WorldWideScience

Sample records for haplorchis taichui infections

  1. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...... included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post...

  2. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on domestic animal’s role in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that the most prevalent FZT was Haplorchis pumilio. The importance of dogs, cats and pigs was assessed, and dogs were found...... a major challenge. In particular knowledge is needed on the importance of the dog as reservoir to make evidence-based recommendations for control of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection in dogs with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions. Eight household...

  3. Trematodes obtained from the thiarid freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774 as vector of human infections in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangduen Krailas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages of trematodes obtained from the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Cerithioidea, Thiaridae as intermediate host were studied by using cercarial emergence and crushing snails. Between December 2004 and September 2009 snails from one hundred twenty locations in Thailand were collected every two months for one year at each sampling site. Counts per unit of time method was used in this study, and the samples of snails were collected every 10 minutes per sampling by five collectors. The cercarial stages were examined using shedding and crushing methods. The infection rate was found to be 18.79%, i.e. 6,019 animals infected in a total of 32,026. Nine different types in eighteen species of cercariae were categorized, viz. are (1 Parapleurophocercous cercariae: Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, and Stictodora tridactyla; (2 Pleurophocercous cercariae: Centrocestus formosanus; (3 Xiphidiocercariae: Acanthatrium hitaense, Loxogenoides bicolor, and Haematoloechus similis; (4 Megalurous cercariae: Cloacitrema philippinum and Philophthalmus sp.; (5 Furcocercous cercariae: Cardicola alseae, Alaria mustelae, Transversotrema laruei, Apatemon gracilis, and Mesostephanus appendiculatus; (6 Echinostome cercariae: Echinochasmus pelecani; (7 Amphistome cercariae: Gastrothylax crumenifer; (8 Renicolid cercariae: Cercaria caribbea LXVIII; and, (9 Cotylomicrocercous cercariae: Podocotyle (Podocotyle lepomis.

  4. Larval stages of medically important flukes (Trematoda) from Vientiane province, Laos. Part II. Cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, O; Nasincová, V; Scholz, T; Giboda, M

    1992-01-01

    The cercariae of five flukes, which are potential human parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini (family Opisthorchiidae), Haplorchis taichui (Heterophyidae), Schistosoma spindale (Schistosomatidae), Fasciolopsis buski, and Fasciola gigantica (Fasciolidae) were found in freshwater snails from Laos. The cercariae of the above species, recorded in Laos for the first time, are illustrated and their morphology is briefly described. The snail Helicorbis umbilicalis represents a new intermediate host of F. buski. The occurrence of medically important snails in the Vientiane province will also be discussed.

  5. Molecular confirmation of trematodes in the snail intermediate hosts from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sothorn Anucherngchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the

  6. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  7. Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the neonatal period to school age.' In Saudi Arabia, the rate of 5.3 per cent was reported' while in Nigeria,. Okafor et a1,7 found the prevalence rate .... the multiplication of the organisms in the urine, resulting in lalse diagnosis of urinary tract infection. This over-diagnosis ofl ITI may account for the high prevalence rate ...

  8. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    lost by diuresis in early convalescence (1). Severe retention of body water, especially during central nervous system infection, has now been widely...adrenocortical production of glucocorticoid and ketosteroid hormones often declines into a subnormal range. The labile pool of body nitrogen is...may not become apparent until early convalescence when postfebrile diuresis causes excessive fluid to be excreted. (3) Protein requirements ’- Despite

  9. Echinostoma ilocanum Infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2011-01-01

    Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278

  10. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Traub

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future

  11. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thi Phan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Vietnam is an endemic region for fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT, including liver and intestinal flukes. Humans acquire the FZT infection by eating raw or inadequately cooked fish. The production of FZT-free fish in aquaculture is a key component in establishing a sustainable program to prevent and control the FZT transmission to humans. Interventions in aquaculture should be based on knowledge of the main risk factors associated with FZT transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65% to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times, mebendazole drug self-medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The FZT prevalence in fish increased by 11 percentage points during a one-year culture period and the risk factors for the development of infection were identified. Results also highlight that the young fish are already highly infected when stocked into the grow-out systems. This knowledge should be incorporated into control

  12. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...

  13. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for many cases of Brain and spinal cord infection (meningitis) Lung infection (pneumonia) Infection of the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection ( ... other illnesses or health conditions such as HIV infection, certain cancers (eg, leukemia, ... or kidney disease. Last Updated 11/21/2015 ...

  14. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  15. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...

  16. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  17. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all children in the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  18. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Staph Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Staph Infections What's in ... en español Infecciones por estafilococo What Is a Staph Infection? Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus ( ...

  19. [Nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Graf, Jürgen; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated for the year 2006 that around 500,000 to 600,000 nosocomial infections occurred in Germany and that among these 10,000 to 15,000 patients died of the infection. Nosocomial infections in general lengthen the duration of hospitalisation by on average 4 days - with associated extra costs of 4000 to 20,000 Euro per case. About a third of all infections acquired in hospital are considered to be avoidable. However, the classification of an infection as nosocomial does not automatically mean that a causal relationship exists between a medical intervention and the occurrence of the infection. Also a nosocomial infection is not a synonym for medical or nursing errors. The first epidemiological report of the EU emphasises the health-political and health-economical significance of nosocomial infections and classifies the increasing number of infections acquired in hospitals as a most important danger - even higher than the threats of pandemic influenza and HIV. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  20. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during ... or already have health problems. Strep B can cause urinary tract infections, blood ... and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  1. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.

  2. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  3. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...

  4. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vomiting Pinworm infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  7. Norovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get it if you touch a contaminated surface. Norovirus can be serious, especially for young children and older adults. The most common symptoms of norovirus infection are Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain ...

  8. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... on the face and neck, sometimes after a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction ...

  9. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your hands before touching other people and before handling food. (Anyone with a diarrhea should not prepare food ... should be kept away from other kids. Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. Cold foods ...

  10. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection of the paronychium (pay-roh-NIK-ee-um), which is the area around the fingernail ( ... term?) for single-character wildcard matching. For example, pa?ent would give you results for parent, patent, ...

  11. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  12. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  13. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  15. Fusarium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  16. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to ... partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease Men who have ... of chlamydia? In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus ...

  17. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    respond poorly to antimicrobial therapy. Organisms closely related to Leishmania include Trypanosoma cruzi , which causes American trypanosomiasis...1978). Trypanosoma cruzi also does not 22. Protozoan Infections 689 inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, but escapes from the parasitophorous vacuole to...y from solution. Approximately one-third of antileishmanial activity remains, however, when lymphokine preparations are treated with anti -IFN (Nacy et

  18. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  19. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  1. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  2. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  3. Escherichia coli Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvana, Sejal; Krilov, Leonard R

    2015-04-01

    Virulent strains of Escherichia coli are responsible for most diarrheal infections, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infections in children worldwide. Clinicians must learn to recognize, treat, and prevent these infections. After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology of E coli infections. 2. Recognize the clinical features of E coli infections, including the O157: H7 strain. 3. Appropriately treat children with various types of E coli infections. 4. Understand ways to prevent E coli infections.

  4. Monkeypoxvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, S R

    2000-04-01

    During and after the smallpox eradication campaign, human cases of monkeypox appeared in West and Central Africa, as isolated cases or as small epidemics. Since inter-human transmission has never or only very exceptionally been documented, monkeypox does not represent a serious threat to humans. The virus reservoir is among tree squirrels living in the tropical rain forests of Africa and humans are infected by hunting, killing and skinning these animals. However, the modernization of society lessens human contact with the virus reservoir. Since the eradication of smallpox, stocks of variola virus have been maintained; whether these stocks should now be destroyed is a political question, which is seriously compromised by mistrust between countries.

  5. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  6. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  7. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... Last? Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented? What Is Salmonella ? Salmonella is a kind of bacteria , with many ...

  8. Metabolic Imaging of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and

  9. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  10. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...

  11. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  12. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staff Home Diseases and Conditions Group B Strep Infection Condition Group B Strep Infection Share Print Group B Strep Infection Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. ...

  13. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  14. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Constant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  15. Postoperative pelvic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Constance; Faro, Sebastian

    2008-12-01

    Infectious morbidity affecting the postoperative course has long been a concern for obstetricians and gynecologists. The incidence of postoperative infections approaches 38%. The third most common nosocomial infection is surgical site infection. The realm of postoperative infections includes obstetric and gynecologic sources. An understanding of the basic fundamentals of the vaginal flora and addressing host and surgical risk factors can aid in prevention of postoperative infections, which result in significant morbidity and mortality.

  16. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.

  17. Learn About Cronobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Learn About Cronobacter Infection Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... but infections in young infants can be deadly. Learn what steps you can take to protect your ...

  18. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  19. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  20. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux ( ...

  1. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000449.htm Staph infections - hospital To use the sharing features on ... can also spread from one person to another. Staph Infections in the Hospital Staph germs are mostly ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections ... begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, ...

  3. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  4. Clostridium difficile infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geller, Stephen A; Campos, Fernando P. F. de

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element...

  5. Infection and esophageal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al‐Haddad, Sahar; El‐Zimaity, Hala; Hafezi‐Bakhtiari, Sara; Rajendra, Shanmugarajah; Streutker, Catherine J; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on infection and cancer, and includes commentaries on the influence of bacterial infections on mucin expression and cancer risk...

  6. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear ... of Chlamydia bacteria. Another species, called Chlamydia (or Chlamydophila ) pneumoniae, causes respiratory illnesses. These lung infections are spread ...

  7. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. Infants in childcare settings can become infected with ... than 2 weeks, however, are a sign of chronic diarrhea. Call your doctor if you think that you ...

  8. Diabetic foot infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, MS

    2008-01-01

    .... Diabetic foot infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci, are the most common pathogens in previously untreated mild and moderate infection...

  9. Breast infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.

  10. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infection. How Is Listeriosis Treated? Healthy kids, teens, and adults with a Listeria infection typically don' ... November 2017 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Staying Healthy During Pregnancy Why Is Hand Washing ...

  11. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  12. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS AGENT ... skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, ...

  13. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  14. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  15. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  16. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ space SSI. • Infection occurs within 30 days if no implant, or within a year if implant and the infection seems to be related to the operation and infection occurs in any anatomical site ... Diagnosis of an organ/space SSI made by the surgeon or ..... selected projects ”enlist the best academic researchers and industry to.

  17. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  18. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Old traumatic wounds with retained devitalized tissue and those that involve existing clinical infection or perforated viscera. This definition suggests that the organisms that caused the post-operative infection had been present at the start of the procedure. * Garner JS and Simmons. Table II: National nosocomial Infections ...

  19. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with En...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  20. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  2. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by ... common bacterial infections? If so, these recurrent infections may be a sign of an immunodeficiency disorder. The ...

  3. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  4. [Deep neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible.

  5. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  6. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  7. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oronzio, U; Arlettaz, R.; Hagmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. The mean birthweight, gestational age, and head circumference of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly different from those of controls. Three (6%) had symptoms at birth--two neurological and one pneumonitis. In the first four months of life transient hepatosplenomegaly occurred in two infected children and six suffered interstitial pneum...

  8. Infections in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sampathkumar, Priya

    2017-12-01

    Neurointensive care (NICU) patients experience complex infectious disease challenges. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, and post-neurosurgical patients are vulnerable to a unique set of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) in addition to those typical of critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize the approach to suspected infection in the NICU and discuss management of several infectious syndromes in the NICU setting.

  9. [Infection and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatz, A; Boecker, M; Schuppe, H-C; Diemer, Th; Wagenlehner, F

    2016-07-01

    Infections in the urogenital tract are accepted causes of male infertility. Epidemiologic data indicate 6-10 % of all males undergoing andrological work-up for infertility having an infectious etiology. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the most important urogenital tract infections (prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, male accessory gland infection-MAGI) and the impact on fertility. In males suffering infertility, evidence is also presented regarding an infectious etiology.

  10. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  11. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  12. Listeria Placental Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Véázquez-Boland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model.

  13. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  14. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...... frequently than the others. We discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and suggest a proposal for prophylactic and diagnostic guidelines for epidural catheter-related infections. Comment in: J Hosp Infect. 1997 Mar;35(3):245....

  15. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  16. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  17. Neonatal rotavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffejee, I E

    1991-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections in newborns differ from those in older infants; the majority of RV infections that occur in neonates are mild or asymptomatic. Generally, fewer than one-third of RV-infected neonates have diarrhea, although rates have reached 77% in some hospital nursery populations. Cases with severe diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, bowel perforation, and death have been reported, but such cases are very rare. Infection usually occurs during the first week of life and generally invokes a mucosal antibody response without a concomitant serologic antibody response. Neonatal RV infections appear to incite an immune response that affords significant protection against severe RV-associated diarrhea, although not necessarily against a symptomatic RV infection later in life. Strains that cause neonatal infections differ from those that infect older infants; the outer-capsid protein VP4 is highly conserved in "nursery" RV strains, a property that probably plays a key role in their attenuated virulence. Immaturity of proteolytic enzymes in the neonatal gut and presence of secretory anti-RV IgA and trypsin inhibitors in breast milk are other factors that could account for the asymptomatic nature of RV infections in newborns. Natural "nursery" strains of RV are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates.

  18. Epidemiology of anaerobic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S I

    1983-01-01

    The clinical importance of the anaerobic organisms, especially the toxicogenic Clostridia and some of the nonsporulating anaerobes, has been recognized for some time. Only within the last 20 years, however, owing to improved methodology, have gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, anaerobic cocci, and streptococci been commonly recognized and encountered in clinical infections. Today, anaerobic organisms are common isolates from infections involving intra-abdominal sites, the female genital tract, soft tissue, and oral areas and from major infections involving the lung, brain, and head and neck. Most of these infections are polymicrobial--involving both anaerobic and facultative or aerobic organisms. In some instances, it is difficult to ascertain what role is played by what organisms. No doubt, synergism is present in many cases. Because anaerobes are prevalent normal flora of the body, almost all anaerobic infections are of endogenous origin. Many of these anaerobes are opportunists; given the appropriate set of conditions, they will penetrate tissue and cause infection. Many have been associated with wound infection subsequent to bowel surgery or trauma, tubo-ovarian abscess, perirectal abscess, subphrenic abscess, postabortal sepsis, appendicitis, and many other infectious conditions. This article reviews the distribution of anaerobes in infected hospitalized patients and their relation to infection over a 5-year period.

  19. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of infection-causing bacteria than the previous vaccine, the PCV7. If your child already has begun PCV7 vaccination, consult your physician ... infections than children who aren’t vaccinated. The vaccine is strongly ... and can help keep your child from catching a cold or the flu. Avoid ...

