WorldWideScience

Sample records for haploinsufficient mice feed

  1. Rai1 Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with Social Abnormalities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini R. Rao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors; with different degrees of severity in each of the core areas. Haploinsufficiency and point mutations of RAI1 are associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, a genetic condition that scores within the autism spectrum range for social responsiveness and communication, and is characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sleep disturbance, and self-injurious behaviors. Methods: To investigate the relationship between Rai1 and social impairment, we evaluated the Rai1+/− mice with a battery of tests to address social behavior in mice. Results: We found that the mutant mice showed diminished interest in social odors, abnormal submissive tendencies, and increased repetitive behaviors when compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Rai1 contributes to social behavior in mice, and prompt it as a candidate gene for the social behaviors observed in Smith-Magenis Syndrome patients.

  2. Toxicology study of senna (CAS No. 8013-11-4) in C57BL/6NTAC Mice and toxicology and carcinogenesis study of senna in genetically modified C3B6.129F1/Tac-Trp53tm1Brd haploinsufficient mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Senna is used as a stimulant laxative in the management of constipation resulting from opioid use or when treatment with bulking or osmotic agents has failed. Increased use of senna was expected due to the removal of the stimulant laxatives danthron and phenolphthalein from the market. Senna was nominated for study by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to the wide use of laxative preparations, positive genotoxicity in vitro for some senna components or metabolites, and unknown carcinogenic potential. Because a 2-year rat study was ongoing by the manufacturer, the FDA requested that the NTP conduct a senna study in the p53(+/-) mouse. In this study, the potential for carcinogenic effects of senna was studied in the C3B6.129F1/Tac-Trp53tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient (heterozygous F1 p53(+/-)) mouse model as an ongoing goal of the NTP to develop and test model systems for toxicology and carcinogenesis studies, especially those that can provide mechanistic information relative to understanding an agents mode of action. C57BL/6NTac mice were exposed to senna in feed for 5 weeks; heterozygous F1 p53(+/-) mice were exposed to senna in feed for 40 weeks. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes.

  3. Dissociation of Frontotemporal Dementia–Related Deficits and Neuroinflammation in Progranulin Haploinsufficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiano, Anthony J.; Martens, Lauren Herl; Young, Allen H.; Warmus, Brian A.; Zhou, Ping; Diaz-Ramirez, Grisell; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Zhijun; Huang, Eric J.; Gao, Fen-Biao; Farese, Robert V.; Roberson, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with hallmark deficits in social and emotional function. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in GRN, the progranulin gene, are a common genetic cause of the disorder, but the mechanisms by which progranulin haploinsufficiency causes neuronal dysfunction in FTD are unclear. Homozygous progranulin knockout (Grn−/−) mice have been studied as a model of this disorder and show behavioral deficits and a neuroinflammatory phenotype with robust microglial activation. However, homozygous GRN mutations causing complete progranulin deficiency were recently shown to cause a different neurological disorder, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, suggesting that the total absence of progranulin may have effects distinct from those of haploinsufficiency. Here, we studied progranulin heterozygous (Grn+/−) mice, which model progranulin haploinsufficiency. We found that Grn+/− mice developed age-dependent social and emotional deficits potentially relevant to FTD. However, unlike Grn−/− mice, behavioral deficits in Grn+/− mice occurred in the absence of gliosis or increased expression of tumor necrosis factor–α. Instead, we found neuronal abnormalities in the amygdala, an area of selective vulnerability in FTD, in Grn+/− mice. Our findings indicate that FTD-related deficits due to progranulin haploinsufficiency can develop in the absence of detectable gliosis and neuroinflammation, thereby dissociating microglial activation from functional deficits and suggesting an important effect of progranulin deficiency on neurons. PMID:23516300

  4. Dissociation of frontotemporal dementia-related deficits and neuroinflammation in progranulin haploinsufficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiano, Anthony J; Martens, Lauren Herl; Young, Allen H; Warmus, Brian A; Zhou, Ping; Diaz-Ramirez, Grisell; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Zhijun; Huang, Eric J; Gao, Fen-Biao; Farese, Robert V; Roberson, Erik D

    2013-03-20

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with hallmark deficits in social and emotional function. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in GRN, the progranulin gene, are a common genetic cause of the disorder, but the mechanisms by which progranulin haploinsufficiency causes neuronal dysfunction in FTD are unclear. Homozygous progranulin knock-out (Grn(-/-)) mice have been studied as a model of this disorder and show behavioral deficits and a neuroinflammatory phenotype with robust microglial activation. However, homozygous GRN mutations causing complete progranulin deficiency were recently shown to cause a different neurological disorder, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, suggesting that the total absence of progranulin may have effects distinct from those of haploinsufficiency. Here, we studied progranulin heterozygous (Grn(+/-)) mice, which model progranulin haploinsufficiency. We found that Grn(+/-) mice developed age-dependent social and emotional deficits potentially relevant to FTD. However, unlike Grn(-/-) mice, behavioral deficits in Grn(+/-) mice occurred in the absence of gliosis or increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α. Instead, we found neuronal abnormalities in the amygdala, an area of selective vulnerability in FTD, in Grn(+/-) mice. Our findings indicate that FTD-related deficits resulting from progranulin haploinsufficiency can develop in the absence of detectable gliosis and neuroinflammation, thereby dissociating microglial activation from functional deficits and suggesting an important effect of progranulin deficiency on neurons.

  5. Intermittent fasting uncovers and rescues cognitive phenotypes in PTEN neuronal haploinsufficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Costa, J V; Andreotti, D Z; Mello, N P; Scavone, C; Camandola, S; Kawamoto, E M

    2018-06-05

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important protein with key modulatory functions in cell growth and survival. PTEN is crucial during embryogenesis and plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), where it directly modulates neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Loss of PTEN signaling function is associated with cognitive deficits and synaptic plasticity impairment. Accordingly, Pten mutations have a strong link with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, neuronal Pten haploinsufficient male mice were subjected to a long-term environmental intervention - intermittent fasting (IF) - and then evaluated for alterations in exploratory, anxiety and learning and memory behaviors. Although no significant effects on spatial memory were observed, mutant mice showed impaired contextual fear memory in the passive avoidance test - an outcome that was effectively rescued by IF. In this study, we demonstrated that IF modulation, in addition to its rescue of the memory deficit, was also required to uncover behavioral phenotypes otherwise hidden in this neuronal Pten haploinsufficiency model.

  6. Lung matrix and vascular remodeling in mechanically ventilated elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Parai, Kakoli; Ertsey, Robert; Navarro, Edwin; Jain, Noopur; Carandang, Francis; Peterson, Joanna; Mokres, Lucia; Milla, Carlos; Preuss, Stefanie; Alcazar, Miguel Alejandre; Khan, Suleman; Masumi, Juliet; Ferreira-Tojais, Nancy; Mujahid, Sana; Starcher, Barry; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (Eln+/−) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Because mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haploinsufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5-day-old wild-type (Eln+/+) and Eln+/− littermates at baseline and after MV with air for 8–24 h. Lungs of unventilated Eln+/− mice contained ∼50% less elastin and ∼100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared with Eln+/+ pups. Eln+/− lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln+/+ lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln+/+ neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln+/− mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln+/− than in Eln+/+ pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln+/− compared with Eln+/+ mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haploinsufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln+/+ and Eln+/− mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln+/− newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln+/− mice. PMID:25539853

  7. Arid1b haploinsufficient mice reveal neuropsychiatric phenotypes and reversible causes of growth impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celen, Cemre; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Luo, Xin; Nijem, Nadine; Walker, Angela K; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Chung, Andrew S; Nguyen, Liem H; Nassour, Ibrahim; Budhipramono, Albert; Sun, Xuxu; Bok, Levinus A; McEntagart, Meriel; Gevers, Evelien F; Birnbaum, Shari G; Eisch, Amelia J; Powell, Craig M; Ge, Woo-Ping; Santen, Gijs We; Chahrour, Maria; Zhu, Hao

    2017-07-11

    Sequencing studies have implicated haploinsufficiency of ARID1B , a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling subunit, in short stature (Yu et al., 2015), autism spectrum disorder (O'Roak et al., 2012), intellectual disability (Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015), and corpus callosum agenesis (Halgren et al., 2012). In addition, ARID1B is the most common cause of Coffin-Siris syndrome, a developmental delay syndrome characterized by some of the above abnormalities (Santen et al., 2012; Tsurusaki et al., 2012; Wieczorek et al., 2013). We generated Arid1b heterozygous mice, which showed social behavior impairment, altered vocalization, anxiety-like behavior, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and growth impairment. In the brain, Arid1b haploinsufficiency resulted in changes in the expression of SWI/SNF-regulated genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. A focus on reversible mechanisms identified Insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) deficiency with inadequate compensation by Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and Growth hormone (GH), underappreciated findings in ARID1B patients. Therapeutically, GH supplementation was able to correct growth retardation and muscle weakness. This model functionally validates the involvement of ARID1B in human disorders, and allows mechanistic dissection of neurodevelopmental diseases linked to chromatin-remodeling.

  8. Evidence of Aortopathy in Mice with Haploinsufficiency of Notch1 in Nos3-Null Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Koenig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. While the exact etiology is unknown, genetic factors play an important role. Mutations in NOTCH1 have been linked to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV and aortopathy in humans. The aim of this study was to determine if haploinsufficiency of Notch1 contributes to aortopathy using Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice. Echocardiographic analysis of Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice reveals effacement of the sinotubular junction and a trend toward dilation of the aortic sinus. Furthermore, examination of the proximal aorta of Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice reveals elastic fiber degradation, a trend toward increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression, and increased smooth muscle cell apoptosis, features characteristic of aneurysmal disease. Although at a lower penetrance, we also found features consistent with aortopathic changes in Notch1 heterozygote mice and in Nos3-null mice. Our findings implicate a novel role for Notch1 in aortopathy of the proximal aorta.

  9. High-calorie diet exacerbates prostate neoplasia in mice with haploinsufficiency of Pten tumor suppressor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehnan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: High-calorie diet promotes prostate cancer progression in the genetically susceptible Pten haploinsufficient mouse while preserving insulin sensitivity. This appears to be partly due to increased inflammatory response to high-caloric intake in addition to increased ability of insulin to promote lipogenesis.

  10. Heterozygous Lmna(delK32) mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy through a combined pathomechanism of haploinsufficiency and peptide toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattin, M. E.; Bertrand, A. T.; Schlossarek, S.

    2013-01-01

    itself has a clear deleterious effect on engineered heart tissues force of contraction, it also leads to the nuclear aggregation of viral-mediated expression of K32-lamin. In conclusion, Het mice are the first knock-in Lmna model with cardiac-specific phenotype at the heterozygous state. Altogether, our....... The pathomechanisms linking mutations to DCM remain to be elucidated. We investigated the phenotype and associated pathomechanisms of heterozygous Lmna(K32/) (Het) knock-in mice, which carry a human mutation. Het mice developed a cardiac-specific phenotype. Two phases, with two different pathomechanisms, could...... be observed that lead to the development of cardiac dysfunction, DCM and death between 35 and 70 weeks of age. In young Het hearts, there was a clear reduction in lamin A/C level, mainly due to the degradation of toxic K32-lamin. As a side effect, lamin A/C haploinsufficiency probably triggers the cardiac...

  11. Adiponectin haploinsufficiency promotes mammary tumor development in MMTV-PyVT mice by modulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice B B Lam

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine possessing beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications. A negative association of adiponectin levels with breast cancer development has been demonstrated. However, the precise role of adiponectin deficiency in mammary carcinogenesis remains elusive.In the present study, MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice with reduced adiponectin expressions were established and the stromal effects of adiponectin haploinsufficiency on mammary tumor development evaluated. In mice from both FVB/N and C57BL/6J backgrounds, insufficient adiponectin production promoted mammary tumor onset and development. A distinctive basal-like subtype of tumors, with a more aggressive phenotype, was derived from adiponectin haplodeficient MMTV-PyVT mice. Comparing with those from control MMTV-PyVT mice, the isolated mammary tumor cells showed enhanced tumor progression in re-implanted nude mice, accelerated proliferation in primary cultures, and hyperactivated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/beta-catenin signaling, which at least partly attributed to the decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN activities. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was inactivated by a redox-regulated mechanism. Increased association of PTEN-thioredoxin complexes was detected in tumors derived from mice with reduced adiponectin levels. The activities of thioredoxin (Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 were significantly elevated, whereas treatment with either curcumin, an irreversible inhibitor of TrxR1, or adiponectin largely attenuated their activities and resulted in the re-activation of PTEN in these tumor cells. Moreover, adiponectin could inhibit TrxR1 promoter-mediated transcription and restore the mRNA expressions of TrxR1.Adiponectin haploinsufficiency facilitated mammary tumorigenesis by down-regulation of PTEN activity and activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway through a mechanism involving Trx1/TrxR1

  12. Lef1 haploinsufficient mice display a low turnover and low bone mass phenotype in a gender- and age-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Noh

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Lef1, one of the four transcription factors that transmit Wnt signaling to the genome, in the regulation of bone mass. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of 13- and 17-week-old mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular bone mass in Lef1(+/- females compared to littermate wild-type females. This was attributable to decreased osteoblast activity and bone formation as indicated by histomorphometric analysis of bone remodeling. In contrast to females, bone mass was unaffected by Lef1 haploinsufficiency in males. Similarly, females were substantially more responsive than males to haploinsufficiency in Gsk3beta, a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway, displaying in this case a high bone mass phenotype. Lef1 haploinsufficiency also led to low bone mass in males lacking functional androgen receptor (AR (tfm mutants. The protective skeletal effect of AR against Wnt-related low bone mass is not necessarily a result of direct interaction between the AR and Wnt signaling pathways, because Lef1(+/- female mice had normal bone mass at the age of 34 weeks. Thus, our results indicate an age- and gender-dependent role for Lef1 in regulating bone formation and bone mass in vivo. The resistance to Lef1 haploinsufficiency in males with active AR and in old females could be due to the reduced bone turnover in these mice.

  13. Impaired associative fear learning in mice with complete loss or haploinsufficiency of AMPA GluR1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feyder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA glutamate receptors containing the GluR1 subunit contribute to the molecular mechanisms associated with learning. AMPA GluR1 glutamate receptor knockout mice (KO exhibit abnormal hippocampal and amygdala plasticity, and deficits on various assays for cognition including Pavlovian fear conditioning. Here we examined associative fear learning in mice with complete absence (KO or partial loss (heterozygous mutant, HET of GluR1 on multiple fear conditioning paradigms. After multi-trial delay or trace conditioning, KO displayed impaired tone and context fear recall relative to WT, whereas HET were normal. After one-trial delay conditioning, both KO and HET showed impaired tone and context recall. HET and KO showed normal nociceptive sensitivity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. These data demonstrate that the complete absence of GluR1 subunit-containing receptors prevents the formation of associative fear memories, while GluR1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to impair one-trial fear learning. These findings support growing evidence of a major role for GluR1-containing AMPA receptors in amygdalamediated forms of learning and memory.

