data are not available. These data provide a resource to aid in the interpretation of disease association data involving individuals of European descent.

  8. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype moderates the effects of oral contraceptives and menstrual cycle on emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Tollenaar, Marieke; Verkuil, Bart; Manai, Meriem; Putman, Peter; Van der Does, Willem

    2016-10-01

    The processing of emotional information is affected by menstrual cycle phase and by the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The stress hormone cortisol is known to affect emotional information processing via the limbic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We investigated in an exploratory study whether the MR-genotype moderates the effect of both OC-use and menstrual cycle phase on emotional cognition. Healthy premenopausal volunteers (n=93) of West-European descent completed a battery of emotional cognition tests. Forty-nine participants were OC users and 44 naturally cycling, 21 of whom were tested in the early follicular (EF) and 23 in the mid-luteal (ML) phase of the menstrual cycle. In MR-haplotype 1/3 carriers, ML women gambled more than EF women when their risk to lose was relatively small. In MR-haplotype 2, ML women gambled more than EF women, regardless of their odds of winning. OC-users with MR-haplotype 1/3 recognised fewer facial expressions than ML women with MR-haplotype 1/3. MR-haplotype 1/3 carriers may be more sensitive to the influence of their female hormonal status. MR-haplotype 2 carriers showed more risky decision-making. As this may reflect optimistic expectations, this finding may support previous observations in female carriers of MR-haplotype 2 in a naturalistic cohort study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Haplotypes in Yucatan Miniature Pigs Used as Biomedical Model Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nu-Ri; Seo, Dong-Won; Choi, Ki-Myung; Ko, Na-Young; Kim, Ji-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Il; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-03-01

    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is called swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), which controls immune responses and transplantation reactions. The SLA is mapped on pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the centromere. In this study, 3 class I (SLA-1, SLA-3, and SLA-2) and 3 class II (DRB1, DQB1, and DQA) genes were used for investigation of SLA haplotypes in Yucatan miniature pigs in Korea. This pig breed is a well-known model organism for biomedical research worldwide. The current study indicated that Korean Yucatan pig population had 3 Class I haplotypes (Lr-4.0, Lr-6.0, and Lr-25.0) and 3 class II haplotypes (Lr-0.5, Lr-0.7, and Lr-0.25). The combinations of SLA class I and II haplotype together, 2 homozygous (Lr-4.5/4.5 and Lr-6.7/6.7) and 3 heterozygous (Lr-4.5/6.7, Lr-4.5/25.25, and Lr-6.7/25.25) haplotypes were identified, including previously unidentified new heterozygous haplotypes (Lr-4.5/4.7). In addition, a new SLA allele typing method using Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer was developed that permitted more rapid identification of SLA haplotypes. These results will facilitate the breeding of SLA homozygous Yucatan pigs and will expedite the possible use of these pigs for the biomedical research, especially xenotransplantation research.

  10. Efficient Haplotype Block Partitioning and Tag SNP Selection Algorithms under Various Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Pei; Lin, Yaw-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of linkage disequilibrium plays a central role in genome-wide association studies aimed at identifying genetic variation responsible for common human diseases. These patterns in human chromosomes show a block-like structure, and regions of high linkage disequilibrium are called haplotype blocks. A small subset of SNPs, called tag SNPs, is sufficient to capture the haplotype patterns in each haplotype block. Previously developed algorithms completely partition a haplotype sample into blocks while attempting to minimize the number of tag SNPs. However, when resource limitations prevent genotyping all the tag SNPs, it is desirable to restrict their number. We propose two dynamic programming algorithms, incorporating many diversity evaluation functions, for haplotype block partitioning using a limited number of tag SNPs. We use the proposed algorithms to partition the chromosome 21 haplotype data. When the sample is fully partitioned into blocks by our algorithms, the 2,266 blocks and 3,260 tag SNPs are fewer than those identified by previous studies. We also demonstrate that our algorithms find the optimal solution by exploiting the nonmonotonic property of a common haplotype-evaluation function. PMID:24319694

  11. A Genome-Wide Scan for Breast Cancer Risk Haplotypes among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chi; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Chris A.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density. PMID:23468962

  12. Analysis of HLA-DRB1,DQA1,DQB1 haplotypes in Sardinian centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Letizia; Lio, Domenico; Candore, Giuseppina; Forte, Giusi I.; Crivello, Antonio; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Pes, Mario G.; Carru, Ciriaco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Deiana, Luca; Baggio, Giovannella; Franceschi, Claudio; Caruso, Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Some genetic determinants of longevity might reside in those polymorphisms for the immune system genes that regulate immune responses. Many longevity association studies focused their attention on HLA (the human MHC) polymorphisms, but discordant results have been obtained. Sardinians are a relatively isolate population and represent a suitable population for association studies. Some HLA-DR and DQ alleles form very stable haplotypes with a strong linkage disequilibrium. In a previous study on Sardinian centenarians we have suggested that HLA-DRB1∗15 allele might be marginally associated to longevity. HLA-DR,DQ haplotypes are in strong linkage disequilibrium and well conserved playing a role in the association to diseases. Hence, we have evaluated, by amplification refractory mutation system/polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) the HLADQA1 and HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies in 123 centenarians and 92 controls from Sardinia to assess whether the association to HLA-DRB1∗15 allele may be due to the other genes involved in the HLA-DR,DQ haplotypes. The frequencies of HLA-DQA1,DQB1 haplotypes were not significantly modified in centenarians. Nevertheless by evaluating the frequency of DRB1∗15 linked haplotypes, we observed a not significant increase in centenarians of HLA-DQA1∗01,DQB1∗05 and HLA-DQA1∗01,DQB1∗06 haplotypes. These data suggest that these haplotypes might have a role in determining life span expectancy and longevity. PMID:17714903

  13. A genome-wide scan for breast cancer risk haplotypes among African American women.

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    Chi Song

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645, thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.

  14. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia: The Arab-Indian haplotype and new therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habara, Alawi H; Shaikho, Elmutaz M; Steinberg, Martin H

    2017-11-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has well-known tempering effects on the symptoms of sickle cell disease and its levels vary among patients with different haplotypes of the sickle hemoglobin gene. Compared with sickle cell anemia haplotypes found in patients of African descent, HbF levels in Saudi and Indian patients with the Arab-Indian (AI) haplotype exceed that in any other haplotype by nearly twofold. Genetic association studies have identified some loci associated with high HbF in the AI haplotype but these observations require functional confirmation. Saudi patients with the Benin haplotype have HbF levels almost twice as high as African patients with this haplotype but this difference is unexplained. Hydroxyurea is still the only FDA approved drug for HbF induction in sickle cell disease. While most patients treated with hydroxyurea have an increase in HbF and some clinical improvement, 10 to 20% of adults show little response to this agent. We review the genetic basis of HbF regulation focusing on sickle cell anemia in Saudi Arabia and discuss new drugs that can induce increased levels of HbF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A phased SNP-based classification of sickle cell anemia HBB haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikho, Elmutaz M; Farrell, John J; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Qutub, Hatem; Al-Ali, Amein K; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Chui, David H K; Farrer, Lindsay A; Murphy, George J; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Sebastiani, Paola; Steinberg, Martin H

    2017-08-11

    Sickle cell anemia causes severe complications and premature death. Five common β-globin gene cluster haplotypes are each associated with characteristic fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. As HbF is the major modulator of disease severity, classifying patients according to haplotype is useful. The first method of haplotype classification used restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-globin gene cluster. This is labor intensive, and error prone. We used genome-wide SNP data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel to obtain phased data distinguishing parental alleles. We successfully haplotyped 813 sickle cell anemia patients previously classified by RFLPs with a concordance >98%. Four SNPs (rs3834466, rs28440105, rs10128556, and rs968857) marking four different restriction enzyme sites unequivocally defined most haplotypes. We were able to assign a haplotype to 86% of samples that were either partially or misclassified using RFLPs. Phased data using only four SNPs allowed unequivocal assignment of a haplotype that was not always possible using a larger number of RFLPs. Given the availability of genome-wide SNP data, our method is rapid and does not require high computational resources.

  16. Investigation of a genome wide association signal for obesity: synthetic association and haplotype analyses at the melanocortin 4 receptor gene locus.

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    André Scherag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS showed an obesogenic effect of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; rs12970134 and rs17782313 more than 150 kb downstream of the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R. It is unclear if the SNPs directly influence MC4R function or expression, or if the SNPs are on a haplotype that predisposes to obesity or includes functionally relevant genetic variation (synthetic association. As both exist, functionally relevant mutations and polymorphisms in the MC4R coding region and a robust association downstream of the gene, MC4R is an ideal model to explore synthetic association. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed a genomic region (364.9 kb encompassing the MC4R in GWAS data of 424 obesity trios (extremely obese child/adolescent and both parents. SNP rs12970134 showed the lowest p-value (p = 0.004; relative risk for the obesity effect allele: 1.37; conditional analyses on this SNP revealed that 7 of 78 analyzed SNPs provided independent signals (p≤0.05. These 8 SNPs were used to derive two-marker haplotypes. The three best (according to p-value haplotype combinations were chosen for confirmation in 363 independent obesity trios. The confirmed obesity effect haplotype includes SNPs 3' and 5' of the MC4R. Including MC4R coding variants in a joint model had almost no impact on the effect size estimators expected under synthetic association. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A haplotype reaching from a region 5' of the MC4R to a region at least 150 kb from the 3' end of the gene showed a stronger association to obesity than single SNPs. Synthetic association analyses revealed that MC4R coding variants had almost no impact on the association signal. Carriers of the haplotype should be enriched for relevant mutations outside the MC4R coding region and could thus be used for re-sequencing approaches. Our data also underscore the problems underlying the identification of relevant mutations

  17. Effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Density on Haplotype Block Partition

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    Sun Ah Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have found that one of the most important characteristics of the structure of linkage disequilibrium is that the human genome can be divided into non-overlapping block partitions in which only a small number of haplotypes are observed. The location and distribution of haplotype blocks can be seen as a population property influenced by population genetic events such as selection, mutation, recombination and population structure. In this study, we investigate the effects of the density of markers relative to the full set of all polymorphisms in the region on the results of haplotype partitioning for five popular haplotype block partition methods: three methods in Haploview (confidence interval, four gamete test, and solid spine, MIG++ implemented in PLINK 1.9 and S-MIG++. We used several experimental datasets obtained by sampling subsets of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers of chromosome 22 region in the 1000 Genomes Project data and also the HapMap phase 3 data to compare the results of haplotype block partitions by five methods. With decreasing sampling ratio down to 20% of the original SNP markers, the total number of haplotype blocks decreases and the length of haplotype blocks increases for all algorithms. When we examined the marker-independence of the haplotype block locations constructed from the datasets of different density, the results using below 50% of the entire SNP markers were very different from the results using the entire SNP markers. We conclude that the haplotype block construction results should be used and interpreted carefully depending on the selection of markers and the purpose of the study.

  18. Haplotypes of the endothelial protein C receptor gene and Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Silvia; Bonet, Elena; Medina, Pilar; Martos, Laura; Ricart, José M; Vayá, Amparo; Todolí, José; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Estellés, Amparo; España, Francisco

    2012-04-01

    Behçet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown cause in which thrombosis occurs in about 25% of patients. Two haplotypes of the endothelial protein C receptor gene, H1 and H3, are associated with the risk of thrombosis. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of these haplotypes on the thrombosis risk in Behçet's disease. We evaluated the H1 and H3 haplotypes in 87 patients with Behçet's disease, 19 with and 68 without a history of thrombosis, and in 260 healthy individuals. We also measured protein C, activated protein C, and soluble endothelial protein C receptor levels in all individuals. The presence of the H1 haplotype seemed to protect Behçet's patients against thrombosis (odds ratio 0.21; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; p=0.023), whereas the frequency of the H3 haplotype was lower in patients than in control individuals (0.19; 0.1-0.5; p=0.006). Furthermore, the H1 haplotype was associated with increased levels of activated protein C, whereas the H3 haplotype was associated with the highest soluble endothelial protein C levels. Moreover, activated protein C levels were lower in patients with than in patients without posterior uveitis (p<0.001). These findings indicate that the H1 haplotype protects Behçet's patients from thrombosis, likely via increased levels of activated protein C, whereas individuals carrying the H3 haplotype seem to be protected from the clinical manifestations associated with Behçet's disease, probably via increased soluble endothelial protein C levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  20. HIGH EXPRESSION OF HMOX1 IN BLUE-SHELLED CHICKENS IS ASSOCIATED WITH A TG HAPLOTYPE

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    Z Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHMOX1 is an important gene in biosynthesis of the eggshell pigment of blue eggs. Previous studies found that HMOX1 is highly expressed in the shell gland of hens laying blue eggs (BlueH compared with hens laying brown eggs (BrownH; however, the reasons for the differential expression are unclear. In this study five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in HMOX1 were genotyped in 111 BlueH and 115 BrownH. The association of haplotypes of these SNP with the blue egg phenotype was tested. Haplotype-specific expression of HMOX1 was detected in the shell gland. The interaction of sequence variants and transcription factors was analyzed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. A TG haplotype covering upstream 1.4 kb region of HMOX1 was significantly associated with blue eggs (p<0.05. Furthermore, the birds (n=12 with the haplotype expressed 3.8 fold more transcripts than those (n=12 without the haplotype (p<0.05. After re-sequencing a 2.2 kb region harboring the TG haplotype, a total of 26 SNP were found, of which a SNP was predicted to create a binding site of Nrf2, a transcription factor initiating HMOX1 expression. However, subsequent EMSA failed to confirm the Nrf2-DNA interaction. Taken together, the data suggested that the TG haplotype is not directly involved in regulation of HMOX1 expression; a regulatory mutation located near the haplotype and linked with the haplotype may exist and be responsible for the differential expression ofHMOX1.

  1. Multiple Divergent Haplotypes Express Completely Distinct Sets of Class I MHC Genes in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Sean C.; Restaino, Anthony C.; de Jong, Jill L.O.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is an important animal model for stem cell biology, cancer, and immunology research. Histocompatibility represents a key intersection of these disciplines, however histocompatibility in zebrafish remains poorly understood. We examined a set of diverse zebrafish Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes that segregate with specific haplotypes at chromosome 19, and for which donor-recipient matching has been shown to improve engraftment after hematopoietic transplantation. Using flanking gene polymorphisms we identified six distinct chromosome 19 haplotypes. We describe several novel Class I U lineage genes and characterize their sequence properties, expression, and haplotype distribution. Altogether ten full-length zebrafish Class I genes were analyzed, mhc1uba through mhc1uka. Expression data and sequence properties indicate that most are candidate classical genes. Several substitutions in putative peptide anchor residues, often shared with deduced MHC molecules from additional teleost species, suggest flexibility in antigen binding. All ten zebrafish Class I genes were uniquely assigned among the six haplotypes, with dominant or co-dominant expression of one to three genes per haplotype. Interestingly, while the divergent MHC haplotypes display variable gene copy number and content, the different genes appear to have ancient origin, with extremely high levels of sequence diversity. Furthermore, haplotype variability extends beyond the MHC genes to include divergent forms of psmb8. The many disparate haplotypes at this locus therefore represent a remarkable form of genomic region configuration polymorphism. Defining the functional MHC genes within these divergent Class I haplotypes in zebrafish will provide an important foundation for future studies in immunology and transplantation. PMID:24291825

  2. Universal Haplotype-Based Noninvasive Prenatal Testing for Single Gene Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Winnie W I; Jiang, Peiyong; Tong, Yu K; Lee, Wing-Shan; Cheng, Yvonne K Y; New, Maria I; Kadir, Rezan A; Chan, K C Allen; Leung, Tak Y; Lo, Y M Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W K

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have developed approaches for the noninvasive prenatal testing of single gene diseases. One approach that allows for the noninvasive assessment of both maternally and paternally inherited mutations involves the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in maternal plasma DNA with reference to parental haplotype information. In the past, parental haplotypes were resolved by complex experimental methods or inferential approaches, such as through the analysis of DNA from other affected family members. Recently, microfluidics-based linked-read sequencing technology has become available and allows the direct haplotype phasing of the whole genome rapidly. We explored the feasibility of applying this direct haplotyping technology in noninvasive prenatal testing. We first resolved the haplotypes of parental genomes with the use of linked-read sequencing technology. Then, we identified SNPs within and flanking the genes of interest in maternal plasma DNA by targeted sequencing. Finally, we applied relative haplotype dosage analysis to deduce the mutation inheritance status of the fetus. Haplotype phasing and relative haplotype dosage analysis of 12 out of 13 families were successfully achieved. The mutational status of these 12 fetuses was correctly classified. High-throughput linked-read sequencing followed by maternal plasma-based relative haplotype dosage analysis represents a streamlined approach for noninvasive prenatal testing of inherited single gene diseases. The approach bypasses the need for mutation-specific assays and is not dependent on the availability of DNA from other affected family members. Thus, the approach is universally applicable to pregnancies at risk for the inheritance of a single gene disease. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Conserved KIR Allele-Level Haplotypes Are Altered by Microvariation in Individuals with European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lihua; Chen, Minghua; Ng, Jennifer; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) haplotype-specific DNA fragments were sequenced to identify centromeric and telomeric allele level haplotype structures and their frequencies from 76 unrelated individuals with European ancestry. Analysis was simplified by redefining the 5’ boundary of the centromeric KIR gene cluster to include only exons 7-9 of KIR3DL3. Three consensus allele level haplotypes were identified for a centromeric gene presence/absence structure designated as Cen-A1. KIR3DL3*00201 (ex 7-9)—KIR2DL3*001—KIR2DL1*00302 was the most frequent (37.5%) centromeric structure. Single consensus haplotypes were observed for haplotype structures Cen-B1 and Cen-B2. Six Tel-A1 and two Tel-B1 consensus haplotypes were observed; the most prevalent (23.0%) was KIR2DL4*00102—KIR3DL1*002—KIR2DS4*00101—KIR3DL2*002. A small number of nucleotide substitutions (≤3) in the coding regions of the functional KIR genes created microvariants of the consensus haplotypes. Eight less common haplotype structures were also detected. Four carried hybrid genes formed during gene deletion events, two carried an insertion with a 2DL5/3DP1 fusion gene, and two included a very large insertion. These data show that the KIR gene complex is composed of a limited number of conserved allele level centromeric and telomeric haplotypes that have diversified by mutation, recombination within a locus, and unequal crossing over. PMID:21796155

  4. Analysis of SNPs and haplotypes in vitamin D pathway genes and renal cancer risk.

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    Sara Karami

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the kidney vitamin D is converted to its active form. Since vitamin D exerts its activity through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR, most genetic studies have primarily focused on variation within this gene. Therefore, analysis of genetic variation in VDR and other vitamin D pathway genes may provide insight into the role of vitamin D in renal cell carcinoma (RCC etiology. RCC cases (N = 777 and controls (N = 1,035 were genotyped to investigate the relationship between RCC risk and variation in eight target genes. Minimum-p-value permutation (Min-P tests were used to identify genes associated with risk. A three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP sliding window was used to identify chromosomal regions with a False Discovery Rate of <10%, where subsequently, haplotype relative risks were computed in Haplostats. Min-P values showed that VDR (p-value = 0.02 and retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA (p-value = 0.10 were associated with RCC risk. Within VDR, three haplotypes across two chromosomal regions of interest were identified. The first region, located within intron 2, contained two haplotypes that increased RCC risk by approximately 25%. The second region included a haplotype (rs2239179, rs12717991 across intron 4 that increased risk among participants with the TC (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.09-1.57 haplotype compared to participants with the common haplotype, TT. Across RXRA, one haplotype located 3' of the coding sequence (rs748964, rs3118523, increased RCC risk 35% among individuals with the variant haplotype compared to those with the most common haplotype. This study comprehensively evaluated genetic variation across eight vitamin D pathway genes in relation to RCC risk. We found increased risk associated with VDR and RXRA. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  5. Haplotype Analysis of Norwegian and Swedish Patients with Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP): Extreme Haplotype Heterogeneity for the Mutation R116W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjensvoll, Kjersti; Bruland, Ove; Floderus, Ylva; Skadberg, Øyvind; Sandberg, Sverre; Apold, Jaran

    2003-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), the most common of the acute porphyrias, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) also called porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The mutation spectrum in the HMBS gene is characterized by a majority of family specific mutations. Among the exceptions are R116W and W198X, with high prevalence in both the Dutch and Swedish populations. These two mutations were also detected in unrelated Norwegian patients. Thus, Norwegian and Swedish patients were haplotyped using closely linked flanking microsatellites and intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to see if the high frequency of these two mutations is due to a founder effect. Twelve intragenic SNPs were determined by a method based on fluorescent restriction enzyme fingerprinting single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-REF-SSCP). W198X occurred exclusively on one haplotype in both Norwegian and Swedish patients, showing that it has originated from a common gene source. In contrast, R116W was found on three different haplotypes in three Norwegian families, and in five Swedish families on four or five haplotypes. This extreme haplotype heterogeneity indicates that R116W is a recurrent mutation, maybe explained by the high mutability of CpG dinucleotides. This can also explain why it is the only AIP mutation reported to occur in seven different populations (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Netherlands, France, Spain and South Africa). PMID:14757946