  20. E. Coli Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if you have E. coli in your intestines. The culture has to be taken in the first 48 hours after the bloody diarrhea starts. PreventionHow can I keep from getting E. coli infection?You can help prevent this infection by handling ...

  1. Imaging spinal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Jay; Gibbs, Wende N.

    2016-01-01

    Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral ...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  3. Surgical wound infection - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007645.htm Surgical wound infection - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... the organ and space where you had surgery Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat most wound infections. Sometimes, you also may need surgery to ...

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... younger than 5 years, they are a leading cause of pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults. Community- ... be given for more serious symptoms associated with pneumonia and ear infections. What Is the Prognosis? This infection often causes wheezing in children with asthma or reactive airways. ...

  5. Urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2013-07-01

    The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nidal A; Bakri, Faris G

    2006-05-01

    Diabetic foot infection DFI is simply defined as suspected or documented infection of the tissues that comprise the foot of a diabetic patient. Diabetic foot infection is often caused by introduction of an infection into the otherwise sterile soft tissues of the foot through a minor skin break down. Diabetic foot infection may be mild usually restricted to the uppermost layers of the skin, moderate extending down to the soft tissues of the foot or severe infection associated with systemic toxicity or metabolic instability. The paper reviews the types of DFI, pathophysiology, microbiology of DFI, relevant anatomy of the foot, clinical evaluation, measures of severity of DFI, the role of radiological investigations, and the role of early surgical intervention in the prevention of progressive foot infection and limb salvage. It is concluded that the diagnosis of DFI should be suspected at an early stage based on the presence of local signs of inflammation with or without systemic signs of toxicity or metabolic instability. Optimal treatment of DFI requires a multimodality approach directed at controlling hyperglycemia, administration of systemic antibiotics, and local wound management to prevent the spread and dissemination of infection.

  7. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  8. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sera was Western blot analysis positive. The over- all prevalence of mv infection in this study was. 2/1553 participants (0,13%). These results dem.on- strate not only that mv infection and the potential for its transmission are present in the Republic of. Bophuthatswana but that they call for energetic and well-targeted control ...

  9. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  10. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Genitourinary infection in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Julka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory.

  12. Infection control in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R

    1991-08-01

    The risk of transmission of infection within the dental workplace is low, but recent data have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus transmission between dentist and patient can occur, and that while nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus is now less likely, a small but significant number of staff may be at risk of hepatitis C virus and varicella zoster virus infection during dental treatment. Despite these continued risks, shortcomings remain in cross-infection control in the dental workplace. Dental clinicians still fail to take adequate steps to minimize nosocomial infection, inconsistently using appropriate methods of sterilization and not providing ancillary staff with suitable protective clothing. Similarly, although vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, a substantial number of clinicians are reluctant to treat hepatitis B virus- or human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Cross-infection control procedures continue to be modified. Of importance, it has been confirmed that protective rubber gloves cannot be reused, as micropunctures develop during rewashing. Sharps injuries are common in dental practice, but there are still no effective measures to prevent postinjury human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Instrument sterilization is generally safe and effective, but the contamination of dental unit water supplies remains to be overcome, and while impressions can be placed in disinfectants for up to 1 hour without significant dimensional change, it is not known if infectious agents within the impression material are inactivated by this procedure.

  13. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  14. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  16. Hajj-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon-Rousseau, A; Piednoir, E; Cattoir, V; de La Blanchardière, A

    2016-10-01

    The Hajj is the largest annual mass gathering event in the world, thus favoring the transmission of various infections: 183 different nationalities, high temperatures, coincidence with the start of the flu season in the Northern hemisphere, a long barefoot walk, tent-type accommodation, communal toilet facilities, absence of food control, and sharing of razors. Infections are the first cause of hospital admission, which often occurs in the home country of pilgrims. Literature review on PubMed from 1952 to November 2015 on the epidemiology and prevention of infections contracted during the Hajj, using the keywords "Hajj" and "infections". Respiratory tract infections, ENT infections, influenza, pyogenic pneumonia, whooping cough, and tuberculosis are most frequently observed during the Hajj. Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis have been reported in pilgrims and their contacts. Waterborne infections such as gastroenteritis and hepatitis A are common, despite the improvement of health conditions. Pyoderma and furuncles are also frequently observed. Recently, dengue fever, Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever have emerged but no case of MERS-coronavirus, appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012, have yet been observed during the 2012-2014 Hajj. Prevention is based on compulsory meningococcal vaccination, vaccination against seasonal influenza and pneumococcal infections for pilgrims at high risk of contracting the infection, and on vaccination against hepatitis A. Updating immunization for diphtheria/tetanus/poliomyelitis/pertussis and measles/mumps is also crucial and pilgrims must comply with hygiene precautions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  18. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  19. Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Pujalte, George G A; Reese, Stephanie T

    2015-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections grow in dark and moist areas and invade various parts of the body. These infections are easily treatable in immunocompetent individuals. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be quite severe, requiring use of more potent antifungal agents. The treatment for these conditions consists of topical antifungal agents, creams, and oral systemic medications. The use of prednisone can alter the appearance of superficial fungal infections, making them difficult to diagnose. It is important for primary care providers to become adept at understanding the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques, and treatment options available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  1. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    .... The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies...

  2. Super-infections and relapses occur in chronic norovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julianne R; Roy, Sunando; Tutill, Helena; Williams, Rachel; Breuer, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients with considerable associated morbidity. It is not known whether chronic infections involve super- or re-infections or relapses. To retrospectively investigate whether longitudinal sampling in chronically infected patients demonstrates persistent infection with the same virus, or super- or re-infection. Norovirus full genomes were generated from 86 longitudinal samples from 25 paediatric patients. Consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping. Super-infections occurred in 17% of chronically infected patients who were continuously PCR positive; including two with mixed norovirus infections. The median duration of infection was 107days longer in those with super-infections; however this was not statistically significant. A third of patients with interrupted norovirus shedding continued to be infected with the same virus despite up to 2 months of PCR negative stools, classified as a relapse. The majority (67%) of patients with interrupted shedding were re-infected with a different genotype. Chronically infected patients who are continuously PCR positive are most likely to remain infected with the same virus; however super-infections do occur leading to mixed infection. Patients with interrupted shedding are likely to represent re-infection with a different genotype, however relapsing infections also occur. Our findings have implications for infection control as immunosuppressed patients remain susceptible to new norovirus infections despite current or recent infection and may continue to be infectious after norovirus is undetectable in stool. The relevance to children without co-morbidities remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Listeria Placental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Krypotou, Emilia; Scortti, Mariela

    2017-06-27

    The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model. Copyright © 2017 Vázquez-Boland et al.

  4. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  5. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  6. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  7. SIDA et Infections Opportunistes

    OpenAIRE

    GHAFFOUR, Mohammed El-Amine; GHOMARI, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Le sida ou syndrome d'immunodépression acquise, révélé en 1983, est la conséquence grave de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (HIV), responsable d'une diminution de l'immunité cellulaire qui est source d'infections opportunistes. L'amélioration des fonctions immunitaires sous multi thérapie antirétrovirale a permis de réduire de façon importante la prévalence de ces infections. L'infection par le VIII réalise actuellement une pandémie, dont la transmission ...

  8. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  9. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic"

  10. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  11. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  12. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  13. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Video) Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  15. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  16. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles 10 Tips for Preventing Infections Before and During Pregnancy Language: ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  17. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  18. Immunity Against Klebsiella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rukavina

    2005-01-01

    different plasma concentrations for all cytokines. The greatest difference was detected 24 hours after infection, with a higher production in the unprotected group. We concluded that a reduced cytokine production is partially responsible for the survival of protected animals.

  19. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by A haemolyticum and one associated with a streptococcal organism. Antibacterials, typically erythromycin, can be used to treat this infection. The symptoms quickly clear up when taking these medicines, although the disease is likely to get better on its own ...

  20. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  1. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  2. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a serious infection, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In ... feel more comfortable. Because antibiotics only work against bacteria, they can't be used to fight a ...

  3. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  4. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  5. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  6. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wash your hands. This is the simplest and best way to prevent most kinds of infection. Wash your ... supply is likely to be unsafe, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water that you open yourself. Don' ...

  7. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  8. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of t...

  9. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  10. Clostridium difficile infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, WK; Lyras, D.; Lacy, DB; Wilcox, MH; Kuijper, EJ

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of infla...

  11. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  12. Metabolic Effects of Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    about the tions of glucagon, insulin, glucocorticoids , cate- mechanisms that regulate the rates of lipid re- cholamines, and growth hormone increase...from an acute period of fever may be followed energy-generating responses during infection. In by diuresis in early convalescence, contrast, several...common in infections of the central nervous sys- The adrenal glucocorticoid hormones serve a tern and may occur during severe generalized central but

  13. Parasitic lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi

    2009-05-01

    Global climate change and population explosion leading to changes in natural ecosystem and travel across the continents have resulted in an increase in the transmission of parasites to human beings. This review focuses on recent advancements in parasitic lung infections. Invasive parasitic diseases including lung infections are increasingly being reported in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. A recombinant kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania donovani has been validated with ELISA using urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been shown to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Intravenous artesunate is an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. The best way to protect from malaria is the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets. Biennial treatment with praziquantel has been found to be cost-effective treatment for control of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary nodules. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection can mimic accelerated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Migratory nodular shadows with halos are important chest computed tomographic findings in human toxocariasis. Patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (HIV infection, organ transplantation and immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids) should be evaluated for early detection of parasitic lung infections.

  14. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Nosocomial infections: surgical site infection in UCH Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HAI was 3.0%, Surgical Site Infection was the second most prevalent HAI. Surgical Site Infection was responsible for 27.9% of the nosocomial infections recorded. The ratio of Gram Positive to Gram Negative organisms was 1:2.3. Bacterial agents of Surgical Site Infection were Staphylococcus aureus ...

  16. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  17. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  18. Transgenerational effect of infection in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2015-03-01

    Transgenerational effects of infection have a huge potential to influence the prevalence and intensity of infections in vectors and, by extension, disease epidemiology. These transgenerational effects may increase the fitness of offspring through the transfer of protective immune factors. Alternatively, however, infected mothers may transfer the costs of infection to their offspring. Although transgenerational immune protection has been described in a dozen invertebrate species, we still lack a complete picture of the incidence and importance of transgenerational effects of infection in most invertebrate groups. The existence of transgenerational infection effects in mosquito vectors is of particular interest because of their potential for influencing parasite prevalence and intensity and, by extension, disease transmission. Here we present what we believe to be the first study on transgenerational infection effects in a mosquito vector infected with malaria parasites. The aim of this experiment was to quantify both the benefits and the costs of having an infected mother. We find no evidence of transgenerational protection in response to a Plasmodium infection. Having an infected mother does, however, entail considerable fecundity costs for the offspring: fecundity loss is three times higher in infected offspring issued from infected mothers than in infected offspring issued from uninfected mothers. We discuss the implications of our results and we call for more studies looking at transgenerational effects of infection in disease vectors. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  20. Infected nonunion of tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Milind Madhav

    2017-01-01

    Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced membrane technique is an

  1. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  2. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  3. Urticaria and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  4. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of the intestinal immune response to down- regulate reactivity to noninvasive luminal bacteria also may contribute to the failure to eliminate helicobacter infection. Results of vaccine studies in mouse models indicate that modulating the helper T cell response from a T helper cell type 1 to a T helper cell type 2 response likely is required for the prevention and elimination of helicobacter infection. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune response controls bacterial infections will allow for the design of novel strategies of immune modulation and the development of vaccines for both the treatment and prevention of H pylori.

  5. [Infection control in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeyuki

    2010-01-01

    Infection control committee as the central decision-making and infection control team (ICT) for carrying out all aspects of infection control are important for hospital infection control. Standard precautions are used for all patients and apply to all body fluids except for sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. Transmission-based precautions involve airborne, droplet, contact vector-borne and common vehicle precautions. Airborne precautions are for tuberculosis, varicella and measles. Small particles (precautions are for influenza, rubella, pertussis, and so on. Transmission via large droplet (transmissions are for blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C virus and HIV, bacterial infections via percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure, and so on. Vaccinations for measles, rubella, varicella, mumps, influenza and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers are important. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted via droplet and contact, but also via airborne transmission in the aerosol-generating procedures such as intubation and suctioning. WHO declared a public health emergency in April 2009. A novel influenza has spread rapidly across the globe, and it will be necessary to prepare for the outbreak in this autumn and winter.

  6. Infection control for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  7. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.

  8. The Biophysics of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes involved in infection has grown enormously in the past decade due in part to emerging methods of biophysics. This new insight has been enabled through advances in interdisciplinary experimental technologies and theoretical methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. For example, this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular and cell biology approaches, which enable investigation of infection in living cells. There are also new, emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the resolution of quantitative measurements both in space and time. These include single-molecule biophysics methods and super-resolution microscopy approaches. These new technological tools in particular have underpinned much new understanding of dynamic processes of infection at a molecular length scale. Also, there are many valuable advances made recently in theoretical approaches of biophysics which enable advances in predictive modelling to generate new understanding of infection. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on our knowledge of the biophysics of infection and discuss where future advances may lead.

  9. Surgical infection in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  10. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  11. Enterococcal infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karina M

    2006-07-01

    From relative obscurity, enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. This has been attributed, in part, to the growth in susceptible host populations, increased use of intravascular devices, prolonged hospital stay, and widespread antibiotics use. Furthermore, the facility with which enterococci acquire resistance characteristics coupled with their capacity to survive in the environment renders them uniquely suited as nosocomial opportunists and have resulted in global dissemination of resistant strains. Debate continues as to whether most serious infections arise from a person's indigenous flora or dissemination of virulent clones. Enterococci are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Classically associated with endocarditis and wound and urinary tract infections, increasingly they are a cause of nosocomial bacteremia. The rise in incidence of serious enterococcal infection has been particularly evident in neonatal, paediatric intensive care, and haematology/oncology units. Spread of resistant phenotypes has posed a difficult therapeutic challenge. We have been rescued, albeit perhaps only temporarily, by the addition of newer agents, such as linezolid, to the therapeutic armamentarium. However, there is no room for complacency. Linezolid resistance already has been reported. Efforts must continue to focus on prevention of the emergence and dissemination of resistance through policies of rational antibiotic use, infection control and education.