  14. Endoglin haploinsufficiency attenuates radiation-induced deterioration of kidney function in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Floot, Ben; Russell, Nicola S.; Coppes, Rob P.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Endoglin is a transforming growth receptor beta (TGF-β) co-receptor, which plays a crucial role in the development of late normal tissue damage. Mice with halved endoglin levels (Eng +/- mice) develop less inflammation, vascular damage and fibrosis after kidney irradiation compared to their wild type littermates (Eng +/+ mice). This study was aimed at investigating whether reduced tissue damage in Eng +/- mice also results in superior kidney function. Material and Methods: Kidneys of Eng +/+ and Eng +/- mice were irradiated with a single dose of 14 Gy. Functional kidney parameters and kidney histology were analysed at 20, 30 and 40 weeks after irradiation. Results: Eng +/- mice displayed improved kidney parameters (haematocrit, BUN) compared to Eng +/+ mice at 40 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of Eng +/+ kidneys damaged the vascular network and led to an increase in PDGFR-β positive cells, indicative of fibrosis-promoting myofibroblasts. Compared to Eng +/+ kidneys, vascular perfusion and number of PDGFR-β positive cells were reduced in Eng +/- control mice; however, this did not further deteriorate after irradiation. Conclusions: Taken together, we show that not only kidney morphology, but also kidney function is improved after irradiation in Eng +/- compared to Eng +/+ mice

  15. Resistance to diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic perturbations in haploinsufficient monocarboxylate transporter 1 mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lengacher Sylvain; Nehiri-Sitayeb Touria; Steiner Nadia; Carneiro Lionel; Favrod Céline; Preitner Frédéric; Thorens Bernard; Stehle Jean-Christophe; Dix Laure; Pralong François; Magistretti Pierre J; Pellerin Luc

    2013-01-01

    The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 or SLC16A1) is a carrier of short-chain fatty acids, ketone bodies, and lactate in several tissues. Genetically modified C57BL/6J mice were produced by targeted disruption of the mct1 gene in order to understand the role of this transporter in energy homeostasis. Null mutation was embryonically lethal, but MCT1(+/-) mice developed normally. However, when fed high fat diet (HFD), MCT1(+/-) mice displayed resistance to development of diet-induced obesity ...

  16. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Study of Senna in the C3B6.129F1-Trp53tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Inok; Brix, Amy; French, John E.; Collins, Bradley J.; Sanders, J. Michael; Vallant, Molly; Dunnick, June K.

    2013-01-01

    Senna is a pod or leaf of Senna alexandrina P. Mill and is used as a stimulant laxative. In the large intestine, bacterial enzymes break sennosides and release rhein-9-anthrone, the active form for the laxative effect. To determine potential toxic effects of senna, a 5-week dose range finding study in the C57BL/6N mouse and a 40-week toxicology and carcinogenesis study in the C3B6.129F1-Trp53tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient (p53+/−) mouse were conducted. In the 5-week study, C57BL/6N mice were exposed up to 10,000 ppm senna in feed. Increased incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the cecum and colon were observed in males and females exposed to 5,000 or 10,000 ppm senna. These intestinal lesions were not considered to be of sufficient severity to cause mortality and, thus, in the p53+/− mouse 40-week study, the high dose of 10,000 ppm was selected. Significant increases in the incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the colon and cecum were observed at 10,000 ppm in p53(+/−) males and females, and the incidence of hyperplasia of the colon was significantly increased at 3,000 ppm in females. In conclusion, the large intestine was the major target of senna-induced toxicity in both wild-type and the p53+/− mouse model. There was no neoplastic change, when senna was administered to p53 +/− mouse. PMID:23125117

  17. Toxicology and carcinogenesis study of senna in C3B6.129F1-Trp53 tm1Brd N12 haploinsufficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Inok; Brix, Amy; French, John E; Collins, Bradley J; Sanders, J Michael; Vallant, Molly; Dunnick, June K

    2013-07-01

    Senna is a pod or leaf of Senna alexandrina P. Mill and is used as a stimulant laxative. In the large intestine, bacterial enzymes reduce sennosides to rhein-9-anthrone, the active form for the laxative effect. To determine the potential toxic effects of senna, a 5-week dose range finding study in the C57BL/6N mouse and a 40-week toxicology and carcinogenesis study in the C3B6.129F1-Trp53 (tm1Brd) N12 haploinsufficient (p53(+/-)) mouse were conducted. In the 5-week study, C57BL/6N mice were exposed to up to 10,000 ppm senna in feed. Increased incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the cecum and colon were observed in males and females exposed to 5,000 or 10,000 ppm senna. These intestinal lesions were not considered to be of sufficient severity to cause mortality and, thus, in the p53(+/-) mouse 40-week study, the high dose of 10,000 ppm was selected. Significant increases in the incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the colon and cecum were observed at 10,000 ppm in p53(+/-) males and females, and the incidence of hyperplasia of the colon was significantly increased at 3,000 ppm in females. In conclusion, the large intestine was the major target of senna-induced toxicity in both wild-type and the p53(+/-) mouse model. There was no neoplastic change when senna was administered to p53(+/-) mouse.

  18. Exercise does not protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in BDNF haploinsufficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Gerecke

    Full Text Available Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/- with strain-matched wild-type (WT mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/- mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/- mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons.

  19. Induction of B-cell lymphoma by UVB Radiation in p53 Haploinsufficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over recent years. The exact etiology of lymphoma remains unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure has been associated with the development of internal lymphoid malignancies and some reports suggest that it may play a role in the development of lymphoma in humans. Here we describe the characterization and progression of lymphoma in p53 heterozygous mice exposed to UVB irradiation. Methods UVB-irradiated p53+/- mice developed enlargement of the spleen. Isolated spleen cells were transplanted into Rag deficient hosts. The UV-induced tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The tumor cells were tagged with GFP to study their metastatic potential. SKY and karyotypic analysis were carried out for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Functional assays included in vitro class switch recombination assay, immunoglobulin rearrangement assay, as well as cytokine profiling. Results UVB-exposed mice showed enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes. Cells transplanted into Rag deficient mice developed aggressive tumors that infiltrated the lymph nodes, the spleen and the bone marrow. The tumor cells did not grow in immune competent syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice yet showed a modest growth in UV-irradiated B6 mice. Phenotypic analysis of these tumor cells revealed these cells are positive for B cell markers CD19+, CD5+, B220+, IgM+ and negative for T cell, NK or dendritic cell markers. The UV-induced tumor cells underwent robust in vitro immunoglobulin class switch recombination in response to lipopolysaccharide. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a t(14;19 translocation and trisomy of chromosome 6. These tumor cells secret IL-10, which can promote tumor growth and cause systemic immunosuppression. Conclusion UV-irradiated p53+/- mice developed lymphoid tumors that corresponded to a mature B cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that an indirect mechanism is involved in the development of internal

  20. Induction of B-cell lymphoma by UVB Radiation in p53 Haploinsufficient Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puebla-Osorio, Nahum; Miyahara, Yasuko; Coimbatore, Sreevidya; Limón-Flores, Alberto Y; Kazimi, Nasser; Ullrich, Stephen E; Zhu, Chengming

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over recent years. The exact etiology of lymphoma remains unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure has been associated with the development of internal lymphoid malignancies and some reports suggest that it may play a role in the development of lymphoma in humans. Here we describe the characterization and progression of lymphoma in p53 heterozygous mice exposed to UVB irradiation. UVB-irradiated p53 +/- mice developed enlargement of the spleen. Isolated spleen cells were transplanted into Rag deficient hosts. The UV-induced tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The tumor cells were tagged with GFP to study their metastatic potential. SKY and karyotypic analysis were carried out for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Functional assays included in vitro class switch recombination assay, immunoglobulin rearrangement assay, as well as cytokine profiling. UVB-exposed mice showed enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes. Cells transplanted into Rag deficient mice developed aggressive tumors that infiltrated the lymph nodes, the spleen and the bone marrow. The tumor cells did not grow in immune competent syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice yet showed a modest growth in UV-irradiated B6 mice. Phenotypic analysis of these tumor cells revealed these cells are positive for B cell markers CD19 + , CD5 + , B220 + , IgM + and negative for T cell, NK or dendritic cell markers. The UV-induced tumor cells underwent robust in vitro immunoglobulin class switch recombination in response to lipopolysaccharide. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a t(14;19) translocation and trisomy of chromosome 6. These tumor cells secret IL-10, which can promote tumor growth and cause systemic immunosuppression. UV-irradiated p53 +/- mice developed lymphoid tumors that corresponded to a mature B cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that an indirect mechanism is involved in the development of internal tumors after chronic exposure to UV light. The

  1. Impaired spatial learning strategies and novel object recognition in mice haploinsufficient for the dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1A (Dyrk1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Arqué

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogenic aneuploidies involve the concept of dosage-sensitive genes leading to over- and underexpression phenotypes. Monosomy 21 in human leads to mental retardation and skeletal, immune and respiratory function disturbances. Most of the human condition corresponds to partial monosomies suggesting that critical haploinsufficient genes may be responsible for the phenotypes. The DYRK1A gene is localized on the human chromosome 21q22.2 region, and has been proposed to participate in monosomy 21 phenotypes. It encodes a dual-specificity kinase involved in neuronal development and in adult brain physiology, but its possible role as critical haploinsufficient gene in cognitive function has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used mice heterozygous for a Dyrk1A targeted mutation (Dyrk1A+/- to investigate the implication of this gene in the cognitive phenotypes of monosomy 21. Performance of Dyrk1A+/- mice was assayed 1/ in a navigational task using the standard hippocampally related version of the Morris water maze, 2/ in a swimming test designed to reveal potential kinesthetic and stress-related behavioral differences between control and heterozygous mice under two levels of aversiveness (25 degrees C and 17 degrees C and 3/ in a long-term novel object recognition task, sensitive to hippocampal damage. Dyrk1A+/- mice showed impairment in the development of spatial learning strategies in a hippocampally-dependent memory task, they were impaired in their novel object recognition ability and were more sensitive to aversive conditions in the swimming test than euploid control animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results are clear examples where removal of a single gene has a profound effect on phenotype and indicate that haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A might contribute to an impairment of cognitive functions and stress coping behavior in human monosomy 21.

  2. Haploinsufficiency of the retinoblastoma protein gene reduces diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Ribot, Joan; Murano, Incoronata

    2009-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue activity dissipates energy as heat, and there is evidence that lack of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) may favor the development of the brown adipocyte phenotype in adipose cells. In this work we assessed the impact of germ-line haploinsufficiency of the pRb gene (Rb) on the...... first evidence that partial deficiency in the Rb gene protects against the development of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Key words: brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, energy metabolism, genetic animal model....

  3. Role of MCT1 and CAII in skeletal muscle pH homeostasis, energetics, and function: in vivo insights from MCT1 haploinsufficient mice

    KAUST Repository

    Chatel, Benjamin; Bendahan, David; Hourdé , Christophe; Pellerin, Luc; Lengacher, Sylvain; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Bernard, Monique; Messonnier, Laurent A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a partial suppression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-1 on skeletal muscle pH, energetics, and function (MCT1(+/-) mice). Twenty-four MCT1(+/-) and 13 wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a rest-exercise-recovery protocol, allowing assessment of muscle energetics (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and function. The study included analysis of enzyme activities and content of protein involved in pH regulation. Skeletal muscle of MCT1(+/-) mice had lower MCT1 (-61%; P < 0.05) and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-II (-54%; P < 0.05) contents. Although intramuscular pH was higher in MCT1(+/-) mice at rest (P < 0.001), the mice showed higher acidosis during the first minute of exercise (P < 0.01). Then, the pH time course was similar among groups until exercise completion. MCT1(+/-) mice had higher specific peak (P < 0.05) and maximum tetanic (P < 0.01) forces and lower fatigability (P < 0.001) when compared to WT mice. We conclude that both MCT1 and CAII are involved in the homeostatic control of pH in skeletal muscle, both at rest and at the onset of exercise. The improved muscle function and resistance to fatigue in MCT1(+/-) mice remain unexplained.-Chatel, B., Bendahan, D., Hourdé, C., Pellerin, L., Lengacher, S., Magistretti, P., Fur, Y. L., Vilmen, C., Bernard, M., Messonnier, L. A. Role of MCT1 and CAII in skeletal muscle pH homeostasis, energetics, and function: in vivo insights from MCT1 haploinsufficient mice.

  4. Role of MCT1 and CAII in skeletal muscle pH homeostasis, energetics, and function: in vivo insights from MCT1 haploinsufficient mice

    KAUST Repository

    Chatel, Benjamin

    2017-03-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a partial suppression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-1 on skeletal muscle pH, energetics, and function (MCT1(+/-) mice). Twenty-four MCT1(+/-) and 13 wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a rest-exercise-recovery protocol, allowing assessment of muscle energetics (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and function. The study included analysis of enzyme activities and content of protein involved in pH regulation. Skeletal muscle of MCT1(+/-) mice had lower MCT1 (-61%; P < 0.05) and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-II (-54%; P < 0.05) contents. Although intramuscular pH was higher in MCT1(+/-) mice at rest (P < 0.001), the mice showed higher acidosis during the first minute of exercise (P < 0.01). Then, the pH time course was similar among groups until exercise completion. MCT1(+/-) mice had higher specific peak (P < 0.05) and maximum tetanic (P < 0.01) forces and lower fatigability (P < 0.001) when compared to WT mice. We conclude that both MCT1 and CAII are involved in the homeostatic control of pH in skeletal muscle, both at rest and at the onset of exercise. The improved muscle function and resistance to fatigue in MCT1(+/-) mice remain unexplained.-Chatel, B., Bendahan, D., Hourdé, C., Pellerin, L., Lengacher, S., Magistretti, P., Fur, Y. L., Vilmen, C., Bernard, M., Messonnier, L. A. Role of MCT1 and CAII in skeletal muscle pH homeostasis, energetics, and function: in vivo insights from MCT1 haploinsufficient mice.

  5. Haploinsufficiency of myostatin protects against aging-related declines in muscle function and enhances the longevity of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Christopher L; Bakhurin, Konstantin I; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Shallal-Ayzin, Mark V; Davis, Carol S; Faulkner, John A

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind aging-related declines in muscle function are not well understood, but the growth factor myostatin (MSTN) appears to play an important role in this process. Additionally, epidemiological studies have identified a positive correlation between skeletal muscle mass and longevity. Given the role of myostatin in regulating muscle size, and the correlation between muscle mass and longevity, we tested the hypotheses that the deficiency of myostatin would protect oldest-old mice (28-30 months old) from an aging-related loss in muscle size and contractility, and would extend the maximum lifespan of mice. We found that MSTN(+/-) and MSTN(-/-) mice were protected from aging-related declines in muscle mass and contractility. While no differences were detected between MSTN(+/+) and MSTN(-/-) mice, MSTN(+/-) mice had an approximately 15% increase in maximal lifespan. These results suggest that targeting myostatin may protect against aging-related changes in skeletal muscle and contribute to enhanced longevity. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7, a gene involved in neurodevelopment and risk for schizophrenia, show impaired attention, a vigilance decrement deficit and unstable cognitive processing in an attentional task: impact of minocycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, R L; Thomson, D M; Penninger, J M; Pratt, J A; Morris, B J

    2017-01-01

    Members of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and the upstream kinase MKK7, have all been strongly linked with synaptic plasticity and with the development of the neocortex. However, the impact of disruption of this pathway on cognitive function is unclear. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that reduced MKK7 expression is sufficient to cause cognitive impairment. Attentional function in mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7 (Map2k7 +/- mice) was investigated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once stable performance had been achieved, Map2k7 +/- mice showed a distinctive attentional deficit, in the form of an increased number of missed responses, accompanied by a more pronounced decrement in performance over time and elevated intra-individual reaction time variability. When performance was reassessed after administration of minocycline-a tetracycline antibiotic currently showing promise for the improvement of attentional deficits in patients with schizophrenia-signs of improvement in attentional performance were detected. Overall, Map2k7 haploinsufficiency causes a distinctive pattern of cognitive impairment strongly suggestive of an inability to sustain attention, in accordance with those seen in psychiatric patients carrying out similar tasks. This may be important for understanding the mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in clinical populations and highlights the possibility of treating some of these deficits with minocycline.