  6. Genetic diversity and haplotype distribution of Pachymeniopsis gargiuli sp. nov. and P. lanceolata (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta) in Korea, with notes on their non-native distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Manghisi, Antonio; Morabito, Marina; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2014-10-01

    The red alga Pachymeniopsis lanceolata, formerly known as Grateloupia lanceolata, is a component of the native algal flora of northeast Asia and has been introduced to European and North American waters. It has been confused with a cryptic species collected from Korea and Italy. Our analyses of rbcL, cox3 and ITS from P. lanceolata and this cryptic species has revealed two distinct entities, forming a clade, which were clearly separated from its congeners and positioned with other Asian species. Here, we describe the cryptic species as P. gargiuli sp. nov., a species that differs from others by molecular sequence and subtle anatomical characters. We hypothesize that P. gargiuli may have been recently dispersed by anthropogenic vectors, possibly at or near the same time as was P. lanceolata. Our cox3 data set revealed that one haplotype of P. gargiuli, shared between Korea and Italy, and two haplotypes of P. lanceolata, commonly occurring in Korea and USA, are invasive haplotypes. This is the first report of the utility of the mitochondrial coding cox3 sequences in red algae. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Beta-globin gene evolution in the ruminants: evidence for an ancient origin of sheep haplotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P

    2015-10-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Haplotype variation and genotype imputation in African populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lucy; Jakobsson, Mattias; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as the part of the world with the greatest human genetic diversity. This high level of diversity causes difficulties for genome-wide association (GWA) studies in African populations—for example, by reducing the accuracy of genotype imputation in African populations compared to non-African populations. Here, we investigate haplotype variation and imputation in Africa, using 253 unrelated individuals from 15 Sub-Saharan African populations. We identify the populations that provide the greatest potential for serving as reference panels for imputing genotypes in the remaining groups. Considering reference panels comprising samples of recent African descent in Phase 3 of the HapMap Project, we identify mixtures of reference groups that produce the maximal imputation accuracy in each of the sampled populations. We find that optimal HapMap mixtures and maximal imputation accuracies identified in detailed tests of imputation procedures can instead be predicted by using simple summary statistics that measure relationships between the pattern of genetic variation in a target population and the patterns in potential reference panels. Our results provide an empirical basis for facilitating the selection of reference panels in GWA studies of diverse human populations, especially those of African ancestry. Genet. Epidemiol. 35:766–780, 2011. PMID:22125220

  9. A tale of two haplotype groups: Evaluating the New World Junonia ring species hypothesis using the distribution of divergent COI haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Amber P; Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2015-07-01

    The New World Junonia butterflies are a possible ring species with a circum-Caribbean distribution. Previous reports suggest a steady transition between North and South American forms in Mesoamerica, but in Cuba the forms were thought to co-exist without interbreeding representing the overlapping ends of the ring. Three criteria establish the existence of a ring species: a ring-shaped geographic distribution, gene flow among intervening forms, and genetic isolation in the region of range overlap. We evaluated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I haplotypes in Junonia from 9 species in the Western Hemisphere to test the Junonia ring species hypothesis. Junonia species are generally not monophyletic with respect to COI haplotypes, which are shared across species. However, two major COI haplotype groups exist. Group A predominates in South America, and Group B predominates in North and Central America. Therefore, COI haplotypes can be used to assess the degree of genetic influence a population receives from each continent. Junonia shows a ring-shaped distribution around the Caribbean, and evidence is consistent with gene flow among forms of Junonia, including those from Mesoamerica. However, we detected no discontinuity in gene flow in Cuba or elsewhere in the Caribbean consistent with genetic isolation in the region of overlap. Though sampling is still very limited in the critical region, the only remaining possiblity for a circum-Caribbean discontinuity in gene flow is at the Isthmus of Panama, where there may be a transition from 98% Group B haplotypes in Costa Rica to 85-100% Group A haplotypes in South America.

  10. Y-STR haplotype diversity among the Khandayat population of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Prakash Nayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR loci in a population sample of Khandayat community residing in Odisha, India in order to find out the haplotype diversity. Blood samples were collected from 136 unrelated male individuals and genomic DNA isolation was carried out by the standard organic extraction method followed by multiplex PCR amplification using an AmpFl STR Y-filer PCR amplification kit and genotyping. A total of 130 haplotypes were observed among the studied samples, out of which 126 were unique. Allele frequency and gene diversity were calculated. Haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were found to be 0.999128 and 0.95588 respectively. Haplotypes of Khandayat population were compared with that of other Indian populations using AMOVA (analysis of molecular variance tool to measure the genetic relatedness between various populations of India.

  11. Morphometric characteristics and COI haplotype diversity of Arctodiaptomus spinosus (Copedoda) populations in soda pans in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forró, László; Nédli, Judit; Csata, Enikő; Krízsik, Virág; Balogh, Csilla; G-Tóth, László

    2017-09-01

    Arctodiaptomus spinosus (Daday, 1891) is a characteristic species of the soda pan zooplankton in the Great Hungarian Plain. The biogeographical distribution of the species is interesting, since its range expands from the Pannonian Biogeographic region to the other side of the Carpathians, occurring in saline lakes in Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Iran and in temporary waters in Ukraine. Our investigations focused on the morphometric characteristics and the COI haplotype diversity of four Hungarian populations in the Kiskunság area. We detected substantial morphological differences between the Böddi-szék population and the rest of the sampling sites, however considerable differences were not observable in the COI haplotypes in the populations. The 20 animals investigated for COI haplotypes belonged to the same haplotype network. Tajima's D indicated departures from the neutral Wright - Fisher population model and suggested population expansion. The genetic composition of Arctodiaptomus spinosus populations in the Kiskunság area is rather uniform.

  12. Strategies for haplotype-based association mapping in complex pedigreed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boleckova, J; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    increases the number of parameters in the model, resulting in low accuracy of the estimates especially for the low-frequency haplotypes. Modeling of haplotype effects can be improved if they are assumed to be random effects, as only one parameter i.e. haplotype variance needs to be estimated compared......, 4, 6, 10 and 20. The simulated data resembled the Danish Holstein cattle pedigree representing a complex relationship structure and QTL effects of different sizes were simulated. We observed that the random haplotype models had high power and very low type I error rates (after Bonferroni correction...... effects in association mapping models are applicable to data from other species with similar pedigree structure...

  13. An algorithm for inferring complex haplotypes in a region of copy-number variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies have extensively examined the large-scale genetic variants in the human genome known as copy-number variations (CNVs), and the universality of CNVs in normal individuals, along with their functional importance, has been increasingly recognized. However, the absence of a method to accurately infer alleles or haplotypes within a CNV region from high-throughput experimental data hampers the finer analyses of CNV properties and applications to disease-association studies. Here we developed an algorithm to infer complex haplotypes within a CNV region by using data obtained from high-throughput experimental platforms. We applied this algorithm to experimental data and estimated the population frequencies of haplotypes that can yield information on both sequences and numbers of DNA copies. These results suggested that the analysis of such complex haplotypes is essential for accurately detecting genetic differences within a CNV region between population groups.

  14. Allele polymorphism and haplotype diversity of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci in sequence-based typing for Chinese Uyghur ethnic group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-mei Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%, A*0201 (12.50%, A*0301 (10.10%; HLA-B*5101(8.17%, B*3501(6.73%, B*5001 (6.25%; HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%, DRB1*1501 (8.65% and DRB1*0301 (7.69%. The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%, A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%; HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14% and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%. The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%. Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. CONCLUSIONS

  15. HLA Haplotyping from RNA-seq Data Using Hierarchical Read Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunsung John Kim; Nader Pourmand

    2013-01-01

    Correctly matching the HLA haplotypes of donor and recipient is essential to the success of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current HLA typing methods rely on targeted testing of recognized antigens or sequences. Despite advances in Next Generation Sequencing, general high throughput transcriptome sequencing is currently underutilized for HLA haplotyping due to the central difficulty in aligning sequences within this highly variable region. Here we present the method, HLAfo...

  16. The association of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype with non-splanchnic venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerjavic, Katja; Zagradisnik, Boris; Lokar, Lidija; Krasevac, Marjana G; Vokac, Nadja K

    2013-08-01

    The inherited JAK2 46/1 haplotype is strongly associated with the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and its increased frequency has also been reported in splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT). In the present study, the role of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype in non-splanchnic venous thrombosis (non-SVT) was investigated. We genotyped 438 patients with non-SVT, 226 patients with MPNs and 459 healthy controls for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which tag the JAK2 46/1 haplotype (rs12342421 G>C, rs12343867 T>C and rs10974944 C>G). We found statistically significant association of the rs12342421 GC+CC genotypes (OR=1.40; p=0.023) and the rs12343867 TC+CC genotypes (OR=1.83; p=7.02 x 10(-5)) with non-SVT. We also found that the CC haplotype of these two SNPs was associated with an increased risk of the disease (OR=1.68; p=0.009). Stratification analysis indicated that the observed association of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype with non-SVT was probably largely free of confounding effect of thrombophilic risk factors. In addition, we established a strong association of SNPs rs12342421 and rs10974944 and their CG haplotype with MPNs and with JAK2 V617F-positive MPNs. This study provides statistical evidence that SNPs rs12342421 and rs12343867 are associated with an increased risk of non-SVT. Consistently, haplotypes of the SNPs were also associated with non-SVT risk, suggesting that inherited genetic variation in the JAK2 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of non-SVT. Furthermore, the reported associations of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype with MPNs as well as with the occurrence of the JAK2 V617F mutation in MPNs were confirmed. © 2013.

  17. Prognostic importance of VEGF-A haplotype combinations in a stage II colon cancer population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, Sanne; Fredslund, Rikke; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic effect of three VEGF-A SNPs, -2578, -460 and 405, as well as the corresponding haplotype combinations, in a unique population of stage II colon cancer patients.......To investigate the prognostic effect of three VEGF-A SNPs, -2578, -460 and 405, as well as the corresponding haplotype combinations, in a unique population of stage II colon cancer patients....

  18. Haplotype association analysis of combining unrelated case-control and triads with consideration of population stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui eWen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining data when data are collected under different study designs, such as family trios and unrelated case-control samples, gains more power and is cost-effective than analyzing each data separately. However, a potential concern is population stratification (PS among unrelated case-control samples and analyses integrating data should address this confounding effect. In this paper, we develop a simpler method, haplotype generalized linear model (HGLM, that tests and estimates haplotype effects on disease risk and allows for modification against PS for combining data. We proposed to combine information across aggregations of haplotype weighted-counts estimated from population case-control data and trio data separately, and to perform subsequent GLM analysis. Furthermore, we present a framework of analysis of variance based on haplotype weighted-counts for detecting whether it is appropriate to combine two data sources, as well as the modified HGLM with clustering methods for addressing PS. We evaluate the statistical properties in terms of the accuracy, false positive rate (FPR and empirical power using simulated data with regard to various disease risks, sample sizes, multi-SNP haplotypes and the presence of PS. Our simulation results indicate that HGLM performs comparably well with the likelihood-based haplotype association analysis, particularly when the haplotype effects are moderate, but may not perform well when dealing with lengthy haplotypes for small sample sizes. In the presence of PS, the modified HGLM remains valid and has satisfactory nominal level and small bias. Overall, HGLM appears to be successful in combining data and is simple to implement in standard statistical software.

  19. Low Diversity of T Haplotypes in the Eastern Form of the House Mouse, Mus Musculus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvinsky, A.; Polyakov, A.; Agulnik, A.; Tichy, H.; Figueroa, F.; Klein, J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies, 13 different recessive embryonic lethal genes have been associated with t haplotypes in the wild mice of the species Mus domesticus. In this communication we have analyzed five populations of Mus musculus for the presence and identity of t haplotypes. The populations occupy geographically distant regions in the Soviet Union: Altai Mountains, western and eastern Siberia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. No t haplotypes were found in mice from eastern Siberia. In the remaining four populations, t haplotypes occurred with frequencies ranging from 0.07 to 0.21. All the t haplotypes extracted from these populations and analyzed by the genetic complementation test were shown to carry the same lethal gene tcl-w73. In one population (that of western Siberia), another lethal gene (tcl-w5) was found to be present on the same chromosome as tcl-w73. This situation is in striking contrast to that found in the populations of the western form of the house mouse, M. domesticus. In the latter species, tcl-w73 has not been found at all and the different populations are characterized by the presence of several different lethal genes. The low diversity of t haplotypes in M. musculus is consistent with lower genetic variability of other traits and indicates a different origin and speciation mode compared to M. domesticus. Serological typing for H-2 antigenic determinants suggests that most, if not all, of the newly described t haplotypes might have arisen by recombination of t(w73) from M. musculus with t haplotypes from M. domesticus either in the hybrid zone between the two species or in regions where the two species mixed accidentally. PMID:2016041

  20. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eTofanelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their classical 6 STR marker format or in the extended 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same haplotype signatures. Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes.

  1. hapassoc: Software for Likelihood Inference of Trait Associations with SNP Haplotypes and Other Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Burkett

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex medical disorders, such as heart disease and diabetes, are thought to involve a number of genes which act in conjunction with lifestyle and environmental factors to increase disease susceptibility. Associations between complex traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genomic regions can provide a useful tool for identifying genetic risk factors. However, analysis of trait associations with single SNPs ignores the potential for extra information from haplotypes, combinations of variants at multiple SNPs along a chromosome inherited from a parent. When haplotype-trait associations are of interest and haplotypes of individuals can be determined, generalized linear models (GLMs may be used to investigate haplotype associations while adjusting for the effects of non-genetic cofactors or attributes. Unfortunately, haplotypes cannot always be determined cost-effectively when data is collected on unrelated subjects. Uncertain haplotypes may be inferred on the basis of data from single SNPs. However, subsequent analyses of risk factors must account for the resulting uncertainty in haplotype assignment in order to avoid potential errors in interpretation. To account for such uncertainty, we have developed hapassoc, software for R implementing a likelihood approach to inference of haplotype and non-genetic effects in GLMs of trait associations. We provide a description of the underlying statistical method and illustrate the use of hapassoc with examples that highlight the flexibility to specify dominant and recessive effects of genetic risk factors, a feature not shared by other software that restricts users to additive effects only. Additionally, hapassoc can accommodate missing SNP genotypes for limited numbers of subjects.

  2. hapassoc: Software for Likelihood Inference of Trait Associations with SNP Haplotypes and Other Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Burkett

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex medical disorders, such as heart disease and diabetes, are thought to involve a number of genes which act in conjunction with lifestyle and environmental factors to increase disease susceptibility. Associations between complex traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genomic regions can provide a useful tool for identifying genetic risk factors. However, analysis of trait associations with single SNPs ignores the potential for extra information from haplotypes, combinations of variants at multiple SNPs along a chromosome inherited from a parent. When haplotype-trait associations are of interest and haplotypes of individuals can be determined, generalized linear models (GLMs may be used to investigate haplotype associations while adjusting for the effects of non-genetic cofactors or attributes. Unfortunately, haplotypes cannot always be determined cost-effectively when data is collected on unrelated sub jects. Uncertain haplotypes may be inferred on the basis of data from single SNPs. However, subsequent analyses of risk factors must account for the resulting uncertainty in haplotype assignment in order to avoid potential errors in interpretation. To account for such uncertainty, we have developed hapassoc, software for R implementing a likelihood approach to inference of haplotype and non-genetic effects in GLMs of trait associations. We provide a description of the underlying statistical method and illustrate the use of hapassoc with examples that highlight the flexibility to specify dominant and recessive effects of genetic risk factors, a feature not shared by other software that restricts users to additive effects only. Additionally, hapassoc can accommodate missing SNP genotypes for limited numbers of subjects.

  3. Diverticulitis and Crohn's disease have distinct but overlapping tumor necrosis superfamily 15 haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Tara M; Choi, Christine S; Berg, Arthur S; Harris, Leonard; Coble, Joel; Koltun, Walter A

    2017-06-15

    Diverticulitis (DD) and Crohn's disease (CD) have overlapping features including bowel structuring, inflammation, and infection. Tumor necrosis superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) is an immunoregulatory, anti-angiogenic gene. CD has been previously associated with a haplotype of five TNFSF15 single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles: rs3810936 (G allele), rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7848647 (G), and rs7869487 (A). We aimed to determine the TNFSF15 risk haplotype for DD versus controls with a subgroup analysis of youthful DD patients (aged ≤55 y) versus older controls (aged ≥55 y). A total of 148 diverticulitis patients (90 aged ≤55 y) and 200 controls (87 aged ≥55 y) were genotyped using our custom-designed Illumina Veracode microarray chip. Genotypes from rs3810936, rs6478108, rs6478109, rs7848647, rs7869487 and two additional TNFSF15 single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs3810936 and rs11554257, were analyzed. PHASE version 2.1, R with HaploStats and the Broad Institute's Haploview program were used for statistics and imputed haplotype frequency. Permutation corrected for multiple comparisons. The CD GAGGA haplotype was significantly associated with diverticulitis (P = 0.03) in the all DD versus all controls comparison. A second haplotype, rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7869487 (A), and rs4263839 (G), was also associated with DD in this cohort (P = 0.025). A third haplotype rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7848647 (G) and rs7869487 (A), rs4263839 (G) was demonstrated in the DD 55 comparison (P = 0.045). Distinct but overlapping TNFSF15 haplotypes were demonstrated in diverticulitis patients versus healthy controls when compared with the known Crohn's risk haplotype suggesting similar but distinct genetic predispositions. This study strengthens the role for a genetic predisposition to diverticulitis that involves the TNFSF15 gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of IRF5 Lupus Risk Haplotype on Pathways Predicted to Influence B Cell Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthridge, Joel M.; Clark, Daniel N.; Templeton, Amanda; Dominguez, Nicolas; Lu, Rufei; Vidal, Gabriel S.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kauffman, Kenneth M.; Harley, John B.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; James, Judith A.; Poole, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental interactions affect systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) development and pathogenesis. One known genetic factor associated with lupus is a haplotype of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene. Analysis of global gene expression microarray data using gene set enrichment analysis identified multiple interferon- and inflammation-related gene sets significantly overrepresented in cells with the risk haplotype. Pathway analysis using expressed genes from the significant gene sets impacted by the IRF5 risk haplotype confirmed significant correlation with the interferon pathway, Toll-like receptor pathway, and the B-cell receptor pathway. SLE patients with the IRF5 risk haplotype have a heightened interferon signature, even in an unstimulated state (P = 0.011), while patients with the IRF5 protective haplotype have a B cell interferon signature similar to that of controls. These results identify multiple genes in functionally significant pathways which are affected by IRF5 genotype. They also establish the IRF5 risk haplotype as a key determinant of not only the interferon response, but also other B-cell pathways involved in SLE. PMID:22500098

  5. Angiotensinogen promoter haplotypes are associated with blood pressure in untreated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Herrmann, Stefan-Martin; Köpke, Karla; Reichenberger, Florian; Schmidt-Petersen, Klaus; Reineke, Thomas; Paul, Martin; Zidek, Walter; Brand, Eva

    2004-07-01

    The polymorphic angiotensinogen (AGT) gene is one of the most promising candidates for blood pressure (BP) regulation and essential hypertension. To investigate whether AGT haplotype analysis adds significant information compared to single polymorphism analysis with respect to different BP phenotypes in an untreated hypertensive sample. Two hundred and twelve untreated hypertensive subjects of Caucasian origin were genotyped for the AGT polymorphisms C-532T, A-20C, C-18T, and G-6A. In single variant analyses, untreated hypertensives, carrying the AGT -532T or -6A alleles had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as well as ambulatory BP values compared to respective non-carriers. In haplotype-based analyses, combining all four AGT promoter variants, we demonstrate that AGT haplotypes containing different allele combinations at positions -532 and -6 were significantly associated with different BP values: (1) -532T and -6A with higher, (2) -532C and -6G with lower, (3) -532C and -6A with intermediate BP values. Since the result for the -532C/-20A/-18C/-6G haplotype was due to differences between non-carriers and carriers of this haplotype on both chromosomes, a recessive inheritance model for BP effects could be assumed. Our results designate the C-532T and G-6A as the best candidates for functional studies on the AGT gene. Haplotype-based analyses should greatly aid in the dissection of the genetic basis of complex traits, such as BP regulation and hypertension.