  12. Orthopaedic biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Paul; Ehrlich, Garth D; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Baratz, Mark E; Altman, Daniel T; Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Costerton, John William; Demeo, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A recent paradigm shift in microbiology affects orthopaedic surgery and most other medical and dental disciplines because more than 65% of bacterial infections treated by clinicians in the developed world are now known to be caused by organisms growing in biofilms. These slime-enclosed communities of bacteria are inherently resistant to host defenses and to conventional antibacterial therapy, and these device-related and other chronic bacterial infections are unaffected by the vaccines and antibiotics that have virtually eliminated acute infections caused by planktonic (floating) bacteria. We examine the lessons that can be learned, within this biofilm paradigm, by the study of problems (e.g. non-culturability) shared by all biofilm infections and by the study of new therapeutic options aimed specifically at sessile bacteria in biofilms. Orthopaedic surgery has deduced some of the therapeutic strategies based on assiduous attention to patient outcomes, but much can still be learned by attention to modern research in related disciplines in medicine and dentistry. These perceptions will lead to practical improvements in the detection, management, and treatment of infections in orthopaedic surgery.

  13. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, D; Flowers, D; Clarke, J R; Valman, H B; MacNaughton, M R

    1983-01-01

    Human coronaviruses were found by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in upper respiratory tract secretions taken during 30% of 108 acute respiratory infections experienced by 30 children under age 6 years with recurrent respiratory infections (index group), and during 29% of 51 acute infections experienced by their siblings. Lower respiratory tract infection--predominantly wheezy bronchitis--occurred in 30% of the index children's coronavirus positive infections but in none of their siblings' ...

  14. Thrombocytopenia and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Acquired thrombocytopenia recognizes a myriad of causes. Among these, infectious diseases play a relevant role since a low platelet count is commonplace along with other abnormal laboratory data. Areas covered: This narrative review, after a brief presentation of the possible pathogenic mechanisms, is focused on the most prevalent infections associated with thrombocytopenia, namely those attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Helicobacter pylori. Expert commentary: An underlying HCV or HIV infection should always be suspected in patients at risk who present with isolated thrombocytopenia. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is advisable in infected patients with secondary immune thrombocytopenia, because this will increase the platelet count in a substantial number of cases, thus avoiding more aggressive and prolonged treatments.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  16. Infections after keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Chodosh, James

    2016-07-01

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of microbial keratitis and endophthalmitis after keratoprosthesis implantation. The addition of vancomycin daily to a fluoroquinolone in the postoperative management of keratoprosthesis patients successfully reduced the number of cases of bacterial keratitis and endophthalmitis with an increased number of fungal infections now documented both in the United States and abroad. Compliance with the regimen of a fluoroquinolone and vancomycin daily for life after keratoprosthesis implantation should be stressed with the patient. Further research is needed to investigate whether intermittent use of 5% povidone-iodine and frequent replacement of the bandage contact lens could reduce fungal infection after keratoprosthesis surgery. Future advancements in the Boston keratoprosthesis design and/or postoperative management are needed to further reduce infection after keratoprosthesis placement.

  17. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  18. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  19. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  20. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  1. [Listeria monocytogenes infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Léna; Chuard, Christian

    2017-10-11

    Listeria monocytogenes infections are caused by food ingestion. They are not only transmitted by animal products, but also by secondarily contaminated fruits and vegetables. They preferentially affect pregnant women, patients of extreme ages and the immu-nocompromised, and manifest as a gastroenteritis, bacteremia, meningo-encephalitis or maternal-fetal infection. Diagnosis is achieved by culture of usually sterile sites. The preferred treatment is amoxicillin with or without gentamicin. For patients at risk, prevention is based on avoiding at-risk food or cooking it when possible.

  2. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  3. Dipylidium caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  4. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  5. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    ), but equally high among Inuits in Greenland and Denmark (38.2 and 35.4, respectively). Mortality from CNS infections was 2 fold higher among Inuits (10.5%) than among non-Inuits (4.8%) with a fivefold higher case fatality rate in Inuit toddlers. CONCLUSION: Overall, Inuits living in Greenland and Denmark...... suffer from twice the rate of CNS infections compared with non-Inuits, and Inuit toddlers carried the highest risk of mortality. Further studies regarding risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, life style and socioeconomic factors are warranted....

  6. Atypical bacterial infections explained by a concomitant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Hall, C B; Menegus, M A

    1985-09-01

    Because both viral and bacterial infections are common during early childhood, dual infections are not unexpected. However, the clinical manifestation of such combined infections may be, difficult to interpret, and they are often misdiagnosed as "atypical bacterial infection." Five patients with concomitant viral-bacterial infections are described. In all five cases, virus detection enabled the physicians to better understand an otherwise puzzling clinical presentation. In view of the recent progress in rapid viral diagnoses and the potential of antiviral drugs, the possibility of dual infection should be investigated more often.

  7. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  8. Vitamin C and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  9. Infections after refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Zeeshan; Farooq, Asim V; Huang, Andrew J W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the review is to provide a summary of the recent literature concerning infections after refractive surgery pertinent to each procedure category. New data from a large retrospective study suggest that the incidence of post-laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis infectious keratitis is declining. Additionally, recent case studies have reported viral, fungal, and Acanthamoeba pathogens. Corneal collagen cross-linking is emerging as an alternative therapeutic option for early stage post-LASIK infectious keratitis. Postoperative bandage contact lens used in patients undergoing surface ablation procedures may confer a higher risk of infection because of greater colonization rates in those individuals, such as healthcare providers, with relatively high risk of exposure to potential pathogens. In the setting of post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism, femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy procedures pose a risk of infectious keratitis and even endophthalmitis. Lastly, recent case reports of endophthalmitis after refractive lens procedures highlight the importance of postoperative monitoring for this sight threatening, albeit rare, complication. The risks and management of infections after surgical refractive procedures vary widely depending on the specific technique employed. As technology and treatment options continue to evolve with further research, we anticipate continued success in the management of postoperative infections after refractive surgery.

  10. Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Beer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects

  11. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  12. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K

    1999-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the

  13. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  15. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... sinuous rod like structures, 0.15 - 0.25 µm in diameter. They can be observed by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of infected trees (Moll and Martin, 1973). The aim of this study was to detect and identify Candidatus. Liberibacter asiaticus using PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to ...

  16. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathogenesis of Rhinovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Turner, Ronald B.; Braciale, Thomas; Heymann, Peter W.; Borish, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Since its discovery in 1956, rhinovirus (RV) has been recognized as the most important virus producing the common cold syndrome. Despite its ubiquity, little is known concerning the pathogenesis of RV infections, and some of the research in this area has led to contradictions regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of RV-induced illness. In this article, we discuss the pathogenesis of this virus as it relates to RV-induced illness in the upper and lower airway, an issue of considerable interest in view of the minimal cytopathology associated with RV infection. We endeavor to explain why many infected individuals exhibit minimal symptoms or remain asymptomatic, while others, especially those with asthma, may have severe, even life-threatening, complications (sequelae). Finally, we discuss the immune responses to RV in the normal and asthmatic host focusing on RV infection and epithelial barrier integrity and maintenance as well as the impact of the innate and adaptive immune responses to RV on epithelial function. PMID:22542099

  18. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know - 한국어 (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Salmonella Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por salmonela: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  19. Haemophilus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Haemophilus Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por Haemophilus: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  20. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones bacterianas: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...

  1. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  2. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente; Claramonte, Xavier; Armero, Yolanda; Sidani, Nisreen; Kanj-Sharara, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Raglio, Annibale; Goglio, Antonio; Gnecchi, Fabrizio; Suter, Fredy; Valsecchi, Grazia; Rizzi, Marco; Ravasio, Veronica; Hoen, Bruno; Chirouze, Catherine; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Bernard, Yvette; Casey, Anna; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Elliot, Tom; Patel, Mukesh; Dismukes, William; Pan, Angelo; Caros, Giampiero; Tribouilloy, Amel Brahim Mathiron Christophe; Goissen, Thomas; Delahaye, Armelle; Delahaye, Francois; Vandenesch, Francois; Vizzotti, Carla; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Marin, Marcelo; Trivi, Marcelo; Lombardero, Martin; Cortes, Claudia; Casabe, Jose Horacio; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Commerford, Anita; Hansa, Cass; Deetlefs, Eduan; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Commerford, Patrick; Wray, Dannah; Steed, Lisa L.; Cantey, Robert; Morris, Arthur; Holland, David; Murdoch, David; Graham, Katherine; Read, Kerry; Raymond, Nigel; Bridgman, Paul; Troughton, Richard; Lang, Selwyn; Chambers, Stephen; Kotsanas, Despina; Korman, Tony M.; Peterson, Gail; Purcell, Jon; Southern, Paul M.; Shah, Manisha; Bedimo, Roger; Reddy, Arjun; Levine, Donald; Dhar, Gaurav; Hanlon-Feeney, Alanna; Hannan, Margaret; Kelly, Sinead; Wang, Andrew; Cabell, Christopher; Woods, Christopher; Sexton, Daniel J.; Benjamin, Danny; Corey, G. Ralph; McDonald, Jay R.; Federspiel, Jeff; Engemann, John J.; Barth Reller, L.; Drew, Laura; Caram, L. B.; Stryjewski, Martin; Morpeth, Susan; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance; Chu, Vivian; Mazaheri, Bahram; Neuerburg, Carl; Naber, Christoph; Athan, Eugene; Henry, Margaret; Harris, Owen; Alestig, Eric; Olaison, Lars; Wikstrom, Lotta; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K.; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Chaiworramukkun, Jaruwan; Pachirat, Orathai; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Suwanich, Tewan; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Premru, Manica Muella; Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Orezzi, Christina; Klein, John; Bouza, Emilio; Moreno, Mar; Rodriguez-Creixems, Marta; Marin, Mercedes; Fernandez, Miguel; Munoz, Patricia; Fernandez, Rocio; Ramallo, Victor; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Habib, Gilbert; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Kulichenko, Vadim P.; Butkevich, O. M.; Lion, Christine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Alla, Francois; Coyard, Helene; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Larussi, Diana; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Francoise Tripodi, Marie; Utili, Riccardo; Sampath Kumar, A.; Sharma, Gautam; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Street, Alan; Eisen, Damon Peter; McBryde, Emma Sue; Grigg, Leeanne; Abrutyn, Elias; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Yves Donnio, Pierre; Fortes, Claudio Querido; Edathodu, Jameela; Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Font, Bernat; Raimon Guma, Joan; Cereceda, M.; Oyonarte, Miguel J.; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Garcia, Patricia; Braun Jones, Sandra; Isabel de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ley Woon, Lok; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Rees, David; Kornecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Dever, Robyn; Post, Jeffey; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzzane; Harkness, John; Fenely, Michael; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilewitz, Jacob; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Dragulescu, Stefan; Forno, Davide; Cecchi, Enrico; de Rosa, Francesco; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Wiesbauer, Franz; Gattringer, Rainer; Deans, Greg; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Barsic, Bruno; Klinar, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  3. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has far reaching implications on patient morbidity and ... was complicated by a SSI had a 2-11% higher risk of death. In those patients who died, 75% was directly .... genital and uninfected urinary tract is not entered. In addition, clean wounds are primarily closed ...

  4. Oral fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease.

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  6. Repeated Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he/she have ear tubes?What are the dangers of my child’s repeated infections?Should my child ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staffHip Problems in ...

  7. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of the respondents or other identifying information were not included in the questionnaires. The knowledge section had 7 sexually transmitted infection symptoms for grading knowledge, namely lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, penile discharge, itching of the vagina, burning pain on urination, genital ulcers/sores ...

  8. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  9. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toilet training or spend time in a child care center. People who live or work with small children also are at higher risk of developing giardia infection. People without access to safe drinking water. Giardiasis is rampant wherever sanitation is inadequate or ...

  10. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  11. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  12. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in

  13. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  14. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  15. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  16. EBV Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligio, Pizzigallo; Delia, Racciatti; Valeria, Gorgoretti

    2010-01-01

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious). Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both

  17. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  18. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Patients and Caregivers Prepare: Watch Out for Fever ...

  19. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder infection called cystitis (say: ... harmful bacteria keep spreading. From the bladder, they may head into one of the ureters and climb ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  4. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research HIV Infection and Cancer Risk On This Page Do people ... being linked to an increased risk of cancer, HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of dying ...

  5. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  6. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  7. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  8. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  9. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  10. Infection imaging in nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Regardless of advances in medicine, infection continues to play a major role in patients' morbidity and mortality. Nuclear medicine techniques have an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harbouring infection. Many different agents may be used in an attempt to image infection. ere are ...

  11. [Opportunistic infections and sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilloux, Y; Bernard, C; Lortholary, O; Kerever, S; Lelièvre, L; Gerfaud-Valentin, M; Broussolle, C; Valeyre, D; Sève, P

    2017-05-01

    Opportunistic infections (OI) are uncommon in sarcoidosis (1 to 10%) and mostly occur in patients with previously diagnosed disease or can rarely be the presenting manifestation. The most common OIs are, in descending order: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and mycobacterial infections. Treatment with corticosteroids is the most frequent risk factor for OI occurrence during sarcoidosis but immunosuppressive drugs and therapy with anti-TNFα are also risk factors. Overall, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome are identical to that occur in other conditions complicated with the occurrence of OIs. However, some atypical presentations of OIs can mimic sarcoidosis exacerbation and misdiagnosis may lead clinicians to increase immunosuppression, causing worsening of the OI. The meticulous collection of patient's history along with factors differentiating OI from sarcoidosis exacerbation is key factor to optimally manage these patients. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  13. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodd Roger Y

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.

  14. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  15. Esophageal infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj C; Caicedo, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    Infectious esophagitis generally occurs in patients with impaired immunity. Although methods to suppress the immune system evolve, the potential infectious consequences are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious esophagitis. Minimal pediatric data, including a few case reports and series, involve infectious esophagitis. Esophageal infections are usually caused by the following microbes, in order starting with the most common: Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Uncommon risk factors in these and other reports include epidural triamcinolone and oral budesonide in addition to more common risk factors such as HIV infection, chemotherapeutic agents, and transplant immunosuppressive medications. Rare reports involve immunocompetent patients and treatment of these patients is controversial. Understanding of infectious esophagitis is growing, and risk factors, diagnosis, and treatments are evolving.

  16. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  17. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  18. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  19. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  20. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  1. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  2. Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  3. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  4. Vaccines against mucosal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-06-01

    There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use are available: oral vaccines against cholera, typhoid, polio, and rotavirus, and a nasal vaccine against influenza. For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. A problem with available oral live vaccines is their reduced immunogenicity when used in developing countries; for instance, the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines correlates closely with the national per capita income. Research is needed to define the impact of factors such as malnutrition, aberrant intestinal microflora, concomitant infections, and preexisting immunity as well as of host genetic factors on the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  6. IL-17 and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment.