  7. Recql4 haploinsufficiency in mice leads to defects in osteoblast progenitors: Implications for low bone mass phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jieping; Murthy, Sreemala; Winata, Therry; Werner, Sean; Abe, Masumi; Prahalad, Agasanur K.; Hock, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie skeletal abnormalities in defective Recql4-related syndromes are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to explore the function of Recql4 in osteoblast biology both in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry on adult mouse bone showed Recql4 protein localization in active osteoblasts around growth plate, but not in fully differentiated osteocytes. Consistent with this finding, Recql4 gene expression was high in proliferating mouse osteoblastic MC3T3.E1 cells and decreased as cells progressively lost their proliferation activity during differentiation. Recql4 overexpression in osteoblastic cells exhibited higher proliferation activity, while its depletion impeded cell growth. In addition, bone marrow stromal cells from male Recql4+/- mice had fewer progenitor cells, including osteoprogenitors, indicated by reduced total fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-f) and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f colonies concomitant with reduced bone mass. These findings provide evidence that Recql4 functions as a regulatory protein during osteoprogenitor proliferation, a critical cellular event during skeleton development

  8. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  9. Genetic effects of feeding irradiated wheat to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalaxmi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of feeding irradiated wheat in mice on bone marrow and testis chromosomes, germ cell numbers and dominant lethal mutations were investigated. Feeding of freshly irradiated wheat resulted in significantly increased incidence of polyploid cells in bone marrow, aneuploid cells in testis, reduction in number of spermatogonia of types A, B and resting primary spermatocytes as well as a higher mutagenic index. Such a response was not observed when mice were fed stored irradiated wheat. Also there was no difference between the mice fed un-irradiated wheat and stored irradiated wheat. (author)

  10. Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls

  11. dcc Haploinsufficiency results in blunted sensitivity to cocaine enhancement of reward seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lauren M; Gifuni, Anthony J; McCrea, E Tess; Shizgal, Peter; Flores, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    Mesocortical dopamine connectivity continues to mature during adolescence. This protracted development confers increased vulnerability for environmental and genetic factors to disrupt mesocortical wiring and subsequently influence responses to drugs of abuse in adulthood. The netrin-1 receptor, DCC, orchestrates medial prefrontal cortex dopamine input during adolescence and dictates the functional organization of local circuitry. Haploinsufficiency of dcc results in increased dopamine innervation to the medial prefrontal cortex, which in turn leads to resilience against the behavioral activating effects of stimulant drugs. However, whether sensitivity to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse is also altered in dcc haploinsufficiency remains to be resolved. Here, we used the curve-shift method to measure cocaine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in adult dcc haploinsufficient mice and wild-type littermates. We found that dcc haploinsufficient mice acquire ICSS behavior at comparable stimulation parameters to wild-type controls. However, cocaine-induced potentiation of ICSS is significantly blunted in dcc haploinsufficient mice. These results are consistent with decreased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine and/or decreased proclivity to invest effort in the pursuit of reward in dcc haploinsufficient mice. Moreover, these findings suggest that DCC signaling determines adult susceptibility to drug abuse most likely by controlling prefrontal cortex development in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. YY1 Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Featuring Transcriptional and Chromatin Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriele, Michele; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Germain, Pierre-Luc

    2017-01-01

    that define a syndrome of cognitive impairment, behavioral alterations, intrauterine growth restriction, feeding problems, and various congenital malformations. Our combined clinical and molecular data define "YY1 syndrome" as a haploinsufficiency syndrome. Through immunoprecipitation of YY1-bound chromatin...... on the YY1-bound enhancers, underscoring a crucial role for YY1 in enhancer regulation. Collectively, these results define a clinical syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of YY1 through dysregulation of key transcriptional regulators....

  13. Independent feeding and metabolic actions of orexins in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkin, M; Stricker-Krongrad, A

    1998-12-18

    Orexin-A and orexin-B (OX peptides) are two putative products of a newly discovered secreted protein encoded by a mRNA restricted to neuronal cell bodies of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Because the activation of the LH can induce changes in energy balance, we wanted to investigate the actions of OX peptides on energy metabolism in mice. We injected male C57BL/6J mice with different doses (1, 3, and 10 nmol) of orexin-A and orexin-B into the third ventricle (i3vt). A single i3vt injection of orexin-A 3 h into the light period slightly stimulated feeding at the lowest dose only over the following 4 h (11 +/- 09 mg/mouse vs 80 +/- 13 mg/mouse, p energy utilization using indirect calorimetry. Single i3vt injection 3 h after light on, or just before dark onset, or in 4-h fasted mice resulted in increases in the metabolic rate. These effects were associated with decreases or increases in the respiratory quotient regarding the time of injection or the underlying metabolic state of the mice. The present findings provide direct evidence that OX peptides are more likely to be involved in the control of energy metabolism than of food intake in mice. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. PER1 Phosphorylation Specifies Feeding Rhythm in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organization of circadian behavior, physiology, and metabolism is important for human health. An S662G mutation in hPER2 has been linked to familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome (FASPS. Although the paralogous phosphorylation site S714 in PER1 is conserved in mice, its specific function in circadian organization remains unknown. Here, we find that the PER1S714G mutation accelerates the molecular feedback loop. Furthermore, hPER1S714G mice, but not hPER2S662G mice, exhibit peak time of food intake that is several hours before daily energy expenditure peaks. Both the advanced feeding behavior and the accelerated clock disrupt the phase of expression of several key metabolic regulators in the liver and adipose tissue. Consequently, hPER1S714G mice rapidly develop obesity on a high-fat diet. Our studies demonstrate that PER1 and PER2 are linked to different downstream pathways and that PER1 maintains coherence between the circadian clock and energy metabolism.

  15. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuytens, Kim; Tuand, Krizia; Fu, Quili; Stijnen, Pieter; Pruniau, Vincent; Meulemans, Sandra; Vankelecom, Hugo; Creemers, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea) have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH) genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH) signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  16. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nuytens

    Full Text Available Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  17. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  18. Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2013-09-01

    Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. © 2013.

  19. CXCL14 deficiency in mice attenuates obesity and inhibits feeding behavior in a novel environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Tanegashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CXCL14 is a chemoattractant for macrophages and immature dendritic cells. We recently reported that CXCL14-deficient (CXCL14(-/- female mice in the mixed background are protected from obesity-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The decreased macrophage infiltration into visceral adipose tissues and the increased insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle contributed to these phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive study for the body weight control of CXCL14(-/- mice in the C57BL/6 background. We show that both male and female CXCL14(-/- mice have a 7-11% lower body weight compared to CXCL14(+/- and CXCL14(+/+ mice in adulthood. This is mainly caused by decreased food intake, and not by increased energy expenditure or locomotor activity. Reduced body weight resulting from the CXCL14 deficiency was more pronounced in double mutant CXCL14(-/-ob/ob and CXCL14(-/-A(y mice. In the case of CXCL14(-/-A(y mice, oxygen consumption was increased compared to CXCL14(+/-A(y mice, in addition to the reduced food intake. In CXCL14(-/- mice, fasting-induced up-regulation of Npy and Agrp mRNAs in the hypothalamus was blunted. As intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant CXCL14 did not change the food intake of CXCL14(-/- mice, CXCL14 could indirectly regulate appetite. Intriguingly, the food intake of CXCL14(-/- mice was significantly repressed when mice were transferred to a novel environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that CXCL14 is involved in the body weight control leading to the fully obese phenotype in leptin-deficient or A(y mutant mice. In addition, we obtained evidence indicating that CXCL14 may play an important role in central nervous system regulation of feeding behavior.

  20. Visualizing non infectious and infectious Anopheles gambiae blood feedings in naive and saliva-immunized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Choumet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. METHODS: Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. RESULTS: The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%. A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. CONCLUSION: This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen

  1. Visualizing non infectious and infectious Anopheles gambiae blood feedings in naive and saliva-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumet, Valerie; Attout, Tarik; Chartier, Loïc; Khun, Huot; Sautereau, Jean; Robbe-Vincent, Annie; Brey, Paul; Huerre, Michel; Bain, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected) and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%). A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen transmission.

  2. Presence of pups suppresses hunger-induced feeding in virgin adult mice of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Li, Xing-Yu; Wang, Shao-Ran; Wei, Yi-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2017-10-24

    Despite recent progress on neural pathways underlying individual behaviors, how an animal balances and prioritizes behavioral outputs remains poorly understood. While studying the relationship between hunger-induced feeding and pup-induced maternal behaviors in virgin female mice, we made the unexpected discovery that presence of pups strongly delayed and decreased food consumption. Strikingly, presence of pups also suppressed feeding induced by optogenetic activation of Agrp neurons. Such a suppressive effect inversely correlated with the extents of maternal behaviors, but did not rely on the display of these behaviors, and was also present in virgin males. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of Vglut2+ neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region critical for maternal behaviors and motivation, was sufficient to suppress hunger-induced feeding. However, muscimol inhibition of the mPOA, while disrupting maternal behaviors, did not prevent pup suppression of feeding, indicating that neural pathways in other brain regions may also mediate such an effect. Together, these results provide novel insights into neural coordination of pup care and feeding in mice and organizations of animal behaviors in general. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Every-other-day feeding extends lifespan but fails to delay many symptoms of aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kan; Neff, Frauke; Markert, Astrid; Rozman, Jan; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Amarie, Oana Veronica; Becker, Lore; Brommage, Robert; Garrett, Lillian; Henzel, Kristin S; Hölter, Sabine M; Janik, Dirk; Lehmann, Isabelle; Moreth, Kristin; Pearson, Brandon L; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Ryan, Devon P; Schröder, Susanne; Treise, Irina; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ehninger, Gerhard; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Sandholzer, Michael; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Weiergräber, Marco; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Ehninger, Dan

    2017-07-24

    Dietary restriction regimes extend lifespan in various animal models. Here we show that longevity in male C57BL/6J mice subjected to every-other-day feeding is associated with a delayed onset of neoplastic disease that naturally limits lifespan in these animals. We compare more than 200 phenotypes in over 20 tissues in aged animals fed with a lifelong every-other-day feeding or ad libitum access to food diet to determine whether molecular, cellular, physiological and histopathological aging features develop more slowly in every-other-day feeding mice than in controls. We also analyze the effects of every-other-day feeding on young mice on shorter-term every-other-day feeding or ad libitum to account for possible aging-independent restriction effects. Our large-scale analysis reveals overall only limited evidence for a retardation of the aging rate in every-other-day feeding mice. The data indicate that every-other-day feeding-induced longevity is sufficiently explained by delays in life-limiting neoplastic disorders and is not associated with a more general slowing of the aging process in mice.Dietary restriction can extend the life of various model organisms. Here, Xie et al. show that intermittent periods of fasting achieved through every-other-day feeding protect mice against neoplastic disease but do not broadly delay organismal aging in animals.

  4. Prevalence of SHOX Haploinsufficiency among Short Statured Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marstrand-Joergensen, Maja Rou; Beck Jensen, Rikke; Aksglaede, Lise

    2017-01-01

    were recorded for patients with SHOX haploinsufficiency. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were excluded due to Turner syndrome (n=28), SRY-positive 46,XX male karyotype (n=1), or lacked clinical follow-up information (n=3).The prevalence of SHOX haploinsufficiency was nine out of 542 (1.7%). The nine......=0.046, after one year of GH treatment. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SHOX haploinsufficiency was 1.7%. The clinical findings indicating SHOX haploinsufficiency among the nine children were disproportionate short stature and forearm anomalies....

  5. Entrainment to feeding but not to light: circadian phenotype of VPAC2 receptor-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheward, W John; Maywood, Elizabeth S; French, Karen L; Horn, Jacqueline M; Hastings, Michael H; Seckl, Jonathan R; Holmes, Megan C; Harmar, Anthony J

    2007-04-18

    The master clock driving mammalian circadian rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and entrained by daily light/dark cycles. SCN lesions abolish circadian rhythms of behavior and result in a loss of synchronized circadian rhythms of clock gene expression in peripheral organs (e.g., the liver) and of hormone secretion (e.g., corticosterone). We examined rhythms of behavior, hepatic clock gene expression, and corticosterone secretion in VPAC2 receptor-null (Vipr2-/-) mice, which lack a functional SCN clock. Unexpectedly, although Vipr2-/- mice lacked robust circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity and corticosterone secretion, hepatic clock gene expression was strongly rhythmic, but advanced in phase compared with that in wild-type mice. The timing of food availability is thought to be an important entrainment signal for circadian clocks outside the SCN. Vipr2-/- mice consumed food significantly earlier in the 24 h cycle than wild-type mice, consistent with the observed timing of peripheral rhythms of circadian gene expression. When restricted to feeding only during the daytime (RF), mice develop rhythms of activity and of corticosterone secretion in anticipation of feeding time, thought to be driven by a food-entrainable circadian oscillator, located outside the SCN. Under RF, mice of both genotypes developed food-anticipatory rhythms of activity and corticosterone secretion, and hepatic gene expression rhythms also became synchronized to the RF stimulus. Thus, food intake is an effective zeitgeber capable of coordinating circadian rhythms of behavior, peripheral clock gene expression, and hormone secretion, even in the absence of a functional SCN clock.

  6. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Partial Tmem106b reduction does not correct abnormalities due to progranulin haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Nicholson, Alexandra M; Zhou, Xiaolai; Rademakers, Rosa; Roberson, Erik D

    2018-06-22

    Loss of function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that localizes to lysosomes and is critical for proper lysosomal function. Heterozygous GRN mutation carriers develop FTD with TDP-43 pathology and exhibit signs of lysosomal dysfunction in the brain, with increased levels of lysosomal proteins and lipofuscin accumulation. Homozygous GRN mutation carriers develop neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), an earlier-onset lysosomal storage disorder caused by severe lysosomal dysfunction. Multiple genome-wide association studies have shown that risk of FTD in GRN mutation carriers is modified by polymorphisms in TMEM106B, which encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. Risk alleles of TMEM106B may increase TMEM106B levels through a variety of mechanisms. Brains from FTD patients with GRN mutations exhibit increased TMEM106B expression, and protective TMEM106B polymorphisms are associated with decreased TMEM106B expression. Together, these data raise the possibility that reduction of TMEM106B levels may protect against the pathogenic effects of progranulin haploinsufficiency. We crossed Tmem106b +/- mice with Grn +/- mice, which model the progranulin haploinsufficiency of GRN mutation carriers and develop age-dependent social deficits and lysosomal abnormalities in the brain. We tested whether partial Tmem106b reduction could normalize the social deficits and lysosomal abnormalities of Grn +/- mice. Partial reduction of Tmem106b levels did not correct the social deficits of Grn +/- mice. Tmem106b reduction also failed to normalize most lysosomal abnormalities of Grn +/- mice, except for β-glucuronidase activity, which was suppressed by Tmem106b reduction and increased by progranulin insufficiency. These data do not support the hypothesis that Tmem106b reduction protects against the pathogenic effects of progranulin haploinsufficiency, but do show that Tmem106b reduction normalizes some

  8. The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharni Sadi; Umar, Hasibuan; Jenny, M.; Adria, P.M.; Murni Indrawatmi

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 6 0Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

  9. Growth and development of male "little" mice assessed with Parks' theory of feeding and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Rodolfo C; Alloatti, Rosa; Chapo, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    This work was designed to characterize the appetite kinetics and growth of male C57BL/6J (lit) mice. Those variables were assessed with Parks' function of ad libitum feeding and growth. Heterozygous mice (lit/+) attained their mature weight at 12-15 weeks of age, peak growth rate (3.5 g/week) at 5 weeks and displayed the normal decay of food conversion efficiency as a function of age. The homozygous genotype has a chronic defect in the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH). Homozygous mice could not be assessed with Park's function. From the 4th to the 15th week of age, body weight increased linearly and exhibited constant food conversion efficiency. Food intake of both genotypes was commensurate with their body weights. Lit/lit mice became progressively obese. At 40 weeks of age, body fat of lit/lit mice was fivefold that of lit/+ and their body weight was similar to their heterozygous controls. The chronic deficiency of growth hormone produced a lower bone mass (compared to heterozygous controls). Bone mass of both genotypes attained maturity at 12-15 weeks with a maximum growth rate at 5 weeks. Body weight and bone mass grow harmoniously in lit/+ but not in lit/lit mice.

  10. Every-other-day feeding extends lifespan but fails to delay many symptoms of aging in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Kan; Neff, Frauke; Markert, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    that every-other-day feeding-induced longevity is sufficiently explained by delays in life-limiting neoplastic disorders and is not associated with a more general slowing of the aging process in mice.Dietary restriction can extend the life of various model organisms. Here, Xie et al. show that intermittent...... periods of fasting achieved through every-other-day feeding protect mice against neoplastic disease but do not broadly delay organismal aging in animals....