  6. Addictions biology: haplotype-based analysis for 130 candidate genes on a single array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Colin A; Yuan, Qiaoping; Xu, Ke; Shen, Pei-Hong; Heinz, Elizabeth; Lobos, Elizabeth A; Binder, Elizabeth B; Cubells, Joe; Ehlers, Cindy L; Gelernter, Joel; Mann, John; Riley, Brien; Roy, Alec; Tabakoff, Boris; Todd, Richard D; Zhou, Zhifeng; Goldman, David

    2008-01-01

    To develop a panel of markers able to extract full haplotype information for candidate genes in alcoholism, other addictions and disorders of mood and anxiety. A total of 130 genes were haplotype tagged and genotyped in 7 case/control populations and 51 reference populations using Illumina GoldenGate SNP genotyping technology, determining haplotype coverage. We also constructed and determined the efficacy of a panel of 186 ancestry informative markers. An average of 1465 loci were genotyped at an average completion rate of 91.3%, with an average call rate of 98.3% and replication rate of 99.7%. Completion and call rates were lowered by the performance of two datasets, highlighting the importance of the DNA quality in high throughput assays. A comparison of haplotypes captured by the Addictions Array tagging SNPs and commercially available whole-genome arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix shows comparable performance of the tag SNPs to the best whole-genome array in all populations for which data are available. Arrays of haplotype-tagged candidate genes, such as this addictions-focused array, represent a cost-effective approach to generate high-quality SNP genotyping data useful for the haplotype-based analysis of panels of genes such as these 130 genes of interest to alcohol and addictions researchers. The inclusion of the 186 ancestry informative markers allows for the detection and correction for admixture and further enhances the utility of the array.

  7. RENT+: an improved method for inferring local genealogical trees from haplotypes with recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Sajad; Wu, Yufeng

    2017-04-01

    : Haplotypes from one or multiple related populations share a common genealogical history. If this shared genealogy can be inferred from haplotypes, it can be very useful for many population genetics problems. However, with the presence of recombination, the genealogical history of haplotypes is complex and cannot be represented by a single genealogical tree. Therefore, inference of genealogical history with recombination is much more challenging than the case of no recombination. : In this paper, we present a new approach called RENT+  for the inference of local genealogical trees from haplotypes with the presence of recombination. RENT+  builds on a previous genealogy inference approach called RENT , which infers a set of related genealogical trees at different genomic positions. RENT+  represents a significant improvement over RENT in the sense that it is more effective in extracting information contained in the haplotype data about the underlying genealogy than RENT . The key components of RENT+  are several greatly enhanced genealogy inference rules. Through simulation, we show that RENT+  is more efficient and accurate than several existing genealogy inference methods. As an application, we apply RENT+  in the inference of population demographic history from haplotypes, which outperforms several existing methods. : RENT+  is implemented in Java, and is freely available for download from: https://github.com/SajadMirzaei/RentPlus . : sajad@engr.uconn.edu or ywu@engr.uconn.edu. : Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Cluster analysis of European Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes using the discrete Laplace method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models the probabi......The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models...... the probability distribution of the Y-STR haplotypes. Creating a consistent statistical model of the haplotypes enables us to perform a wide range of analyses. Previously, haplotype frequency estimation using the discrete Laplace method has been validated. In this paper we investigate how the discrete Laplace...... method can be used for cluster analysis to further validate the discrete Laplace method. A very important practical fact is that the calculations can be performed on a normal computer. We identified two sub-clusters of the Eastern and Western European Y-STR haplotypes similar to results of previous...

  9. MAPT haplotype H1G is associated with increased risk of dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Catherine; Heckman, Michael G; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Walton, Ronald L; Murray, Melissa E; Allen, Mariet; Uitti, Ryan J; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Smith, Glenn E; Kantarci, Kejal; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer; Hassan, Anhar; Savica, Rodolfo; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ferman, Tanis J; Boeve, Bradley F; Dickson, Dennis W; Ross, Owen A

    2016-12-01

    The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. We were interested in exploring the role of MAPT haplotypic variation in risk of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We genotyped six MAPT haplotype tagging SNPs and screened 431 clinical DLB cases, 347 pathologically defined high-likelihood DLB cases, and 1049 controls. We performed haplotypic association tests and detected an association with the protective H2 haplotype in our combined series (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75). We fine-mapped the locus and identified a relatively rare haplotype, H1G, that is associated with an increased risk of DLB (OR = 3.30, P = .0017). This association was replicated in our pathologically defined series (OR = 2.26, P = .035). These results support a role for H1 and specifically H1G in susceptibility to DLB. However, the exact functional variant at the locus is still unknown, and additional studies are warranted to fully explain genetic risk of DLB at the MAPT locus. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of IRF5 Lupus Risk Haplotype on Pathways Predicted to Influence B Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Guthridge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental interactions affect systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE development and pathogenesis. One known genetic factor associated with lupus is a haplotype of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5 gene. Analysis of global gene expression microarray data using gene set enrichment analysis identified multiple interferon- and inflammation-related gene sets significantly overrepresented in cells with the risk haplotype. Pathway analysis using expressed genes from the significant gene sets impacted by the IRF5 risk haplotype confirmed significant correlation with the interferon pathway, Toll-like receptor pathway, and the B-cell receptor pathway. SLE patients with the IRF5 risk haplotype have a heightened interferon signature, even in an unstimulated state (P=0.011, while patients with the IRF5 protective haplotype have a B cell interferon signature similar to that of controls. These results identify multiple genes in functionally significant pathways which are affected by IRF5 genotype. They also establish the IRF5 risk haplotype as a key determinant of not only the interferon response, but also other B-cell pathways involved in SLE.

  11. Association of a TFAM haplotype with aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Jesús Benítez; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Rojano-Mejía, David; Tapia, André; Canto, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the development of cancer and obesity, being prostate cancer more aggressive in obese men. It has been suggested that the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays a central role in these events. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men. A total of 257 unrelated men with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, of Mexican Mestizo ethnic origin, were included. Body mass index was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness was demarcated by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. The rs1937, rs1049432, and rs11006132, as well as their haplotypes, were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated; haplotype analysis was performed. A higher risk (D'Amico classification) was documented in 56 patients (21.8%). We did not find a significant association among those polymorphisms analyzed; however, one haplotype was significantly associated with cancer aggressiveness. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first study regarding the relationship of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in overweight or obese men; the most frequent haplotype was associated with cancer aggressiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Failure to confirm allelic and haplotypic association between markers at the chromosome 6p22.3 dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 locus and schizophrenia

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    Kirwin Simon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous linkage and association studies may have implicated the Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 gene locus or a gene in linkage disequilibrium with DTNBP1 on chromosome 6p22.3 in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Methods We used the case control design to test for of allelic and haplotypic association with schizophrenia in a sample of four hundred and fifty research subjects with schizophrenia and four hundred and fifty ancestrally matched supernormal controls. We genotyped the SNP markers previously found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia in the original study and also other markers found to be positive in subsequent studies. Results We could find no evidence of allelic, genotypic or haplotypic association with schizophrenia in our UK sample. Conclusion The results suggest that the DTNBP1 gene contribution to schizophrenia must be rare or absent in our sample. The discrepant allelic association results in previous studies of association between DTNBP1 and schizophrenia could be due population admixture. However, even positive studies of European populations do not show any consistent DTNBP1 alleles or haplotypes associated with schizophrenia. Further research is needed to resolve these issues. The possible confounding of linkage with association in family samples already showing linkage at 6p22.3 might be revealed by testing genes closely linked to DTNBP1 for allelic association and by restricting family based tests of association to only one case per family.

  13. An ancestral haplotype of the human PERIOD2 gene associates with reduced sensitivity to light-induced melatonin suppression.

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    Akiyama, Tokiho; Katsumura, Takafumi; Nakagome, Shigeki; Lee, Sang-Il; Joh, Keiichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Kimura, Ryosuke; Ishida, Hajime; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Yasukouchi, Akira; Satta, Yoko; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Oota, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Humans show various responses to the environmental stimulus in individual levels as "physiological variations." However, it has been unclear if these are caused by genetic variations. In this study, we examined the association between the physiological variation of response to light-stimulus and genetic polymorphisms. We collected physiological data from 43 subjects, including light-induced melatonin suppression, and performed haplotype analyses on the clock genes, PER2 and PER3, exhibiting geographical differentiation of allele frequencies. Among the haplotypes of PER3, no significant difference in light sensitivity was found. However, three common haplotypes of PER2 accounted for more than 96% of the chromosomes in subjects, and 1 of those 3 had a significantly low-sensitive response to light-stimulus (P haplotype showed significantly lower percentages of melatonin suppression (P haplotypes varied their ratios, indicating that the physiological variation for light-sensitivity is evidently related to the PER2 polymorphism. Compared with global haplotype frequencies, the haplotype with a low-sensitive response was more frequent in Africans than in non-Africans, and came to the root in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the low light-sensitive haplotype is the ancestral type, whereas the other haplotypes with high sensitivity to light are the derived types. Hence, we speculate that the high light-sensitive haplotypes have spread throughout the world after the Out-of-Africa migration of modern humans.

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1B Haplotypes Increase or Decrease the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in a New Zealand Caucasian Population

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    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs comprising Crohn disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are chronic inflammatory conditions with polygenic susceptibility. Interactions between TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha receptor play a fundamental role in inflammatory response. This study investigates the role that selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in the TNF-alpha receptor (TNSFRSF1B gene play in the risk of IBD in a New Zealand Caucasian population. DNA samples from 388 CD, 405 UC, 27 indeterminate colitis patients, and 293 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common SNPs in TNSFRSF1B: rs1061622 (c.676T>C, rs1061624 (c.∗1663A>G, and rs3397 (c.∗1690T>C, using TaqMan technologies. Carrying the rs1061624 variant decreased the risk of UC in the left colon (OR 0.73, 95% CI=0.54–1.00 and of being a smoker at diagnosis (OR 0.62; 95% CI=0.40–0.96. Carrying the rs3397 variant decreased the risk of penetrating CD (OR 0.62, 95% CI=0.40–0.95. Three marker haplotype analyses revealed highly significant differences between CD patients and control subjects (χ2=29.9, df=7, P=.0001 and UC cases and controls (χ2=46.3, df=7, P<.0001. We conclude that carrying a 3-marker haplotype in the TNSFRSF1B gene may increase (e.g., haplotype of GGC was 2.9-fold more in the CD or UCpatients or decrease (e.g., TGT was 0.47-fold less in UC patients the risk of IBD in a New Zealand Caucasian population.

  15. Haplotype-based approach to known MS-associated regions increases the amount of explained risk.

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    Khankhanian, Pouya; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Lizee, Antoine; Goodin, Douglas S

    2015-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have yielded 110 non-human leucocyte antigen genomic regions that are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this large number of associations, however, only 28% of MS-heritability can currently be explained. Here we compare the use of multi-SNP-haplotypes to the use of single-SNPs as alternative methods to describe MS genetic risk. SNP-haplotypes (of various lengths from 1 up to 15 contiguous SNPs) were constructed at each of the 110 previously identified, MS-associated, genomic regions. Even after correcting for the larger number of statistical comparisons made when using the haplotype-method, in 32 of the regions, the SNP-haplotype based model was markedly more significant than the single-SNP based model. By contrast, in no region was the single-SNP based model similarly more significant than the SNP-haplotype based model. Moreover, when we included the 932 MS-associated SNP-haplotypes (that we identified from 102 regions) as independent variables into a logistic linear model, the amount of MS-heritability, as assessed by Nagelkerke's R-squared, was 38%, which was considerably better than 29%, which was obtained by using only single-SNPs. This study demonstrates that SNP-haplotypes can be used to fine-map the genetic associations within regions of interest previously identified by single-SNP GWAS. Moreover, the amount of the MS genetic risk explained by the SNP-haplotype associations in the 110 MS-associated genomic regions was considerably greater when using SNP-haplotypes than when using single-SNPs. Also, the use of SNP-haplotypes can lead to the discovery of new regions of interest, which have not been identified by a single-SNP GWAS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Fetal male lineage determination by analysis of Y-chromosome STR haplotype in maternal plasma.

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    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Francielle Ribeiro; de Sousa, Claudia Ferreira; Nery, Lídia Freire Abdalla; Costa, Sandra Santana Soares

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fetus Y-STR haplotype in maternal plasma during pregnancy and estimate, non-invasively, if the alleged father and fetus belong to the same male lineage. The study enrolled couples with singleton pregnancies and known paternity. All participants signed informed consent and the local ethics committee approved the study. Peripheral blood was collected in EDTA tubes (mother) and in FTA paper (father). Maternal plasma DNA was extracted by using NucliSens EasyMAG. Fetal gender was determined by qPCR targeting DYS-14 in maternal plasma and it was also confirmed after the delivery. From all included volunteers, the first consecutive 20 mothers bearing male fetuses and 10 mothers bearing female fetuses were selected for the Y-STR analysis. The median gestational age was 12 weeks (range 12-36). All DNA samples were subjected to PCR amplification by PowerPlex Y23, ampFLSTR Yfiler, and two in-house multiplexes, which together accounts for 27 different Y-STR. The PCR products were detected with 3500 Genetic Analyzer and they were analyzed using GeneMapper-IDX. Fetuses' haplotypes (Yfiler format) were compared to other 5328 Brazilian haplotypes available on Y-chromosome haplotypes reference database (YHRD). As a result, between 22 and 27 loci were successfully amplified from maternal plasma in all 20 cases of male fetuses. None of the women bearing female fetuses had a falsely amplified Y-STR haplotype. The haplotype detected in maternal plasma completely matched the alleged father haplotype in 16 out of the 20 cases. Four cases showed single mismatches and they did not configure exclusions; 1 case showed a mutation in the DYS 458 locus due to the loss of one repeat unit and 3 cases showed one DYS 385I/II locus dropout. All mismatches were confirmed after the delivery. Seventeen fetuses' haplotypes were not found in YHRD and one of them had a mutation, which corresponded to the paternity probability of 99.9812% and 95.7028%, respectively

  17. A Monomorphic Haplotype of Chromosome Ia Is Associated with Widespread Success in Clonal and Nonclonal Populations of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asis; Miller, Natalie; Roos, David S.; Dubey, J. P.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Dardé, Marie Laure; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Sibley, L. David

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of animals that also causes a zoonotic infection in humans. Previous studies have revealed a strongly clonal population structure that is shared between North America and Europe, while South American strains show greater genetic diversity and evidence of sexual recombination. The common inheritance of a monomorphic version of chromosome Ia (referred to as ChrIa*) among three clonal lineages from North America and Europe suggests that inheritance of this chromosome might underlie their recent clonal expansion. To further examine the diversity and distribution of ChrIa, we have analyzed additional strains with greater geographic diversity. Our findings reveal that the same haplotype of ChrIa* is found in the clonal lineages from North America and Europe and in older lineages in South America, where sexual recombination is more common. Although lineages from all three continents harbor the same conserved ChrIa* haplotype, strains from North America and Europe are genetically separate from those in South America, and these respective geographic regions show limited evidence of recent mixing. Genome-wide, array-based profiling of polymorphisms provided evidence for an ancestral flow from particular older southern lineages that gave rise to the clonal lineages now dominant in the north. Collectively, these data indicate that ChrIa* is widespread among nonclonal strains in South America and has more recently been associated with clonal expansion of specific lineages in North America and Europe. These findings have significant implications for the spread of genetic loci influencing transmission and virulence in pathogen populations. PMID:22068979

  18. Empirical vs Bayesian approach for estimating haplotypes from genotypes of unrelated individuals

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    Cheng Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of the HapMap project has stimulated further development of haplotype-based methodologies for disease associations. A key aspect of such development is the statistical inference of individual diplotypes from unphased genotypes. Several methodologies for inferring haplotypes have been developed, but they have not been evaluated extensively to determine which method not only performs well, but also can be easily incorporated in downstream haplotype-based association analyses. In this paper, we attempt to do so. Our evaluation was carried out by comparing the two leading Bayesian methods, implemented in PHASE and HAPLOTYPER, and the two leading empirical methods, implemented in PL-EM and HPlus. We used these methods to analyze real data, namely the dense genotypes on X-chromosome of 30 European and 30 African trios provided by the International HapMap Project, and simulated genotype data. Our conclusions are based on these analyses. Results All programs performed very well on X-chromosome data, with an average similarity index of 0.99 and an average prediction rate of 0.99 for both European and African trios. On simulated data with approximation of coalescence, PHASE implementing the Bayesian method based on the coalescence approximation outperformed other programs on small sample sizes. When the sample size increased, other programs performed as well as PHASE. PL-EM and HPlus implementing empirical methods required much less running time than the programs implementing the Bayesian methods. They required only one hundredth or thousandth of the running time required by PHASE, particularly when analyzing large sample sizes and large umber of SNPs. Conclusion For large sample sizes (hundreds or more, which most association studies require, the two empirical methods might be used since they infer the haplotypes as accurately as any Bayesian methods and can be incorporated easily into downstream haplotype

  19. Empirical vs Bayesian approach for estimating haplotypes from genotypes of unrelated individuals

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    Li, Shuying Sue; Cheng, Jacob Jen-Hao; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background The completion of the HapMap project has stimulated further development of haplotype-based methodologies for disease associations. A key aspect of such development is the statistical inference of individual diplotypes from unphased genotypes. Several methodologies for inferring haplotypes have been developed, but they have not been evaluated extensively to determine which method not only performs well, but also can be easily incorporated in downstream haplotype-based association analyses. In this paper, we attempt to do so. Our evaluation was carried out by comparing the two leading Bayesian methods, implemented in PHASE and HAPLOTYPER, and the two leading empirical methods, implemented in PL-EM and HPlus. We used these methods to analyze real data, namely the dense genotypes on X-chromosome of 30 European and 30 African trios provided by the International HapMap Project, and simulated genotype data. Our conclusions are based on these analyses. Results All programs performed very well on X-chromosome data, with an average similarity index of 0.99 and an average prediction rate of 0.99 for both European and African trios. On simulated data with approximation of coalescence, PHASE implementing the Bayesian method based on the coalescence approximation outperformed other programs on small sample sizes. When the sample size increased, other programs performed as well as PHASE. PL-EM and HPlus implementing empirical methods required much less running time than the programs implementing the Bayesian methods. They required only one hundredth or thousandth of the running time required by PHASE, particularly when analyzing large sample sizes and large umber of SNPs. Conclusion For large sample sizes (hundreds or more), which most association studies require, the two empirical methods might be used since they infer the haplotypes as accurately as any Bayesian methods and can be incorporated easily into downstream haplotype-based analyses such as haplotype

  20. Powerful haplotype-based Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests for tightly linked loci.

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    Mao, Wei-Gao; He, Hai-Qiang; Xu, Yan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there have been many case-control studies proposed to test for association between haplotypes and disease, which require the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) assumption of haplotype frequencies. As such, haplotype inference of unphased genotypes and development of haplotype-based HWE tests are crucial prior to fine mapping. The goodness-of-fit test is a frequently-used method to test for HWE for multiple tightly-linked loci. However, its degrees of freedom dramatically increase with the increase of the number of loci, which may lack the test power. Therefore, in this paper, to improve the test power for haplotype-based HWE, we first write out two likelihood functions of the observed data based on the Niu's model (NM) and inbreeding model (IM), respectively, which can cause the departure from HWE. Then, we use two expectation-maximization algorithms and one expectation-conditional-maximization algorithm to estimate the model parameters under the HWE, IM and NM models, respectively. Finally, we propose the likelihood ratio tests LRT[Formula: see text] and LRT[Formula: see text] for haplotype-based HWE under the NM and IM models, respectively. We simulate the HWE, Niu's, inbreeding and population stratification models to assess the validity and compare the performance of these two LRT tests. The simulation results show that both of the tests control the type I error rates well in testing for haplotype-based HWE. If the NM model is true, then LRT[Formula: see text] is more powerful. While, if the true model is the IM model, then LRT[Formula: see text] has better performance in power. Under the population stratification model, LRT[Formula: see text] is still more powerful. To this end, LRT[Formula: see text] is generally recommended. Application of the proposed methods to a rheumatoid arthritis data set further illustrates their utility for real data analysis.