  7. Predisposing factors endorsing Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which is involved in infections ranging from superficial, mucosal to systemic candidiasis. It is the fourth most leading cause of death in nosocomial infections. Candidal infections are increasing at an alarming rate due to poor clinical management in hospital settings, more use of antibiotics, increased drug resistance, immunosuppression and host-pathogen related factors. There are various predisposing factors which can be immunologic or non-immunologic in origin that make a person susceptible to such infections. This review article establishes the need to understand the various predisposing factors leading to Candidal infections and discusses them on a common platform.

  8. Latest opportunistic infection prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, R

    1998-01-01

    Although people with HIV are living longer than ever before, they continue to suffer from infections that are associated with low T4-cell counts. The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have updated the guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections, including their positions on when prophylaxis is indicated. Summaries are given for preventing the following infections: cytomegalovirus (CMV), cryptosporidiosis, fungal infections, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes-related infections, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), streptococcal pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis.

  9. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  10. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal yeast infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Yeast Infections updates ... gram stain Thrush Vaginal yeast infection Related Health Topics Fungal Infections Vaginitis National Institutes of Health The ...

  12. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections when visiting (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic ... precautions Personal protective equipment Preventing infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  14. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  15. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute periodontal infection in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C L; Winkler, J R; Heinic, G S; Daniels, T E; Yee, K; Greenspan, D

    1993-04-01

    During childhood, many people acquire primary infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the herpes viruses. If they later become immunosuppressed, such as occurs with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CMV is likely to become reactivated. Severe disease caused by CMV is life-threatening in the HIV-infected population. CMV retinitis, gastritis, colitis, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis have all been reported, but oral lesions due to infection with CMV are rarely reported. We report a case of oral CMV infection which at first was clinically indistinguishable from HIV-associated periodontal disease.

  16. [Rotavirus: an ubiquitous infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Degas, V; Cézard, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Rotavirus is the most frequent virus found in childhood gastroenteritis. A rotavirus viremia is observed in 19 to 63 % of cases, for three days at the beginning of infection. Then, rotavirus can reach several organs as liver (hepatitis in 1/3 of case), nervous central system (2 % of encephalitis could be linked to rotavirus), or more infrequently mesenteric lymph nodes, lung or heart. However, the link between rotavirus and systemic manifestations has not been well established. Further studies are necessary to confirm the role of rotavirus in these organ's lesions.

  17. les infections toxoplasmique

    OpenAIRE

    Laîssouf, Sihem; MERAH, Fatima; Lahssaini, Nour El Houda

    2012-01-01

    La toxoplasmose est une maladie cosmopolite due à un parasite protozoaire intracellulaire obligatoire opportuniste, Toxoplasma gondii. Pour étudier ce parasite nous proposerons un plan de travail qui comporte une aperçu théorique sur l'épidémiologie analytique, la clinique, essentiellement le diagnostic biologique et enfin on abord le traitement et la prophylaxie. En général, l'homme s'infectant le plus souvent par ingestion de viande contaminée par la forme kystique, forme ...

  18. Schistosomiasis and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertucci JR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospital-based series viral hepatitis B has been frequently described in association with schistosomiasis whilst in field-based studies the association has not been confirmed. The association between schistosomiasis and Salmonella bacteraemia has been well documented. More recently, acute schistosomiasis has been shown to be a facilitating factor in the genesis of pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus. New evidences indicate an interaction between the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and schistosomiasis. In this paper, data on the association of schistosomiasis with other infections are updated.

  19. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  20. Paediatric respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual "home". Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  1. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  2. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  3. Immunology of pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-07-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV's perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Viral Infection Model with a Nonlinear Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto JuanJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A viral infection model with a nonlinear infection rate is constructed based on empirical evidences. Qualitative analysis shows that there is a degenerate singular infection equilibrium. Furthermore, bifurcation of cusp-type with codimension two (i.e., Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is confirmed under appropriate conditions. As a result, the rich dynamical behaviors indicate that the model can display an Allee effect and fluctuation effect, which are important for making strategies for controlling the invasion of virus.

  5. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus.

  7. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms).

  8. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL. High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5% in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2% in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.

  9. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Srinidhi; You, Jianxin

    2017-08-18

    While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative. This review discusses not only the mechanisms underlying persistent HPV infection, but also the promise of immunomodulatory therapeutic vaccines and small-molecular inhibitors, which aim to augment the host immune response against the viral infection as well as obstruct critical viral-host interactions.

  11. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributab...

  12. Infection Control in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sta...

  13. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  14. Pulmonary infections in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, M Kyle; Hosey, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Despite their general high level of health, athletes are not free from the threat of developing pulmonary infection. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are important given the effects of pulmonary infection upon athletic performance and time away from training. This article reviews common etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia and a more in-depth discussion of mycoplasma pneumonie and influenza. Current treatment guidelines, acute bronchitis, fungal pulmonary infection, and return to play principles also are discussed.

  15. [Listeria monocytogenes in human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Madajczak, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The Listeria genus is distinguished into six species from which just one--Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic for humans. The main route of acquisition of Listeria is through the ingestion of contaminated food products. An important element of the L. monocytogenes pathogenesis infection is affiliation with high-risk group of immunocompromised patients, infants or pregnant women, who infected by this microorganism can lead to miscarriage. Listeriosis can appear in the form of sepsis, infection of the nervous system or local abscesses. Another form of listeriosis is gastrointestinal tract infection--noticed in case of food poisoning outbreak.

  16. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  18. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms.

  19. Catheter associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation.

  20. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  2. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  4. HIV and co-infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  5. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

  6. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  7. Murine model of rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N; Franco, M A; Greenberg, H B

    1997-01-01

    The murine model of homologous rotavirus infection has been used to study the determinants of protection. The local IgA immune response appears to be the critical factor in generating protective immunity after natural infection. A series of knockout mice were used to evaluate the contribution of T cells and B cells to immunity and resolution from primary infection. Both arms of immune system played a role in the resolution of primary infection but antibody was much more important for prevention of reinfection.

  8. NATURAL HISTORY OF HIV-INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH THE ROUTE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Denisenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural history of HIV infection in 91 vertically HIV infected patients and in 101 parenterally HIV infected children were investigated. High relative incidence rates regardless of the route of HIV transmission have demonstrated HIV-related symptoms — generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, underweight, anemia, prolonged unmotivated fever, and opportunistic infections — bacterial infections, candidiasis, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus infection. Vertically HIV infected children had higher relative incidence rates of HIV-related symptoms, opportunistic infections and generalized forms of opportunistic infections.

  9. (Penicillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment- experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 h of admission.

  10. [Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juliano Novaes; Ochiai, Marcelo Eidi; Oliveira, Múcio T; Morgado, Paulo; Munhoz, Robinson; Andretto, Fernanda E; Mansur, Alfredo José; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2005-07-01

    The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more easily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972. That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

  11. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  12. Zika virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Scholler, Amalie Skak; Buus, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has drawn worldwide attention due to its association to neurologic complications, particularly severe congenital malformations. While ZIKV can replicate efficiently and cause disease in human hosts, it fails to replicate to substantial titers...... mice by introducing the virus directly in the brain via intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation. In this way, the antigen is precisely placed at the site of interest, evading the first line of defense, and thus rendering the mice susceptible to infection. We found that, while intravenous (i.v.) inoculation...... of two different strains of WT mice with low doses of ZIKV does not result in viremia, it is nevertheless able to induce both cell-mediated and humoral immunity as well as clinical protection against subsequent i.c challenge with lethal doses of the virus. In order to determine the contribution of key...

  13. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  14. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  15. Dental biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    species at a site will build up and may eventually cause development of disease. Depending on local ecological factors, the composition of the dental biofilm may vary considerably. With access to excess carbohydrates, the dental biofilm will be dominated by mainly gram-positive carbohydrate...... and cause gingival inflammation and breakdown of supporting periodontal fibers and bone and ultimately tooth loss, i.e., gingivitis, chronic or aggressive periodontitis, and around dental implants, peri-implantitis. Furthermore, bacteria from the dental biofilm may spread to other parts of the body...... by bacteremia and cause systemic disease. Basically, prevention and treatment of dental biofilm infections are achieved by regular personal and professional removal of the dental biofilm....

  16. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M B; Skrede, S; Bruun, T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...... these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. METHODS: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian...... will be the largest prospective study in patients with NSTIs to date and will provide important data for clinicians, researchers and policy makers on the characteristics and outcomes of these patients....

  18. Nocardia veterana: disseminated infection with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisnel, Elodie; Roseau, Jean-Baptiste; Landais, Cécile; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Bussy, Emmanuel; Gaillard, Tiphaine

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Contraception and HIV / STD infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, G; Murrieta, S

    1994-01-01

    Copper-releasing IUDs cause severe dermatitis (e.g., urticarial eruptions and eczema) in copper-sensitive women. Such exposure of subcutaneous areas is a cofactor for HIV infection. The excessive menstrual bleeding that accompanies IUD use and absorption of virions and infected cells in the semen of HIV-infected males by IUD tails facilitates HIV infection. IUD tails have the highest concentration of HIV in infected women. HIV causes cervicitis in HIV-infected women. The cross reactivity between pelvic inflammatory disease (not rare among copper-IUD users) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increases the risk of HIV infection. Having multiple sex partners is a risk factor of HIV/STD infections. IUDs, diaphragms, latex condoms, and spermicides may cause an allergic reaction in men and women. Condoms made of lamb cecum are an option to men who are allergic to latex. The single greatest factor for HIV infections in Africa is chancroid. The sudden increase of syphilis in the US parallels the sudden increase in HIV transmission. Physicians need to consider the following before treating pregnant STD patients with an antibiotic: possible risk to fetus, altered kinetics and etiology of the STDs, and choice, dose, route, and duration of antibiotic treatment. Family planning services should focus on HIV-infected women, so they can avoid pregnancy. Many public health and family planning clinics offer counseling and HIV-antibody testing. Human semen has various subpopulations of leukocytes. Leukocytes that have enveloped sperm can take sperm antigens to the lymphatic system. The great individual variation in frequency of CD4+ lymphoid cells and monocytes/ macrophages is clinically important in infectivity of semen in HIV-positive men. T4+ lymphocytes are in the semen of fertile and infertile men. HIV carriers should wear condoms. Partial inactivation of HIV after 10 minutes in the condom at 37 degrees Celsius occurs, but inactivation varies by trademark.

  20. INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v brucei infection where for example tant components of extra-cellular the parasite infectivity potential and toxicological effects have been sues in animal. They are ... homeostasis (1,2, 3). With a unique ability to main- tain the cellular contents and ions stable concentrations, Trypano- soma b. brucei, to which humans.

  1. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  2. Renal infarct following varicella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal infarction usually occurs against a background of heart disease or a thromboembolic tendency and rarely is associated with infections. Here we present a case of a young boy who reported with painless gross hematuria following primary Varicella infection and was found to have an isolated renal infarct.

  3. THE HAEMATOLOGY OF HIV INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBVl-associated. However, in HIV, approximately half the patients are EBV-negative, indicating other mechanisms of lymphoma genesis.' This may be related to cytokine deregulation and infection of stromal cellslMVECs by HIV. Infected MVECs sustain lymphoma cells in culture better than uninfected ...

  4. Bacterial Infections Complicating Tongue Piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine HY Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk.

  5. Extracranial head and neck infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworsky, Denise; Reynolds, Steven; Chow, Anthony W

    2013-07-01

    This article outlines infections in the submandibular, lateral pharyngeal, retropharyngeal, danger, and prevertebral spaces, in conjunction with infections of the sinuses and mediastinum. By understanding the anatomy and pathophysiology, the reader will gain insight into the rationale for various therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skating Living With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  7. Ethical issues and HIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    his job if he is found to be HIV-infected. He also refuses to share the diagnosis of pneumocystis or the possibility of HIV infection with his wife. What are the doctor's responsibilities to the patient's wife and employer? Comment. The dilemma arises because of a conflict of duties which the medical practitioner experiences.

  8. Infection strategies of Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, van J.A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a ubiquitous filamentous fungal pathogen of a wide range of plant species. The fungus is able to infect all aerial parts of its host plants to a certain extent. Infection may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in the post-harvest phase (during cold storage or

  9. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...

  12. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  13. [Multiple myeloma in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanera, M; Menicagli, V

    1990-10-01

    The Authors describe a case of multiple myeloma in a patient with HIV infection: this is an exceptional observation in young people and in HIV seropositive patients. The marked proliferation of lymphocyte B polyclones, typically found in the advanced stages of HIV infection, could be a determining factor in the appearance of a malignant clone, causing the onset of multiple myeloma.

  14. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  15. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Kang, Guobin; Duan, Lijie; Lu, Wuxun; Katze, Michael G; Lewis, Mark G; Haase, Ashley T; Li, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  16. Infections and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skare, Thelma Larocca; Dagostini, Jéssica Scherer; Zanardi, Patricia Imai; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of infections in a population of systemic lupus erythematosus individuals and the characteristics of infections regarding original site, as well as to study the possible associations between infections and treatment. An analytical retrospective study using data from medical charts of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from a single university hospital. A total of 144 patients followed up for five years were included. Data collected comprised age of patients and age at onset of lupus, sex and ethnicity, disease duration before the study period, medications, cumulative dose of prednisone, occurrence of infections and their original site. The most frequent infections were urinary tract infections (correlated to use of prednisone - p<0.0001 and cyclophosphamide - p=0.045), upper airways infections (correlated to use of prednisone - p=0.0004, mycophenolate mofetil - p=0.0005, and cyclosporine - p=0.025), and pneumonia (associated to prednisone - p=0.017). Prednisone was the drug more often associated with presence of infections, pointing to the need for a more judicious management of this drug.

  17. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  18. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People with HIV/AIDS are ... such as the flu. You can help prevent infections by taking your HIV/AIDS medicines. Other things that can help include ...

  19. Sexually transmitted infections: challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unemo, Magnus; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Hocking, Jane S.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Francis, Suzanna C.; Mabey, David; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Hoornenborg, Elske; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Philip, Susan S.; Low, Nicola; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have

  20. Serological markers in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J. M.; Goudsmit, J.; de Wolf, F.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Noordaa, J.

    1988-01-01

    HIV antigenaemia can be detected at or possibly before the onset of clinical symptoms of primary HIV infection. Approximately one week after the onset of HIV antigenaemia, a primary anti-HIV IgM response may occur. A week later, generally within 3 to 6 weeks after infection, anti-HIV IgG can be

  1. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  2. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Infections After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581

  4. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  5. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due...... to multiple tolerance mechanisms (phenotypic resistance). This causes persistence of biofilm infections in spite of antibiotic exposure which predisposes to antibiotic resistance development (genetic resistance). Understanding the interplay between phenotypic and genetic resistance mechanisms acting...... on biofilms, as well as appreciating the diversity of environmental conditions of biofilm infections which influence the effect of antibiotics are required in order to optimize the antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections. Here, we review the current knowledge on phenotypic and genetic resistance...