  11. Gad67 haploinsufficiency reduces amyloid pathology and rescues olfactory memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Zheng; Bai, Yu-Ting; Wu, Gang-Yi; Chen, Gong

    2017-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, affecting millions of people worldwide. Although dysfunction of multiple neurotransmitter systems including cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic systems has been associated with AD progression the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We and others have recently found that GABA content is elevated in AD brains and linked to cognitive deficits in AD mouse models. The glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) is the major enzyme converting glutamate into GABA and has been implied in a number of neurological disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. However, whether Gad67 is involved in AD pathology has not been well studied. Here, we investigate the functional role of GAD67 in an AD mouse model with Gad67 haploinsufficiency that is caused by replacing one allele of Gad67 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene during generation of GAD67-GFP mice. To genetically reduce GAD67 in AD mouse brains, we crossed the Gad67 haploinsufficient mice (GAD67-GFP +/- ) with 5xFAD mice (harboring 5 human familial AD mutations in APP and PS1 genes) to generate a new line of bigenic mice. Immunostaining, ELISA, electrophysiology and behavior test were applied to compare the difference between groups. We found that reduction of GAD67 resulted in a significant decrease of amyloid β production in 5xFAD mice. Concurrently, the abnormal astrocytic GABA and tonic GABA currents, as well as the microglial reactivity were significantly reduced in the 5xFAD mice with Gad67 haploinsufficiency. Importantly, the olfactory memory deficit of 5xFAD mice was rescued by Gad67 haploinsufficiency. Our results demonstrate that GAD67 plays an important role in AD pathology, suggesting that GAD67 may be a potential drug target for modulating the progress of AD.

  12. SERCA2 Haploinsufficiency in a Mouse Model of Darier Disease Causes a Selective Predisposition to Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Null mutations in one copy of ATP2A2, the gene encoding sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2, cause Darier disease in humans, a skin condition involving keratinocytes. Cardiac function appears to be unimpaired in Darier disease patients, with no evidence that SERCA2 haploinsufficiency itself causes heart disease. However, SERCA2 deficiency is widely considered a contributing factor in heart failure. We therefore analyzed Atp2a2 heterozygous mice to determine whether SERCA2 haploinsufficiency can exacerbate specific heart disease conditions. Despite reduced SERCA2a levels in heart, Atp2a2 heterozygous mice resembled humans in exhibiting normal cardiac physiology. When subjected to hypothyroidism or crossed with a transgenic model of reduced myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity, SERCA2 deficiency caused no enhancement of the disease state. However, when combined with a transgenic model of increased myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity, SERCA2 haploinsufficiency caused rapid onset of hypertrophy, decompensation, and death. These effects were associated with reduced expression of the antiapoptotic Hax1, increased levels of the proapoptotic genes Chop and Casp12, and evidence of perturbations in energy metabolism. These data reveal myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity to be an important determinant of the cardiac effects of SERCA2 haploinsufficiency and raise the possibility that Darier disease patients are more susceptible to heart failure under certain conditions.

  13. Hard-Diet Feeding Recovers Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone and Olfactory Functions of Mice Impaired by Soft-Diet Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Chizuru; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Osada, Kazumi; Sasajima, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Matsuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) generates an immense number of neurons even during adulthood. These neurons migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and differentiate into granule cells and periglomerular cells. The information broadcast by general odorants is received by the olfactory sensory neurons and transmitted to the OB. Recent studies have shown that a reduction of mastication impairs both neurogenesis in the hippocampus and brain functions. To examine these effects, we first measured the difference in Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) at the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Pr5), which receives intraoral touch information via the trigeminal nerve, when female adult mice ingested a hard or soft diet to explore whether soft-diet feeding could mimic impaired mastication. Ingestion of a hard diet induced greater expression of Fos-ir cells at the Pr5 than did a soft diet or no diet. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (BrdU-ir) structures in sagittal sections of the SVZ and in the OB of mice fed a soft or hard diet were studied to explore the effects of changes in mastication on newly generated neurons. After 1 month, the density of BrdU-ir cells in the SVZ and OB was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The odor preferences of individual female mice to butyric acid were tested in a Y-maze apparatus. Avoidance of butyric acid was reduced by the soft-diet feeding. We then explored the effects of the hard-diet feeding on olfactory functions and neurogenesis in the SVZ of mice impaired by soft-diet feeding. At 3 months of hard-diet feeding, avoidance of butyric acid was reversed and responses to odors and neurogenesis were recovered in the SVZ. The present results suggest that feeding with a hard diet improves neurogenesis in the SVZ, which in turn enhances olfactory function at the OB. PMID:24817277

  14. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Ren

    Full Text Available Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect.The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve were examined.Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD or cesarean delivery (CD for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T(Treg cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated.Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes.CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells.

  15. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-jun; Yu, Zhao; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lv, Dan; Hung, Shi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Liu, Shi-Xi; Zhang, Nan; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect. The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve) were examined. Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA) to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T(Treg) cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated. Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes. CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells.

  16. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves the control of secondary experimental meningococcal infection in flu-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Taha, Muhamed-Kkeir

    2018-04-10

    The use of probiotics to improve anti-microbial defence, such as for influenza infections, is increasingly recommended. However, no data are available on the effect of probiotics on flu-associated secondary bacterial infections. There is strong evidence of a spatiotemporal association between influenza virus infection and invasive Neisseria meningitidis. We thus investigated the effect of feeding mice Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a mouse model of sequential influenza-meningococcal infection. We intranasally infected BALB/c mice with a strain of influenza A virus (IAV) H3N2 that was first adapted to mice. Seven days later, a secondary bacterial infection was induced by intranasal administration of bioluminescent N. meningitidis. During the experiment, mice orally received either L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 or PBS as a control. The effect of L. paracasei administration on secondary bacterial infection by N. meningitidis was evaluated. Oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduced the weight loss of infected mice and lowered the bioluminescent signal of infecting meningococci. This improvement was associated with higher recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells, such as interstitial monocytes and dendritic cells, to the lungs. Our data highlight the role of the gut-lung axis. L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 may boost the defence against IAV infection and secondary bacterial infection, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials.

  17. High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Liang; Sonne, Si Brask; Feng, Qiang; Chen, Ning; Xia, Zhongkui; Li, Xiaoping; Fang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Dongya; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Derrien, Muriel; Hugenholtz, Floor; Tang, Longqing; Li, Junhua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Chuan; Hao, Qin; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Mortensen, Alicja; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Licht, Tine Rask; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Li, Yingrui; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear. To dissociate changes in the gut microbiota associated with high HF feeding from those

  18. Tsc2 Haploinsufficiency Has Limited Effects on Fetal Brain Cytokine Levels during Gestational Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ehninger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated TSC/mTOR signaling may play a pathogenetic role in forms of syndromic autism, such as autism associated with tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder caused by heterozygous TSC1 or TSC2 mutations. Environmental risk factors, such as gestational viral infections, may, in some cases, also contribute to the pathogenesis of autism and related neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently found that a heterozygous Tsc2 mutation and the poly I:C model of maternal immune activation (MIA interactively perturb fetal development and adult social behavior in mice, suggesting that these factors converge on shared pathways. TSC/mTOR signaling plays an important role in the modulation of immune responses, raising the possibility that the damage caused by MIA was greater in Tsc2+/− than in wildtype fetuses because of an exacerbated immune response in the mutants. Here, cytokine antibody arrays were employed to measure relative cytokine abundances in the fetal brain and the placenta during MIA. Cytokines were induced by gestational poly I:C but there was no obvious modulatory effect of Tsc2 haploinsufficiency. The data indicate that cytokine exposure during MIA is comparable in Tsc2 haploinsufficient and wildtype control fetuses, suggesting that downstream molecular and cellular processes may account for the interactive effects of Tsc2 haploinsufficiency and MIA.

  19. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  20. High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Sonne, Si Brask; Feng, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    feeding rather than obesity development led to distinct changes in the gut microbiota. We observed a robust increase in alpha diversity, gene count, abundance of genera known to be butyrate producers, and abundance of genes involved in butyrate production in Sv129 mice compared to BL6 mice fed either a LF......Background: It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear. To dissociate changes in the gut microbiota associated with high HF feeding from those......-induced obesity, but in Sv129 mice accentuates obesity.Results: Using HiSeq-based whole genome sequencing, we identified taxonomic and functional differences in the gut microbiota of the two mouse strains fed regular low-fat or HF diets with or without supplementation with the COX-inhibitor, indomethacin. HF...

  1. High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Sonne, Si Brask; Feng, Qiang; Chen, Ning; Xia, Zhongkui; Li, Xiaoping; Fang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Dongya; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Derrien, Muriel; Hugenholtz, Floor; Tang, Longqing; Li, Junhua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Chuan; Hao, Qin; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Mortensen, Alicja; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Licht, Tine Rask; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Li, Yingrui; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-04-08

    It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear. To dissociate changes in the gut microbiota associated with high HF feeding from those associated with obesity, we took advantage of the different susceptibility of C57BL/6JBomTac (BL6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (Sv129) mice to diet-induced obesity and of their different responses to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, where inhibition of COX activity in BL6 mice prevents HF diet-induced obesity, but in Sv129 mice accentuates obesity. Using HiSeq-based whole genome sequencing, we identified taxonomic and functional differences in the gut microbiota of the two mouse strains fed regular low-fat or HF diets with or without supplementation with the COX-inhibitor, indomethacin. HF feeding rather than obesity development led to distinct changes in the gut microbiota. We observed a robust increase in alpha diversity, gene count, abundance of genera known to be butyrate producers, and abundance of genes involved in butyrate production in Sv129 mice compared to BL6 mice fed either a LF or a HF diet. Conversely, the abundance of genes involved in propionate metabolism, associated with increased energy harvest, was higher in BL6 mice than Sv129 mice. The changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were predominantly driven by high-fat feeding rather than reflecting the obese state of the mice. Differences in the abundance of butyrate and propionate producing bacteria in the gut may at least in part contribute to the observed differences in obesity propensity in Sv129 and BL6 mice.

  2. Dietary Feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaiya Velmurugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. Female APCmin/+ mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51% and distal (49% portions compared with the proximal one. GSE also decreased polyp growth where the number of polyps of 1 to 2 mm in size decreased by 42% and greater than 2 mm in size by 71%, without any significant change in polyps less than 1 mm in size. Immunohistochemical analyses of small intestinal tissue samples revealed a decrease (80%–86% in cell proliferation and an increase (four- to eight-fold in apoptosis. GSE feeding also showed decreased protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (56%–64%, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (58%–60%, and β-catenin (43%–59% but an increased Cip1/p21-positive cells (1.9- to 2.6-fold. GSE also decreased cyclin D1 and c-Myc protein levels in small intestine. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive potential of GSE against intestinal polyp formation and growth in APCmin/+ mice, which was accompanied with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis together with down-regulation in COX-2, iNOS, β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression, but increased Cip1/p21. In conclusion, the present study suggests potential usefulness of GSE for the chemoprevention of human intestinal/colorectal cancer.

  3. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  4. Gender Differences in Response to Prolonged Every-Other-Day Feeding on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Tarnowski, Maciej; Zgutka, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2016-03-19

    Intermittent fasting decreases glucose and insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity and lifespan. Decreased food intake influences the liver. Previous studies have shown gender differences in response to various types of caloric restriction, including every-other-day (EOD) feeding, in humans and rodents. Our goal was to show the influence of prolonged EOD feeding on the morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of livers from male and female mice. After nine months of an EOD diet, the livers from male and female mice were collected. We examined their morphology on histological slides using the Hematoxilin and Eosine (H_E) method and Hoechst staining of cell nuclei to evaluate the nuclear area of hepatocytes. We also evaluated the expression of mRNA for proto-oncogens, pro-survival proteins and apoptotic markers using Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We noted increased lipid content in the livers of EOD fed female mice. EOD feeding lead to a decrease of proliferation and apoptosis in the livers of female and male mice, which suggest that tissue maintenance occurred during EOD feeding. Our experiment revealed sex-specific expression of mRNA for proto-oncogenes and pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes in mice as well as sex-specific responses to the EOD treatment.

  5. Gender Differences in Response to Prolonged Every-Other-Day Feeding on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Piotrowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting decreases glucose and insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity and lifespan. Decreased food intake influences the liver. Previous studies have shown gender differences in response to various types of caloric restriction, including every-other-day (EOD feeding, in humans and rodents. Our goal was to show the influence of prolonged EOD feeding on the morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of livers from male and female mice. After nine months of an EOD diet, the livers from male and female mice were collected. We examined their morphology on histological slides using the Hematoxilin and Eosine (H_E method and Hoechst staining of cell nuclei to evaluate the nuclear area of hepatocytes. We also evaluated the expression of mRNA for proto-oncogens, pro-survival proteins and apoptotic markers using Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR. We noted increased lipid content in the livers of EOD fed female mice. EOD feeding lead to a decrease of proliferation and apoptosis in the livers of female and male mice, which suggest that tissue maintenance occurred during EOD feeding. Our experiment revealed sex-specific expression of mRNA for proto-oncogenes and pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes in mice as well as sex-specific responses to the EOD treatment.

  6. Restricted temporal access to food and anorexia in mice: Microstructure of eating within feeding opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Neil E; Cervantez, Melissa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-01-01

    Intake and body weight were recorded in a closed economy as male and female C57BL/6 mice progressed through either fixed interval (FI) or fixed unit price (FUP) schedules of cost for 20-mg food pellets. Access to food was constrained to four 40 min food opportunities (FOs) per day, spaced 4-h apart through the dark phase. Nose poke responses and pellet deliveries were collected at 10-s resolution to allow pellet-by-pellet analysis. In the FI protocol, mice maintained adequate food intake and body weight through the study, even though at the highest FI (50-s) they spent the entire 40-min FOs engaged in eating at or near the maximum rate allowed by the schedule. In the FUP protocol, mice greatly reduced their intake and lost weight at the highest FUP (50 responses/pellet). The analysis of response and pellet distributions showed these mice were not filling the FOs with responding and ate less at dusk (FO #1) and dawn (FO #4) than at FOs #2 and 3 in the middle of the night. The principal, and unexpected, sex difference was that females tended to eat more than males despite lower body weight, but behavioral changes as a function of feeding cost or schedule were qualitatively similar in both sexes. These results show that slow eating as imposed by an FI is not sufficient to produce hypophagia and, in the FUP protocol, hypophagia cannot be explained by slowed eating due to response requirements. We discuss the role of effort or time in FUP-induced anorexia, and suggest this murine model may emulate some aspects of human anorexia nervosa better than current activity-based protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IGF-1 receptor haploinsufficiency leads to age-dependent development of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sachin; Garg, Neha; Zhang, Ning; Hussey, Sophie E; Musi, Nicolas; Adamo, Martin L

    2017-05-13

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome later in life. IGF-1 resistance has been reported in placentae from SGA births and mutations in the Igf1 receptor gene have been reported in several cohorts of SGA subjects. We have used the Igf1r heterozygous (Igf1r +/- ) male mouse as a model to investigate the mechanisms by which Igf1r haploinsufficiency leads to insulin resistance. Despite exhibiting IGF-1 resistance, insulin signaling is enhanced in young Igf1r +/- mice but is attenuated in the muscle of old Igf1r +/- mice. Although smaller than WT (wild type) mice, old-aged Igf1r +/- had increased adiposity and exhibit increased lipogenesis. We hypothesize that IGF-1 resistance initially causes a transient increase in insulin signaling thereby promoting a lipogenic phenotype, which subsequently leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ... to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin.......05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P glucose and insulin concentrations...