  1. F8 haplotype and inhibitor risk: results from the Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort

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    Schwarz, John; Astermark, Jan; Menius, Erika D.; Carrington, Mary; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Nelson, George W.; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pavlova, Anna; Shapiro, Amy D.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Berntorp, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Ancestral background, specifically African descent, confers higher risk for development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) in hemophilia A. It has been suggested that differences in the distribution of factor VIII gene (F8) haplotypes, and mismatch between endogenous F8 haplotypes and those comprising products used for treatment could contribute to risk. Design and Methods Data from the HIGS Combined Cohort were used to determine the association between F8 haplotype 3 (H3) vs. haplotypes 1 and 2 (H1+H2) and inhibitor risk among individuals of genetically-determined African descent. Other variables known to affect inhibitor risk including type of F8 mutation and HLA were included in the analysis. A second research question regarding risk related to mismatch in endogenous F8 haplotype and recombinant FVIII products used for treatment was addressed. Results H3 was associated with higher inhibitor risk among those genetically-identified (N=49) as of African ancestry, but the association did not remain significant after adjustment for F8 mutation type and the HLA variables. Among subjects of all racial ancestries enrolled in HIGS who reported early use of recombinant products (N=223), mismatch in endogenous haplotype and the FVIII proteins constituting the products used did not confer greater risk for inhibitor development. Conclusion H3 was not an independent predictor of inhibitor risk. Further, our findings did not support a higher risk of inhibitors in the presence of a haplotype mismatch between the FVIII molecule infused and that of the individual. PMID:22958194

  2. Haplotype association analyses in resources of mixed structure using Monte Carlo testing

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    Thomas Alun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomewide association studies have resulted in a great many genomic regions that are likely to harbor disease genes. Thorough interrogation of these specific regions is the logical next step, including regional haplotype studies to identify risk haplotypes upon which the underlying critical variants lie. Pedigrees ascertained for disease can be powerful for genetic analysis due to the cases being enriched for genetic disease. Here we present a Monte Carlo based method to perform haplotype association analysis. Our method, hapMC, allows for the analysis of full-length and sub-haplotypes, including imputation of missing data, in resources of nuclear families, general pedigrees, case-control data or mixtures thereof. Both traditional association statistics and transmission/disequilibrium statistics can be performed. The method includes a phasing algorithm that can be used in large pedigrees and optional use of pseudocontrols. Results Our new phasing algorithm substantially outperformed the standard expectation-maximization algorithm that is ignorant of pedigree structure, and hence is preferable for resources that include pedigree structure. Through simulation we show that our Monte Carlo procedure maintains the correct type 1 error rates for all resource types. Power comparisons suggest that transmission-disequilibrium statistics are superior for performing association in resources of only nuclear families. For mixed structure resources, however, the newly implemented pseudocontrol approach appears to be the best choice. Results also indicated the value of large high-risk pedigrees for association analysis, which, in the simulations considered, were comparable in power to case-control resources of the same sample size. Conclusions We propose hapMC as a valuable new tool to perform haplotype association analyses, particularly for resources of mixed structure. The availability of meta-association and haplotype-mining modules in

  3. Identification of the Mislabeled Breast Cancer Samples by Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping

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    Xiaogang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task to identify whether an archival malignant tumor specimen had been mislabeled or interchanged is a challenging one for forensic genetics. The nuclear DNA (nDNA markers were affected by the aberration of tumor cells, so they were not suitable for personal identification when the tumor tissues were tested. In this study, we focused on a new solution - mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphism (mtSNP haplotyping by a multiplex SNaPshot assay. To validate our strategy of haplotyping with 25 mtSNPs, we analyzed 15 pairs of cancerous/healthy tissues taken from patients with ductal breast carcinoma. The haplotypes of all the fifteen breast cancer tissues were matched with their paired breast tissues. The heteroplasmy at 2 sites, 14783A/G and 16519C/T was observed in one breast tissue, which indicated a mixture of related mitochondrial haplotypes. However, only one haplotype was retained in the paired breast cancer tissue, which could be considered the result of proliferation of tumor subclone. The allele drop-out and allele drop-in were observed when 39 STRs and 20 tri-allelic SNPs of nDNA were applied. Compared to nDNA markers applied, 25 mtSNPs were more stable without interference from aberrance of breast cancer. Also, two cases were presented where the investigation of haplotype with 25 mtSNPs was used to prove the origin of biopsy specimen with breast cancer. The mislabeling of biopsy specimen with breast cancer could be certified in one case but could not be supported in the other case. We highlight the importance of stability of mtSNP haplotype in breast cancer. It was implied that our multiplex SNaPshot assay with 25 mtSNPs was a useful strategy to identify mislabeled breast cancer specimen.

  4. Haplotypes of catechol-O-methyltransferase modulate intelligence-related brain white matter integrity.

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    Liu, Bing; Li, Jun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Fan, Ming; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2010-03-01

    Twin studies have indicated a common genetic origin for intelligence and for variations in brain morphology. Our previous diffusion tensor imaging studies found an association between intelligence and white matter integrity of specific brain regions or tracts. However, specific genetic determinants of the white matter integrity of these brain regions and tracts are still unclear. In this study, we assess whether and how catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms affect brain white matter integrity. We genotyped twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the COMT gene and performed haplotype analyses on data from 79 healthy subjects. Our subjects had the same three major COMT haplotypes (termed the HPS, APS and LPS haplotypes) as previous studies have reported as regulating significantly different levels of enzymatic activity and dopamine. We used the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values from four regions and five tracts of interest to assess the effect of COMT polymorphisms, including the well-studied val158met SNP and the three main haplotypes that we had identified, on intelligence-related white matter integrity. We identified an association between the mean FA values of two regions in the bilateral prefrontal lobes and the COMT haplotypes, rather than between them and val158met. The haplotype-FA value associations modulated nonlinearly and fit an inverted U-model. Our findings suggest that COMT haplotypes can nonlinearly modulate the intelligence-related white matter integrity of the prefrontal lobes by more significantly influencing prefrontal dopamine variations than does val158met. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intricacies in arrangement of SNP haplotypes suggest "Great Admixture" that created modern humans.

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    Dutta, Rajib; Mainsah, Joseph; Yatskiv, Yuriy; Chakrabortty, Sharmistha; Brennan, Patrick; Khuder, Basil; Qiu, Shuhao; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

    2017-06-05

    Inferring history from genomic sequences is challenging and problematic because chromosomes are mosaics of thousands of small Identicalby-descent (IBD) fragments, each of them having their own unique story. However, the main events in recent evolution might be deciphered from comparative analysis of numerous loci. A paradox of why humans, whose effective population size is only 10 4 , have nearly three million frequent SNPs is formulated and examined. We studied 5398 loci evenly covering all human autosomes. Common haplotypes built from frequent SNPs that are present in people from various populations have been examined. We demonstrated highly non-random arrangement of alleles in common haplotypes. Abundance of mutually exclusive pairs of common haplotypes that have different alleles at every polymorphic position (so-called Yin/Yang haplotypes) was found in 56% of loci. A novel widely spread category of common haplotypes named Mosaic has been described. Mosaic consists of numerous pieces of Yin/Yang haplotypes and represents an ancestral stage of one of them. Scenarios of possible appearance of large number of frequent human SNPs and their habitual arrangement in Yin/Yang common haplotypes have been evaluated with an advanced genomic simulation algorithm. Computer modeling demonstrated that the observed arrangement of 2.9 million frequent SNPs could not originate from a sole stand-alone population. A "Great Admixture" event has been proposed that can explain peculiarities with frequent SNP distributions. This Great Admixture presumably occurred 100-300 thousand years ago between two ancestral populations that had been separated from each other about a million years ago. Our programs and algorithms can be applied to other species to perform evolutionary and comparative genomics.

  6. The role of analysis of EVER2 haplotypes in actinic keratosis

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    Agnieszka Kalińska-Bienias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Polymorphisms of EVER genes are related to increased risk of actinic keratosis (AK, squamous skin cancers (SCC and cervical cancer. Objective . The aim of this study was to analyze the haplotypes of the EVER 2 gene in 65 subjects with ≥ 5 actinic keratoses and in 274 controls. The correlations between EVER 2 haplotype and selected clinical parameters in patients with actinic keratosis were also evaluated. Material and methods . The analysis involved polymorphisms –917A>T (rs7208422, –988-4G>T (rs62079073 and –1107G>A (rs12452890, which obtained statistically significant results in previous published studies of patients with actinic keratosis and squamous skin cancers. The full blood samples of patients and controls were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction with reagents from Applied Biosystems. Results . In a group of patients with AK and the controls the most frequent haplotypes were AGG and TGA. Haplotype TG (–917A>T and –988-4G>T containing the promoter T allele of 917A>T was more frequent in patients who had AK onset before the age of 70 years (0.6117 vs. 0.417; p = 0.029 and with more extensive skin lesions (0.6085 vs. 0.414; p = 0.029. Haplotype TA (–988-4G>T and –1107G>A, containing the protective G allele of –988-4G>T, was observed only in patients with AK. There was no presence of haplotype TA in patients with coexisting SCC (the result was near statistical significance, p = 0.059. Conclusions . The results of the study suggest the necessity of analysis of haplotypes in evaluation of predisposition to precancerous skin lesions and skin cancers.

  7. Characterisation of SNP haplotype structure in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes using CEPH pedigrees and statistical estimation.

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    Clark, Vanessa J; Dean, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Chemokine signals and their cell-surface receptors are important modulators of HIV-1 disease and cancer. To aid future case/control association studies, aim to further characterise the haplotype structure of variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes. To perform haplotype analysis in a population-based association study, haplotypes must be determined by estimation, in the absence of family information or laboratory methods to establish phase. Here, test the accuracy of estimates of haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium by comparing estimated haplotypes generated with the expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm to haplotypes determined from Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) pedigree data. To do this, they have characterised haplotypes comprising alleles at 11 biallelic loci in four chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2), which span 150 kb on chromosome 3p21, and haplotyes of nine biallelic loci in six chemokine genes [MCP-1(CCL2), Eotaxin(CCL11), RANTES(CCL5), MPIF-1(CCL23), PARC(CCL18) and MIP-1alpha(CCL3)] on chromosome 17q11-12. Forty multi-generation CEPH families, totalling 489 individuals, were genotyped by the TaqMan 5'-nuclease assay. Phased haplotypes and haplotypes estimated from unphased genotypes were compared in 103 grandparents who were assumed to have mated at random. For the 3p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, haplotypes determined by pedigree analysis and haplotypes generated by the EM algorithm were nearly identical. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by the D' statistic, was nearly maximal across the 150 kb region, with complete disequilibrium maintained at the extremes between CCR3-Y17Y and CCRL2-I243V. D'-values calculated from estimated haplotypes on 3p21 had high concordance with pairwise comparisons between pedigree-phased chromosomes. Conversely, there was less agreement between analyses of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium using estimated haplotypes when compared with

  8. Characterisation of SNP haplotype structure in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes using CEPH pedigrees and statistical estimation

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    Clark Vanessa J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokine signals and their cell-surface receptors are important modulators of HIV-1 disease and cancer. To aid future case/control association studies, aim to further characterise the haplotype structure of variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes. To perform haplotype analysis in a population-based association study, haplotypes must be determined by estimation, in the absence of family information or laboratory methods to establish phase. Here, test the accuracy of estimates of haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium by comparing estimated haplotypes generated with the expectation maximisation (EM algorithm to haplotypes determined from Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH pedigree data. To do this, they have characterised haplotypes comprising alleles at 11 biallelic loci in four chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2, which span 150 kb on chromosome 3p21, and haplotyes of nine biallelic loci in six chemokine genes [MCP-1(CCL2, Eotaxin(CCL11, RANTES(CCL5, MPIF-1(CCL23, PARC(CCL18 and MIP-1α(CCL3 ] on chromosome 17q11-12. Forty multi-generation CEPH families, totalling 489 individuals, were genotyped by the TaqMan 5'-nuclease assay. Phased haplotypes and haplotypes estimated from unphased genotypes were compared in 103 grandparents who were assumed to have mated at random. For the 3p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data, haplotypes determined by pedigree analysis and haplotypes generated by the EM algorithm were nearly identical. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by the D' statistic, was nearly maximal across the 150 kb region, with complete disequilibrium maintained at the extremes between CCR3-Y17Y and CCRL2-1243V. D'-values calculated from estimated haplotypes on 3p21 had high concordance with pairwise comparisons between pedigree-phased chromosomes. Conversely, there was less agreement between analyses of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium using estimated haplotypes when

  9. A comprehensive literature review of haplotyping software and methods for use with unrelated individuals

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    Salem Rany M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in the assignment and frequency analysis of haplotypes in samples of unrelated individuals has increased immeasurably as a result of the emphasis placed on haplotype analyses by, for example, the International HapMap Project and related initiatives. Although there are many available computer programs for haplotype analysis applicable to samples of unrelated individuals, many of these programs have limitations and/or very specific uses. In this paper, the key features of available haplotype analysis software for use with unrelated individuals, as well as pooled DNA samples from unrelated individuals, are summarised. Programs for haplotype analysis were identified through keyword searches on PUBMED and various internet search engines, a review of citations from retrieved papers and personal communications, up to June 2004. Priority was given to functioning computer programs, rather than theoretical models and methods. The available software was considered in light of a number of factors: the algorithm(s used, algorithm accuracy, assumptions, the accommodation of genotyping error, implementation of hypothesis testing, handling of missing data, software characteristics and web-based implementations. Review papers comparing specific methods and programs are also summarised. Forty-six haplotyping programs were identified and reviewed. The programs were divided into two groups: those designed for individual genotype data (a total of 43 programs and those designed for use with pooled DNA samples (a total of three programs. The accuracy of programs using various criteria are assessed and the programs are categorised and discussed in light of: algorithm and method, accuracy, assumptions, genotyping error, hypothesis testing, missing data, software characteristics and web implementation. Many available programs have limitations (eg some cannot accommodate missing data and/or are designed with specific tasks in mind (eg estimating

  10. TNFA Haplotype Genetic Testing Improves HLA in Estimating the Risk of Celiac Disease in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elisa; Basso, Daniela; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Navaglia, Filippo; Greco, Eliana; Pelloso, Michela; Artuso, Serena; Padoan, Andrea; Pescarin, Matilde; Aita, Ada; Bozzato, Dania; Moz, Stefania; Cananzi, Mara; Guariso, Graziella; Plebani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    TNF-α and IFN-γ play a role in the development of mucosal damage in celiac disease (CD). Polymorphisms of TNFA and IFNG genes, as well as of the TNFRSF1A gene, encoding the TNF-α receptor 1, might underlie different inter-individual disease susceptibility over a common HLA risk background. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether five SNPs in the TNFA promoter (-1031T>C,-857C>T,-376G>A,-308G>A,-238G>A), sequence variants of the TNFRSF1A gene and IFNG +874A>T polymorphism are associated with CD in a HLA independent manner. 511 children (244 CD, 267 controls) were genotyped for HLA, TNFA and INFG (Real Time PCR). TNFRSF1A variants were studied (DHPLC and sequence). Only the rare TNFA-1031C (OR=0.65, 95% CI:0.44-0.95), -857T (OR=0.42, 95% CI:0.27-0.65), -376A (OR=2.25, 95% CI:1.12-4.51) and -308A (OR=4.76, 95% CI:3.12-7.26) alleles were significantly associated with CD. One TNFRSF1A variant was identified (c.625+10A>G, rs1800693), but not associated with CD. The CD-correlated TNFA SNPs resulted in six haplotypes. Two haplotypes were control-associated (CCGG and TTGG) and three were CD-associated (CCAG, TCGA and CCGA). The seventeen inferred haplotype combinations were grouped (A to E) based on their frequencies among CD. Binary logistic regression analysis documented a strong association between CD and HLA (OR for intermediate risk haplotypes=178; 95% CI:24-1317; OR for high risk haplotypes=2752; 95% CI:287-26387), but also an HLA-independent correlation between CD and TNFA haplotype combination groups. The CD risk for patients carrying an intermediate risk HLA haplotype could be sub-stratified by TNFA haplotype combinations. TNFA promoter haplotypes associate with CD independently from HLA. We suggest that their evaluation might enhance the accuracy in estimating the CD genetic risk.

  11. Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meixiang; Nekhayeva, Ilona; Cross, Courtney E; Rondelli, Catherine M; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2014-03-01

    The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18-119% increase; P haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents.

  12. Allele-Level Haplotype Frequencies and Pairwise Linkage Disequilibrium for 14 KIR Loci in 506 European-American Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierra-Green, Cynthia; Roe, David; Hou, Lihua; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Rajalingam, Raja; Reed, Elaine; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Yu, Neng; Stewart, Mary; Noreen, Harriet; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen; Maiers, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The immune responses of natural killer cells are regulated, in part, by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The 16 closely-related genes in the KIR gene system have been diversified by gene duplication and unequal crossing over, thereby generating haplotypes with variation in gene copy number. Allelic variation also contributes to diversity within the complex. In this study, we estimated allele-level haplotype frequencies and pairwise linkage disequilibrium statistics for 14 KIR loci. The typing utilized multiple methodologies by four laboratories to provide at least 2x coverage for each allele. The computational methods generated maximum-likelihood estimates of allele-level haplotypes. Our results indicate the most extensive allele diversity was observed for the KIR framework genes and for the genes localized to the telomeric region of the KIR A haplotype. Particular alleles of the stimulatory loci appear to be nearly fixed on specific, common haplotypes while many of the less frequent alleles of the inhibitory loci appeared on multiple haplotypes, some with common haplotype structures. Haplotype structures cA01 and/or tA01 predominate in this cohort, as has been observed in most populations worldwide. Linkage disequilibrium is high within the centromeric and telomeric haplotype regions but not between them and is particularly strong between centromeric gene pairs KIR2DL5∼KIR2DS3S5 and KIR2DS3S5∼KIR2DL1, and telomeric KIR3DL1∼KIR2DS4. Although 93% of the individuals have unique pairs of full-length allelic haplotypes, large genomic blocks sharing specific sets of alleles are seen in the most frequent haplotypes. These high-resolution, high-quality haplotypes extend our basic knowledge of the KIR gene system and may be used to support clinical studies beyond single gene analysis. PMID:23139747

  13. Identification of MHC Haplotypes Associated with Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Reactions in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Whritenour, Jessica; Sanford, Jonathan C; Houle, Christopher; Adkins, Karissa K

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions can significantly impact drug development and use. Studies to understand risk factors for drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions have identified genetic association with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Interestingly, drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions can occur in nonhuman primates; however, association between drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles has not been described. In this study, tissue samples were collected from 62 cynomolgus monkeys from preclinical studies in which 9 animals had evidence of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Microsatellite analysis was used to determine MHC haplotypes for each animal. A total of 7 haplotypes and recombinant MHC haplotypes were observed, with distribution frequency comparable to known MHC I allele frequency in cynomolgus monkeys. Genetic association analysis identified alleles from the M3 haplotype of the MHC I B region (B*011:01, B*075:01, B*079:01, B*070:02, B*098:05, and B*165:01) to be significantly associated (χ2 test for trend, p reactions. Sequence similarity from alignment of alleles in the M3 haplotype B region and HLA alleles associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions in humans was 86% to 93%. These data demonstrate that MHC alleles in cynomolgus monkeys are associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions, similar to HLA alleles in humans.

  14. The impact of sample size and marker selection on the study of haplotype structures

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    Sun Xiao

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies of haplotype structures in the human genome in various populations have found that the human chromosomes are structured such that each chromosome can be divided into many blocks, within which there is limited haplotype diversity. In addition, only a few genetic markers in a putative block are needed to capture most of the diversity within a block. There has been no systematic empirical study of the effects of sample size and marker set on the identified block structures and representative marker sets, however. The purpose of this study was to conduct a detailed empirical study to examine such impacts. Towards this goal, we have analysed three representative autosomal regions from a large genome-wide study of haplotypes with samples consisting of African-Americans and samples consisting of Japanese and Chinese individuals. For both populations, we have found that the sample size and marker set have significant impact on the number of blocks and the total number of representative markers identified. The marker set in particular has very strong impacts, and our results indicate that the marker density in the original datasets may not be adequate to allow a meaningful characterisation of haplotype structures. In general, we conclude that we need a relatively large sample size and a very dense marker panel in the study of haplotype structures in human populations.

  15. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extened haplotype analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Kastner, D.L.; Gruberg, L.; Pras, M. (Heller Institute for Medical Research, Tel-Hashomer (Israel))

    1993-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated MEF') is on 16p, with the gene order 16 cen-D16S80-MEF-D16S94-D16S283-D16S291-16pter. Here the authors report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families 14 Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94-D16S283-D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lowest haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: demonstration of a founder effect by extended haplotype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijevich, I; Pras, E; Gruberg, L; Shen, Y; Holman, K; Helling, S; Prosen, L; Sutherland, G R; Richards, R I; Dean, M

    1993-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated "MEF") is on 16p, with the gene order 16cen-D16S80-MEF-D16S94-D16S283-D16S291-++ +16pter. Here we report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles as D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families (14 Moroccan, 17 non-Moroccan). We observed highly significant associations at D16S283 and D16S291 among the Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94-D16S283-D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lower haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics.