  6. Dengue virus infection perturbs lipid homeostasis in infected mosquito cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushika Perera

    Full Text Available Dengue virus causes ∼50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  7. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  8. [Immunopathogenesis of Leishmania infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Pinar

    2005-07-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with a clinical and epidemiological diversity. Leishmaniasis remains a severe public health problem and its burden is increasing. The disease is caused by a parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. Approximately 350 billion people in 88 different countries are thought to be infected with Leishmania spp. Clinical forms of leishmaniasis are particularly diverse representing different diseases: visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), diffuse cutaneous (DCL) and muco-cutaneous (MCL) leishmaniasis. Being the most important determinant not only cellular immunity plays the essential role in the control of leishmaniasis, but the virulence, tropism and pathogenicity that is modulated by environmental and genetic factors of their mammalian hosts and sandfly vectors, are the key interactions. These eukaryotic pathogens have evolved with the vertebrate immune system and typically produce long lasting chronic infections. A critical step in their host interaction is the evasion of innate immune defenses. The ability to avoid attack by humoral effector mechanisms, such as complement lysis, and to resist killing by lysosomal enzymes and toxic metabolytes is of particular importance. They do so by remodelling the phagosomal compartments in which they reside and by interfering with signalling pathways that lead to cellular activation. In addition they modify the antigen presenting and immunoregulatory functions of dendritic cells, a process that fascilitates their evasion of both innate and adaptive immunity. Experimental animal studies revealed that these modifications and interference mechanisms led to two different pathogenesis schemes. For CL, the polarization of Th2/Th1 cells is responsible for the progression of the disease which than leads to the chronic-persistant state. The Th2/Th1 paradigm does not apply for visceral leishmaniasis. Immunosupression rather than polarization is responsible for the systemic and progressive outcome of

  9. Fosfomycin i.v. for Treatment of Severely Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial

  10. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection through the Oral Route Promotes a Severe Infection in Mice: New Disease Form from an Old Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto-de-Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva-dos-Santos, Danielle; P?rez, Ana Rosa; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; de Santana-van-Vliet, Eliane; Farias-de-Oliveira, D?sio Aur?lio; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Roggero, Eduardo; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carla Eponina; Jurberg, Jos?; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vin?cius; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; de Meis, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been documented in Latin American countries. Nevertheless, significant studies on the pathophysiology of this form of infection are largely lacking. The few studies investigating oral route infection disregard that inoculation in the oral cavity (Oral infection, OI) or by gavage (Gastrointestinal infection, GI) represent different infection routes, yet both show clear-cut parasitemia and heart parasitism during the acute infection. Herein, BALB/c mice w...

  12. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  13. HIV infection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseniou, Stylianos; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Major depression is highly prevalent among HIV-positive patients (HIVpp). The prevalence of depression ranges between 18% and 81%, depending on the population studied and the methodology of the study. The etiology of depression in HIVpp is likely determined by: (i) biological factors (alterations in the white matter structure, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid dysfunction, Tat-protein-induced depressive behavior); (ii) psychosocial factors (HIV stigma, occupational disability, body image changes, isolation and debilitation); (iii) history or comorbidity of psychiatric illness; and (iv) the perinatal period in HIVpp women. Symptomatology of depression differs between HIVpp and HIV-negative patients (HIVnp). Depression may also alter the function of lymphocytes in HIVpp and decrease natural killer cell activity, contributing to the increased mortality in these patients. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are considered the first-line treatment. Treatment of depression can improve quality of life and lead to a better prognosis of HIV infection. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. Hypertension and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balt, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    As persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) live longer, primary health care and comorbidity issues have come to the forefront. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension can affect a number of other comorbid conditions, including metabolic syndrome, lipid abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Literature specific to hypertension and HIV is limited and most often presented in theory-based, rather than empirically based, articles, with hypertension-specific information presented in small sections of articles on cardiovascular disease. A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate current research evidence to determine prevalence of hypertension in PLWH and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-related and traditional risk factors. Evidence surrounding the cause and effect of HIV and ART on hypertension is conflicting and inconclusive; however, the importance of hypertension diagnosis and treatment is clear. Evidence supports use of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension Guidelines when treating PLWH. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. INFECTIONS IN THALASSEMIA AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Ricerca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.

  18. Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive

  19. Standard principles for preventing and controlling infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, C; Straub, M

    Infection control is a priority for all nurses and healthcare staff. This article examines factors contributing to current healthcare-associated infection rates and outlines the main strategies for infection prevention, management and control.

  20. Chronic Bladder Infection: Is There a Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman and I've had a chronic bladder infection for four years. My doctor keeps giving ... factors make women more likely to get recurrent bladder infections, a type of urinary tract infection (UTI). ...

  1. Salvage of Infected Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Ho Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Implant-based breast reconstruction is being performed more frequently, and implants are associated with an increased risk of infection. We reviewed the clinical features of cases of implant infection and investigated the risk factors for breast device salvage failure. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 771 patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction between January 2010 and December 2016. Age, body mass index, chemotherapy history, radiation exposure, and smoking history were assessed as potential risk factors for postoperative infection. We also evaluated the presence and onset of infection symptoms, wound culture pathogens, and other complications, including seroma, hematoma, and mastectomy skin necrosis. Additionally, we examined the mastectomy type, the use of acellular dermal matrix, the presence of an underlying disease such as hypertension or diabetes, and axillary node dissection. Results The total infection rate was 4.99% (58 of 1,163 cases and the total salvage rate was 58.6% (34 of 58. The postoperative duration to closed suction drain removal was significantly different between the cellulitis and implant removal groups. Staphylococcus aureus infection was most frequently found, with methicillin resistance in 37.5% of the cases of explantation. Explantation after infection was performed more often in patients who had undergone 2-stage expander/implant reconstruction than in those who had undergone direct-to-implant reconstruction. Conclusions Preventing infection is essential in implant-based breast reconstruction. The high salvage rate argues against early implant removal. However, when infection is due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and the patient’s clinical symptoms do not improve, surgeons should consider implant removal.

  2. Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-21

    Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections

  3. Systematic Search for Primary Immunodeficiency in Adults With Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Complement Deficiency; Antibody Deficiency; Chronic Sinus Infection; Meningitis, Bacterial; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Otitis Media; Streptococcal Infection; Neisseria Infections; Haemophilus Influenza; Pneumococcal Infections

  4. Intraabdominal Infections in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ana; Johanning, Jason Michael

    2016-08-01

    Intraabdominal infections represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the elderly population. Atypical presentations, diagnostic delays, additional comorbidities, and decreased physiologic reserve contribute to high morbidity and mortality, particularly among frail patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. While many infections are the result of age-related inflammatory, mechanical, or obstructive processes, infectious complications of feeding tubes are also common. The pillars of treatment are source control of the infection and judicious use of antibiotics. A patient-centered approach considering the invasiveness, risk, and efficacy of a procedure for achieving the desired outcomes is recommended. Structured communication and time-limited trials help ensure goal-concordant treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T

    1996-01-01

    Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning....... Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection...

  6. Prediction of eyespot infection risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Váòová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.

  7. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thrombocytosis in pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaurie, Maadhava

    2004-09-01

    Thrombocytopenia has been extensively reported in association with HIV infection. Twenty-four children (6%) from a cohort of 400 children with platelet counts >500,000/mm(3) were reviewed. All had symptomatic disease and 10 (42%) patients died. In 4 children the platelet count exceeded 700,000/mm(3) and in 1 patient the platelet count was 1.5 million/mm(3). There were no thrombotic complications, and no specific therapy was required for the thrombocytosis. Thus HIV-1 infection, a chronic viral infection, is another etiologic agent for thrombocytosis and is associated with severe disease.

  9. Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising.

  10. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  11. Intervention for Postpartum Infections Following Caesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    Surgical Wound Infection; Infection; Cesarean Section; Cesarean Section; Dehiscence; Complications; Cesarean Section; Complications; Cesarean Section, Wound, Dehiscence; Wound; Rupture, Surgery, Cesarean Section

  12. Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Page Content Article Body Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are bacterial infections that are ...

  13. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... also want to stay away from foods and drinks that contain caffeine , such as cola or tea. ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... these questions and share your answers with your mom or dad: Does it hurt or sting when ... bladder infection, so based on your answers, your mom or dad may decide to call your doctor ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Get When Cancer Keeps You Home What's the Right Weight for Me? How Can I Feel Better ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe ... More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  20. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger Vesterager; Petersen, Mikkel Steen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire...... on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Search Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking Staying Safe Health ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ...

  4. Infections in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Santiago, Enrique; Albillos Martínez, Agustín; López-Sanromán, Antonio

    2017-05-10

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease constitute a population with a special predisposition to develop bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Iatrogenic immunosuppression, frequent contact with healthcare facilities and surgical interventions are some of the risk factors that explain why these infections are one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in this disease. Some of these infections follow a subtle and paucisymptomatic evolution; their diagnosis and management may become a real challenge for the attending physician if their screening is not systematized or they are not considered in the differential diagnosis. The objective of this review is to provide an update from a practical and concise perspective on the knowledge regarding the epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the most common infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T solium) . ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... a Bully? What You Need to Know About Drugs The Flu: Should You Go to School? Breast ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder ... ureters and climb up into a kidney. This type of UTI is called pyelonephritis (say: pie-eh- ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... You'll also want to stay away from foods and drinks that contain caffeine , such as cola ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Work? Is Dieting OK for Kids? What's the Right Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs Urinary ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... choose to send the urine sample to a lab for testing. If it turns out you have ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things ...

  14. Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Buruli ulcer ( Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) Fact sheetUpdated February 2017 Key facts Buruli ulcer is a chronic debilitating disease caused by Mycobacterium ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Living With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > ... If they aren't wiped away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they ...

  17. The biogeography of polymicrobial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Apollo; McNally, Luke; Darch, Sophie E.; Brown, Sam P.; Whiteley, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities are spatially organized in both the environment and the human body. Although patterns exhibited by these communities are described by microbial biogeography this discipline has previously only considered large-scale, global patterns. By contrast, the fine-scale positioning of a pathogen within an infection site can greatly alter its virulence potential. In this Review, we highlight the importance of considering spatial positioning in the study of polymicrobial infections and discuss targeting biogeography as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:26714431

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, Nicolas; Bontems, Patrick; Raymond, Josette

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in children differs from that in adults, from the point of view of epidemiology, host response, clinical features, related diseases, and diagnosis, as well as treatment strategies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection, in both children and adults, is decreasing in the Western World as well as in some developing countries, which contrasts with the increase in childhood asthma and allergic diseases. Recurrent abdominal pain is not specific during H. pylori infection in children. The role of H. pylori infection and failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease remains controversial. The main initial diagnosis is based on upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Nodular gastritis may be a pathognomonic endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection. The infection eradication control is based on validated noninvasive tests. The main cause of treatment failure of H. pylori infection is its clarithromycin resistance. We recommend standard antibiotic susceptibility testing of H. pylori in pediatric patients prior to the initiation of eradication therapy. H. pylori treatment in children should be based on an evaluation of the rate of eradication in the local population, a systematic use of a treatment adapted to the susceptibility profile and a treatment compliance greater than 90%. The last meta-analysis in children did not show an advantage for sequential therapy when compared to a 14-day triple therapy. Finally, the high rate of antibiotic resistance responsible for therapy failure in recent years justifies the necessity of a novel vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection in children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  20. Heterologous Infection During Chagas' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Cossi Isasi, S.

    2007-05-01

    Human populations are often infected with more than one parasite strain. This is frequently the case with ChagasŠ disease, which is endemic to large regions of Latin America. In the present work we study the dynamics of the heterologous infection for this disease, using a model for the interaction between the trypanosoma cruzi parasite and the immune system. We find the dependence of the nature of the post-acute stage on the parameters characterizing the inoculated infectious strains.

  1. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due to multiple tolerance mechanisms (phenotypic resistance). This causes persistence of biofilm infections in spite of antibiotic exposure which predisposes to antibiotic resistance development (genetic resistance). Understanding the interplay between phenotypic and genetic resistance mechanisms acting on biofilms, as well as appreciating the diversity of environmental conditions of biofilm infections which influence the effect of antibiotics are required in order to optimize the antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections. Here, we review the current knowledge on phenotypic and genetic resistance in biofilms and describe the potential strategies for the antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections. Of note is the optimization of PK/PD parameters in biofilms, high-dose topical treatments, combined and sequential/alternate therapies or the use antibiotic adjuvants. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Odontogenic infections: Microbiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Bahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the involvement of fascial spaces, their bacteriology, sensitivity to antibiotics and management of odontogenic infection in 100 patients of age less than 60 years. Results: The mandibular 3 rd molar was found to be the most commonly offending tooth, followed by the mandibular 2 nd molar. The submandibular space was the most frequently involved fascial space both in single fascial space infections and multiple fascial space infections. Mixed growth (aerobic and anaerobic was seen in culture smears of 60 patients, only aerobic bacterial growth was seen in 25 patients and anaerobic bacterial growth was seen in culture smears of 15 patients. Streptococcus viridans was the most frequently isolated bacteria among the aerobes, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were the most common bacterial species among anaerobes. Empirical antibiotic therapy in the form of Co amoxiclav and Metronidazole was given. Incision and drainage followed by extraction of the offending tooth/teeth was carried out. Conclusion: It was concluded that odontogenic infections were mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were necessary to isolate all pathogens. Successful management of these infections depends on changing the environment through decompression, removal of the etiologic factor and by choosing the proper antibiotic.