  9. Haplo-insufficiency of both BubR1 and SGO1 accelerates cellular senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hyun Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spindle assembly checkpoint components BubR1 and Sgo1 play a key role in the maintenance of chromosomal instability during cell division. These proteins function to block the anaphase entry until all condensed chromosomes have been attached by the microtubules emanating from both spindle poles. Haplo-insufficiency of either BubR1 or SGO1 results in enhanced chromosomal instability and tumor development in the intestine. Recent studies show that spindle checkpoint proteins also have a role in slowing down the ageing process. Therefore, we want to study whether haplo-insufficiency of both BubR1 and SGO1 accelerates cellular senescence in mice. Methods We took advantage of the availability of BubR1 and SGO1 knockout mice and generated primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs with mutations in either BubR1, SGO1, or both and analyzed cellular senescence of the MEFs of various genetic backgrounds. Results We observed that BubR1 +/− SGO +/− MEFs had an accelerated cellular senescence characterized by morphological changes and expressed senescence-associated β-galactosidase. In addition, compared with wild-type MEFs or MEFs with a single gene deficiency, BubR1 +/− SGO1 +/− MEFs expressed enhanced levels of p21 but not p16. Conclusions Taken together, our observations suggest that combined deficiency of BubR1 and Sgo1 accelerates cellular senescence.

  10. Haploinsufficiency for Core Exon Junction Complex Components Disrupts Embryonic Neurogenesis and Causes p53-Mediated Microcephaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqian Mao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exon junction complex (EJC is an RNA binding complex comprised of the core components Magoh, Rbm8a, and Eif4a3. Human mutations in EJC components cause neurodevelopmental pathologies. Further, mice heterozygous for either Magoh or Rbm8a exhibit aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly. Yet despite the requirement of these genes for neurodevelopment, the pathogenic mechanisms linking EJC dysfunction to microcephaly remain poorly understood. Here we employ mouse genetics, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to demonstrate that haploinsufficiency for each of the 3 core EJC components causes microcephaly via converging regulation of p53 signaling. Using a new conditional allele, we first show that Eif4a3 haploinsufficiency phenocopies aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly of Magoh and Rbm8a mutant mice. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of embryonic brains at the onset of neurogenesis identifies common pathways altered in each of the 3 EJC mutants, including ribosome, proteasome, and p53 signaling components. We further demonstrate all 3 mutants exhibit defective splicing of RNA regulatory proteins, implying an EJC dependent RNA regulatory network that fine-tunes gene expression. Finally, we show that genetic ablation of one downstream pathway, p53, significantly rescues microcephaly of all 3 EJC mutants. This implicates p53 activation as a major node of neurodevelopmental pathogenesis following EJC impairment. Altogether our study reveals new mechanisms to help explain how EJC mutations influence neurogenesis and underlie neurodevelopmental disease.

  11. The ERa-PI3K cascade in proopiomelanocortin progenitor neurons regulates feeding and glucose balance in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens act upon estrogen receptor (ER)a to inhibit feeding and improve glucose homeostasis in female animals. However, the intracellular signals that mediate these estrogenic actions remain unknown. Here, we report that anorexigenic effects of estrogens are blunted in female mice that lack ERa sp...

  12. Effect of myostatin depletion on weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis during five months of high-fat feeding in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Burgess

    Full Text Available The marked hypermuscularity in mice with constitutive myostatin deficiency reduces fat accumulation and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat feeding, but it is unclear whether the smaller increase in muscle mass caused by postdevelopmental loss of myostatin activity has beneficial metabolic effects during high-fat feeding. We therefore examined how postdevelopmental myostatin knockout influenced effects of high-fat feeding. Male mice with ubiquitous expression of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase were fed tamoxifen for 2 weeks at 4 months of age. This depleted myostatin in mice with floxed myostatin genes, but not in control mice with normal myostatin genes. Some mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% of energy for 22 weeks, starting 2 weeks after cessation of tamoxifen feeding. Myostatin depletion increased skeletal muscle mass ∼30%. Hypermuscular mice had ∼50% less weight gain than control mice over the first 8 weeks of high-fat feeding. During the subsequent 3 months of high-fat feeding, additional weight gain was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice. After 5 months of high-fat feeding, the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice even though myostatin depletion reduced the weight gain attributable to the high-fat diet (mean weight with high-fat diet minus mean weight with low-fat diet: 19.9 g in control mice, 14.1 g in myostatin-deficient mice. Myostatin depletion did not alter fasting blood glucose levels after 3 or 5 months of high-fat feeding, but reduced glucose levels measured 90 min after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Myostatin depletion also attenuated hepatic steatosis and accumulation of fat in muscle tissue. We conclude that blocking myostatin signaling after maturity can attenuate some of the adverse effects of a high-fat diet.

  13. Neural correlates of food anticipatory activity in mice subjected to once- or twice-daily feeding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Mintz, Eric M

    2017-10-01

    In rodents, restricted food access to a limited period each day at a predictable time results in the appearance of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Two shorter periods of food access each day can result in two FAA bouts. In this study, we examine FAA under 12:12 and 18:6 photoperiods in mice (Mus musculus) with one or two food access periods per day and measure the activation of the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei by assaying Fos protein expression, while making use of tissue-type plasminogen activator knockout mice to assess the role of neural plasticity in adaptation to restricted feeding cycles. Long days were utilised to allow for temporal separation of two restricted feeding periods during the light phase. Mice fed twice per day generally divided FAA into two distinct bouts, with mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator showing reduced FAA. Increases in Fos expression in response to one restricted feeding period per day were seen in the dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei in both 12:12 and 18:6 conditions, with an increase seen in the SCN in only the 12:12 condition. These increases were eliminated or reduced in the two feeding time conditions (done in 18:6 only). Both activity patterns and Fos expression differed for single restricted feeding times between 18:6 and 12:12 photoperiods. Fos activation was lower during RF in 18:6 than 12:12 across all three brain regions, a pattern not reflective of changes in FAA. These data suggest that involvement of these regions in FAA may be influenced by photoperiodic context. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Transgenic Mice Expressing Yeast CUP1 Exhibit Increased Copper Utilization from Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenliang; Liao, Rongrong; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Wang, Qishan; Pan, Yuchun

    2014-01-01

    Copper is required for structural and catalytic properties of a variety of enzymes participating in many vital biological processes for growth and development. Feeds provide most of the copper as an essential micronutrient consumed by animals, but inorganic copper could not be utilized effectively. In the present study, we aimed to develop transgenic mouse models to test if copper utilization will be increased by providing the animals with an exogenous gene for generation of copper chelatin in saliva. Considering that the S. cerevisiae CUP1 gene encodes a Cys-rich protein that can bind copper as specifically as copper chelatin in yeast, we therefore constructed a transgene plasmid containing the CUP1 gene regulated for specific expression in the salivary glands by a promoter of gene coding pig parotid secretory protein. Transgenic CUP1 was highly expressed in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands and secreted in saliva as a 9-kDa copper-chelating protein. Expression of salivary copper-chelating proteins reduced fecal copper contents by 21.61% and increased body-weight by 12.97%, suggesting that chelating proteins improve the utilization and absorbed efficacy of copper. No negative effects on the health of the transgenic mice were found by blood biochemistry and histology analysis. These results demonstrate that the introduction of the salivary CUP1 transgene into animals offers a possible approach to increase the utilization efficiency of copper and decrease the fecal copper contents. PMID:25265503

  15. Three months of high-fructose feeding fails to induce excessive weight gain or leptin resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Tillman

    Full Text Available High-fructose diets have been implicated in obesity via impairment of leptin signaling in humans and rodents. We investigated whether fructose-induced leptin resistance in mice could be used to study the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in humans, particularly in children and adolescents. Male C57Bl/6 mice were weaned to a randomly assigned diet: high fructose, high sucrose, high fat, or control (sugar-free, low-fat. Mice were maintained on their diets for at least 14 weeks. While fructose-fed mice regularly consumed more kcal and expended more energy, there was no difference in body weight compared to control by the end of the study. Additionally, after 14 weeks, both fructose-fed and control mice displayed similar leptin sensitivity. Fructose-feeding also did not change circulating glucose, triglycerides, or free fatty acids. Though fructose has been linked to obesity in several animal models, our data fail to support a role for fructose intake through food lasting 3 months in altering of body weight and leptin signaling in mice. The lack of impact of fructose in the food of growing mice on either body weight or leptin sensitivity over this time frame was surprising, and important information for researchers interested in fructose and body weight regulation.

  16. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William

    2013-01-01

    Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  17. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kopsida

    Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  18. Further confirmation of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haelst, M.M.; Monroe, G.R.; Duran, K.J.; van Binsbergen, E.; Breur, J.M.P.J.; Giltay, J.C.; van Haaften, G.W.

    MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome has been described in two patients and is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), conotruncal heart defects, facial abnormalities and hypotonia. Missense mutations in MED13L are linked to transposition of the great arteries and non-syndromal

  19. Feeding period restriction alters the expression of peripheral circadian rhythm genes without changing body weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagoon Jang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD or a high-fat diet (HFD. In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.

  20. Dkk1 haploinsufficiency requires expression of Bmp2 for bone anabolic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures remain a serious health burden and prevention and enhanced healing of fractures has been obtained by augmenting either BMP or Wnt signaling. However, whether BMP and Wnt signaling are both required or are self-sufficient for anabolic and fracture healing activities has never been fully elucidated. Mice haploinsufficient for Dkk1 (Dkk1+/−) exhibit a high bone mass phenotype due to an up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling while mice lacking Bmp2 expression in the limbs (Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre) succumb to spontaneous fracture and are unable to initiate fracture healing; combined, these mice offer an opportunity to examine the requirement for activated BMP signaling on the anabolic and fracture healing activity of Wnts. When Dkk1+/− mice were crossed with Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre mice, the offspring bearing both genetic alterations were unable to increase bone mass and heal fractures, indicating that increased canonical Wnt signaling is unable to exploit its activity in absence of Bmp2. Thus, our data suggest that BMP signaling is required for Wnt-mediated anabolic activity and that therapies aimed at preventing fractures and fostering fracture repair may need to target both pathways for maximal efficacy. PMID:25603465

  1. Oral feeding with polyunsaturated fatty acids fosters hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis in healthy and bone marrow-transplanted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbkar, Kedar; Dhenge, Ankita; Jadhav, Dipesh D; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kale, Vaijayanti; Limaye, Lalita

    2017-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells play the vital role of maintaining appropriate levels of cells in blood. Therefore, regulation of their fate is essential for their effective therapeutic use. Here we report the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in regulating hematopoiesis which has not been explored well so far. Mice were fed daily for 10 days with n-6/n-3 PUFAs, viz. linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in four separate test groups with phosphate-buffered saline fed mice as control set. The bone marrow cells of PUFA-fed mice showed a significantly higher hematopoiesis as assessed using side population, Lin-Sca-1 + ckit+, colony-forming unit (CFU), long-term culture, CFU-spleen assay and engraftment potential as compared to the control set. Thrombopoiesis was also stimulated in PUFA-fed mice. A combination of DHA and AA was found to be more effective than when either was fed individually. Higher incorporation of PUFAs as well as products of their metabolism was observed in the bone marrow cells of PUFA-fed mice. A stimulation of the Wnt, CXCR4 and Notch1 pathways was observed in PUFA-fed mice. The clinical relevance of this study was evident when bone marrow-transplanted recipient mice, which were fed with PUFAs, showed higher engraftment of donor cells, suggesting that the bone marrow microenvironment may also be stimulated by feeding with PUFAs. These data indicate that oral administration of PUFAs in mice stimulates hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis and could serve as a valuable supplemental therapy in situations of hematopoietic failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Sonne, Si Brask; Feng, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear. To dissociate changes in the gut microbiota associated with high HF feeding from those...... associated with obesity, we took advantage of the different susceptibility of C57BL/6JBomTac (BL6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (Sv129) mice to diet-induced obesity and of their different responses to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, where inhibition of COX activity in BL6 mice prevents HF diet......-induced obesity, but in Sv129 mice accentuates obesity.Results: Using HiSeq-based whole genome sequencing, we identified taxonomic and functional differences in the gut microbiota of the two mouse strains fed regular low-fat or HF diets with or without supplementation with the COX-inhibitor, indomethacin. HF...

  3. Inflammatory Signals shift from adipose to liver during high fat feeding and influence the development of steatohepatitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfeder Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and inflammation are highly integrated processes in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory events during high fat diet-induced obesity are poorly defined in mouse models of obesity. This work investigated gene activation signals integral to the temporal development of obesity. Methods Gene expression analysis in multiple organs from obese mice was done with Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA using a panel of 92 genes representing cell markers, cytokines, chemokines, metabolic, and activation genes. Mice were monitored for systemic changes characteristic of the disease, including hyperinsulinemia, body weight, and liver enzymes. Liver steatosis and fibrosis as well as cellular infiltrates in liver and adipose tissues were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Obese C57BL/6 mice were fed with high fat and cholesterol diet (HFC for 6, 16 and 26 weeks. Here we report that the mRNA levels of macrophage and inflammation associated genes were strongly upregulated at different time points in adipose tissues (6-16 weeks and liver (16-26 weeks, after the start of HFC feeding. CD11b+ and CD11c+ macrophages highly infiltrated HFC liver at 16 and 26 weeks. We found clear evidence that signals for IL-1β, IL1RN, TNF-α and TGFβ-1 are present in both adipose and liver tissues and that these are linked to the development of inflammation and insulin resistance in the HFC-fed mice. Conclusions Macrophage infiltration accompanied by severe inflammation and metabolic changes occurred in both adipose and liver tissues with a temporal shift in these signals depending upon the duration of HFC feeding. The evidences of gene expression profile, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, and histological data support a progression towards nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis in these HFC-fed mice within the

  4. Mice lacking natural killer T cells are more susceptible to metabolic alterations following high fat diet feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany V Martin-Murphy

    Full Text Available Current estimates suggest that over one-third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome and three-fourths of the obese population has non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Inflammation in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of obesity and its co-morbidities, including NAFLD. Natural Killer T (NKT cells are a subset of innate immune cells that abundantly reside within the liver and are readily activated by lipid antigens. There is general consensus that NKT cells are pivotal regulators of inflammation; however, disagreement exists as to whether NKT cells exert pathogenic or suppressive functions in obesity. Here we demonstrate that CD1d(-/- mice, which lack NKT cells, were more susceptible to weight gain and fatty liver following high fat diet (HFD feeding. Compared with their WT counterparts, CD1d(-/- mice displayed increased adiposity and greater induction of inflammatory genes in the liver suggestive of the precursors of NAFLD. Calorimetry studies revealed a significant increase in food intake and trends toward decreased metabolic rate and activity in CD1d(-/- mice compared with WT mice. Based on these findings, our results suggest that NKT cells play a regulatory role that helps to prevent diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may play an important role in mechanisms governing cross-talk between metabolism and the immune system to regulate energy balance and liver health.

  5. Incorporation and metabolism of tritium in pregnant mice and their offspring after feeding organically labelled tritiated milk powder during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Maes, J.; Fagniart, E.

    1982-01-01

    Food mixed from equal amounts of organically labelled tritiated milk powder and normal food pellets was given to mice during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, some new-born were swapped with those from non-exposed mothers to compare separately accumulation and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Young mice were sacrificed at different time after birth, and tritium activity in different organs was determined. Tritium activity was also determined in maternal organs at various times during and after the 42 days feeding period. The activity per g in some tissues of the young, particularly in fat, exceeded that of the food given, probably as a result of the high activity and low metabolic dilution of the fats in the food. Young mice contaminated during lactation and pregnancy contained still detectible activity at an age of 2 months. Activity was nearly the same in mice receiving tritium only during lactation as in those receiving it also during pregnancy. Dilution was more marked due to rapid growth when tritium application was discontinued at birth. Tritium water was replaced most rapidly, organic tritium in brain turned over most slowly with and additional metabolic component of a half life in the order of 1 month. Organic tritium in liver displayed an intermediate half life. (author)

  6. Antilipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice Hepatic Tissues after Chronic Ethanol Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Cha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata root extract in mice with alcohol-induced fatty liver and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Ethanol was introduced into the liquid diet by mixing it with distilled water at 5% (wt/v, providing 36% of the energy, for nine weeks. Among the three different fractions prepared from the C. lanceolata root, the C. lanceolata methanol extract (CME exhibited the most remarkable attenuation of alcohol-induced fatty liver with respect to various parameters such as hepatic free fatty acid concentration, body weight loss, and hepatic accumulations of triglyceride and cholesterol. The hepatic gene and protein expression levels were analysed via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CME feeding significantly restored the ethanol-induced downregulation of the adiponectin receptor (adipoR 1 and of adipoR2, along with their downstream molecules. Furthermore, the study data showed that CME feeding dramatically reversed ethanol-induced hepatic upregulation of toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated signaling cascade molecules. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of CME against alcoholic fatty livers of mice appear to be with adenosine- and adiponectin-mediated regulation of hepatic steatosis and TLR-mediated modulation of hepatic proinflammatory responses.