  17. A common and functional mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype enhances optimism and protects against depression in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, M D; Giltay, E J; Van der Does, A J W; Geleijnse, J M; Antypa, N; Penninx, B W J H; de Geus, E J C; Willemsen, G; Boomsma, D I; van Leeuwen, N; Zitman, F G; de Kloet, E R; DeRijk, R H

    2011-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are abundantly expressed in the limbic brain and mediate cortisol effects on the stress-response and behavioral adaptation. Dysregulation of the stress response impairs adaptation and is a risk factor for depression, which is twice as abundant in women than in men. Because of the importance of MR for appraisal processes underlying the initial phase of the stress response we investigated whether specific MR haplotypes were associated with personality traits that predict the risk of depression. We discovered a common gene variant (haplotype 2, frequency ∼0.38) resulting in enhanced MR activity. Haplotype 2 was associated with heightened dispositional optimism in study 1 and with less hopelessness and rumination in study 2. Using data from a large genome-wide association study we then established that haplotype 2 was associated with a lower risk of depression. Interestingly, all effects were restricted to women. We propose that common functional MR haplotypes are important determinants of inter-individual variability in resilience to depression in women by differentially mediating cortisol effects on the stress system. PMID:22832354

  18. Complex History and Differentiation Patterns of the t-Haplotype, a Mouse Meiotic Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Reka K; Vicoso, Beatriz

    2017-11-14

    The t-haplotype, a mouse meiotic driver found on chromosome 17, has been a model for autosomal segregation distortion for close to a century, but several questions remain regarding its biology and evolutionary history. A recently published set of population genomics resources for wild mice includes several individuals heterozygous for the t-haplotype, which we use to characterize this selfish element at the genomic and transcriptomic level. Our results show that large sections of the t-haplotype have been replaced by standard homologous sequences, possibly due to occasional events of recombination, and that this complicates the inference of its history. As expected for a long genomic segment of very low recombination, the t-haplotype carries an excess of fixed nonsynonymous mutations compared to the standard chromosome. This excess is stronger for regions that have not undergone recent recombination, suggesting that occasional gene flow between the t and the standard chromosome may provide a mechanism to regenerate coding sequences that have accumulated deleterious mutations. Finally, we find that t-complex genes with altered expression largely overlap with deleted or amplified regions, and that carrying a t-haplotype alters the testis expression of genes outside of the t-complex, providing new leads into the pathways involved in the biology of this segregation distorter. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  19. HLA haplotypes in primary sclerosing cholangitis patients of admixed and non-European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E K K; Viken, M K; Wittig, M; Holm, K; Folseraas, T; Mucha, S; Melum, E; Hov, J R; Lazaridis, K N; Juran, B D; Chazouillères, O; Färkkilä, M; Gotthardt, D N; Invernizzi, P; Carbone, M; Hirschfield, G M; Rushbrook, S M; Goode, E; Ponsioen, C Y; Weersma, R K; Eksteen, B; Yimam, K K; Gordon, S C; Goldberg, D; Yu, L; Bowlus, C L; Franke, A; Lie, B A; Karlsen, T H

    2017-10-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is strongly associated with several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes. Due to extensive linkage disequilibrium and multiple polymorphic candidate genes in the HLA complex, identifying the alleles responsible for these associations has proven difficult. We aimed to evaluate whether studying populations of admixed or non-European descent could help in defining the causative HLA alleles. When assessing haplotypes carrying HLA-DRB1*13:01 (hypothesized to specifically increase the susceptibility to chronic cholangitis), we observed that every haplotype in the Scandinavian PSC population carried HLA-DQB1*06:03. In contrast, only 65% of HLA-DRB1*13:01 haplotypes in an admixed/non-European PSC population carried this allele, suggesting that further assessments of the PSC-associated haplotype HLA-DRB1*13:01-DQA1*01:03-DQB1*06:03 in admixed or multi-ethnic populations could aid in identifying the causative allele. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Combined effects of Wx and SSIIa haplotypes on rice starch physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xunchao; Kang, Cuifang; Xu, Shunju; Yang, Bowen

    2017-03-01

    Wx and SSIIa are central genes for determining starch physicochemical properties and rice endosperm starch is composed of linear amylose, which is entirely synthesized by granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI, encoded by Wx) and branched amylopectin. In the present study, different haplotypes of rice were examined to investigate the combined effects of pivotal genes in the metabolic chain of starch, Wx and SSIIa. Wx haplotypes differed in terms of apparent amylose content (AAC) and gel consistency (GC). The I-3 [haplotype I (Int1T/Ex10C) of Wx and haplotype 3 (A-G-TT) of SSIIa] and the I-4 combinations of rice had better eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) with lower AAC, lower gelatinization temperature (GT) and softer GC. The characteristic parameters of Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA) could distinguish differences in AAC and GC but not GT. The I-3 and I-4 haplotype combinations of Wx and SSIIa represent key targets for the production of rice with better ECQs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Adaptively introgressed Neandertal haplotype at the OAS locus functionally impacts innate immune responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Aaron J; Dumaine, Anne; Nédélec, Yohann; Yotova, Vania; Alfieri, Carolina; Tanner, Jerome E; Messer, Philipp W; Barreiro, Luis B

    2016-11-29

    The 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) locus encodes for three OAS enzymes (OAS1-3) involved in innate immune response. This region harbors high amounts of Neandertal ancestry in non-African populations; yet, strong evidence of positive selection in the OAS region is still lacking. Here we used a broad array of selection tests in concert with neutral coalescent simulations to demonstrate a signal of adaptive introgression at the OAS locus. Furthermore, we characterized the functional consequences of the Neandertal haplotype in the transcriptional regulation of OAS genes at baseline and infected conditions. We found that cells from people with the Neandertal-like haplotype express lower levels of OAS3 upon infection, as well as distinct isoforms of OAS1 and OAS2. We present evidence that a Neandertal haplotype at the OAS locus was subjected to positive selection in the human population. This haplotype is significantly associated with functional consequences at the level of transcriptional regulation of innate immune responses. Notably, we suggest that the Neandertal-introgressed haplotype likely reintroduced an ancestral splice variant of OAS1 encoding a more active protein, suggesting that adaptive introgression occurred as a means to resurrect adaptive variation that had been lost outside Africa.

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison.

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    David Forgacs

    Full Text Available Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06. Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76. However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae. Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions.

  3. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06). Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76). However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites) from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae). Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions. PMID:27880780

  4. Influence of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in Pumwani sex worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Raghavan; Peters, Harold O; Mendoza, Lillian; Bielawny, Thomas; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Kimani, Joshua; Wachihi, Charles; Plummer, Francis A; Luo, Ma

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. This study included 595 HIV-1 positive patients and 176 HIV negative individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -C were typed to 4-digit resolution using sequence-based typing method. HLA class I haplotype frequencies were estimated using PyPop 32-0.6.0. The influence of haplotypes on time to seroconversion and CD4+ T cell decline to single allele within the haplotypes. The true haplotype effect was observed with A*30∶02-B*45∶01, A*30∶02-C*16∶02, B*53∶01-C*04∶01 B*15∶10-C*03∶04, and B*42∶01-C*17∶01. In these cases, the presence of both alleles accelerated the disease progression or seroconversion than any of the single allele within the haplotypes. Our study showed that the true effects of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV seroconversion and disease progression exist and the associations of HLA class I haplotype can also be due to the dominant effect of a single allele within the haplotype.

  5. Complex multilocus effects of catechol-O-methyltransferase haplotypes predict pain and pain interference 6 weeks after motor vehicle collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortsov, Andrey V.; Diatchenko, Luda; McLean, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase, encoded by COMT gene, is the primary enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines. COMT haplotypes have been associated with vulnerability to persistent non-traumatic pain. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the influence of COMT on persistent pain and pain interference with life functions after motor vehicle collision (MVC) in 859 European American adults for whom overall pain (0–10 numeric rating scale) and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory) were assessed at week 6 after MVC. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the COMT gene were successfully genotyped, nine were present in three haploblocks: block 1 (rs2020917, rs737865, rs1544325), block 2 (rs4633, rs4818, rs4680, rs165774) and block 3 (rs174697, rs165599). After adjustment for multiple comparisons, haplotype TCG from block 1 predicted decreased pain interference (p =.004). The pain-protective effect of the low pain sensitivity (LPS, CGGG) haplotype from block 2 was only observed if at least one TCG haplotype was present in block 1 (haplotype × haplotype interaction p=.002 and <.0001 for pain and pain interference, respectively). Haplotype AG from block 3 was associated with pain and interference in males only (sex × haplotype interaction p=.005 and .0005, respectively). These results suggest that genetic variants in the distal promoter are important contributors to the development of persistent pain after MVC, directly and via the interaction with haplotypes in the coding region of the gene. PMID:23963787

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Agronomic Traits in Soybean Using SNP Markers and SNP-Based Haplotype Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Soto, Rodrigo Iván; Mora, Freddy; de Oliveira, Marco Antônio Rott; Higashi, Wilson; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; Schuster, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci through the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in populations of unrelated individuals provides a valuable approach for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in soybean (Glycine max). The haplotype-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) has now been proposed as a complementary approach to intensify benefits from LD, which enable to assess the genetic determinants of agronomic traits. In this study a GWAS was undertaken to identify genomic regions that control 100-seed weight (SW), plant height (PH) and seed yield (SY) in a soybean association mapping panel using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and haplotype information. The soybean cultivars (N = 169) were field-evaluated across four locations of southern Brazil. The genome-wide haplotype association analysis (941 haplotypes) identified eleven, seventeen and fifty-nine SNP-based haplotypes significantly associated with SY, SW and PH, respectively. Although most marker-trait associations were environment and trait specific, stable haplotype associations were identified for SY and SW across environments (i.e., haplotypes Gm12_Hap12). The haplotype block 42 on Chr19 (Gm19_Hap42) was confirmed to be associated with PH in two environments. These findings enable us to refine the breeding strategy for tropical soybean, which confirm that haplotype-based GWAS can provide new insights on the genetic determinants that are not captured by the single-marker approach.

  7. Genetic variations and haplotype diversity of the UGT1 gene cluster in the Chinese population.

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    Jing Yang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates require tremendous molecular diversity to defend against numerous small hydrophobic chemicals. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs are a large family of detoxification enzymes that glucuronidate xenobiotics and endobiotics, facilitating their excretion from the body. The UGT1 gene cluster contains a tandem array of variable first exons, each preceded by a specific promoter, and a common set of downstream constant exons, similar to the genomic organization of the protocadherin (Pcdh, immunoglobulin, and T-cell receptor gene clusters. To assist pharmacogenomics studies in Chinese, we sequenced nine first exons, promoter and intronic regions, and five common exons of the UGT1 gene cluster in a population sample of 253 unrelated Chinese individuals. We identified 101 polymorphisms and found 15 novel SNPs. We then computed allele frequencies for each polymorphism and reconstructed their linkage disequilibrium (LD map. The UGT1 cluster can be divided into five linkage blocks: Block 9 (UGT1A9, Block 9/7/6 (UGT1A9, UGT1A7, and UGT1A6, Block 5 (UGT1A5, Block 4/3 (UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, and Block 3' UTR. Furthermore, we inferred haplotypes and selected their tagSNPs. Finally, comparing our data with those of three other populations of the HapMap project revealed ethnic specificity of the UGT1 genetic diversity in Chinese. These findings have important implications for future molecular genetic studies of the UGT1 gene cluster as well as for personalized medical therapies in Chinese.

  8. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Pablo Abdon da Costa Francez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%, E1b1b (11.6%, J2 (10.1% and Q (7.2%. Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%, followed by Amerindian (7.2% and African (3.6% lineages.

  9. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2012-01-01

    The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages. PMID:22481873

  10. Haplotypes for Type, Degree, and Rate of Marbling in Cattle Are Syntenic with Human Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional analyses of a QTL on Bota 19 implicate a surfeit of candidates, but each is of marginal significance in explaining the deposition of healthy, low melting temperature fat within marbled muscle of Wagyu cattle. As an alternative approach, we have used genomic, multigenerational segregation to identify 14 conserved, ancestral 20 Mb haplotypes. These determine the degree and rate of marbling in Wagyu and other breeds of cattle. The melting temperature of intramuscular fat is highly heritable and traceable by haplotyping. Fortunately, for the production of healthy beef, some of these haplotypes are sufficiently penetrant to be expressed in heterozygous crossbreds, thereby allowing selection of sires which will improve the healthiness of beef produced under even harsh climatic conditions. The region of Bota 19 is syntenic to a region of Hosa 17 known to be important in muscle metabolism and in determining susceptibility to a form of human muscular dystrophy.

  11. Haplotypes for Type, Degree, and Rate of Marbling in Cattle Are Syntenic with Human Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally S; Steele, Edward J; Valenzuela, Jose L; Dawkins, Roger L

    2017-01-01

    Traditional analyses of a QTL on Bota 19 implicate a surfeit of candidates, but each is of marginal significance in explaining the deposition of healthy, low melting temperature fat within marbled muscle of Wagyu cattle. As an alternative approach, we have used genomic, multigenerational segregation to identify 14 conserved, ancestral 20 Mb haplotypes. These determine the degree and rate of marbling in Wagyu and other breeds of cattle. The melting temperature of intramuscular fat is highly heritable and traceable by haplotyping. Fortunately, for the production of healthy beef, some of these haplotypes are sufficiently penetrant to be expressed in heterozygous crossbreds, thereby allowing selection of sires which will improve the healthiness of beef produced under even harsh climatic conditions. The region of Bota 19 is syntenic to a region of Hosa 17 known to be important in muscle metabolism and in determining susceptibility to a form of human muscular dystrophy.

  12. Reproduction, infection and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor haplotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Bridget S; Moffett, Ashley; Chazara, Olympe; Gupta, Sunetra; Parham, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are encoded by one of the most polymorphic families in the human genome. KIRs are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, which have dual roles: (1) in fighting infection and (2) in reproduction, regulating hemochorial placentation. Uniquely among primates, human KIR genes are arranged into two haplotypic combinations: KIR A and KIR B. It has been proposed that KIR A is specialized to fight infection, whilst KIR B evolved to help ensure successful reproduction. Here we demonstrate that a combination of infectious disease selection and reproductive selection can drive the evolution of KIR B-like haplotypes from a KIR A-like founder haplotype. Continued selection to survive and to reproduce maintains a balance between KIR A and KIR B.

  13. The relationship between nonresponse to hepatitis B vaccine and HLA genotype/haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyue; Li, Rongcheng; Huang, Shangzhi; Gong, Jian; Zeng, Xianjia; Li, Yanping; Lu, Ming; Li, Hui

    2002-05-01

    To study the relationship between the nonresponse to hepatitis B vaccine and HLA genotype/heplotype in Chinese population and provide the evidence for explaining the genetic mechanism of this nonresponse. Our research focused on the relationship between nonresponse to Hepatitis B vaccine and HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 and DQB1 genotype/haplotype in Chinese population, collected from a community in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The group specific amplification was employed to characterize 107 individuals' genotype and haplotype of HLA clusters. Different models statistics such as relative risk test, correlation test and linkage disequilibrium analysis were used to analyze the data. The results showed that there is a linkage disequilibrium between nonresponse to Hepatitis B vaccine and HLA haplotype DR4, 1122 (DRB1 * 0401- 22, 1122)-DR53 (DRB4 * 0101101, 0102/3)-DQB4 (DQB1 * 04). In Chinese population, nonresponse to hepatitis B vaccine is highly associated with special HLA haplotye.

  14. Cryptic haplotypes of SERPINA1 confer susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sally; Daly, Leslie; Morgan, Kevin; Guetta Baranes, Tamar; Roca, Josep; Rabinovich, Roberto; Millar, Ann; Donnelly, Seamas C; Keatings, Vera; MacNee, William; Stolk, Jan; Hiemstra, Pieter; Miniati, Massimo; Monti, Simonetta; O'Connor, Clare M; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While cigarette smoking is a major cause of COPD, only 15% of smokers develop the disease, indicating major genetic influences. The most widely recognized candidate gene in COPD is SERPINA1, although it has been suggested that SERPINA3 may also play a role. To detect cryptic genetic variants that might contribute to disease, we identified 15 SNP haplotype tags from high-density SNP maps of the two genes and evaluated these SNPs in the largest case-control genetic study of COPD conducted so far. For SERPINA1, six newly identified haplotypes with a common backbone of five SNPs were found to increase the risk of disease by six- to 50-fold, the highest risk of COPD reported to date. In contrast, no haplotype associations for SERPINA3 were identified. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A haplotype common to intermediate radiosensitivity variants of ataxia-telangiectasia in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.M.R.; McConville, C.M.; Byrd, P.J. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Medical School; Rotman, G.; Shiloh, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler School of Medicine

    1994-12-01

    In a study of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) in the UK, patients in10 out of 60 families were shown to have a much lower level of chromosomal radiosensitivity compared with the majority of patients. In some patients the level of radiosensitivity was hardly distinguishable from normal. Patients in this group, however, could be distinguished clinically from the majority either by the later onset of severe cerebellar features or the slower rate of progress of the disorder. By using highly polymorphic microsatellite repeat markers a chromosome 11q22-23 haplotype common to the majority of these patients, and not occurring in any non-A-T chromosome in 60 families, was identified on one chromosome. The haplotype probably defines the region of the A-T gene in these families and the mutation associated with this haplotype may be much less severe than the second mutation thereby producing the slightly milder phenotype. (author).

  16. Novel harmful recessive haplotypes identified for fertility traits in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Aamand, Gert Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    . A total of 7,937 Nordic Holstein animals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 BeadChip and haplotypes including 25 consecutive markers were constructed and tested for absence of homozygotes states. We have identified 17 homozygote deficient haplotypes which could be loosely clustered into eight genomic regions...... harboring possible recessive lethal alleles. Effects of the identified haplotypes were estimated on two fertility traits: non-return rates and calving interval. Out of the eight identified genomic regions, six regions were confirmed as having an effect on fertility. The information can be used to avoid...... carrier-by-carrier mattings in practical animal breeding. Further, identification of causative genes/polymorphisms responsible for lethal effects will lead to accurate testing of the individuals carrying a lethal allele...

  17. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (Vkorc1 haplotype diversity in mouse priority strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Michael H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the vitamin K-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 gene, Vkorc1, could affect blood coagulation and other vitamin K-dependent proteins, such as osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP. Here we sequenced the Vkorc1 gene in 40 mouse priority strains. We analyzed Vkorc1 haplotypes with respect to prothrombin time (PT and bone mineral density and composition (BMD and BMC; phenotypes expected to be vitamin K-dependent and represented by data in the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD. Findings In the commonly used laboratory strains of Mus musculus domesticus we identified only four haplotypes differing in the intron or 5' region sequence of the Vkorc1. Six haplotypes differing by coding and non-coding polymorphisms were identified in the other subspecies of Mus. We detected no significant association of Vkorc1 haplotypes with PT, BMD and BMC within each subspecies of Mus. Vkorc1 haplotype sequences divergence between subspecies was associated with PT, BMD and BMC. Conclusion Phenotypic variation in PT, BMD and BMC within subspecies of Mus, while substantial, appears to be dominated by genetic variation in genes other than the Vkorc1. This was particularly evident for M. m. domesticus, where a single haplotype was observed in conjunction with virtually the entire range of PT, BMD and BMC values of all 5 subspecies of Mus included in this study. Differences in these phenotypes between subspecies also should not be attributed to Vkorc1 variants, but should be viewed as a result of genome wide genetic divergence.

  18. Association between Osteopontin Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balneek Singh Cheema

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteopontin (OPN C-443T promoter polymorphism has been shown as a genetic risk factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D. Methods: In the present study we investigated the association of three functional promoter gene polymorphisms C-443T, delG-156G, and G-66T and their haplotypes with the risk of DN and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR in Asian Indians T2D patients using Real time PCR based Taqman assay. A total of 1165 T2D patients, belonging to two independently ascertained Indian Asian cohorts, were genotyped for three OPN promoter polymorphisms C-443T (rs11730582, delG-156G (rs17524488 and G-66T (rs28357094. Results: -156G allele and GG genotypes (delG-156G and haplotypes G-C-G and T-C-G (G-66T, C-443T, delG-156G were associated with decreased risk of DN and higher eGFR. Haplotype G-T-delG and T-T-delG (G-66T, C-443T, delG-156G were identified as risk haplotypes, as shown by lower eGFR. Conclusion: This is the first study to report an association of OPN promoter gene polymorphisms; G-66T and delG-156G and their haplotypes with DN in T2D. Our results suggest an association between OPN promoter gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with DN.