  3. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  4. Protective cellular responses to Burkholderia mallei infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline A; Lever, M Stephen; Griffin, Kate F; Bancroft, Gregory J; Lukaszewski, Roman A

    2010-10-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative bacillus causing the disease glanders in humans. During intraperitoneal infection, BALB/c mice develop a chronic disease characterised by abscess formation where mice normally die up to 70 days post-infection. Although cytokine responses have been investigated, cellular immune responses to B. mallei infection have not previously been characterised. Therefore, the influx and activation status of splenic neutrophils, macrophages and T cells was examined during infection. Gr-1+ neutrophils and F4/80+ macrophages infiltrated the spleen 5 h post-infection and an increase in activated macrophages, neutrophils and T cells occurred by 24 h post-infection. Mice depleted of Gr-1+ cells were acutely susceptible to B. mallei infection, succumbing to the infection 5 days post-infection. Mice depleted of both CD4 and CD8 T cells did not succumb to the infection until 14 days post-infection. Infected μMT (B cell) and CD28 knockout mice did not differ from wildtype mice whereas iNOS-2 knockout mice began to succumb to the infection 30 days post-infection. The data presented suggests that Gr-1+ cells, activated early in B. mallei infection, are essential for controlling the early, innate response to B. mallei infection and T cells or nitric oxide are important during the later stages of infection. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Prevention of bacterial infections in immunocompromised hosts, excluding HIV infection and mycobacterium infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, G

    1997-01-01

    The immunocompromised host is an individual whose defense mechanisms against infectious agents are altered in such a significant way that he is abnormally susceptible to infections agents in general and bacterial "opportunists" in particular. The type of infection and etiologic agents vary with the nature and the severity of the immune defect. The goal of prophylactic treatments is to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of infections, and so, to reduce the infectious morbidity and mortality when the nature of severity of immunosuppression make these complications probable. Beside specific measures, which are detailed in this article, the strict application of the so-called universal precautions, particularly handwashing, remain at the basis of the prevention of bacterial infections in the immunocompromised host.

  6. Relapse, re-infection and mixed infections in tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, Amanda; Koornhof, Hendrik; Kana, Bavesh Davandra

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed-strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world. The occurrence of recurrent TB was associated with a higher prevalence of mixed-strain infections, but this difference was not reported as statistically significant. These interpretations were limited by differences in the design and overall size of the studies assessed. Factors such as sputum quality, culture media, number of repeated culture steps, molecular typing methods and HIV-infection status can affect the detection of mixed-strain infection. It is recommended that future clinical studies should focus on settings with varying TB burdens, with a common sample processing protocol to gain further insight into these phenomena and develop novel transmission blocking strategies. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nosocomial infections and infection control in regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Stübner, S; Pottinger, J M; Coffin, S A; Herwaldt, L A

    2008-09-01

    Although rare, infectious complications from regional anesthesia and analgesia can be devastating. The literature on this topic consists primarily of surveys, case reports, case series, and studies in which used supplies were cultured. We derived infection control recommendations from the existing literature and compared these recommendations with existing guidelines. Structured literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, including old MEDLINE and EMBASE until 2005. Descriptive statistics were cited when applicable. Incidence rates for infectious complications vary substantially between studies and range from 3.7 to 7.2/100,000 for spinal anesthesia-associated meningitis and from 0.2 to 83/100,000 for epidural anesthesia-associated epidural abscesses. Few comprehensive prospective trials have been conducted and most case reports do not provide complete information about infection control practices. Studies using more robust methods are necessary to define the rates of infection after different regional anesthesia procedures and to identify risk factors for infections. Data on risk factors would allow anesthesiologists to develop evidence-based guidelines for placement and care of catheters used for regional anesthesia. A multicenter surveillance system may help anesthesiologists address some of the unanswered questions and to develop evidence-based infection control recommendations.

  8. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.

  9. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  10. INFECTIONS IN THALASSEMIA AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.

  11. Helminth infections induce immunomodulation : consequences and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, Petronella Helena van

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well

  12. CANDIDURIA AMONG HIV- INFECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colonization and infection or between upper or lower urinary tract infections. Objective: This study focused on determining the spectrum of Candida species implicated in candiduria among HIV-infected individuals and their susceptibility to .... found in urine of neonates and is usually associated with systemic infection in this ...

  13. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  14. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Discussion. Helicobacter pylori-infection -infection causes acute gastritis in most infected individuals. In a certain number of patients with persistent infection, chronic active gastritis develops, leading finally to glandular atrophy, a risk factor for gastric adenoma and cancer7 . Correa 19928 postulated the paradigm of gastric.

  16. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  17. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  18. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL...... syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P HIV-1 and early...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P

  19. HBV-Infection and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matejko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, the problem of HBV-infection in pregnant women remains relevant and one of the most important for medical science and health care, as it can be considered as a maternal-fetal infection. The aim of the research is to investigate the course of HBV-infection in pregnant women, depending on the duration of the disease, the degree of viremia and the activity of hepatitis, taking into account gestational periods. Materials and methods. The course of pregnancy in 142 women aged 18-35 years with HBV-infection was monitored. Serum markers and viral load (VL of hepatitis B (HB were determined, as well as the levels of ALT, AST, thymol test, serum bilirubin levels during each trimester of pregnancy. Results. In pregnant women with HBV-infection, HBsAg-carriage was most often diagnosed, and the replication stages were less frequent (96 and 46, respectively. Clinical picture of the immune-active phase of chronic HBV-infection was oligosymptomatic without violation of pigment metabolism and manifestations of mesenchymal-inflammatory reaction. The minimal degree of cytolysis prevailed, which did not depend on the degree of the viremia. In women with immune-tolerant phase of cytolysis during pregnancy was not observed. In pregnant women with replication stage of HBV-infection and low degree of viremia, the VL increased at 1-2 log compared to the second and third trimesters, and in women with high viremia – at 2-3 log. In most women-carriers of HBsAg moderate degree of viremia predominated, and in the rest – it was not determined. During the entire pregnancy, the immune-tolerant phase of chronic HBV-infection was latent and did not transform into the immune-active phase. Conclusion. Thus, the diagnosis of chronic HBV-infection was verified before pregnancy in 2.8 %, and during pregnancy – in 97.2 % of women. Carriage of HBsAg prevailed in them (67.6 %, and replicative forms were registered in 32.4 % of patients. The peculiarity of replicative

  20. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  1. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  2. [Mold infections in lung transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Amparo; Ussetti, Piedad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections by molds, mainly Aspergillus infections, account for more than 10% of infectious complications in lung transplant recipients. These infections have a bimodal presentation: an early one, mainly invading bronchial airways, and a late one, mostly focused on lung or disseminated. The Aspergillus colonization at any time in the post-transplant period is one of the major risk factors. Late colonization, together with chronic rejection, is one of the main causes of late invasive forms. A galactomannan value of 0.5 in bronchoalveolar lavage is currently considered a predictive factor of pulmonary invasive infection. There is no universal strategy in terms of prophylaxis. Targeted prophylaxis and preemptive treatment instead of universal prophylaxis, are gaining more followers. The therapeutic drug monitoring level of azoles is highly recommended in the treatment. Monotherapy with voriconazole is the treatment of choice in invasive aspergillosis; combined antifungal therapies are only recommended in severe, disseminated, and other infections due to non-Aspergillus molds. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal models of orthopoxvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J L; Nichols, D K; Martinez, M J; Raymond, J W

    2010-09-01

    Smallpox was one of the most devastating diseases known to humanity. Although smallpox was eradicated through a historically successful vaccination campaign, there is concern in the global community that either Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, or another species of Orthopoxvirus could be used as agents of bioterrorism. Therefore, development of countermeasures to Orthopoxvirus infection is a crucial focus in biodefense research, and these efforts rely on the use of various animal models. Smallpox typically presented as a generalized pustular rash with 30 to 40% mortality, and although smallpox-like syndromes can be induced in cynomolgus macaques with VARV, research with this virus is highly restricted; therefore, animal models with other orthopoxviruses have been investigated. Monkeypox virus causes a generalized vesiculopustular rash in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques and induces fatal systemic disease in several rodent species. Ectromelia virus has been extensively studied in mice as a model of orthopoxviral infection in its natural host. Intranasal inoculation of mice with some strains of vaccinia virus produces fatal bronchopneumonia, as does aerosol or intranasal inoculation of mice with cowpox virus. Rabbitpox virus causes pneumonia and fatal systemic infections in rabbits and can be naturally transmitted between rabbits by an aerosol route similar to that of VARV in humans. No single animal model recapitulates all known aspects of human Orthopoxvirus infections, and each model has its advantages and disadvantages. This article provides a brief review of the Orthopoxvirus diseases of humans and the key pathologic features of animal models of Orthopoxvirus infections.

  4. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra; Gray, Matthew; Storfer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry) contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease) than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs. PMID:22163349

  5. Chlamydial eye infections: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Satpathy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1.9 million people. India is one of the five countries with nearly half of total active trachoma patients. Introduction of Global Elimination of Trachoma 2020 program by the WHO, using SAFE strategy (surgery for trachomatous trichiasis; Antibiotics for C. trachomatis; Facial cleanliness; and environmental improvement greatly reduced the prevalence, but trachoma still persists in India. Global increase in the reproductive tract infection by C. trachomatis urogenital serotypes (D-K has led to concurrent increase in C. trachomatis eye infections. Therefore, kerato eye infections due to chlamydial infections continue to be seen in hospitals. Over the years, there have been advances in laboratory diagnostics, in understanding the pathogenesis, tissue tropism, C. trachomatis genomics, and treatment modalities. Due attention and research is still needed for the study of C. trachomatis eye infections.

  6. Infection control in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus have all been shown to spread between patients with CF. Standard precautions, transmission-based precautions including contact and droplet precautions, appropriate hand hygiene for health care workers, patients, and their families, and care of respiratory tract equipment to prevent the transmission of infectious agents serve as the foundations of infection control and prevent the acquisition of potential pathogens by patients with CF. The respiratory secretions of all CF patients potentially harbor clinically and epidemiologically important microorganisms, even if they have not yet been detected in cultures from the respiratory tract. CF patients should be educated to contain their secretions and maintain a distance of >3 ft from other CF patients to avoid the transmission of potential pathogens, even if culture results are unavailable or negative. To prevent the acquisition of pathogens from respiratory therapy equipment used in health care settings as well as in the home, such equipment should be cleaned and disinfected. It will be critical to measure the dissemination, implementation, and potential impact of these guidelines to monitor changes in practice and reduction in infections.

  7. Infection control in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, P; Pittet, D

    2001-12-01

    Nosocomial infections (NIs) now concern 5 to 15% of hospitalized patients and can lead to complications in 25 to 33% of those patients admitted to ICUs. The most common causes are pneumonia related to mechanical ventilation, intra-abdominal infections following trauma or surgery, and bacteremia derived from intravascular devices. This overview is targeted at ICU physicians to convince them that the principles of infection control in the ICU are based on simple concepts and that the application of preventive strategies should not be viewed as an administrative or constraining control of their activity but, rather, as basic measures that are easy to implement at the bedside. A detailed knowledge of the epidemiology, based on adequate surveillance methodologies, is necessary to understand the pathophysiology and the rationale of preventive strategies that have been demonstrated to be effective. The principles of general preventive measures such as the implementation of standard and isolation precautions, and the control of antibiotic use are reviewed. Specific practical measures, targeted at the practical prevention and control of ventilator-associated pneumonia, sinusitis, and bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections are detailed. Recent data strongly confirm that these strategies may only be effective over prolonged periods if they can be integrated into the behavior of all staff members who are involved in patient care. Accordingly, infection control measures are to be viewed as a priority and have to be integrated fully into the continuous process of improvement of the quality of care.

  8. [Multipurpose treatment of vaginal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A; Masseva, A; Shopova, E; Georgiev, S

    2012-01-01

    Untreated bacterial vaginosis is related with many complications for non-pregnant women in reproductive age, most common from them are vaginal discharge and postoperative infections. The aim of our investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic regimes which consist in Macmiror/Macmiror Complex alone and in combination with Feminella Vagi C for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or mycotic infection. 117 non-pregnant women with symptoms of vaginal infection were prospectively enrolled into two groups according their treatment. First group consist 66 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules followed with local application of Feminella Vagi C, the second group consist 54 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules only. The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms was observed at the end of medication and 20 days after it. Microbiological testing was repeated 20 days after treatment. Over than 80% (78.6 divided by 86.7%) of the cases with vaginal infection (BV and mycotic one) were successfully treated with Macmiror/Macmiror Complex. Supplement treatment with Feminella Vagi C lead to higher percentage of clinically recovery (86.7% vs 84.6%), better microbiological cleaning (86.7% vs 82.1%) and longer effect of treatment. Used medication showed higher efficacy against BV than to fungal infection. According obtained results we may conclude that bacterial vaginosis was better treated with multipurpose treatment (Nifuratel, Nistatin and vit. C) than with Macmiror alone.

  9. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun Ju; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  10. [Bacterial infections in children with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, G; Navarrete-Navarro, S; Samudio-Domínguez, G; Vallejo-Aguilar, O; Santos-Preciado, J I

    1992-09-01

    The importance of bacterial infections in children with AIDS was emphasized when they were included within the CDC classification system for children under 13 years of age infected with the HIV. The information available in Mexico on frequency, types of infections and causative agents is scarce. In this study, the frequency and microbiology of bacterial infections in children with AIDS seen at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez is reported. From September 1985 to December 1991, we found 72 HIV infected children, 6 were classified P0, 6 as asymptomatic (P1) and 60 as symptomatic infections (P2). From this last group, 50 were secondarily infected with bacteria; there was a total of 129 episodes of bacterial infections, averaging 2.5 episodes per patient. Respiratory infections were the most frequent (74.41%), followed by septicemia (10.07%), skin and underlying tissue infections (6.96%) and urinary tract infections (6.17%). Infections of the CNS and deep abscesses were less frequent. Overall mortality rate was 76%, however only in 18 children (36%) was it directly attributed to the bacterial infections. Etiology was documented in 46 episodes (33.65%) of which 30 (65.31%) were gram-negative bacteria and 16 (34.78%) were gram-positive. The best possible methodology must be used for the etiologic diagnosis of bacterial infections in children with AIDS in order to select the most appropriate treatment for severe or recurrent bacterial infections.

  11. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  12. Chronic Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Søballe, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Limited information is available regarding the treatment strategy and prognosis of non-selected patients treated for chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection. Such information is important as no head-to-head studies on treatment strategies are available. The purpose of this study...... is to report on the treatment strategy and prognosis of a non-selected, consecutive patient population. METHODS: We identified 130 patients in the National Patient Registry, consecutively treated for a chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection between 2003-2008 at 11 departments of orthopaedic surgery. We...... chart review with a minimum of 5 years follow-up by the nationwide electronic patient record system. RESULTS: After primary revision surgery, 53 patients (41%) had a spacer in situ, 64 (50%) had a resection arthroplasty and 13 (9%) did not have the infected implant removed. 63% were re...