  7. Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor enhances endothelial repair and favorably modifies angiogenic progenitor cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Rashid, Sheikh Tawqeer; Haywood, Natalie J; Cordell, Paul; Mughal, Romana; Viswambharan, Hema; Imrie, Helen; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Cubbon, Richard M; Aziz, Amir; Gage, Matthew; Mbonye, Kamatamu Amanda; Smith, Jessica; Galloway, Stacey; Skromna, Anna; Scott, D Julian A; Kearney, Mark T; Wheatcroft, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Defective endothelial regeneration predisposes to adverse arterial remodeling and is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recently demonstrated that the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity and nitric oxide bioavailability. In this report, we examined partial deletion of the IGF1R as a potential strategy to enhance endothelial repair. We assessed endothelial regeneration after wire injury in mice and abundance and function of angiogenic progenitor cells in mice with haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R (IGF1R(+/-)). Endothelial regeneration after arterial injury was accelerated in IGF1R(+/-) mice. Although the yield of angiogenic progenitor cells was lower in IGF1R(+/-) mice, these angiogenic progenitor cells displayed enhanced adhesion, increased secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, and enhanced angiogenic capacity. To examine the relevance of IGF1R manipulation to cell-based therapy, we transfused IGF1R(+/-) bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells into wild-type mice. IGF1R(+/-) cells accelerated endothelial regeneration after arterial injury compared with wild-type cells and did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation. Haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R is associated with accelerated endothelial regeneration in vivo and enhanced tube forming and adhesive potential of angiogenic progenitor cells in vitro. Partial deletion of IGF1R in transfused bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells enhanced their capacity to promote endothelial regeneration without altering atherosclerosis. Our data suggest that manipulation of the IGF1R could be exploited as novel therapeutic approach to enhance repair of the arterial wall after injury. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Genetic and biochemical evidence that haploinsufficiency of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene modulates melanocyte and mast cell fates in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D A; Yang, F C; Travers, J B; Wenning, M J; Hiatt, K; New, S; Hood, A; Shannon, K; Williams, D A; Clapp, D W

    2000-01-03

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas infiltrated with large numbers of mast cells, melanocyte hyperplasia, and a predisposition to develop malignant neoplasms. NF1 encodes a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras. Consistent with Knudson's "two hit" model of tumor suppressor genes, leukemias and malignant solid tumors in NF1 patients frequently demonstrate somatic loss of the normal NF1 allele. However, the phenotypic and biochemical consequences of heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 are largely unknown. Recently neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, was shown to negatively regulate Ras activity in Nf1-/- murine myeloid hematopoietic cells in vitro through the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (dominant white spotting, W). Since the W and Nf1 locus appear to function along a common developmental pathway, we generated mice with mutations at both loci to examine potential interactions in vivo. Here, we show that haploinsufficiency at Nf1 perturbs cell fates in mast cells in vivo, and partially rescues coat color and mast cell defects in W(41) mice. Haploinsufficiency at Nf1 also increased mast cell proliferation, survival, and colony formation in response to Steel factor, the ligand for c-kit. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency was associated with enhanced Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, a major downstream effector of Ras, via wild-type and mutant (W(41)) c-kit receptors. These observations identify a novel interaction between c-kit and neurofibromin in vivo, and offer experimental evidence that haploinsufficiency of Nf1 alters both cellular and biochemical phenotypes in two cell lineages that are affected in individuals with NF1. Collectively, these data support the emerging concept that heterozygous inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may have profound biological effects in multiple cell types.

  9. The ERα-PI3K Cascade in Proopiomelanocortin Progenitor Neurons Regulates Feeding and Glucose Balance in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangru; Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; Yang, Yongjie; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Xia, Yan; Saito, Kenji; Yan, Xiaofeng; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Chunling; Saha, Pradip; Khan, Sohaib A; Zhao, Jean; Fukuda, Makoto; Tong, Qingchun; Clegg, Deborah J; Chan, Lawrence; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Estrogens act upon estrogen receptor (ER)α to inhibit feeding and improve glucose homeostasis in female animals. However, the intracellular signals that mediate these estrogenic actions remain unknown. Here, we report that anorexigenic effects of estrogens are blunted in female mice that lack ERα specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) progenitor neurons. These mutant mice also develop insulin resistance and are insensitive to the glucose-regulatory effects of estrogens. Moreover, we showed that propyl pyrazole triol (an ERα agonist) stimulates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway specifically in POMC progenitor neurons, and that blockade of PI3K attenuates propyl pyrazole triol-induced activation of POMC neurons. Finally, we show that effects of estrogens to inhibit food intake and to improve insulin sensitivity are significantly attenuated in female mice with PI3K genetically inhibited in POMC progenitor neurons. Together, our results indicate that an ERα-PI3K cascade in POMC progenitor neurons mediates estrogenic actions to suppress food intake and improve insulin sensitivity.

  10. Phytosterol Feeding Causes Toxicity in ABCG5/G8 Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Allison L.; Alger, Heather M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Kock, Nancy D.; Brown, J. Mark; Temel, Ryan E.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Plant sterols, or phytosterols, are very similar in structure to cholesterol and are abundant in typical diets. The reason for poor absorption of plant sterols by the body is still unknown. Mutations in the ABC transporters G5 and G8 are known to cause an accumulation of plant sterols in blood and tissues (sitosterolemia). To determine the significance of phytosterol exclusion from the body, we fed wild-type and ABCG5/G8 knockout mice a diet enriched with plant sterols. The high-phytosterol diet was extremely toxic to the ABCG5/G8 knockout mice but had no adverse effects on wild-type mice. ABCG5/G8 knockout mice died prematurely and developed a phenotype that included high levels of plant sterols in many tissues, liver abnormalities, and severe cardiac lesions. This study is the first to report such toxic effects of phytosterol accumulation in ABCG5/G8 knockout mice. We believe these new data support the conclusion that plant sterols are excluded from the body because they are toxic when present at high levels. PMID:23380580

  11. Attenuated hypertrophic response to pressure overload in a lamin A/C haploinsufficiency mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupesi, Mihaela; Yoshioka, Jun; Gannon, Joseph; Kudinova, Anastacia; Stewart, Colin L; Lammerding, Jan

    2010-06-01

    Inherited mutations cause approximately 30% of all dilated cardiomyopathy cases, with autosomal dominant mutations in the LMNA gene accounting for more than one third of these. The LMNA gene encodes the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, which provide structural support to the nucleus and also play critical roles in transcriptional regulation. Functional deletion of a single allele is sufficient to trigger dilated cardiomyopathy in humans and mice. However, whereas Lmna(-/-) mice develop severe muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy and die by 8 weeks of age, heterozygous Lmna(+/-) mice have a much milder phenotype, with changes in ventricular function and morphology only becoming apparent at 1 year of age. Here, we studied 8- to 20-week-old Lmna(+/-) mice and wild-type littermates in a pressure overload model to examine whether increased mechanical load can accelerate or exacerbate myocardial dysfunction in the heterozygotes. While overall survival was similar between genotypes, Lmna(+/-) animals had a significantly attenuated hypertrophic response to pressure overload as evidenced by reduced ventricular mass and myocyte size. Analysis of pressure overload-induced transcriptional changes suggested that the reduced hypertrophy in the Lmna(+/-) mice was accompanied by impaired activation of the mechanosensitive gene Egr-1. In conclusion, our findings provide further support for a critical role of lamins A and C in regulating the cellular response to mechanical stress in cardiomyocytes and demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of lamins A and C alone is sufficient to alter hypertrophic responses and cardiac function in the face of pressure overload in the heart. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cholecystokinin on feeding is attenuated in monosodium glutamate obese mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Toma, Resha Shamas; Pirnik, Z.; Kiss, A.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1/3 (2006), s. 58-63 ISSN 0167-0115 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/0614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : monosodium glutamate * obesity * cholecistokinin * feeding behavior Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  13. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservigi, Marco; Tibaldi, Eva; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano

    2010-12-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a well-known intense artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 products. Among the major users of aspartame are children and women of childbearing age. In previous lifespan experiments conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats we have shown that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites and that its effects are increased when exposure starts from prenatal life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of APM to induce carcinogenic effects in mice. Six groups of 62-122 male and female Swiss mice were treated with APM in feed at doses of 32,000, 16,000, 8,000, 2,000, or 0  ppm from prenatal life (12 days of gestation) until death. At death each animal underwent complete necropsy and all tissues and organs of all animals in the experiment were microscopically examined. APM in our experimental conditions induces in males a significant dose-related increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (P < 0.01), and a significant increase at the dose levels of 32,000  ppm (P < 0.01) and 16,000  ppm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show a significant dose-related increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males (P < 0.05), and a significant increase at 32,000  ppm (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). No carcinogenic effects were observed in female mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1197-1206, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effects of Long-Term Feeding of the Polyphenols Resveratrol and Kaempferol in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Mayte; de la Fuente, Sergio; Fonteriz, Rosalba I.; Moreno, Alfredo; Alvarez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the intake of antioxidant polyphenols such as resveratrol and others on survival and different parameters of life quality has been a matter of debate in the last years. We have studied here the effects of the polyphenols resveratrol and kaempferol added to the diet in a murine model undergoing long-term hypercaloric diet. Using 50 mice for each condition, we have monitored weight, survival, biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase, neuromuscular coordination measured with the rotarod test and morphological aspect of stained sections of liver and heart histological samples. Our data show that mice fed since they are 3-months-old with hypercaloric diet supplemented with any of these polyphenols reduced their weight by about 5–7% with respect to the controls fed only with hypercaloric diet. We also observed that mice fed with any of the polyphenols had reduced levels of glucose, insulin and cholesterol, and better marks in the rotarod test, but only after 1 year of treatment, that is, during senescence. No effect was observed in the rest of the parameters studied. Furthermore, although treatment with hypercaloric diets induced large changes in the pattern of gene expression in liver, we found no significant changes in gene expression induced by the presence of any of the polyphenols. Thus, our data indicate that addition of resveratrol or kaempferol to mice food produces an initial decrease in weight in mice subjected to hypercaloric diet, but beneficial effects in other parameters such as blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol, and neuromuscular coordination, only appear after prolonged treatments. PMID:25386805

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 10 haploinsufficiency causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Joakim; Blomstrand, Peter; Brunmark, Charlott; Badhai, Jitendra; Håkansson, Hanna Falk; Brange, Charlotte Sollie; Bergendal, Birgitta; Dahl, Niklas

    2011-10-01

    Genetic factors influencing lung function may predispose to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signalling pathway is critical for lung development and lung epithelial renewal. The hypothesis behind this study was that constitutive FGF10 insufficiency may lead to pulmonary disorder. Therefore investigation of the pulmonary functions of patients heterozygous for loss of function mutations in the FGF10 gene was performed. The spirometric measures of lung function from patients and non-carrier siblings were compared and both groups were related to matched reference data for normal human lung function. The patients show a significant decrease in lung function parameters when compared to control values. The average FEV1/IVC quota (FEV1%) for the patients is 0.65 (80% of predicted) and reversibility test using Terbutalin resulted in a 3.7% increase in FEV1. Patients with FGF10 haploinsufficiency have lung function parameters indicating COPD. A modest response to Terbutalin confirms an irreversible obstructive lung disease. These findings support the idea that genetic variants affecting the FGF10 signalling pathway are important determinants of lung function that may ultimately contribute to COPD. Specifically, the results show that FGF10 haploinsufficiency affects lung function measures providing a model for a dosage sensitive effect of FGF10 in the development of COPD.

  16. Concentrating carbohydrates before sleep improves feeding regulation and metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Madar, Zecharia; Froy, Oren

    2015-10-15

    New evidance highlights the importance of food timing. Recently, we showed that a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner changed diurnal hormone secretion and led to greater weight loss and improved metabolic status in obese people. Herein, we set out to test whether concentrated-carbohydrates diet (CCD), in which carbohydrates are fed only before sleep, leads to an improved metabolic status in mouse hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Diet-induced obese mice were given concentrated or distributed carbohydrate diet for 6 weeks. Obese mice fed CCD ate 8.3% less, were 9.3% leaner and had 39.7% less fat mass. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin displayed altered secretion. In addition, these mice exhibited an improved biochemical and inflammatory status. In the hypothalamus, anorexigenic signals were up-regulated and orexigenic signals were down-regulated. In peripheral tissues, CCD promoted adiponectin signaling, repressed gluconeogenesis, enhanced lipid oxidation and lowered inflammation, thus ameliorating the major risk factors of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapy of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease in mice by feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Rudolphi, Fabian; Corthals, Kristina; Ruhwedel, Torben; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Löwel, Siegrid; Dibaj, Payam; Barrette, Benoit; Möbius, Wiebke; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2012-07-01

    Duplication of PLP1 (proteolipid protein gene 1) and the subsequent overexpression of the myelin protein PLP (also known as DM20) in oligodendrocytes is the most frequent cause of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a fatal leukodystrophy without therapeutic options. PLP binds cholesterol and is contained within membrane lipid raft microdomains. Cholesterol availability is the rate-limiting factor of central nervous system myelin synthesis. Transgenic mice with extra copies of the Plp1 gene are accurate models of PMD. Dysmyelination followed by demyelination, secondary inflammation and axon damage contribute to the severe motor impairment in these mice. The finding that in Plp1-transgenic oligodendrocytes, PLP and cholesterol accumulate in late endosomes and lysosomes (endo/lysosomes), prompted us to further investigate the role of cholesterol in PMD. Here we show that cholesterol itself promotes normal PLP trafficking and that dietary cholesterol influences PMD pathology. In a preclinical trial, PMD mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. This restored oligodendrocyte numbers and ameliorated intracellular PLP accumulation. Moreover, myelin content increased, inflammation and gliosis were reduced and motor defects improved. Even after onset of clinical symptoms, cholesterol treatment prevented disease progression. Dietary cholesterol did not reduce Plp1 overexpression but facilitated incorporation of PLP into myelin membranes. These findings may have implications for therapeutic interventions in patients with PMD.

  18. Influences of reduced masticatory sensory input from soft-diet feeding upon spatial memory/learning ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Keisuke; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tohma, Yuiko; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Tadashi; Kohno, Shinya; Ohtani, Junji; Tenjoh, Kaoru; Nakano, Mao; Kamada, Hiroko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2007-02-01

    It has been reported that reduction of masticatory afferent stimulation might influence learning and memory function. In order to clarify the influences of reduced masticatory sensory input on spatial memory/learning ability and neuropathological changes, we conducted the Morris water maze experiment and investigated the number of hippocampal neurons in association with the differences in masticatory afferent stimuli from hard- and soft-diet feeding in mice. The water maze experiment showed no significant difference in learning ability between 180-day-old solid- and powderdiet groups. Meanwhile, the ability was significantly reduced in the 360-day-old powder-diet group as compared with the age-matched solid-diet group. The total number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was significantly smaller in 360-day-old powder-diet group than in the remaining groups. These results demonstrate that reduction of masticatory afferent stimuli due to long-term soft-diet feeding may induce neuron loss in the hippocampus and reduced memory/learning ability.