  19. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  20. An EPAS1 haplotype is associated with high altitude polycythemia in male Han Chinese at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2014-12-01

    Hemoglobin concentration at high altitude is considered an important marker of high altitude adaptation, and native Tibetans in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau show lower hemoglobin concentrations than Han people who have emigrated from plains areas. Genetic studies revealed that EPAS1 plays a key role in high altitude adaptation and is associated with the low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetans. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13419896, rs4953354, rs1868092) of noncoding regions in EPAS1 exhibited significantly different allele frequencies in the Tibetan and Han populations and were associated with low hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetans. To explore the hereditary basis of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and investigate the association between EPAS1 and HAPC in the Han population, these 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed in 318 male Han Chinese HAPC patients and 316 control subjects. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting curve analysis. The G-G-G haplotype of rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092 was significantly more frequent in HAPC patients than in control subjects, whereas no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found between HAPC patients and control subjects. Moreover, genotypes of rs1868092 (AA) and rs4953354 (GG) that were not observed in the Chinese Han in the Beijing population were found at frequencies of 1.6% and 0.9%, respectively, in our study population of HAPC patients and control subjects. Carriers of this EPAS1 haplotype (G-G-G, rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092) may have a higher risk for HAPC. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HAPC in the Han population. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Congruence as a measurement of extended haplotype structure across the genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baschal Erin E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, extended haplotypes have been defined using only a few data points, such as alleles for several HLA genes in the MHC. High-density SNP data, and the increasing affordability of whole genome SNP typing, creates the opportunity to define higher resolution extended haplotypes. This drives the need for new tools that support quantification and visualization of extended haplotypes as defined by as many as 2000 SNPs. Confronted with high-density SNP data across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC for 2,300 complete families, compiled by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC, we developed software for studying extended haplotypes. Methods The software, called ExHap (Extended Haplotype, uses a similarity measurement we term congruence to identify and quantify long-range allele identity. Using ExHap, we analyzed congruence in both the T1DGC data and family-phased data from the International HapMap Project. Results Congruent chromosomes from the T1DGC data have between 96.5% and 99.9% allele identity over 1,818 SNPs spanning 2.64 megabases of the MHC (HLA-DRB1 to HLA-A. Thirty-three of 132 DQ-DR-B-A defined haplotype groups have > 50% congruent chromosomes in this region. For example, 92% of chromosomes within the DR3-B8-A1 haplotype are congruent from HLA-DRB1 to HLA-A (99.8% allele identity. We also applied ExHap to all 22 autosomes for both CEU and YRI cohorts from the International HapMap Project, identifying multiple candidate extended haplotypes. Conclusions Long-range congruence is not unique to the MHC region. Patterns of allele identity on phased chromosomes provide a simple, straightforward approach to visually and quantitatively inspect complex long-range structural patterns in the genome. Such patterns aid the biologist in appreciating genetic similarities and differences across cohorts, and can lead to hypothesis generation for subsequent studies.

  2. Consanguinity Protecting Effect Against Breast Cancer among Tunisian Women: Analysis of BRCA1 Haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimegh, Imen; Troudi, Wafa; Omrane, Ines; Ayari, Hajer; Uhrhummer, Nancy; Majoul, Hamdi; Benayed, Farhat; Mezlini, Amel; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Sibille, Catherine; Elgaaied, Amel Benammar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of consanguinity on breast cancer incidence in Tunisia. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the involvement of heterozygote and homozygote haplotypes of BRCA1 gene SNPs according to consanguinity among 40 cases of familial breast cancer, 46 cases with sporadic breast cancer and 34 healthy controls. We showed significant difference in consanguinity rate between breast cancer patients versus healthy controls P = 0.001. Distribution of homozygous BRCA1 haplotypes among healthy women versus breast cancer patients was significantly different; p=0.02. Parental consanguinity seems to protect against breast cancer in the Tunisian population.

  3. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72......-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples...

  4. Phylogeny and Haplotype Analysis of Fungi Within the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdial, H; Latchoo, R K; Hosein, F N; Rampersad, S N

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium spp. are ranked among the top 10 most economically and scientifically important plant-pathogenic fungi in the world and are associated with plant diseases that include fruit decay of a number of crops. Fusarium isolates infecting bell pepper in Trinidad were identified based on sequence comparisons of the translation elongation factor gene (EF-1a) with sequences of Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) verified in the FUSARIUM-ID database. Eighty-two isolates were identified as belonging to one of four phylogenetic species within the subclades FIESC-1, FIESC-15, FIESC-16, and FIESC-26, with the majority of isolates belonging to FIESC-15. A comparison of the level of DNA polymorphism and phylogenetic inference for sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and EF-1a sequences for Trinidad and FUSARIUM-ID type species was carried out. The ITS sequences were less informative, had lower haplotype diversity and restricted haplotype distribution, and resulted in poor resolution and taxa placement in the consensus maximum-likelihood tree. EF-1a sequences enabled strongly supported phylogenetic inference with highly resolved branching patterns of the 30 phylogenetic species within the FIESC and placement of representative Trinidad isolates. Therefore, global phylogeny was inferred from EF-1a sequences representing 11 countries, and separation into distinct Incarnatum and Equiseti clades was again evident. In total, 42 haplotypes were identified: 12 were shared and the remaining were unique haplotypes. The most diverse haplotype was represented by sequences from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Trinidad and consisted exclusively of F. incarnatum isolates. Spain had the highest haplotype diversity, perhaps because both F. equiseti and F. incarnatum sequences were represented; followed by the United States, which contributed both F. equiseti and F. incarnatum sequences to the data set; then by countries representing Southeast

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing......*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P ... ratio = 0.02; P HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility....

  6. Identification of β-globin haplotypes linked to sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) alleles in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Faeghe; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Mahdavi, Mehrad; Hamidi, Mohaddase; Jalali, Hossein

    2017-05-13

    Carrier frequency of the β(S) allele has been reported to be 0.19% in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Haplotype analysis of the β(S) allele helps trace the origin of its encoded hemoglobin (Hb) variant, Hb S, in a region. The aim of this study was to investigate the haplotypes associated with β(S) alleles in Mazandaran province. Capillary electrophoresis was carried out to detect individuals suspected to have a β(S) allele(s). DNA analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used for final confirmation. To identify 5' to 3' β-globin gene cluster haplotypes associated with β(S) alleles, family linkage analysis was applied. Six polymorphic sites (HincII 5' to ε, XmnI 5' to (G)γ, HindIII in (G)γ, HindIII in (A)γ, HincII 3' to ψβ and AvaII in β) were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. Five different haplotypes were linked to β(S) alleles, while β(A) alleles were associated with nine haplotypes. Among the β(S) alleles, 53.9% were associated with the Benin (----++) haplotype, and the Arab-Indian (+++-++) haplotype had the second-highest frequency (23%). Unlike southern provinces, where the Arab-Indian haplotype is prominent, the Benin haplotype is the most frequent haplotype in northern Iran, and this may represent a founder effect. Since the Benin haplotype does not carry the XmnI polymorphism 5' to the (G)γ gene, which is responsible for high expression of Hb F, a severe form of sickle cell disease can be anticipated in patients that are homozygous for the β(S) allele in the northern region.

  7. Occurrence of the Southeast Asian/South American SVMNT haplotype of the chloroquine-resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Dalgaard, Michael B; Lusingu, John P

    2006-01-01

    Two main haplotypes, CVIET and SVMNT, of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) are linked to 4-aminoquinoline resistance. The CVIET haplotype has been reported in most malaria-endemic regions, whereas the SVMNT haplotype has only been found outside Africa. We...... investigated Pfcrt haplotype frequencies in Korogwe District, Tanzania, in 2003 and 2004. The SVMNT haplotype was not detected in 2003 but was found in 19% of infected individuals in 2004. Amodiaquine use has increased in the region. The introduction and high prevalence of the SVMNT haplotype may reflect...

  8. Haplotype identity between individuals who share a CFTR mutation allele 'identical by descent': Demonstration of the usefulness of the haplotype-sharing concept for gene mapping in real populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. de Vries (Hendrik); M.A. van der Meulen (Martin); R. Rozen (Rima); D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); H. Scheffer (Hans); L.P. ten Kate; C.H.C.M. Buys; G.J. Te Meerman (Gerard)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the A455E mutation, in both the French Canadian and the Dutch population, share a common haplotype over distances of up to 25 cM. French Canadian patients with the 621+1G→T mutation share a common haplotype of more than 14 cM. In

  9. Inferring demographic history from a spectrum of shared haplotype lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the use of genetics to elucidate ancestral history and demography. Whole genome data from humans and other species are revealing complex stories of divergence and admixture that were left undiscovered by previous smaller data sets. A central challenge...

  10. Discovery of a new HBB haplotype w2 in a wild-derived house mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Shinohara, Akio; Miyashita, Nobumoto; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Nakahara, Ikuyo; Morita, Tetsuo; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Yasunori

    2008-03-01

    Genetic characterization of a wild-derived house mouse, Mus musculus, originally collected near Lake Balkhash in the Republic of Kazakhstan, was performed by examining protein polymorphisms and nucleotide sequences for the hemoglobin beta chain (HBB) subunits. Protein electrophoresis, which was performed on a cellulose-acetate plate, showed an independent mobility pattern representing a new, previously undiscovered haplotype. Neighbor-joining analyses of the HBB adult genes, i.e., HBB-T1 and HBB-T2, and the intergenic spacer region showed that the Lake Balkhash mouse possessed genomic components that were mixed from different haplotypes. Compared to the previously determined HBB haplotypes, d, p, and w1, the HBB-T1 gene and ca. 11 kb of the spacer region were most similar to the w1 haplotype; however, the remainder of the spacer region and the HBB-T2 gene were most similar to the d haplotype but may represent a still uncharacterized and divergent haplotype. The recombination event is predicted to have occurred 2.5 kb upstream of the HBB-T2 gene and may have occurred through intersubspecific hybridization between mice of the musculus subspecies group (with the w1 haplotype) and the castaneus subspecies group (with the d-like haplotype). Alternatively, an unknown subspecies group that is equidistantly divergent from each of these subspecies groups may have been involved. Our findings suggest reticulate evolution among the subspecies groups during the evolution of M. musculus.

  11. Impact of Migration and Fitness on the Stability of Lethal T-Haplotype Polymorphism in Mus Musculus: A Computer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D.; Ardlie, K.; Buttel, L.; Levin, S. A.; Silver, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    The t-haplotype is a chromosomal region in Mus musculus characterized by meiotic drive such that heterozygous males transmit t-bearing chromosomes to roughly 90% of their offspring. Most naturally occurring t-haplotypes express a recessive embryonic lethality, preventing fixation of the t-haplotype. Surprisingly, the t-haplotype occurs in nature as a persistent, low-frequency polymorphism. Early modeling studies led LEWONTIN to hypothesize that this low level polymorphism results from a balance between genetic drift in small demes and interdemic migration. Here, we show that while combinations of deme size and migration rate that predict natural t-haplotype frequencies exist, the range of such values is too narrow to be biologically plausible, suggesting that small deme size and interdemic migration alone do not explain the observed t-haplotype frequencies. In response, we tested other factors that might explain the observed t-polymorphism. Two led to biologically plausible models: substantially reduced heterozygous fitness and reduced meiotic drive. This raises the question whether these phenomena occur in nature. Our data suggest an alternative explanation: there is no stable, low-level t-polymorphism. Rather wild populations are in one of two stable states characterized by extinction of the t-haplotype and a high t-haplotype frequency, respectively, or in transition between the two. PMID:9093861

  12. Discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility in Ayrshire dairy dattle and identification of a putative causal variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initial genomic test results for US Ayrshire dairy cattle became available in January of 2013. Several haplotypes that showed a deficiency of homozygotes were investigated to determine if they had an effect on fertility. A haplotype on chromosome 17 was determined to affect fertility, indicating tha...

  13. Benchmarking of viral haplotype reconstruction programmes: an overview of the capacities and limitations of currently available programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Melanie; Sloan, William T; Quince, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Viral haplotype reconstruction from a set of observed reads is one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics today. Next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of haplotypes-even if the haplotypes appear at low frequencies. However, there are two major problems. First, we need to distinguish real SNPs from sequencing errors. Second, we need to determine which SNPs occur on the same haplotype, which cannot be inferred from the reads if the distance between SNPs on a haplotype exceeds the read length. We conducted an independent benchmarking study that directly compares the currently available viral haplotype reconstruction programmes. We also present nine in silico data sets that we generated to reflect biologically plausible populations. For these data sets, we simulated 454 and Illumina reads and applied the programmes to test their capacity to reconstruct whole genomes and individual genes. We developed a novel statistical framework to demonstrate the strengths and limitations of the programmes. Our benchmarking demonstrated that all the programmes we tested performed poorly when sequence divergence was low and failed to recover haplotype populations with rare haplotypes.

  14. Cystic fibrosis in Afro-Brazilians: XK haplotypes analysis supports the European origin of p.F508del mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, D A S; Faucz, F R; de Alexandre, R B; Santana, M A; de Souza, E L S; Reis, F J C; Pereira-Ferrari, L; Sotomaior, V S; Culpi, L; Phillips, J A; Raskin, S

    2017-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder, being the p.F508del the most frequent mutation. Also, a nearby restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) named XK (KM19 and XV2C) is non-randomly associated with specific CF alleles. Our aim was to analyze the occurrence of the p.F508del mutation and XK haplotypes in Afro-Brazilians CF patients and controls, since these data is available for the other two main ethnic groups found in Brazil (Euro-Brazilians and Brazilian Amerindians), contributing for the whole comprehension of these haplotypes in the Brazilian population. A total of 103 patients and 54 controls were studied. PCR and PCR-RFLP methodologies were used to identify the presence of the p.F508del and the XK haplotype in the subjects. The combined data show that 84.2% of p.F508del mutation is associated with haplotype B and only 15.8% with haplotype A; no other haplotypes were found to be associated with this mutation. Our data suggest that the occurrence of p.F508del mutation and haplotype B in Afro-Brazilian patients occurs probably due to admixture with Euro-descendants. Therefore this mutation and haplotype could be used as a admixture marker.

  15. Haplotypes of bovine FoxO1 gene sequence variants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Haplotypes of bovine FoxO1 gene sequence variants and association with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle. Yujia Sun Jing Xue Wenjiao Guo Mingxun Li Yongzhen Huang Xianyong Lan Chuzhao Lei Chunlei Zhang Hong Chen. Volume 92 Online resources ...

  16. Genotype and Haplotype Analysis of ABCB1 at 1236, 2677 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the frequencies of important allelic variants and their haplotype frequencies of the gene among Jordanian population and to compare findings with those reported for other ethnic groups. Methods: Genotyping of ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T) was carried out on unrelated healthy Jordanian ...

  17. Estimating haplotype frequencies by combining data from large DNA pools with database information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarra, Dario; Kulathinal, Sangita; Pirinen, Matti; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2011-01-01

    We assume that allele frequency data have been extracted from several large DNA pools, each containing genetic material of up to hundreds of sampled individuals. Our goal is to estimate the haplotype frequencies among the sampled individuals by combining the pooled allele frequency data with prior knowledge about the set of possible haplotypes. Such prior information can be obtained, for example, from a database such as HapMap. We present a Bayesian haplotyping method for pooled DNA based on a continuous approximation of the multinomial distribution. The proposed method is applicable when the sizes of the DNA pools and/or the number of considered loci exceed the limits of several earlier methods. In the example analyses, the proposed model clearly outperforms a deterministic greedy algorithm on real data from the HapMap database. With a small number of loci, the performance of the proposed method is similar to that of an EM-algorithm, which uses a multinormal approximation for the pooled allele frequencies, but which does not utilize prior information about the haplotypes. The method has been implemented using Matlab and the code is available upon request from the authors.

  18. Major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and haplotypes associated with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, R E; Kennedy, L J; Nolan, C M; Mooney, C T; Callanan, J J

    2014-09-01

    Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis is a breed-restricted canine neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young greyhounds in Ireland. A genetic risk factor is suspected because of the development of disease in multiple siblings and an inability to identify a causative infectious agent. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotype and the presence of the disease. DLA three locus haplotypes were determined in 31 dogs with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis and in 115 healthy control dogs using sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. All dogs were unrelated at the parental level. Two haplotypes (DRB1*01802/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 and DRB1*01501/DQA1*00601/DQB1*02201) were significantly (P = 0.0099 and 0.037) associated with the presence of meningoencephalitis, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 5.531 (1.168-26.19) and 3.736 (1.446-9.652), respectively. These results confirm that there is an association between DLA class II haplotype and greyhound meningoencephalitis, suggesting an immunogenetic risk factor for the development of the disease. Greyhound meningoencephalitis may be a suitable model for human neuroinflammatory diseases with an immunogenetic component. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A shared 336 kb haplotype associated with the belt pattern in three divergent cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drögemüller, C; Demmel, S; Engensteiner, M; Rieder, S; Leeb, T

    2010-06-01

    We recently mapped the belt mutation in Brown Swiss cattle to a 922 kb interval on BTA3. In this study, we analysed two additional cattle breeds with the belted phenotype: Galloway and Dutch Belted (Lakenvelder). By genotyping microsatellites in solid-coloured and belted Galloways, we confirmed that the belt mutation in Galloways is strongly associated with the same chromosomal locus as in Brown Swiss cattle. Subsequently, we analysed 36 SNPs in the belt interval in three breeds. We identified a single belt-associated haplotype for each of the analysed breeds. The three breed-specific belt haplotypes share alleles in four blocks. Three of these blocks comprise only one single or two consecutive markers, while the largest shared haplotype block encompasses nine consecutive SNPs in a 336 kb interval. The large shared haplotype across divergent breeds suggests a common mutation for the belt phenotype in all three breeds. We identified a potential candidate gene within this interval coding for the developmental transcription factor HES6. We re-sequenced the complete HES6 coding sequence in belted and solid-coloured cattle but did not find belt-associated polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence in favour of a common founder for the belt phenotype in different cattle breeds and have resulted in an improved fine-mapping of the causative mutation.

  20. Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CRMP1 and EVC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Theru A; Lesperance, Marci M

    2004-11-01

    In this report, we present the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in the Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 1 (CRMP1) and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) gene region. We genotyped eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRMP1 and EVC genes in 90 control individuals of diverse ethnicity. The minor allele frequencies ranged from 3.3-49.4%, with most having a frequency >25%. A total of 37 haplotypes were derived from these eight polymorphisms, with only one haplotype having a frequency >10%. Pairwise LD analysis showed a weak but significant LD between markers located about 243 kb apart in this region. The LD was significant between markers spaced about 208 kb apart in EVC, whereas no LD was found between a pair of markers located about 5 kb apart in CRMP1. However, in general, LD correlated with the distance between loci. The CRMP1 and EVC genes are located near WFS1, the Wolfram syndrome type 1 gene, in which mutations also cause low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). The haplotypes obtained from these polymorphisms will be useful to track the segregation of phenotypes in families with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Weyers acrodental dysostosis, LFSNHL and Wolfram syndrome type 1.

  1. The Prognostic Value of Haplotypes in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Gene in Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Torben F., E-mail: torben.hansen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk; Spindler, Karen-Lise G. [Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Andersen, Rikke F. [Department of Biochemistry, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Kølvraa, Steen [Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Brandslund, Ivan [Department of Biochemistry, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Jakobsen, Anders [Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

    2010-06-28

    New prognostic markers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are a prerequisite for individualized treatment. Prognostic importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene has been proposed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of haplotypes in the VEGF-A gene in patients with CRC. The study included 486 patients surgically resected for stage II and III CRC, divided into two independent cohorts. Three SNPs in the VEGF-A gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Haplotypes were estimated using the PHASE program. The prognostic influence was evaluated using Kaplan-Meir plots and log rank tests. Cox regression method was used to analyze the independent prognostic importance of different markers. All three SNPs were significantly related to survival. A haplotype combination, responsible for this effect, was present in approximately 30% of the patients and demonstrated a significant relationship with poor survival, and it remained an independent prognostic marker after multivariate analysis, hazard ratio 2.46 (95% confidence interval 1.49–4.06), p < 0.001. Validation was provided by consistent findings in a second and independent cohort. Haplotype combinations call for further investigation.

  2. The Prognostic Value of Haplotypes in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Gene in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben F. Hansen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New prognostic markers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC are a prerequisite for individualized treatment. Prognostic importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A gene has been proposed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of haplotypes in the VEGF-A gene in patients with CRC. The study included 486 patients surgically resected for stage II and III CRC, divided into two independent cohorts. Three SNPs in the VEGF-A gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Haplotypes were estimated using the PHASE program. The prognostic influence was evaluated using Kaplan-Meir plots and log rank tests. Cox regression method was used to analyze the independent prognostic importance of different markers. All three SNPs were significantly related to survival. A haplotype combination, responsible for this effect, was present in approximately 30% of the patients and demonstrated a significant relationship with poor survival, and it remained an independent prognostic marker after multivariate analysis, hazard ratio 2.46 (95% confidence interval 1.49–4.06, p < 0.001. Validation was provided by consistent findings in a second and independent cohort. Haplotype combinations call for further investigation.

  3. A haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the hereditary hemochromatosis gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W; Fullan, A; Loeb, D B; McClelland, E E; Bacon, B R; Wolff, R K

    1998-05-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a recessive disease of iron metabolism widely distributed among people of European descent. Most patients have inherited the causative mutation from a single ancestor. In the course of cloning the hemochromatosis gene, genotypes were generated for these samples at 43 microsatellite repeat markers that span the 6.5-Mb hemochromatosis gene region. The data used to reconstruct the ancestral haplotype across the hemochromatosis gene region are presented in this paper. Portions of the ancestral haplotype were present on 85% of patient chromosomes in this sample and ranged in size from approximately 500 kb to greater than 6.5 Mb. Only one marker, D6S2239, was identical by descent on all of the patient chromosomes containing the ancestral mutation. In contrast, only 3 of the 128 control chromosomes, or 2.3%, carried the ancestral mutation and the surrounding ancestral haplotype. To test new methods for gene finding using linkage disequilibrium we analyzed the genotypic data with a multilocus maximum likelihood method (DISMULT) and a single point method (DISLAMB), both written to analyze data generated from multi-allelic markers. The maximum value from DISLAMB analysis occurred at marker D6S2239, which is less than 20 kb from the hemochromatosis gene HFE, consistent with the haplotype analysis. The peak of the multi-point analysis was 700 kb from HFE, possibly due to the nonuniform recombination rates within this large region. The recombination rate appears to be lower than expected centromeric of the HFE gene.