  13. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  14. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  15. [Temocillin and urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, M; Bruyère, F; Roblot, F; Brureau, L

    2017-10-01

    Temocillin is an alternative to treat urinary tract infections with bacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The objective is to evaluate the use of temocillin in urinary tract infections. A systematic review of literature was carried out according to PRISMA criteria. All national and international recommendations have been reviewed regarding the indication of the use of temocillin in urology. Data collection on the use of temocillin in urinary tract infection has been performed from the Cochrane, LILACS and the Medline database. The following keywords were used: temocillin, extended spectrum beta-lactamase, urinary tract infections, urine, prostate, epididymis, testis, diffusion, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics. The selection was based on the methodology, language of publication (English/French), relevance to the topic and date of publication of the articles collected. The endpoint was to provide exhaustive scientific information allowing urologists to use this antibiotic in febrile urinary infections. Bacteria producing ESBL has a relatively high susceptible to temocillin, ranging from 61 % to 90 %. These rates would allow its use in probabilistic. The dosage recommended is currently, in the normo-renal patient, 4g per day by intermittent infusion or continuously after a loading dose of 2g. Some studies argue, particularly in case of difficult clinical situations or obese patients, for administration of high doses (6g/24h) rather continuous infusion. There is no evident relationship between high doses and side effects. With an excellent urinary and prostatic diffusion, temocilllin might be recommend for the treatment of ESBL prostatitis. Temocillin is known to have good urinary and prostatic diffusion. According to our results, this antibiotics is now a reliable alternative for the treatment of documented ESBL urinary tract infections. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Diagnosis of periprosthetic hip infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann, C M; Schütze, N; Rudert, M

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic infection requires a clear definition itself and structured procedure concerning anamnesis, clinical examination, laboratory findings, puncture and imaging diagnostics. The clinical presentation may vary considerable due to the time of their occurrence as early, delayed, or late infection. Recognition of risk factors and knowledge of differential diagnoses facilitate and confirm the diagnosis. The synovial fluid is assessed with regard to leukocyte count, protein content, and glucose. Intraoperative tissue specimen sampling has to be performed correctly; the histopathological and microbiological studies must be assessed using specific criteria. The examination and classification of periprosthetic membranes make discrimination of the causal pathological mechanism possible, especially distinction between septic and aseptic loosening. In this manner statements with regard to etiology and prosthesis durability are possible. Different causative microorganisms appear postoperatively at specific times. Pathogens that grow as biofilms are of great significance, as they may compound diagnosis and therapy. Early infections are often caused by virulent microorganisms (S. aureus) with acute onset. Delayed (low grade) infections are usually caused by less virulent microorganisms, such as S. epidermidis or coagulase-negative staphylococci. Many diagnostic imaging methods have been used in the assessment of periprosthetic infection: plain radiographs, arthrography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Nuclear medicine with bone scintigraphy or positron-emission tomography enhance diagnostic capabilities. Cultures of samples obtained by sonication of prostheses are more sensitive than conventional periprosthetic tissue culture. Multiplex PCR of sonication fluid is a promising test for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. The promising diagnostic accuracy for interleukin-6 and procalcitonin has yet not been

  17. Postoperative infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Yusuf; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Van Thiel, David H

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the impairments of immune function present and the type as well as frequency of infections seen in individuals with advanced liver disease is presented. Where data are available, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent these complications is identified. Physicians and surgeons caring for individuals with advanced liver disease need to be aware of these issues and be vigilant to the recognition, early detection and aggressive treatment of infections in patients with advanced liver disease and particularly cirrhosis of any etiology.

  18. Rothia prosthetic knee joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manish N; Malhotra, Prashant

    2015-08-01

    Rothia species - Gram-positive pleomorphic bacteria that are part of the normal oral and respiratory flora - are commonly associated with dental cavities and periodontal disease although systemic infections have been described. We describe a 53-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis complicated by prosthetic knee joint infection due to Rothia species, which was successfully treated by surgical removal of prosthesis and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. The issue of antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures among patients with prosthetic joint replacements is discussed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies...... with extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course...... of a number of other diseases including DM and rheumatoid arthritis have been associated wish periodontitis, but more research is necessary to elucidate possible pathogenic interactions....

  20. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  1. Precipitating antibodies in mycoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menonna, J; Chmel, H; Menegus, M; Dowling, P; Cook, S

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) for detecting human precipitating antibodies to mcyoplasma antigen was compared with the conventional complement fixation (CF) method in a double-blind experiment. Fifty-one sera from patients suspected of having acute mycoplasma infection were tested by both techniques. Dense precipitin lines to mycoplasma antigen developed in 28 sera with CIEP. Twenty-six of 28 had elevated CF titers to this antigen. No precipitin bands were observed in sera with low antibody titers to mycoplasma. These findings indicate that the CIEP test is a specific method for reliably detecting elevated serum CF antibody levels in patients with acute or recent mycoplasma infection. PMID:328527

  2. Intrauterine Infection and Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Monga

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth remains the leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Evidence suggests that intrauterine infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. This article reviews the clinical data supporting this theory and the cellular and biochemical mechanisms by which intrauterine infection may initiate uterine contractions. The clinical and laboratory methods of diagnosing clinical chorioamnionitis and asymptomatic bacterial invasion of the intraamniotic cavity are also reviewed. Finally, the management of clinical chorioamnionitis and asymptomatic microbial invasion of the amniotic fluid and the use of adjunctive antibiotic therapy in the treatment of preterm labor are presented.

  3. Severe neonatal parechovirus infection and similarity with enterovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.; Krediet, Tannette G.; Gerards, Leo J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; van Loon, Anton M.

    Background: Enteroviruses (EV) are an important cause of neonatal disease including hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, and myocarditis that can lead to death or severe long-term sequelae. Less is known about severe neonatal infection caused by the parechoviruses (PeV) of which type 1 (PeV1) and type 2

  4. Prevalence of HepatitisB virus infections among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Kenya Medical Research Institute HBV Laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya Subjects: A total of four hundred HIV infected patients randomised from a Nairobi HIV comprehensive care centre between June and October 2015. Results: Of the 400 subjects screened; (27.75%) had HBV immunisation, (3%) had acute disease, ...

  5. Nosocomial infections: urinary tract infection in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of studying the pattern of urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling urinary catheter in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, a total of 164 patients were recruited. A questionnaire was administered to each pateint to provide information on demographic data, clinical diagnosis, and symptoms and signs ...

  6. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Lar- vae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vet. J., 2014, 18 (2), 71-81 ther research is recommended to determine the impact of multiple-species habitat ... to be reservoir hosts of helminth infections than wild species (Cook et al., 1979;. Richardson and Demarias .... coincidentally there was also a positive relationship, Regression statistics. (R²=0.6696) between total ...

  7. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun ju; Lee, Su jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. Results A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Conclusion Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age. PMID:27548632

  8. [Streptococcus pyogenes infection in paediatrics: from pharyngotonsillitis to invasive infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadas Maciá, David; Flor Macián, Eva María; Borrás, Rafael; Poujois Gisbert, Sandrine; Muñoz Bonet, Juan Ignacio

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococci (GAS) cause many infections in infancy. Changes in its epidemiology have been described in recent years, including an increase in invasive infections (iGAS). A retrospective-descriptive study was conducted on children less than 15 years old, with GAS infections, in particular iGAS, and their complications from February 2004-April 2014. A total of 2,192 positive cultures were obtained of which 92.7% were pharyngeal cultures. Twenty-nine patients were admitted to hospital: 4 with suppurative complications, 7 post-infective, 14 iGAS, and 4 probable iGAS cases. There were no differences in the frequency of GAS isolations/year. Non-invasive isolates were more frequent in winter and spring (P<.001), and 68.3% were in patients younger than 5 years. The incidence of iGAS was 2.1/100,000 children/year. There was no seasonality, and it was more frequent in younger children (P=.039). The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (6/14). Eight patients required intensive care. They were treated empirically with second or third-generation cephalosporin or with intravenous penicillin, and pneumonia required longer treatment times (P=.016). All GAS isolates were sensitive to penicillin, and 10.6% were resistant to erythromycin. The time spent in hospital was longer for iGAS than other cases (P=.028). No patients died. Pharyngotonsillitis caused by GAS is common in childhood, and its incidence is increasing in children younger than 5 years. At the moment, post-infectious complications are rare. Invasive infections are the most severe forms of presentation, and are more common in younger children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone and Joint Infections in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Simon C; Edwards, Paul K

    2016-08-01

    Bone and joint infections in the elderly patient include septic native joints, osteomyelitis, and prosthetic joint infection. Infections are difficult to treat and require a team approach. Surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics are the keys to treatment. Prosthetic joint infections often need a two-stage approach to treatment. First the infected joint is removed and the infection treated, then a second prosthetic joint is placed. Prosthetic joint infection is becoming the most common complication after joint replacement surgery. Outcomes of treatment of bone and joint infections are related to the severity of the infection and condition of the host. Because the elderly are often frail, treatment is challenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, A U; Loh, S F; Morris, T; Hughes, H; Dixon, J M; Helgason, K O

    2015-10-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Phnom Penh and Pursat, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879

  12. Factors Associated with Acquisition of Human Infective and Animal Infective Trypanosome Infections in Domestic Livestock in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wissmann, Beatrix; Machila, Noreen; Picozzi, Kim; Fèvre, Eric M.; deC. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Handel, Ian G.; Welburn, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Trypanosomiasis is regarded as a constraint on livestock production in Western Kenya where the responsibility for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control has increasingly shifted from the state to the individual livestock owner. To assess the sustainability of these localised control efforts, this study investigates biological and management risk factors associated with trypanosome infections detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in a range of domestic livestock at the local scale in Busia, Kenya. Busia District also remains endemic for human sleeping sickness with sporadic cases of sleeping sickness reported. Results In total, trypanosome infections were detected in 11.9% (329) out of the 2773 livestock sampled in Busia District. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that host species and cattle age affected overall trypanosome infection, with significantly increased odds of infection for cattle older than 18 months, and significantly lower odds of infection in pigs and small ruminants. Different grazing and watering management practices did not affect the odds of trypanosome infection, adjusted by host species. Neither anaemia nor condition score significantly affected the odds of trypanosome infection in cattle. Human infective Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in 21.5% of animals infected with T. brucei s.l. (29/135) amounting to 1% (29/2773) of all sampled livestock, with significantly higher odds of T. brucei rhodesiense infections in T. brucei s.l. infected pigs (OR = 4.3, 95%CI 1.5-12.0) than in T. brucei s.l. infected cattle or small ruminants. Conclusions Although cattle are the dominant reservoir of trypanosome infection it is unlikely that targeted treatment of only visibly diseased cattle will achieve sustainable interruption of transmission for either animal infective or zoonotic human infective trypanosomiasis, since most infections were detected in cattle that did not exhibit classical clinical signs of

  13. Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Krenke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1 lung transplant recipients, (2 highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3 the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects.

  14. Infection control in Indonesian Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, Daphne Offra

    2009-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated

  15. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    function, the recommended treatment is intravenous ciprofloxacin and ... respiratory tract infection. The infec- tion spreads to the middle ..... structures. The underlying pathophysiology of otitis externa is maceration of the skin of the external ear canal. The hair and lipid content of cerumen renders the ear canal impervious to ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is so your urine sample won't contain germs from outside your body. If the doctor finds germs in your pee, it's a sign of infection ... or she will want to be sure those germs are coming from the inside , not the outside. ...

  18. Viral Infections and Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of febrile seizures (FS in a cohort of children, ages 3 months to 5 years, living in a Netherlands province was compared with the incidence of common viral infections reported to a national registry and the results reported from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Public Health Laboratory Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

  19. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  20. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, R F

    1986-06-01

    The history, appearance and clinical course of a low incidence, chronic skin disease in beef cattle is reported. Calves were affected from 3 months of age and the condition persisted into adulthood. The infection was caused by Dermatophilus congolensis and resulted in severe crusting of the skin. Sheep were kept on the farm until 4 years ago. The method of diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-08-12

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With half of the world's population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide eradication program seems unlikely. In addition, H. pylori eradication is not always beneficial as it has been described that eradication can be associated with an increased frequency of other disorders such as pediatric asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases and Barrett's Esophagus. We have to accept that eradication of this infection is a two-edged sword that is both useful and harmful and we should therefore focus our H. pylori eradication policy toward selectively identify and destroy only the virulent strains. In order to still be able to effectively treat H. pylori infections in the future we need an alternative diagnostic/treatment algorithm. This would involve a shift towards more precise and enhanced disease predicting diagnosis that tries to identify patients with chance of developing severe diseases such as gastric cancer, rather than the current regime that is geared towards find and destroy all H. pylori.

  4. Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-07

    Dr. Jon Mark Hirshon, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, discusses Clostridium difficile infection in outpatients.  Created: 11/7/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  5. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  6. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  7. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in posthysterectomy infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Del Gaudio, Tito; Tajani, Ernesto; Mosca, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    We report a patient with clinically significant vaginal posthysterectomy infection due to Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The microorganism isolated from the vaginal cuff abscess was beta-lactamase producer and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern showed its resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin, while the susceptibility to amoxicillin associated with clavulanic acid, metronidazole, and the newer fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin was confirmed.

  8. Laboratory diagnosis of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Auckenthaler, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of infective endocarditis is based on positive blood cultures. Modern microbiological techniques can isolate the aetiological agent in 90-95% of cases. The rapidity of detection has been improved by inoculation of 10 ml of blood, adequate dilution and media and systematic subcultures. Lysis-centrifugation has yreatly improved the detection of fungi in blood

  9. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... Compartir Staphylococcus aureus , often referred to simply as “staph,” are bacteria commonly carried on the skin or ...

  10. [Ulcerative colitis and cytomegalovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárraga Rodríguez, I; Ferreras Fernández, P; Vicente Gutiérrez, M; de Arriba, J J; García Mouriño, M L

    2003-02-01

    Colitis ulcerous and citomegalovirus infection association have been reported in medical literature in sometimes, althougth this prevalence have lately increased. We report a case record of this association and do a review of this subject. It is not clear what factors are involved in this association, being necessary hore studies to know them.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni INFECTIONS AMONGST SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In a different study in Mexico, no correlation was observed between the reliable drinking water and parasitic infections (Quihui et al., 2006). Many have also suggested that the domestic water network in Jos needed to be upgraded. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. To the Department of Zoology, University of Jos for the use of their.

  12. infecting phlebotomus duboscqi (diptera: psychodidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease in which Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Amastigotes are ingested by the sand fly vector with a blood meal taken from an infected host. This is followed by their differentiation into metacyclic promastigotes which are selectively released ...