  19. Tyrosine kinase receptor c-ros-oncogene 1 inhibition alleviates aberrant bone formation of TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells from Saethre-Chotzen syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Esther; Anderson, Peter J; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Glackin, Carlotta A; Gronthos, Stan

    2018-09-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), associated with TWIST-1 mutations, is characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures. TWIST-1 haploinsufficiency, leads to alterations in suture mesenchyme cellular gene expression patterns, resulting in aberrant osteogenesis and craniosynostosis. We analyzed the expression of the TWIST-1 target, Tyrosine kinase receptor c-ros-oncogene 1 (C-ROS-1) in TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells derived from SCS patients and calvaria of Twist-1 del/+ mutant mice and found it to be highly expressed when compared to TWIST-1 wild-type controls. Knock-down of C-ROS-1 expression in TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells derived from SCS patients was associated with decreased capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, treatment of human SCS calvarial cells with the tyrosine kinase chemical inhibitor, Crizotinib, resulted in reduced C-ROS-1 activity and the osteogenic potential of human SCS calvarial cells with minor effects on cell viability or proliferation. Cultured human SCS calvarial cells treated with Crizotinib exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition, with an associated decrease in expression levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 and OSTEOPONTIN, with reduced PI3K/Akt signalling in vitro. Furthermore, Crizotinib treatment resulted in reduced BMP-2 mediated bone formation potential of whole Twist-1 del/+ mutant mouse calvaria organotypic cultures. Collectively, these results suggest that C-ROS-1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial osteogenic progenitor cells. Furthermore, the aberrant osteogenic potential of these cells is inhibited by the reduction of C-ROS-1. Therefore, targeting C-ROS-1 with a pharmacological agent, such as Crizotinib, may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate craniosynostosis associated with aberrant TWIST-1 function. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dietary feeding of flavokawain A, a Kava chalcone, exhibits a satisfactory safety profile and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesen Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavokawain A (FKA, a major chalcone in the Kava plant, has recently demonstrated promising anti-cancer activities. A systematic evaluation of FKA's safety profile has not been reported before. In this study, male FVB/N mice were fed with an AIN-76A diet or AIN-76A diet supplemented with 0.6% (6 g/kg food FKA or 0.6% commercial kava root extract (KRE for three weeks. Dietary feeding of FKA did not affect food consumption and body weight. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, colon, lung, heart, spleen, and thymus revealed no signs of FKA-induced toxicity. Biochemical serum analysis and histological examination confirmed normal organ function in FKA-treated mice. The cytotoxicity profile showed FKA had minimal side effects on bone marrow and small intestinal epithelial cells compared with Adriamycin. In addition, oral feeding of FKA increased activities of both glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase in the liver, lung, prostate and bladder tissues of mice. In comparison, dietary feeding of 0.6% KRE increased liver/body weight ratio and decreased spleen, thymus, and testis/body weight ratios, as well as induced nodular proliferation in liver tissues. Therefore, dietary feeding FKA showed no adverse effects on major organ function and homeostasis in mice, suggesting the potential of FKA for chemoprevention study of human cancers.

  1. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  2. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    ethanol feeding causes oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation in lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Chronic ethanol feeding generates FAEEs (nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) in lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Chronic ethanol feeding induces CYP2E1 in the lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Lack of ER homeostasis due to a prolonged ethanol feeding could trigger inflammation.

  3. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    ethanol feeding causes oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation in lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Chronic ethanol feeding generates FAEEs (nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) in lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Chronic ethanol feeding induces CYP2E1 in the lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Lack of ER homeostasis due to a prolonged ethanol feeding could trigger inflammation

  4. Response of Intestinal Bacterial Flora to the Long-term Feeding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiai; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Aiping

    2017-10-12

    In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, both genera and phyla of intestinal bacteria in the three treatment groups decreased. About one third of the total genera and one half of the total phyla remained in the high-dose group. The dominant flora were Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in all groups. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial flora among groups. Most bacteria decreased as a whole from the control to the high-dose groups, but several beneficial and pathogenic bacterial species increased significantly with increasing dose of AFB1. Thus, the conclusion was that intragastric feeding with 2.5~10 mg/mL AFB1 for 2 months could decrease the majority of intestinal bacterial flora and induce the proliferation of some intestinal bacteria flora.

  5. Identification of a cytochrome P4502E1/Bid/C1q-dependent axis mediating inflammation in adipose tissue after chronic ethanol feeding to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Becky M; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Tang, Hui; Hillian, Antoinette D; Feldstein, Ariel E; Stahl, Gregory L; Takahashi, Kazue; Nagy, Laura E

    2011-10-14

    Chronic, heavy alcohol exposure results in inflammation in adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and liver injury. Here we have identified a CYP2E1/Bid/C1q-dependent pathway that is activated in response to chronic ethanol and is required for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue. Ethanol feeding for 25 days to wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice increased expression of multiple markers of adipose tissue inflammation relative to pair-fed controls independent of increased body weight or adipocyte size. Ethanol feeding increased the expression of CYP2E1 in adipocytes, but not stromal vascular cells, in adipose tissue and Cyp2e1(-/-) mice were protected from adipose tissue inflammation in response to ethanol. Ethanol feeding also increased the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei in adipose tissue of wild-type mice but not in Cyp2e1(-/-) or Bid (-/-) mice. Apoptosis contributed to adipose inflammation, as the expression of multiple inflammatory markers was decreased in mice lacking the Bid-dependent apoptotic pathway. The complement protein C1q binds to apoptotic cells, facilitating their clearance and activating complement. Making use of C1q-deficient mice, we found that activation of complement via C1q provided the critical link between CYP2E1/Bid-dependent apoptosis and onset of adipose tissue inflammation in response to chronic ethanol. In summary, chronic ethanol increases CYP2E1 activity in adipose, leading to Bid-mediated apoptosis and activation of complement via C1q, finally resulting in adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these data identify a novel mechanism for the development of adipose tissue inflammation that likely contributes to the pathophysiological effects of ethanol.

  6. Muscle physiology changes induced by every other day feeding and endurance exercise in mice: effects on physical performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodríguez-Bies

    Full Text Available Every other day feeding (EOD and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage.

  7. High-fat feeding impairs nutrient sensing and gut brain integration in the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea R Cavanaugh

    Full Text Available Hyperphagic obesity is characterized in part by a specific increase in meal size that contributes to increased daily energy intake, but the mechanisms underlying impaired activity of meal size regulatory circuits, particularly those converging at the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain (cmNTS, remain poorly understood. In this paper, we assessed the consequences of high-fat (HF feeding and diet-induced obesity (DIO on cmNTS nutrient sensing and metabolic integration in the control of meal size. Mice maintained on a standard chow diet, low-fat (LF diet or HF diet for 2 weeks or 6 months were implanted with a bilateral brain cannula targeting the cmNTS. Feeding behavior was assessed using behavioral chambers and meal-pattern analysis following cmNTS L-leucine injections alone or together with ip CCK. Molecular mechanisms implicated in the feeding responses were assessed using western blot, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition of the amino acid sensing mTORC1 pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. We found that HF feeding blunts the anorectic consequences of cmNTS L-leucine administration. Increased baseline activity of the L-leucine sensor P70 S6 kinase 1 and impaired L-leucine-induced activation of this pathway in the cmNTS of HF-fed mice indicate that HF feeding is associated with an impairment in cmNTS mTOR nutritional and hormonal sensing. Interestingly, the acute orexigenic effect of the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin was preserved in HF-fed mice, supporting the assertion that HF-induced increase in baseline cmNTS mTORC1 activity underlies the defect in L-leucine sensing. Last, the synergistic feeding-suppressive effect of CCK and cmNTS L-leucine was abrogated in DIO mice. These results indicate that HF feeding leads to an impairment in cmNTS nutrient sensing and metabolic integration in the regulation of meal size.

  8. Early and rapid development of insulin resistance, islet dysfunction and glucose intolerance after high-fat feeding in mice overexpressing phosphodiesterase 3B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walz, Helena A; Härndahl, Linda; Wierup, Nils

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate islet adaptation to insulin resistance leads to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigate whether beta-cell cAMP is crucial for islet adaptation and prevention of glucose intolerance in mice. Mice with a beta-cell-specific, 2-fold overexpression of the c......AMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterase 3B (RIP-PDE3B/2 mice) were metabolically challenged with a high-fat diet. We found that RIP-PDE3B/2 mice early and rapidly develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, as compared with wild-type littermates, after 2 months of high-fat feeding. This was evident from...... did not reveal reduced insulin sensitivity in these tissues. Significant steatosis was noted in livers from high-fat-fed wild-type and RIP-PDE3B/2 mice and liver triacyl-glycerol content was 3-fold higher than in wild-type mice fed a control diet. Histochemical analysis revealed severe islet...

  9. Trehalose upregulates progranulin expression in human and mouse models of GRN haploinsufficiency: a novel therapeutic lead to treat frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Christopher J; Taylor, Georgia; McEachin, Zachary T; Deng, Qiudong; Watkins, William J; Hudson, Kathryn; Easley, Charles A; Hu, William T; Hales, Chadwick M; Rossoll, Wilfried; Bassell, Gary J; Kukar, Thomas

    2016-06-24

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor important for neuronal survival and may do so, in part, by regulating lysosome homeostasis. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) are a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and lead to disease through PGRN haploinsufficiency. Additionally, complete loss of PGRN in humans leads to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Importantly, Grn-/- mouse models recapitulate pathogenic lysosomal features of NCL. Further, GRN variants that decrease PGRN expression increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Together these findings demonstrate that insufficient PGRN predisposes neurons to degeneration. Therefore, compounds that increase PGRN levels are potential therapeutics for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we performed a cell-based screen of a library of known autophagy-lysosome modulators and identified multiple novel activators of a human GRN promoter reporter including several common mTOR inhibitors and an mTOR-independent activator of autophagy, trehalose. Secondary cellular screens identified trehalose, a natural disaccharide, as the most promising lead compound because it increased endogenous PGRN in all cell lines tested and has multiple reported neuroprotective properties. Trehalose dose-dependently increased GRN mRNA as well as intracellular and secreted PGRN in both mouse and human cell lines and this effect was independent of the transcription factor EB (TFEB). Moreover, trehalose rescued PGRN deficiency in human fibroblasts and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from GRN mutation carriers. Finally, oral administration of trehalose to Grn haploinsufficient mice significantly increased PGRN expression in the brain. This work reports several novel autophagy-lysosome modulators that enhance PGRN expression and identifies trehalose as a promising therapeutic for raising PGRN levels to treat

  10. Comparison of feed energy costs of maintenance, lean deposition, and fat deposition in three lines of mice selected for heat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, D L; Nielsen, M K

    2006-02-01

    Three replications of mouse selection populations for high heat loss (MH), low heat loss (ML), and a nonselected control (MC) were used to estimate the feed energy costs of maintenance and gain and to test whether selection had changed these costs. At 21 and 49 d of age, mice were weighed and subjected to dual x-ray densitometry measurement for prediction of body composition. At 21 d, mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum, an 80% of ad libitum, or a 60% of ad libitum feeding group for 28-d collection of individual feed intake. Data were analyzed using 3 approaches. The first approach was an attempt to partition energy intake between costs for maintenance, fat deposition, and lean deposition for each replicate, sex, and line by multiple regression of feed intake on the sum of daily metabolic weight (kg(0.75)), fat gain, and lean gain. Approach II was a less restrictive attempt to partition energy intake between costs for maintenance and total gain for each replicate, sex, and line by multiple regression of feed intake on the sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain. Approach III used multiple regression on the entire data set with pooled regressions on fat and lean gains, and subclass regressions for maintenance. Contrasts were conducted to test the effect of selection (MH - ML) and asymmetry of selection [(MH + ML)/2 - MC] for the various energy costs. In approach I, there were no differences between lines for costs of maintenance, fat deposition, or protein deposition, but we question our ability to estimate these accurately. In approach II, selection changed both cost of maintenance (P = 0.03) and gain (P = 0.05); MH mice had greater per unit costs than ML mice for both. Asymmetry of the selection response was found in approach II for the cost of maintenance (P = 0.06). In approach III, the effect of selection (P maintenance cost, but asymmetry of selection (P > 0.17) was not evident. Sex effects were found for the cost of fat deposition (P = 0.02) in

  11. OBSCN Mutations Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Haploinsufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Marston

    Full Text Available Studies of the functional consequences of DCM-causing mutations have been limited to a few cases where patients with known mutations had heart transplants. To increase the number of potential tissue samples for direct investigation we performed whole exon sequencing of explanted heart muscle samples from 30 patients that had a diagnosis of familial dilated cardiomyopathy and screened for potentially disease-causing mutations in 58 HCM or DCM-related genes.We identified 5 potentially disease-causing OBSCN mutations in 4 samples; one sample had two OBSCN mutations and one mutation was judged to be not disease-related. Also identified were 6 truncating mutations in TTN, 3 mutations in MYH7, 2 in DSP and one each in TNNC1, TNNI3, MYOM1, VCL, GLA, PLB, TCAP, PKP2 and LAMA4. The mean level of obscurin mRNA was significantly greater and more variable in healthy donor samples than the DCM samples but did not correlate with OBSCN mutations. A single obscurin protein band was observed in human heart myofibrils with apparent mass 960 ± 60 kDa. The three samples with OBSCN mutations had significantly lower levels of obscurin immunoreactive material than DCM samples without OBSCN mutations (45±7, 48±3, and 72±6% of control level.Obscurin levels in DCM controls, donor heart and myectomy samples were the same.OBSCN mutations may result in the development of a DCM phenotype via haploinsufficiency. Mutations in the obscurin gene should be considered as a significant causal factor of DCM, alone or in concert with other mutations.

  12. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice.

  13. Hypothalamic gliosis associated with high-fat diet feeding is reversible in mice: a combined immunohistochemical and magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkseth, Kathryn E; Guyenet, Stephan J; Melhorn, Susan J; Lee, Donghoon; Thaler, Joshua P; Schur, Ellen A; Schwartz, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    Gliosis, the activation of astrocyte and microglial cell populations, is a hallmark of central nervous system injury and is detectable using either immunohistochemistry or in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Obesity in rodents and humans is associated with gliosis of the arcuate nucleus, a key hypothalamic region for the regulation of energy homeostasis and adiposity, but whether this response is permanent or reversible is unknown. Here we combine terminal immunohistochemistry analysis with serial, noninvasive MRI to characterize the progression and reversibility of hypothalamic gliosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The effects of HFD feeding for 16 weeks to increase body weight and adiposity relative to chow were nearly normalized after the return to chow feeding for an additional 4 weeks in the diet-reversal group. Mice maintained on the HFD for the full 20-week study period experienced continued weight gain associated with the expected increases of astrocyte and microglial activation in the arcuate nucleus, but these changes were not observed in the diet-reversal group. The proopiomelanocortin neuron number did not differ between groups. Although MRI demonstrated a positive correlation between body weight, adiposity, and the gliosis-associated T2 signal in the mediobasal hypothalamus, it did not detect the reversal of gliosis among the HFD-fed mice after the return to chow diet. We conclude that hypothalamic gliosis associated with 16-week HFD feeding is largely reversible in rodents, consistent with the reversal of the HFD-induced obesity phenotype, and extend published evidence regarding the utility of MRI as a tool for studying obesity-associated hypothalamic gliosis in vivo.

  14. Haploinsufficiency of the 22q11.2 microdeletion gene Mrpl40 disrupts short-term synaptic plasticity and working memory through dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, P; Yu, J; Eddins, D; Mellado-Lagarde, M M; Earls, L R; Westmoreland, J J; Quarato, G; Green, D R; Zakharenko, S S

    2017-09-01

    Hemizygous deletion of a 1.5- to 3-megabase region on chromosome 22 causes 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which constitutes one of the strongest genetic risks for schizophrenia. Mouse models of 22q11DS have abnormal short-term synaptic plasticity that contributes to working-memory deficiencies similar to those in schizophrenia. We screened mutant mice carrying hemizygous deletions of 22q11DS genes and identified haploinsufficiency of Mrpl40 (mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40) as a contributor to abnormal short-term potentiation (STP), a major form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Two-photon imaging of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6, expressed in presynaptic cytosol or mitochondria, showed that Mrpl40 haploinsufficiency deregulates STP via impaired calcium extrusion from the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This led to abnormally high cytosolic calcium transients in presynaptic terminals and deficient working memory but did not affect long-term spatial memory. Thus, we propose that mitochondrial calcium deregulation is a novel pathogenic mechanism of cognitive deficiencies in schizophrenia.