  4. Renin gene haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium in two Mexican and one German population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L; Mendoza-Carrera, Francisco; Perez-Parra, Sandra A; Rodarte-Hurtado, Katia; Sandoval-Ramirez, Lucila; Montoya-Fuentes, Héctor; Quintero-Ramos, Antonio; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Montes-Galindo, Daniel A; Gomez-Sandoval, Zeferino; Olivares, Norma; Rivas, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Renin is the main rate-limiting enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Its gene, REN, is a candidate crucial factor in essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate allele and haplotype distributions of REN polymorphisms, and to estimate normalised linkage disequilibrium (D') in Mexican and German populations. Four groups were studied for the REN single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 1205C>T, 1303G>A, and 10607G>A, in population samples of Mexican Mestizo (n = 86), Mexican Huichol (n = 49), German (n = 39), and individuals with hypertension diagnosis (n = 66). Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP. Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated. SNP 1205C>T and 10607G>A allele and genotype distribution showed inter-group differences. The 1205T and 10607A allele showed a significance difference in hypertensive population. Haplotype analysis also showed some inter-group differences, especially in 1205C-1303G-10607G, 1205C-1303G-10607A and 1205T-1303G-10607G haplotypes. The segregation analysis disclosed complete linkage disequilibrium between 1205 and 1303 loci. These results provide an example of genetic diversity in related populations and illustrate the convenience of increasing the number of loci in associative studies between diseases and candidate genes.

  5. Over-representation of two specific haplotypes among chromosomes harbouring BRCA1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ana; de la Hoya, Miguel; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Granizo, Juan José; Díez, Orland; Vega, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Carracedo, Angel; Baiget, Montserrat; Caldés, Trinidad; Benítez, Javier

    2003-06-01

    The BRCA1 gene is included in a 200-400 kb region that is subjected to a recombination suppression mechanism; this region shows nearly complete linkage disequilibrium for a series of common biallelic polymorphisms, all of them with rarer allele frequency close to 0.4. These series of SNPs define two major haplotypes designated as class I and class II. In the present study, we have determined haplotype classes in the index case of 106 breast/ovarian cancer families previously screened for mutations in the BRCA genes and we have found that haplotype II (the less frequent in the control population) is over-represented among chromosomes harbouring mutations in BRCA1. In addition, we have defined a subtype of chromosomes characterized by haplotype I and one specific allele for the microsatellite marker D17S855, which are also more frequently associated with BRCA1 mutations. These findings may have important consequences for the selection of families with higher probabilities of carrying mutations in the BRCA1 gene.

  6. Genomic prediction of dairy cattle traits using haplotype blocks from high density marker data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    This PhD projekt proposed to study the use and benefits of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) as covariates to genomic prediction of complex traits in animal breeding. The main reason that draws interst to haploblokcs in genomic prediction is that quantitative trais loci (QTL) that are not in complete...

  7. Reducing animal sequencing redundancy by preferentially selecting animals with low-frequency haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies leverage targeted whole genome sequencing (WGS) experiments in order to identify rare and causal variants within populations. As a natural consequence of experimental design, many of these surveys tend to sequence redundant haplotype segments due to high frequency in the base population...

  8. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  9. Cassava haplotype map highlights fixation of deleterious mutations during clonal propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food crop in Africa and South America whose fitness may be severely reduced by ubiquitous deleterious variation. To evaluate these deleterious mutations in cassava genome, we constructed a cassava haplotype map by deep sequencing of 241 diver...

  10. A reference panel of 64,976 haplotypes for genotype imputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCarthy, Shane; Das, Sayantan; Kretzschmar, Warren; Delaneau, Olivier; Wood, Andrew R.; Teumer, Alexander; Kang, Hyun Min; Fuchsberger, Christian; Danecek, Petr; Sharp, Kevin; Luo, Yang; Sidorel, Carlo; Kwong, Alan; Timpson, Nicholas; Koskinen, Seppo; Vrieze, Scott; Scott, Laura J.; Zhang, He; Mahajan, Anubha; Veldink, Jan; Peters, Ulrike; Pato, Carlos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Gillies, Christopher E.; Gandin, Ilaria; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Gilly, Arthur; Cocca, Massimiliano; Traglia, Michela; Angius, Andrea; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Boomsma, Dorrett; Branham, Kari; Breen, Gerome; Brummett, Chad M.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Chan, Andrew; Che, Sai; Chew, Emily; Collins, Francis S.; Corbin, Laura J.; Smith, George Davey; Dedoussis, George; Dorr, Marcus; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forer, Lukas; Fraser, Ross M.; Gabriel, Stacey; Levy, Shawn; Groop, Leif; Harrison, Tabitha; Hattersley, Andrew; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Hveem, Kristian; Kretzler, Matthias; Lee, James C.; McGue, Matt; Meitinger, Thomas; Melzer, David; Min, Josine L.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vincent, John B.; Nauck, Matthias; Nickerson, Deborah; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Michele; Pirastu, Nicola; McInnis, Melvin; Richards, J. Brent; Sala, Cinzia; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schoenherr, Sebastian; Slagboom, P. Eline; Small, Kerrin; Spector, Timothy; Stambolian, Dwight; Tuke, Marcus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Van Rheenen, Wouter; Volker, Uwe; Wijmenga, Cisca; Toniolo, Daniela; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Gasparini, Paolo; Sampson, Matthew G.; Wilson, James F.; Frayling, Timothy; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Swertz, Morris A.; McCarroll, Steven; Kooperberg, Charles; Dekker, Annelot; Altshuler, David; Willer, Cristen; Iacono, William; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Walter, Klaudia; Swaroop, Anand; Cucca, Francesco; Anderson, Carl A.; Myers, Richard M.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Durbin, Richard; Abecasis, Goncalo; Marchini, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We describe a reference panel of 64,976 human haplotypes at 39,235,157 SNPs constructed using whole-genome sequence data from 20 studies of predominantly European ancestry. Using this resource leads to accurate genotype imputation at minor allele frequencies as low as 0.1% and a large increase in

  11. The importance of haplotype lenght and heritability using genomic selection in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, T M; Janss, L; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    Reliabilities for genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were investigated by simulation for a typical dairy cattle breeding setting. Scenarios were simulated with different heritabilites (h2) and for different haplotype sizes, and seven generations with only genotypes were generated to investi......Reliabilities for genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were investigated by simulation for a typical dairy cattle breeding setting. Scenarios were simulated with different heritabilites (h2) and for different haplotype sizes, and seven generations with only genotypes were generated...... to investigate reliability of GEBV over time. A genome with 5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at distances of 0.1 cM and 50 quantitative trait loci (QTL) was simulated, and a Bayesian variable selection model was implemented to predict GEBV. Highest reliabilities were obtained for 10 SNP haplotypes....... At optimal haplotype size, reliabilities in generation 1 without phenotypes ranged from 0.80 for h2 = 0.02 to 0.93 for h2 = 0.30, and in the seventh generation without phenotypes ranged from 0.69 for h2 = 0.02 to 0.86 for h2 = 0.30. Reliabilities of GEBV were found sufficiently high to implement dairy...

  12. A haplotype inference method based on sparsely connected multi-body ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masashi; Gao, Qian Ji; Chigira, Hiroshi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Masato, E-mail: masato.inoue@eb.waseda.ac.j [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, (Graduate) School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Statistical haplotype inference is an indispensable technique in the field of medical science. The method usually has two steps: inference of haplotype frequencies and inference of diplotype for each subject. The first step can be done by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, but it incurs an unreasonably large calculation cost when the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci of concern is large. In this article, we describe an approximate probabilistic model of haplotype frequencies. The model is constructed by using several distributions of nearby local SNPs. This approximation seems good because SNPs are generally more strongly correlated when they are close to one another on a chromosome. To implement this approach, we use a log linear model, the Walsh-Hadamard transform, and a combinatorial optimization method. Artificial data suggested that the overall haplotype inference of our method is good if there are nine or more local consecutive SNPs. Some minor problems should be dealt with before this method can be applied to real data.

  13. Mining and comparison of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms among citrus cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for comparison. There were a total of 567,297 ESTs belonging to 27 cultivars in varying numbers and consequentially...

  14. Fine-resolution mapping by haplotype evaluation : the examples of PFIC1 and BRIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, L N; Juijn, J A; Liao, M; van Eijk, M J; Sinke, R J; Stricker, N L; DeYoung, J A; Carlton, V E; Baharloo, S; Klomp, L W; Abukawa, D; Barton, D E; Bass, N M; Bourke, B; Drumm, B; Jankowska, I; Lovisetto, P; McQuaid, S; Pawlowska, J; Tazawa, Y; Villa, E; Tygstrup, N; Berger, R; Knisely, A S; Freimer, N B

    Loci for two inherited liver diseases, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), have previously been mapped to 18q21 by a search for shared haplotypes in patients in two isolated populations. This paper describes the use of

  15. Haplotype analysis of the polymorphic 17 YSTR markers in Kerala nontribal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvathy, Seema Nair; Geetha, Aswathy; Jagannath, Chippy

    2012-06-01

    The origin of the Kerala non tribal population has been a matter of contention for centuries. While some claim that Negritos were the first inhabitants, some historians suggest a Dravidian origin for all Keralites. The aim of our study has been to provide sufficient scientific evidence based on Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y STR) analysis for tracing the paternal lineage and also to create a database of the Y STR haplotype of the male population for future forensic analysis. Whole blood samples (n = 168) were collected from unrelated healthy men of the Kerala non-tribal population over a period of 2 years from October 2009. Genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. All samples were genotyped for the 17 Y STR loci by the AmpFLSTR Y-filer PCR Amplification Kit. The haplotype and allele frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 software, and molecular variance was calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool, www.yhrd.org . Haplotype diversity was calculated using HaPYDive ( http://portugene.com/hapydive.html ). The majority of haplotypes were unique (149/168). The variant allele 17.1 was observed in DYS 385 loci in three samples. Fifteen samples (8.93%) showed the presence of alleles that are not within the established marker range denoted as outside marker range (OMR). The allele frequency of Kerala non tribal population ranged from 0.00003 to 0.5809. The most polymorphic single locus marker was DYS 458. The haplotype diversity value for Kerala non tribal population was 0.9978. The pairwise difference value ranged from 0.0531 to 0.0854 on comparison of the haplotypes of the Kerala non tribals with other Indian populations. The multi dimensional scaling plot depicted the proximity of Kerala non tribal population with Vasterbotten population (Swedish) and Paiwan, Patyal population of Taiwan, Thailand, and Zhuang population of China. The results of the study indicate towards a

  16. An ancestral haplotype of the human PERIOD2 gene associates with reduced sensitivity to light-induced melatonin suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiho Akiyama

    Full Text Available Humans show various responses to the environmental stimulus in individual levels as "physiological variations." However, it has been unclear if these are caused by genetic variations. In this study, we examined the association between the physiological variation of response to light-stimulus and genetic polymorphisms. We collected physiological data from 43 subjects, including light-induced melatonin suppression, and performed haplotype analyses on the clock genes, PER2 and PER3, exhibiting geographical differentiation of allele frequencies. Among the haplotypes of PER3, no significant difference in light sensitivity was found. However, three common haplotypes of PER2 accounted for more than 96% of the chromosomes in subjects, and 1 of those 3 had a significantly low-sensitive response to light-stimulus (P < 0.05. The homozygote of the low-sensitive PER2 haplotype showed significantly lower percentages of melatonin suppression (P < 0.05, and the heterozygotes of the haplotypes varied their ratios, indicating that the physiological variation for light-sensitivity is evidently related to the PER2 polymorphism. Compared with global haplotype frequencies, the haplotype with a low-sensitive response was more frequent in Africans than in non-Africans, and came to the root in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the low light-sensitive haplotype is the ancestral type, whereas the other haplotypes with high sensitivity to light are the derived types. Hence, we speculate that the high light-sensitive haplotypes have spread throughout the world after the Out-of-Africa migration of modern humans.

  17. Effects of Host Plant on Development and Body Size of Three Haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, T; Horton, D R; Swisher, K D; Zack, R S; Munyaneza, J E

    2015-06-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is an economic pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America, and in New Zealand. Four genetic haplotypes of the psyllid have been identified in North America. Three of these haplotypes (Central, Western, and Northwestern) are common on potato crops within the major potato-growing regions of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Within this growing region, a weedy perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade), has been identified to be an important overwintering host and spring or summer source of psyllids colonizing potato fields. It is unclear whether bittersweet nightshade is a highly suitable host plant for all three haplotypes known to occur in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the present study was to examine developmental traits and adult body size of all three haplotypes of psyllids reared on potato and bittersweet nightshade. Averaged over haplotype, development times were longer for psyllids reared on nightshade than potato. Duration of the preoviposition period, egg incubation requirements, nymphal development time, and total developmental time averaged 7.4, 5.9, 23.5, and 29.5 d on nightshade and 4.9, 5.5, 22.3, and 27.9 d on potato, respectively. The largest host effects were found for the Central haplotype, which exhibited a substantially extended (by over 5 d) preoviposition period on nightshade compared with potato. Averaged over host plant, nymphal and total development times of the Northwestern haplotype were longer (25.5 and 31.1 d, respectively) than those of the Western and Central haplotypes. The Northwestern haplotype was largest in overall body size, while the Central haplotype had the smallest overall body size, irrespective of host plant. Both sexes exhibited this trend. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015.This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in

  18. Haplotype characterization of the COI mitochondrial gene in Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae from different environments in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC. Morales

    Full Text Available The green lacewings (Chrysopidae belong to the Order Neuroptera and are described as voracious predators in the larval stage and sometimes also in their adulthood. They are an important group used in integrated biological control in field and horticultural crops. Individuals of Chrysoperla externa were collected during 2007 until March 2008 in five different locations in Jaboticabal, SP, with all the seasons sampled. Thirty six sequences with 805 pairs of bases for the gene mitochondrial Citochrome Oxidase I (COI were analysed. The genetic parameters revealed 24 haplotypes for this population, a total of 36 mutations and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The data of genetic distance and population structure calculated for this population considering the different areas and seasons, revealed a great genetic similarity and high degree of genetic sharing between individuals sampled. It showed that the species Chrysoperla externa from Jaboticabal, SP, is a single population, without genetic structure neither due to the area of origin nor to the seasons of the year.

  19. Haplotype characterization of the COI mitochondrial gene in Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from different environments in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A C; Freitas, S

    2010-11-01

    The green lacewings (Chrysopidae) belong to the Order Neuroptera and are described as voracious predators in the larval stage and sometimes also in their adulthood. They are an important group used in integrated biological control in field and horticultural crops. Individuals of Chrysoperla externa were collected during 2007 until March 2008 in five different locations in Jaboticabal, SP, with all the seasons sampled. Thirty six sequences with 805 pairs of bases for the gene mitochondrial Citochrome Oxidase I (COI) were analysed. The genetic parameters revealed 24 haplotypes for this population, a total of 36 mutations and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The data of genetic distance and population structure calculated for this population considering the different areas and seasons, revealed a great genetic similarity and high degree of genetic sharing between individuals sampled. It showed that the species Chrysoperla externa from Jaboticabal, SP, is a single population, without genetic structure neither due to the area of origin nor to the seasons of the year.

  20. The Genetic Diversity, Haplotype Analysis, and Phylogenetic Relationship of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Based on the Cytochrome Oxidase 1 Marker: A Malaysian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nurul-Ain; Adilah-Amrannudin, Nurul; Hamsidi, Mayamin; Ismail, Rodziah; Dom, Nazri Che; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mastuki, Mohd Fahmi; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina

    2017-11-07

    The global expansion of Ae. albopictus from its native range in Southeast Asia has been implicated in the recent emergence of dengue endemicity in Malaysia. Genetic variability studies of Ae. albopictus are currently lacking in the Malaysian setting, yet are crucial to enhancing the existing vector control strategies. The study was conducted to establish the genetic variability of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene in Ae. albopictus. Twelve localities were selected in the Subang Jaya district based on temporal indices utilizing 120 mosquito samples. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis were conducted to unveil the genetic variability and geographic origins of Ae. albopictus. The haplotype network was mapped to determine the genealogical relationship of sequences among groups of population in the Asian region. Comparison of Malaysian CO1 sequences with sequences derived from five Asian countries revealed genetically distinct Ae. albopictus populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all sequences from other Asian countries descended from the same genetic lineage as the Malaysian sequences. Noteworthy, our study highlights the discovery of 20 novel haplotypes within the Malaysian population which to date had not been reported. These findings could help determine the genetic variation of this invasive species, which in turn could possibly improve the current dengue vector surveillance strategies, locally and regionally. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Distribution of QPY and RAH haplotypes of granzyme B gene in distinct Brazilian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bernadelli Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The cytolysis mediated by granules is one of the most important effector functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Recently, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified at exons 2, 3, and 5 of the granzyme B gene, resulting in a haplotype in which three amino acids of mature protein Q48P88Y245 are changed to R48A88H245, which leads to loss of cytotoxic activity of the protein. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian populations. METHODS: We evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian ethnic groups (white, Afro-Brazilian, and Asian by sequencing these regions. RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of SNP 2364A/G at exon 2 in Afro-Brazilian individuals (42.3% and 17.3% were significantly higher when compared with those in whites and Asians (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0007, respectively. The polymorphisms 2933C/G and 4243C/T also were more frequent in Afro-Brazilians but without any significant difference regarding the other groups. The Afro-Brazilian group presented greater diversity of haplotypes, and the RAH haplotype seemed to be more frequent in this group (25%, followed by the whites (20.7% and by the Asians (11.9%, similar to the frequency presented in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of polymorphisms in Afro-Brazilians, and the RAH haplotype was more frequent in these individuals. We believe that further studies should aim to investigate the correlation of this haplotype with diseases related to immunity mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and if this correlation is confirmed, novel treatment strategies might be elaborated.

  2. Combined genotype and haplotype distributions of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms

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    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are, independently and/or in combination, associated with many disorders. However, data on the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the 2 polymorphisms in Chinese population were limited. We recruited 13,473 adult women from 9 Chinese provinces, collected buccal cell samples, and determined genotypes, to estimate the combined genotype and haplotype distributions of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. In the total sample, the 6 common combined genotypes were CT/AA (29.5%), TT/AA (21.9%), CC/AA (15.4%), CC/AC (14.9%), CT/AC (13.7%), and CC/CC (3.4%); the 3 frequent haplotypes were 677T-1298A (43.6%), 677C-1298A (37.9%), and 677C-1298C (17.6%). Importantly, we observed that there were 51 (0.4%) individuals with the CT/CC genotype, 92 (0.7%) with the TT/AC genotype, 17 (0.1%) with the TT/CC genotype, and that the frequency of the 677T-1298C haplotype was 0.9%. In addition, the prevalence of some combined genotypes and haplotypes varied among populations residing in different areas and even showed apparent geographical gradients. Further linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the D’ and r2 values were 0.883 and 0.143, respectively. In summary, the findings of our study provide further strong evidence that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are usually in trans and occasionally in cis configurations. The frequencies of mutant genotype combinations were relatively higher in Chinese population than other populations, and showed geographical variations. These baseline data would be useful for future related studies and for developing health management programs. PMID:27902594

  3. Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes.

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    Teresinha Palha

    Full Text Available In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives.

  4. Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes.

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    Palha, Teresinha; Gusmão, Leonor; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar; Guerreiro, João Farias; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea; Santos, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives.

  5. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves.

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    Gray, Melissa M; Sutter, Nathan B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K

    2010-02-24

    A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog. We present DNA sequence data that confirms the absence of the derived small SNP allele in the intron 2 region of IGF1 in a large sample of grey wolves and further establishes the absence of a small dog associated SINE element in all wild canids and most large dog breeds. Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there. Additionally, PCA and phylogenetic analyses suggests a closer kinship of the small domestic dog IGF1 haplotype with those from Middle Eastern grey wolves. The absence of both the SINE element and SNP allele in grey wolves suggests that the mutation for small body size post-dates the domestication of dogs. However, because all small dogs possess these diagnostic mutations, the mutations likely arose early in the history of domestic dogs. Our results show that the small dog haplotype is closely related to those in Middle Eastern wolves and is consistent with an ancient origin of the small dog haplotype there. Thus, in concordance with past archeological studies, our molecular analysis is consistent with the early evolution of small size in dogs from the Middle East.See associated opinion by Driscoll and Macdonald: http://jbiol.com/content/9/2/10.