  13. Vaccination against feline retrovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), both of veterinary importance, their antigenic and genetic variability as well as their pathogenicity are described. Disease following FeLV infection is interpreted as a consequence of genetic recombination, as a result of viral

  14. Infective complication following percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannakij Lojanapiwat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is a minimally invasive procedure for patients with large renal and upper ureteric stones. Although it is less invasive than open surgery, infection is still the most common complication arising from this procedure and some patients develop septicemia and septic shock, resulting in increase in mortality and morbidity. The incidence of septic shock following PCNL is 1%; however, its mortality rate is as high as 66–80%. Endourologists who perform this procedure need to know how to prevent and manage this common complication. Large calculi, staghorn calculi, positive pelvic urine and stone culture, prolonged operative time, and diabetes are factors that increase the incidence of postoperative infection. Recently, several studies suggested the importance of intraoperative microbiologic evaluation of factors such as intraoperative pelvic urine and stone cultures for selection of suitable postoperative antibiotics. The selection of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics, and specific PCNL techniques play an important role in preventing infection following PCNL. We reviewed the general background, the factors, and role of intraoperative microbiologic evaluation in the management of post-PCNL infection.

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... aetiology, clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fmd- ings, modes of treatment and outcome of shunt infections at. Tygerberg Hospital, a 2000-bed referral hospital in the south- western Cape Province. Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Neuro- surgery, and Medical Microbiology, ...

  16. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2013-12-01

    We review the primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. An increasing number of PIDs are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of interferon-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of interleukin-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), while inborn errors of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. CMC, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by PIDs. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of PID. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases.

  17. Epidemiology of neonatal enterovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, J A; Powell, K R; Menegus, M A

    1984-05-01

    During a typical enterovirus season in Rochester, New York, none of 666 neonates or 629 mothers were found to be excreting nonpolio enteroviruses within 1 day of delivery. No enteroviruses were isolated from weekly cultures of the 23 infants who died or remained hospitalized during the first month of life. After discharge, culture specimens were obtained in 586 infants at one to four weekly home visits until 1 month of age. The incidence of acquisition of nonpolio enterovirus infection was 12.8%, and the overall prevalence of enterovirus excretion was 5.3%. Risk of virus infection was associated only with lower socioeconomic status (P less than 0.0001) and lack of breast-feeding (P less than 0.0001). Four percent of all infants and 21% of infants in whom cultures for enterovirus were positive were readmitted to the hospital in the first month of life; 79% of infants with positive enterovirus cultures were asymptomatic. We conclude that enterovirus infection during the first month of life is very common in the late summer and early fall. Most infants are asymptomatic, but the risk of hospitalization is high. Breast-feeding may be associated with protection from infection.

  18. Mucorales between food and infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Today, members of Mucoromycotina are ubiquitous organisms present all over the world in the soil, infecting and decomposing plants, animals, and other fungi. In daily practice they are renowned for two reasons. (1) Species of Mucorales have been used by humanity already for thousands of years in the

  19. Reiter's syndrome after salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with Reiter's syndrome, after Salmonella infection were treated on the Infections disease ward at Clinical hospital center in Kragujevac. In the first patient, ten days after the onset of Salmonella infection, signs of edema and pain in the right ankle occurred, accompanied by expressed conjunctivitis. Within next two months consecutive metatarsophalanges changes joint of the right foot have appeared. In the second patient, two weeks after the onset of Salmonella infection, edema of the left hand joints and a week later edema of the right hand and right ankle joints appeared. In both patients inflammatory syndrome was expressed (high erythrocyte sedimentation rates, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein along with negative rheumatoid factors and positive antigen HLA-B27. Outcome of the disease in both cases was favorable upon receiving nonsteroid antirheumatic therapy. Signs of arthritis disappeared after three months. No signs of recurrent arthritis have been seen during the next four years in the first and next two years in the second patient.

  20. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to

  1. Genetic Determinants of Enterovirus Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witsø, Elisabet; Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses have been suggested as triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to assess whether established T1D susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate SNPs in innate immune genes were associated with the frequency of enterovirus infection in otherwise healthy child...

  2. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  3. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-13

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Chris Van Beneden discusses the dangers of group A strep infections.  Created: 6/13/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/13/2011.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  5. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A

    2013-04-22

    Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ≤25 years. During October 2004-September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods. Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or "CT or GC", respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ≤25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively. STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered.

  6. Influenza infection and Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible link between influenza (Flu infection and Kawasaki disease (KD. METHODS: We examined the medical records of 1,053 KD cases and 4,669 influenza infection cases hospitalized at our institute from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013. Cases of KD with concomitant influenza infection formed the KD + Flu group. Each KD + Flu case was matched with 2 KD cases and 2 influenza infection cases, and these cases were assigned to the KD group and Flu group, respectively. The differences in the principal clinical manifestations, course of disease, incomplete KD rate, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG resistance rate, and echocardiographic detection results between the KD + Flu group and KD group were compared. The fever durations and laboratory test results of these three groups were compared. RESULTS: 1 The seasonal variations of the KD + Flu group, KD group and Flu group were similar. 2 The morbidity rate of incomplete KD was higher in the KD + Flu group compared with the KD group. 3 Patients in the KD + Flu group exhibited a longer time to KD diagnosis compared with patients in the KD group. 4 The KD + Flu group exhibited the longest fever duration among the three groups. 5 The CRP and ESR values in the KD + Flu group were higher those in the Flu or KD groups. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant influenza infection affects the clinical manifestations of KD and can impact the laboratory test results and the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. However, it remains unclear whether influenza contributes to KD etiology.

  7. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  8. HIV infection and aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luisa Helena Maia; Cohen, Ariel; Boccara, Franck

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial. To summarize current knowledge of the association between HIV infection and aortic stiffness as a marker of vascular aging. This review included 18 clinical studies in adult populations, published between 2009 and 2016, and identified on PubMed/MEDLINE or other databases. Search terms were aortic stiffness, arterial stiffness, vascular aging, pulse wave velocity and HIV. All 18 studies were observational, and compared groups infected (HIV+) and not infected (HIV-) with HIV. Ten studies (55%) reported no significant differences in aortic stiffness between HIV+ groups and age-matched HIV- control groups. The main reported determinants of aortic stiffness were age, blood pressure, smoking, metabolic syndrome and HIV-related variables, including CD4/CD8 ratio, current T-CD4 count < 200/mm 3 and nadir T-CD4+ count < 200/mm 3 . We found discordant results regarding whether HIV+ patients had increased aortic stiffness compared with HIV- controls. However, HIV-related conditions were associated with vascular health. This association has been confirmed in recent prospective studies. There is emerging evidence that HIV itself and immune activity affect vascular health and the large arteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Pneumococcal Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention, Immunization Action Coalition) - PDF Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pneumococcal Infections updates ... ray Meningitis - pneumococcal Sputum gram stain Related Health Topics Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Sinusitis Streptococcal Infections National Institutes ...

  10. Role of nerves in enteric infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spiller, R C

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral and central effects of enteric infection are considered. Nerves play a vital part in the immediate response to enteric infection, promoting pathogen expulsion by orchestrating intestinal secretion and propulsive motor patterns...

  11. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of fungal infections worldwide. In the U.S., Candida is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream ...

  12. Dermatophilus Congolensis Infection of the Esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Vivek S.; Jahng, Alexander W.; Shlopov, Boris; Pham, Binh V.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first case of Dermatophilus congolensis infection of the human esophagus. We demonstrate initial endoscopic diagnosis, progression and then spontaneous resolution of D. congolensis infection, once the patient's occupational exposure had ceased.

  13. Group B Strep Infection in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis Group B Strep Infection in Adults Language: English Español ( ... B en adultos While the rates of serious group B strep infections are higher among newborns than ...

  14. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  15. Sinus Infection and Toothache: Any Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sinus infection cause a toothache? Answers from Alan Carr, D.M.D. Yes, a sinus infection (sinusitis) ... problem is contributing to the toothache. With Alan Carr, D.M.D. References Longo DL, et al., ...

  16. Acute calcific tendinitis simulating tendon sheath infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omololu, B; Alonge, T O; Ogunlade, S O

    2001-01-01

    Tendon sheath infection has catastrophic consequences if not diagnosed. We present acute calcific tendinitis, a simulator of tendon sheath infection with a good prognosis in a 14 year old athletic tennis player.

  17. Basic Genetics and Immunology of Candida Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Netea, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Candida infections can cause superficial and invasive disease. Several essential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these infections were known for some time, such as neutropenia predisposing to invasive disease, and CD4 lymphopenia causing increased susceptibility to mucosal candidiasis.

  18. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if you have HIV infection. Make sure you and your healthcare provider keep ...

  19. HIV INFECTION AND THE KIDNEY CLINICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-04

    Apr 4, 2008 ... An association between HIV and renal disease was first reported in 1984 by ... Parasites: pneumocystis, toxoplasma, microsporidia. ▫ Glomerulopathies .... Direct cytopathogenic effect on glomerular cells with undefined mechanisms .... Human immunodeficiency virus infection and renal failure. Infect.

  20. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Key words: Transfusion Transmissible Infections, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Blood Donors,. University College Hospital (UCH), ELISA. INTRODUCTION. The most common diseases transmitted in blood transfusions are viral infections. Transfusion- transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus ...

  1. Ekaza et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    INVESTIGATION OF AN OUTBREAK OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE ... Acute respiratory infections (ARI), is among the leading causes of death in children ..... respiratory tract infections (pneumonia and bronchitis) in infants and elderly ...

  2. Protothecal olecranon bursitis: an unusual algal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Manali; Chandra, Preeti A; Margulis, Yevgeniya; Chandra, Abhinav B; Schiff, Carl

    2011-11-01

    Prototheca is an achlorophyllic alga which rarely causes infections in humans and protothecal olecranon bursitis is remarkably rare. We report a case of a 76-year-old immunocompetent man presenting with pain and swelling of the right elbow secondary to protothecal infection. Initial cultures of the olecranon bursal aspirate revealed no growth; however, repeat aspiration after 2 months grew prototheca species on culture. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii are the only 2 protothecal species known to cause human infections. Protothecal infection can manifest as skin infections, extremity infections, bursitis and very rarely as systemic infections. Treatment of protothecal infections remains controversial. Amphoterecin B, ketoconazole and fluconazole have been reported to yield a successful outcome. More recently, itraconazole has been found to be curative. Surgical excision of the bursa remains the definitive treatment. Our patient was treated with itraconazole with a favorable response.

  3. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Infections remain among the most important concerns in critically ill patients. Early and reliable diagnosis of infection still poses difficulties in this setting but also represents a crucial step toward appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Increasing antimicrobial resistance challenges ...

  4. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  5. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    com. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2010 May;3(2):53-5. Country Data. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest bacterial infection occurring in renal transplant recipients, and it is associated ...

  6. Manual of infection prevention and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damani, N. N

    2012-01-01

    .... Unlike other books on infection control, the main strength of this book is to provide clear, up-to-date and practical guidance in infection control in an easy to read format which can act as a quick...

  7. Helminth infections induce immunomodulation: consequences and mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Riet, Petronella Helena van

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well as regulatory responses. The latter is thought to prevent strong immune responses against parasitic worms, allowing their long-term survival and restricting pathology. This regulatory network is t...

  8. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  9. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Legout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections.

  10. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermato...

  11. Meeting the challenge of infection control

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Joan

    2001-01-01

    In today’s health care environment, many individuals are susceptible to infections. This impacts upon patient recovery and considerably increases costs to the NHS (National Audit Office 2000). \\ud \\ud Infections do not recognise institutional or societal boundaries. All health care workers (HCWs) must embrace the fact that the observance and compliance with the standard principles of infection control practice with all patients at all times will assist in minimising the transmission of infect...

  12. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Legout; Eric Senneville

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections.

  13. Prevention and Control of MRSA Infection

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 信一; 井上, 正樹; Shinichi, FUJITA; Masaki, INOUE; 金沢大学大学院医学系研究科; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University; Department of Reproductive Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University

    2003-01-01

    Many efficacious antimicrobial agents have beem developed in the latter half of the 20th century, and this has enabled us to overcome bacterial infections. However, various drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been emerging. MRSA strains used to be isolated not only from compromised patients with nosocomial infection but also from patients with community-acquired infection. MRSA infection is difficult to treat because of the strong pathogen...

  14. Pulmonary infections in HIV-positive children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Theron, Salomine; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, Tamboerskloof (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Infection of the lungs and airways by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal agents, often producing atypical radiographic features, is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Conventional chest radiography and chest CT remain the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of the immunocompromised patient presenting with a suspected pulmonary infection. In this review the radiological features of acute lung infections in this population are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Diagnosis of opportunistic infections: HIV co-infections - tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley; da Silva, Pedro; Boehme, Catharina C; Stevens, Wendy; Gilpin, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation. This review describes advances in diagnosing TB, especially among HIV co-infected individuals, highlights national program's uptake, and impact on patient care. The TB diagnostic landscape has been transformed over the last 5 years. Molecular diagnostics such as Xpert MTB/RIF, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) resistance to rifampicin, has revolutionized TB control programs. WHO endorsed the use of Xpert MTB/RIF in 2010 for use in HIV/TB co-infected patients, and later in 2013 for use as the initial diagnostic test for all adults and children with signs and symptoms of pulmonary TB. Line probe assays (LPAs) are recommended for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in sputum smear-positive specimens and mycobacterial cultures. A second-line line probe assay has been recommended for the diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB Assays such as the urine lateral flow (LF)-lipoarabinomannan (LAM), can be used at the point of care (POC) and have a niche role to supplement the diagnosis of TB in seriously ill HIV-infected, hospitalized patients with low CD4 cell counts of less than 100 cells/μl. Polyvalent platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular) and GeneXpert (Cepheid) offer potential for integration of HIV and TB testing services. While the Research and Development (R&D) pipeline appears to be rich at first glance, there are actually few leads for true POC tests that would allow for earlier TB diagnosis or rapid, comprehensive

  16. NOSOCOMIAL WOUND INFECTION AMONGST POST OPERATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infection constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. Increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogens associated with nosocomial infections also becomes a major therapeutic challenge for physicians. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify post operative bacterial infections in the patients developing ...

  17. AEROBIC BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM INFECTED WOUNDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    of wound infection will be helpful in the control of wound infection and selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy as an infection control ... the skin (1). The exposed subcutaneous tissues provides a favourable substratum for a wide variety of microorganisms to contaminate and colonize, and .... Ayton M. Wound care. Wounds ...

  18. Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas J C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...

  20. Is infection by Dermatophilus congolensis underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Aranzazu; Enríquez, Ana; Corcuera, Maria Teresa; Toro, Carlos; Herrero, Dolores; Baquero, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis, which affects animal species, is an uncommon human infection. Few cases, mainly in tropical areas, have been reported. We describe the first human infection in Spain in a traveler returning from Central America. Diagnosis of human infection may be underestimated in people in contact with animals.