  6. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves

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    Ostrander Elaine A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog. Results We present DNA sequence data that confirms the absence of the derived small SNP allele in the intron 2 region of IGF1 in a large sample of grey wolves and further establishes the absence of a small dog associated SINE element in all wild canids and most large dog breeds. Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there. Additionally, PCA and phylogenetic analyses suggests a closer kinship of the small domestic dog IGF1 haplotype with those from Middle Eastern grey wolves. Conclusions The absence of both the SINE element and SNP allele in grey wolves suggests that the mutation for small body size post-dates the domestication of dogs. However, because all small dogs possess these diagnostic mutations, the mutations likely arose early in the history of domestic dogs. Our results show that the small dog haplotype is closely related to those in Middle Eastern wolves and is consistent with an ancient origin of the small dog haplotype there. Thus, in concordance with past archeological studies, our molecular analysis is consistent with the early evolution of small size in dogs from the Middle East. See associated opinion by Driscoll and Macdonald: http://jbiol.com/content/9/2/10

  7. Contrasted patterns of molecular evolution in dominant and recessive self-incompatibility haplotypes in Arabidopsis.

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    Goubet, Pauline M; Bergès, Hélène; Bellec, Arnaud; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Mangenot, Sophie; Gallina, Sophie; Holl, Anne-Catherine; Fobis-Loisy, Isabelle; Vekemans, Xavier; Castric, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Self-incompatibility has been considered by geneticists a model system for reproductive biology and balancing selection, but our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of this molecular lock-and-key system has remained limited by the extreme level of sequence divergence among haplotypes, resulting in a lack of appropriate genomic sequences. In this study, we report and analyze the full sequence of eleven distinct haplotypes of the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) in two closely related Arabidopsis species, obtained from individual BAC libraries. We use this extensive dataset to highlight sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution of each of the two genes controlling self-incompatibility themselves, as well as of the genomic region surrounding them. We find strong collinearity of the flanking regions among haplotypes on each side of the S-locus together with high levels of sequence similarity. In contrast, the S-locus region itself shows spectacularly deep gene genealogies, high variability in size and gene organization, as well as complete absence of sequence similarity in intergenic sequences and striking accumulation of transposable elements. Of particular interest, we demonstrate that dominant and recessive S-haplotypes experience sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution. Indeed, dominant haplotypes exhibit larger size and a much higher density of transposable elements, being matched only by that in the centromere. Overall, these properties highlight that the S-locus presents many striking similarities with other regions involved in the determination of mating-types, such as sex chromosomes in animals or in plants, or the mating-type locus in fungi and green algae.

  8. Contrasted patterns of molecular evolution in dominant and recessive self-incompatibility haplotypes in Arabidopsis.

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    Pauline M Goubet

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility has been considered by geneticists a model system for reproductive biology and balancing selection, but our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of this molecular lock-and-key system has remained limited by the extreme level of sequence divergence among haplotypes, resulting in a lack of appropriate genomic sequences. In this study, we report and analyze the full sequence of eleven distinct haplotypes of the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus in two closely related Arabidopsis species, obtained from individual BAC libraries. We use this extensive dataset to highlight sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution of each of the two genes controlling self-incompatibility themselves, as well as of the genomic region surrounding them. We find strong collinearity of the flanking regions among haplotypes on each side of the S-locus together with high levels of sequence similarity. In contrast, the S-locus region itself shows spectacularly deep gene genealogies, high variability in size and gene organization, as well as complete absence of sequence similarity in intergenic sequences and striking accumulation of transposable elements. Of particular interest, we demonstrate that dominant and recessive S-haplotypes experience sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution. Indeed, dominant haplotypes exhibit larger size and a much higher density of transposable elements, being matched only by that in the centromere. Overall, these properties highlight that the S-locus presents many striking similarities with other regions involved in the determination of mating-types, such as sex chromosomes in animals or in plants, or the mating-type locus in fungi and green algae.

  9. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene haplotypes in Mexican and Spanish patients with fibromyalgia

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    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Fragoso, José-Manuel; Cruz-Robles, David; Vargas, Angélica; Vargas, Alfonso; Lao-Villadóniga, José-Ignacio; García-Fructuoso, Ferrán; Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Hernández, Fernando; Springall, Rashidi; Bojalil, Rafael; Vallejo, Maite; Martínez-Lavín, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is frequent in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Heart rate variability analyses have demonstrated signs of ongoing sympathetic hyperactivity. Catecholamines are sympathetic neurotransmitters. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme, is the major catecholamine-clearing pathway. There are several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COMT gene associated with the different catecholamine-clearing abilities of the COMT enzyme. These SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium and segregate as 'haplotypes'. Healthy females with a particular COMT gene haplotype (ACCG) producing a defective enzyme are more sensitive to painful stimuli. The objective of our study was to define whether women with FM, from two different countries (Mexico and Spain), have the COMT gene haplotypes that have been previously associated with greater sensitivity to pain. All the individuals in the study were female. Fifty-seven Mexican patients and 78 Spanish patients were compared with their respective healthy control groups. All participants filled out the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Six COMT SNPs (rs2097903, rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, rs4680, and rs165599) were genotyped from peripheral blood DNA. In Spanish patients, there was a significant association between three SNPs (rs6269, rs4818, and rs4680) and the presence of FM when compared with healthy controls. Moreover, in Spanish patients with the 'high pain sensitivity' haplotype (ACCG), the disease, as assessed by the FIQ, was more severe. By contrast, Mexican patients displayed only a weak association between rs6269 and rs165599, and some FIQ subscales. In our group of Spanish patients, there was an association between FM and the COMT haplotype previously associated with high pain sensitivity. This association was not observed in Mexican patients. Studies with a larger sample size are needed in order to verify or amend these preliminary results. PMID:17961261

  10. Evaluation of a fibrillin 2 gene haplotype associated with hip dysplasia and incipient osteoarthritis in dogs.

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    Friedenberg, Steven G; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Foels, Wendy van den Berg; Schweitzer, Peter A; Wang, Wei; Fisher, Patricia J; Dykes, Nathan L; Corey, Elizabeth; Vernier-Singer, Margaret; Jung, Seung-Woo; Sheng, Xihui; Hunter, Linda S; McDonough, Sean P; Lust, George; Bliss, Stuart P; Krotscheck, Ursula; Gunn, Teresa M; Todhunter, Rory J

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether a mutation in the fibrillin 2 gene (FBN2) is associated with canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and osteoarthritis in dogs. 1,551 dogs. Procedures-Hip conformation was measured radiographically. The FBN2 was sequenced from genomic DNA of 21 Labrador Retrievers and 2 Greyhounds, and a haplotype in intron 30 of FBN2 was sequenced in 90 additional Labrador Retrievers and 143 dogs of 6 other breeds. Steady-state values of FBN2 mRNA and control genes were measured in hip joint tissues of fourteen 8-month-old Labrador Retriever-Greyhound crossbreeds. The Labrador Retrievers homozygous for a 10-bp deletion haplotype in intron 30 of FBN2 had significantly worse CHD as measured via higher distraction index and extended-hip joint radiograph score and a lower Norberg angle and dorsolateral subluxation score. Among 143 dogs of 6 other breeds, those homozygous for the same deletion haplotype also had significantly worse radiographic CHD. Among the 14 crossbred dogs, as the dorsolateral subluxation score decreased, the capsular FBN2 mRNA increased significantly. Those dogs with incipient hip joint osteoarthritis had significantly increased capsular FBN2 mRNA, compared with those dogs without osteoarthritis. Dogs homozygous for the FBN2 deletion haplotype had significantly less FBN2 mRNA in their femoral head articular cartilage. The FBN2 deletion haplotype was associated with CHD. Capsular gene expression of FBN2 was confounded by incipient secondary osteoarthritis in dysplastic hip joints. Genes influencing complex traits in dogs can be identified by genome-wide screening, fine mapping, and candidate gene screening.

  11. Five novel glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency haplotypes correlating with disease severity

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    Dallol Ashraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49 deficiency is caused by one or more mutations in the G6PD gene on chromosome X. An association between enzyme levels and gene haplotypes remains to be established. Methods In this study, we determined G6PD enzyme levels and sequenced the coding region, including the intron-exon boundaries, in a group of individuals (163 males and 86 females who were referred to the clinic with suspected G6PD deficiency. The sequence data were analysed by physical linkage analysis and PHASE haplotype reconstruction. Results All previously reported G6PD missense changes, including the AURES, MEDITERRANEAN, A-, SIBARI, VIANGCHAN and ANANT, were identified in our cohort. The AURES mutation (p.Ile48Thr was the most common variant in the cohort (30% in males patients followed by the Mediterranean variant (p.Ser188Phe detectable in 17.79% in male patients. Variant forms of the A- mutation (p.Val68Met, p.Asn126Asp or a combination of both were detectable in 15.33% of the male patients. However, unique to this study, several of such mutations co-existed in the same patient as shown by physical linkage in males or PHASE haplotype reconstruction in females. Based on 6 non-synonymous variants of G6PD, 13 different haplotypes (13 in males, 8 in females were identified. Five of these were previously unreported (Jeddah A, B, C, D and E and were defined by previously unreported combinations of extant mutations where patients harbouring these haplotypes exhibited severe G6PD deficiency. Conclusions Our findings will help design a focused population screening approach and provide better management for G6PD deficiency patients.

  12. PAX6 Haplotypes Are Associated with High Myopia in Han Chinese

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    Jiang, Bo; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Leung, Kim Hung; Ng, Po Wah; Fung, Wai Yan; Lam, Wai Wa; Gu, Yang-shun; Yip, Shea Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background The paired box 6 (PAX6) gene is considered as a master gene for eye development. Linkage of myopia to the PAX6 region on chromosome 11p13 was shown in several studies, but the results for association between myopia and PAX6 were inconsistent so far. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PAX6 gene and its regulatory regions in an initial study for 300 high myopia cases and 300 controls (Group 1), and successfully replicated the positive results with another independent group of 299 high myopia cases and 299 controls (Group 2). Five SNPs were genotyped in the replication study. The spherical equivalent of subjects with high myopia was ≤−8.0 dioptres. The PLINK package was used for genetic data analysis. No association was found between each of the SNPs and high myopia. However, exhaustive sliding-window haplotype analysis highlighted an important role for rs12421026 because haplotypes containing this SNP were found to be associated with high myopia. The most significant results were given by the 4-SNP haplotype window consisting of rs2071754, rs3026393, rs1506 and rs12421026 (P = 3.54×10−10, 4.06×10−11 and 1.56×10−18 for Group 1, Group 2 and Combined Group, respectively) and the 3-SNP haplotype window composed of rs3026393, rs1506 and rs12421026 (P = 5.48×10−10, 7.93×10−12 and 6.28×10−23 for the three respective groups). The results remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons by permutations. The associated haplotyes found in a previous study were also successfully replicated in this study. Conclusions/Significance PAX6 haplotypes are associated with susceptibility to the development of high myopia in Chinese. The PAX6 locus plays a role in high myopia. PMID:21589860

  13. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

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    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  14. Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle

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    Moore Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS| and population differentiation index (FST--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p ST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life

  15. Paternal allele of IGF2 gene haplotype CTG is associated with fetal and placental growth in Japanese.

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    Nagaya, Ken; Makita, Yoshio; Taketazu, Genya; Okamoto, Toshio; Nakamura, Eiki; Hayashi, Tokitsugi; Fujieda, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    IGF-II associates with feto-placental growth in rodent and human. We determined three tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to investigate haplotype frequency of IGF2 relative to size at birth in 134 healthy Japanese infants. In addition, a total of 276 healthy infants were investigated to determine whether common genetic variation of IGF2 might contribute to feto-placental growth using haplotype analysis. Further, quantitative methylation analysis of the IGF2/H19 was performed using the MassARRAY Compact system. In the initial study, the frequency of haplotype CTG from the paternal allele in small for date (SFD) infants was significantly higher than that in non-SFD infants (p = 0.03). In a second study, the CTG haplotype infants exhibited significantly lower birth length, weight, and placental weight compared with non-CTG infants. Further, the number of infants less than -1.5 SD (SD) birth weight in CTG haplotype was higher than those in non-CTG infants. There was no significant difference in the methylation status of H19/IGF2 in the two haplotypes. In conclusion, inheriting the IGF2 CTG haplotype from a paternal allele results in reduced feto-placental growth, but it is not associated with the methylation status of IGF2/H19.

  16. The effects of old and recent migration waves in the distribution of HBB*S globin gene haplotypes

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    Juliana D. Lindenau

    Full Text Available Abstract Sickle cell hemoglobin is the result of a mutation at the sixth amino acid position of the beta (β globin chain. The HBB*S gene is in linkage disequilibrium with five main haplotypes in the β-globin-like gene cluster named according to their ethnic and geographic origins: Bantu (CAR, Benin (BEN, Senegal (SEN, Cameroon (CAM and Arabian-Indian (ARAB. These haplotypes demonstrated that the sickle cell mutation arose independently at least five times in human history. The distribution of βS haplotypes among Brazilian populations showed a predominance of the CAR haplotype. American populations were clustered in two groups defined by CAR or BEN haplotype frequencies. This scenario is compatible with historical records about the slave trade in the Americas. When all world populations where the sickle cell gene occurs were analyzed, three clusters were disclosed based on CAR, BEN or ARAB haplotype predominance. These patterns may change in the next decades due to recent migrations waves. Since these haplotypes show different clinical characteristics, these recent migrations events raise the necessity to develop optimized public health programs for sickle cell disease screening and management.

  17. The effects of old and recent migration waves in the distribution of HBB*S globin gene haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Juliana D; Wagner, Sandrine C; Castro, Simone M de; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell hemoglobin is the result of a mutation at the sixth amino acid position of the beta (β) globin chain. The HBB*S gene is in linkage disequilibrium with five main haplotypes in the β-globin-like gene cluster named according to their ethnic and geographic origins: Bantu (CAR), Benin (BEN), Senegal (SEN), Cameroon (CAM) and Arabian-Indian (ARAB). These haplotypes demonstrated that the sickle cell mutation arose independently at least five times in human history. The distribution of βS haplotypes among Brazilian populations showed a predominance of the CAR haplotype. American populations were clustered in two groups defined by CAR or BEN haplotype frequencies. This scenario is compatible with historical records about the slave trade in the Americas. When all world populations where the sickle cell gene occurs were analyzed, three clusters were disclosed based on CAR, BEN or ARAB haplotype predominance. These patterns may change in the next decades due to recent migrations waves. Since these haplotypes show different clinical characteristics, these recent migrations events raise the necessity to develop optimized public health programs for sickle cell disease screening and management.

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of the neutral polymorphisms in the last ZFX intron: analysis of the haplotype structure and genealogy.

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    Jaruzelska, J; Zietkiewicz, E; Batzer, M; Cole, D E; Moisan, J P; Scozzari, R; Tavaré, S; Labuda, D

    1999-07-01

    With 10 segregating sites (simple nucleotide polymorphisms) in the last intron (1089 bp) of the ZFX gene we have observed 11 haplotypes in 336 chromosomes representing a worldwide array of 15 human populations. Two haplotypes representing 77% of all chromosomes were distributed almost evenly among four continents. Five of the remaining haplotypes were detected in Africa and 4 others were restricted to Eurasia and the Americas. Using the information about the ancestral state of the segregating positions (inferred from human-great ape comparisons), we applied coalescent analysis to estimate the age of the polymorphisms and the resulting haplotypes. The oldest haplotype, with the ancestral alleles at all the sites, was observed at low frequency only in two groups of African origin. Its estimated age of 740 to 1100 kyr corresponded to the time to the most recent common ancestor. The two most frequent worldwide distributed haplotypes were estimated at 550 to 840 and 260 to 400 kyr, respectively, while the age of the continentally restricted polymorphisms was 120 to 180 kyr and smaller. Comparison of spatial and temporal distribution of the ZFX haplotypes suggests that modern humans diverged from the common ancestral stock in the Middle Paleolithic era. Subsequent range expansion prevented substantial gene flow among continents, separating African groups from populations that colonized Eurasia and the New World.

  19. Characterisation of the genomic architecture of human chromosome 17q and evaluation of different methods for haplotype block definition

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    Ollier William

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of markers in association studies can be informed through the use of haplotype blocks. Recent reports have determined the genomic architecture of chromosomal segments through different haplotype block definitions based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measures or haplotype diversity criteria. The relative applicability of distinct block definitions to association studies, however, remains unclear. We compared different block definitions in 6.1 Mb of chromosome 17q in 189 unrelated healthy individuals. Using 137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, at a median spacing of 15.5 kb, we constructed haplotype block maps using published methods and additional methods we have developed. Haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs were identified for each map. Results Blocks were found to be shorter and coverage of the region limited with methods based on LD measures, compared to the method based on haplotype diversity. Although the distribution of blocks was highly variable, the number of SNPs that needed to be typed in order to capture the maximum number of haplotypes was consistent. Conclusion For the marker spacing used in this study, choice of block definition is not important when used as an initial screen of the region to identify htSNPs. However, choice of block definition has consequences for the downstream interpretation of association study results.

  20. Retrospective analysis of haplotype-based case control studies under a flexible model for gene environment association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hau; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    Genetic epidemiologic studies often involve investigation of the association of a disease with a genomic region in terms of the underlying haplotypes, that is the combination of alleles at multiple loci along homologous chromosomes. In this article, we consider the problem of estimating haplotype-environment interactions from case-control studies when some of the environmental exposures themselves may be influenced by genetic susceptibility. We specify the distribution of the diplotypes (haplotype pair) given environmental exposures for the underlying population based on a novel semiparametric model that allows haplotypes to be potentially related with environmental exposures, while allowing the marginal distribution of the diplotypes to maintain certain population genetics constraints such as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The marginal distribution of the environmental exposures is allowed to remain completely nonparametric. We develop a semiparametric estimating equation methodology and related asymptotic theory for estimation of the disease odds ratios associated with the haplotypes, environmental exposures, and their interactions, parameters that characterize haplotype-environment associations and the marginal haplotype frequencies. The problem of phase ambiguity of genotype data is handled using a suitable expectation-maximization algorithm. We study the finite-sample performance of the proposed methodology using simulated data. An application of the methodology is illustrated using a case-control study of colorectal adenoma, designed to investigate how the smoking-related risk of colorectal adenoma can be modified by "NAT2," a smoking-metabolism gene that may potentially influence susceptibility to smoking itself.

  1. Hapl-o-Mat: open-source software for HLA haplotype frequency estimation from ambiguous and heterogeneous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian; Schmidt, Alexander H; Sauter, Jürgen

    2017-05-30

    Knowledge of HLA haplotypes is helpful in many settings as disease association studies, population genetics, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Regarding the recruitment of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors, HLA haplotype frequencies of specific populations are used to optimize both donor searches for individual patients and strategic donor registry planning. However, the estimation of haplotype frequencies from HLA genotyping data is challenged by the large amount of genotype data, the complex HLA nomenclature, and the heterogeneous and ambiguous nature of typing records. To meet these challenges, we have developed the open-source software Hapl-o-Mat. It estimates haplotype frequencies from population data including an arbitrary number of loci using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Its key features are the processing of different HLA typing resolutions within a given population sample and the handling of ambiguities recorded via multiple allele codes or genotype list strings. Implemented in C++, Hapl-o-Mat facilitates efficient haplotype frequency estimation from large amounts of genotype data. We demonstrate its accuracy and performance on the basis of artificial and real genotype data. Hapl-o-Mat is a versatile and efficient software for HLA haplotype frequency estimation. Its capability of processing various forms of HLA genotype data allows for a straightforward haplotype frequency estimation from typing records usually found in stem cell donor registries.

  2. DXS998-DXS548-FRAXAC1 represents a novel informative haplotype at the FMR1 locus in the Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Mahsa; Vallian, Sadeq

    2015-10-10

    Fragile X syndrome, which is caused by mutation in the FMR1 gene region, is one of the most prevalent forms of mental retardation. Direct diagnosis of the disease is based on PCR and southern blot analysis, but because of technical problems, use of polymorphic DNA markers can be helpful for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in families with an affected individual. The polymorphic markers usually show a population-based haplotype frequency and heterozygosity. In the present study, genotyping and analysis of haplotype frequency of three microsatellite markers including DXS998, DXS548 and FRAXAC1 at the FMR1 gene region were carried out in 140 unrelated healthy women and 26 families from the Iranian population. The data indicated the presence of a novel allele for DXS998 in the Iranian population. Estimation of haplotype frequency using Arlequin program showed 50 different DXS998-DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotypes for the input data of 5, 7 and 4 alleles, respectively. Among these haplotypes five of them showed relatively high frequencies (≥0.05). Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for the unrelated individuals using the PowerMarker computer program, showed that this haplotype combination can be an informative haplotype for linkage analysis in carrier detection and possible molecular diagnosis of fragile X in the Iranian population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.