  15. High-saturated fat-sucrose feeding affects lactation energetics in control mice and mice selectively bred for high wheel-running behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Jonas, Izabella; Schubert, Kristin A.; Garland, Theodore; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Feeding a diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) during pregnancy and lactation is known to increase susceptibility to develop metabolic derangements later in life. A trait for increased behavioral activity may oppose these effects, since this would drain energy from milk produced to be made available

  16. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-fat feeding in cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta knockout mice leads to cardiac overexpression of lipid metabolic genes but fails to rescue cardiac phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuquan; Cheng, Lihong; Qin, Qianhong; Liu, Jian; Lo, Woo-kuen; Brako, Lowrence A; Yang, Qinglin

    2009-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is an essential determinant of basal myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and bioenergetics. We wished to determine whether increased lipid loading affects the PPARdelta deficient heart in transcriptional regulation of FAO and in the development of cardiac pathology. Cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta knockout (CR-PPARdelta(-/-)) and control (alpha-MyHC-Cre) mice were subjected to 48 h of fasting and to a long-term maintenance on a (28 weeks) high-fat diet (HFD). The expression of key FAO proteins in heart was examined. Serum lipid profiles, cardiac pathology, and changes of various transduction signaling pathways were also examined. Mice subjected to fasting exhibited upregulated transcript expression of FAO genes in the CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts. Moreover, long-term HFD in CR-PPARdelta(-/-) mice induced a strikingly greater transcriptional response. After HFD, genes encoding key FAO enzymes were expressed remarkably more in CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts than in those of control mice. Despite the marked rise of FAO gene expression, corresponding protein expression remained low in the CR-PPARdelta(-/-) heart, accompanied by abnormalities in sarcomere structures and mitochondria that were similar to those of CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts with regular chow feeding. The CR-PPARdelta(-/-) mice displayed increased expression of PPARgamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PPARalpha in the heart with deactivated Akt and p42/44 MAPK signaling in response to HFD. We conclude that PPARdelta is an essential determinant of myocardial FAO. Increased lipid intake activates cardiac expression of FAO genes via PPARalpha/PGC-1alpha pathway, albeit it is not sufficient to improve cardiac pathology due to PPARdelta deficiency.

  18. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting

  19. Timed feeding of mice modulates light-entrained circadian rhythms of reticulated platelet abundance and plasma thrombopoietin and affects gene expression in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Paul S; Sheward, John; Scholefield, Emma; French, Karen; Horn, Jacqueline M; Holmes, Megan C; Harmar, Anthony J

    2009-07-01

    Circadian (c. 24 h) rhythms of physiology are entrained to either the environmental light-dark cycle or the timing of food intake. In the current work the hypothesis that rhythms of platelet turnover in mammals are circadian and entrained by food intake was explored in mice. Mice were entrained to 12 h light-dark cycles and given either ad libitum (AL) or restricted access (RF) to food during the light phase. Blood and megakaryocytes were then collected from mice every 4 h for 24 h. It was found that total and reticulated platelet numbers, plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) concentration and the mean size of mature megakaryocytes were circadian but not entrained by food intake. In contrast, a circadian rhythm in the expression of Arnt1 in megakaryocytes was entrained by food. Although not circadian, the expression in megakaryocytes of Nfe2, Gata1, Itga2b and Tubb1 expression was downregulated by RF, whereas Ccnd1 was not significantly affected by the feeding protocol. It is concluded that circadian rhythms of total platelet number, reticulated platelet number and plasma TPO concentration are entrained by the light-dark cycle rather than the timing of food intake. These findings imply that circadian clock gene expression regulates platelet turnover in mammals.

  20. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Williams-Beuren syndrome in a father and son with haploinsufficiency for FKBP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kay; Simeonov, Emil; Beckett, William; Donnai, Dian; Tassabehji, May

    2005-04-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental microdeletion disorder that usually occurs sporadically due to its location within a highly repetitive genomic region that is unstable and prone to unequal cross-over during meiosis. The consequential loss of chromosomal material includes approximately 1.5 Mb of DNA at 7q11.23. Whilst cases of dominant inheritance have been described in the literature, there have been few reports of molecular confirmation and none have carried out detailed genotyping. We describe a Bulgarian father and son with WBS detected by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (with an elastin gene probe) and loss of heterozygosity mapping using microsatellite markers located in the critical region. These individuals appear to have a common WBS heterozygous deletion, confirming the expected dominant transmission and adding to the few familial cases reported. The deletion includes the gene FKBP6 which has recently been shown to play a role in homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis and male fertility in mouse models. Homozygous Fkbp6 -/- male mice are infertile and our data suggests that haploinsufficiency for FKBP6 does not appear to preclude male fertility in WBS, although male infertility involving this gene has the potential to follow the mouse model as a human autosomal recessive condition.

  1. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17–34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5–6, with P ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon. PMID:22293095

  2. Telomere Elongation and Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Achieved from Telomerase Haplo-Insufficient Cells by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Sung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Haplo-insufficiency of telomerase genes in humans leads to telomere syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenital and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from telomerase haplo-insufficient donor cells would provide unique opportunities toward the realization of patient-specific stem cell therapies. Recently, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (ntESCs have been efficiently achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. We tested the hypothesis that SCNT could effectively elongate shortening telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells in the ntESCs with relevant mouse models. Indeed, telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient (Terc+/− mouse cells are elongated in ntESCs. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/− cells exhibit naive pluripotency as evidenced by generation of Terc+/− ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation, the most stringent test of naive pluripotency. These data suggest that SCNT could offer a powerful tool to reprogram telomeres and to discover the factors for robust restoration of telomeres and pluripotency of telomerase haplo-insufficient somatic cells. : Sung et al. demonstrate in a mouse model that telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells can be elongated by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/− cells exhibit pluripotency evidenced by generation of Terc+/−ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation, the most stringent test of naive pluripotency.

  3. Inflammatory Signals shift from adipose to liver during high fat feeding and influence the development of steatohepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Michaela C; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Jackson, James V; Rojas-Triana, Alberto; Kinsley, David; Cui, Long; Fine, Jay S; Greenfeder, Scott; Bober, Loretta A; Jenh, Chung-Her

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity and inflammation are highly integrated processes in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory events during high fat diet-induced obesity are poorly defined in mouse models of obesity. This work investigated gene activation signals integral to the temporal development of obesity. Methods Gene expression analysis in multiple organs from obese mice was done with ...

  4. Toxicological Assessment of β-(1à6-Glucan (Lasiodiplodan in Mice during a 28-Day Feeding Study by Gavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína A. Túrmina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the toxicity caused by fungal exopolysaccharides of the β-(1®6-D-glucan type are rare. In this study, the toxicological effects of sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan (β-(1®6-D-glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI were evaluated in mice through the assessment of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. Thirty-two mice (16 male, 16 female were used in this study divided in two groups; one group received lasiodiplodan (50 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days via gavage, and another (control group received saline during the same period. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical analyses. Liver, heart, kidney, and spleen were collected for histopathological analysis. Statistical analysis was performed through one-way analysis of variance and only p < 0.05 F-values were presented. Significant reduction in blood glucose in the male group (35%; p < 0.01, transaminases activity in both sexes (AST and ALT; ~35%; p < 0.05, and urea (20%; p < 0.01 in the female group was observed with the lasiodiplodan treatment. The results showed that sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan did not generate hematological and histopathological alterations leading to signs of toxicity in healthy mice, independent of gender.

  5. Investigation of wholesomeness of feeding low-irradiated diet to mice. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, I.A.

    1980-06-01

    Studies are carried out on the wholesomeness of irradiated food with special reference to gamma irradiation (0.75 kGy) maize, (1 kGy) walnuts and (2 kGy) prune-plums. These include physico-chemical changes in the food constituents as well as toxicity and mutagenic effects on animals after long-term feeding test. The results indicate an increase of the carbonyl compounds after irradiation in all studied foodstuffs, but there is not significant difference in the number of the new-formed carbonyl compounds when compared with controls. Biomedical investigation are carried out to define any toxicity, consideration being given to both direct effects in adult or growing organisms and to effect in their progeny. Effects of gamma irradiated diet, including maize, walnuts and prune-plums, exposed to the above mentioned doses fed to three consecutive generations of mice have been studied. A 35% addition of irradiated feed to standard diet is shown to produce no deleterious effects as judged by mean litter size, body weight at weaning, adult body weight and organ weight, haematological measures and some enzyme activities

  6. Haploinsufficiency of BAZ1B contributes to Williams syndrome through transcriptional dysregulation of neurodevelopmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Matthew A; Jang, Jiwon; Park, Joo-Hye C; Wang, Yidi; Guzman, Elmer; Zhou, Hongjun; Audouard, Morgane; Bridges, Daniel; Tovar, Kenneth R; Papuc, Sorina M; Tutulan-Cunita, Andreea C; Huang, Yadong; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Arghir, Aurora; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2016-04-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a genomic deletion of ∼28 genes that results in a cognitive and behavioral profile marked by overall intellectual impairment with relative strength in expressive language and hypersocial behavior. Advancements in protocols for neuron differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells allowed us to elucidate the molecular circuitry underpinning the ontogeny of WS. In patient-derived stem cells and neurons, we determined the expression profile of the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical region-deleted genes and the genome-wide transcriptional consequences of the hemizygous genomic microdeletion at chromosome 7q11.23. Derived neurons displayed disease-relevant hallmarks and indicated novel aberrant pathways in WS neurons including over-activated Wnt signaling accompanying an incomplete neurogenic commitment. We show that haploinsufficiency of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler, BAZ1B, which is deleted in WS, significantly contributes to this differentiation defect. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) revealed BAZ1B target gene functions are enriched for neurogenesis, neuron differentiation and disease-relevant phenotypes. BAZ1B haploinsufficiency caused widespread gene expression changes in neural progenitor cells, and together with BAZ1B ChIP-seq target genes, explained 42% of the transcriptional dysregulation in WS neurons. BAZ1B contributes to regulating the balance between neural precursor self-renewal and differentiation and the differentiation defect caused by BAZ1B haploinsufficiency can be rescued by mitigating over-active Wnt signaling in neural stem cells. Altogether, these results reveal a pivotal role for BAZ1B in neurodevelopment and implicate its haploinsufficiency as a likely contributor to the neurological phenotypes in WS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Intermittent feeding as a factor enhancing hemopoietic stem cell proliferation and spleen colony formation in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of metabolic stimulation induced by a 3 weeks' adaption of the animals to intermittent food intake on hemopoietic stem cells was investigated in mice. The methods used included transplantation of bone marrow to lethally irradiated recipients, assay of CFUs number, seeding efficiency, and incorporation of 125 iodode oxyuridine into the DNA of spleen cells. A stimulatory effect of the metabolically influenced hemopoietic environment on the proliferative activity in stem cell compartments and on the recovery of hemopoietic organs was demonstrated. These stimulatory effects were most marked when the bone marrow of metabolically influenced donors was transplanted to similarly influenced recipients. (orig.)

  8. Novel regulator of acylated ghrelin, CF801, reduces weight gain, rebound feeding after a fast, and adiposity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Wellman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801 along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors.

  9. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuanxin; Soudy, Fathia; Xu, Zhong; Liao, Mingxing; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57) × Kunming (KM) F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI) traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  10. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57 × Kunming (KM F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR and feed intake (FI traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  11. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Cupric Sulfate (CAS No. 7758-99-8) Administered in Drinking Water and Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Charles

    1993-07-01

    Cupric sulfate is an inorganic salt which is widely used in industry, agriculture, and veterinary medicine. Its applications include use as an algicide in potable waters and as a feed additive and therapeutic agent in swine, sheep, and cattle. Because copper salts are found in human water supplies, toxicity studies of cupric sulfate pentahydrate were conducted in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by the drinking water (2-week studies only) and dosed feed routes (2-week and 13-week studies). Animals were evaluated for hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, reproductive toxicity, tissue metal accumulation, and histopathology. In the 2-week drinking water studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex received cupric sulfate at concentrations of 300 to 30,000 ppm for 15 days. One female rat, one male mouse, and three female mice in the 3000 ppm groups and all rats and mice in the 10,000 and 30,000 ppm groups died before the end of the studies. The remaining mice and rats in the 3000 ppm groups gained little or lost weight. Water consumption in the three highest dose groups of both species was reduced by more than 65%. Clinical signs observed in these groups were typical of those seen in moribund animals and were attributed to dehydration. The only gross or microscopic change specifically related to cupric sulfate toxicity was an increase in the size and number of cytoplasmic protein droplets in the epithelium of the renal proximal convoluted tubule in male rats from the 300 and 1000-ppm groups. In the 2-week feed studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex were fed diets containing 1000 to 16,000 ppm cupric sulfate. No chemical-related deaths occurred in any dose group. Compared to the controls, rats and mice in the two highest dose groups had reduced body weight gains which were attributed to decreased feed consumption. Hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis of the squamous epithelium on the limiting ridge of the forestomach was seen in rats and

  12. Genetic interactions between neurofibromin and endothelin receptor B in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha Deo

    Full Text Available When mutations in two different genes produce the same mutant phenotype, it suggests that the encoded proteins either interact with each other, or act in parallel to fulfill a similar purpose. Haploinsufficiency of Neurofibromin and over-expression of Endothelin 3 both cause increased numbers of melanocytes to populate the dermis during mouse development, and thus we are interested in how these two signaling pathways might intersect. Neurofibromin is mutated in the human genetic disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, which is characterized by the development of Schwann cell based tumors and skin hyper-pigmentation. Neurofibromin is a GTPase activating protein, while the Endothelin 3 ligand activates Endothelin receptor B, a G protein coupled receptor. In order to study the genetic interactions between endothelin and neurofibromin, we defined the deletion breakpoints of the classical Ednrb piebald lethal allele (Ednrb(s-l and crossed these mice to mice with a loss-of-function mutation in neurofibromin, Dark skin 9 (Dsk9. We found that Neurofibromin haploinsufficiency requires Endothelin receptor B to darken the tail dermis. In contrast, Neurofibromin haploinsufficiency increases the area of the coat that is pigmented in Endothelin receptor B null mice. We also found an oncogenic mutation in the G protein alpha subunit, GNAQ, which couples to Endothelin receptor B, in a uveal melanoma from a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Thus, this data suggests that there is a complex relationship between Neurofibromin and Endothelin receptor B.

  13. Short stature caused by isolated SHOX gene haploinsufficiency: update on the diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Alexander A L; Funari, Mariana Fa; Nishi, Mirian Y; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2010-12-01

    Heterozygous SHOX defects are observed in about 50 to 90% of patients with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), a common dominant inherited skeletal dysplasia; and in 2 to 15% of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), indicating that SHOX defects are the most important monogenetic cause of short stature. In addition, children selected by disproportionate idiopathic short stature had a higher frequency of SHOX mutations (22%). A careful clinical evaluation of family members with short stature is recommended since it usually revealed LWD patients in families first classified as having ISS or familial short stature. SHOX-molecular analysis is indicated in families with LWD and ISS children with disproportionate short stature. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone is considered an accepted approach to treat short stature associated with isolated SHOX defect. Here we review clinical, molecular and therapeutic aspects of SHOX haploinsufficiency.

  14. Genetic Modifiers of Cardiovascular Phenotype Caused by Elastin Haploinsufficiency Act by Extrinsic Noncomplementation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Beth A.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Ye, Li; Ciliberto, Christopher H.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Elastin haploinsufficiency causes the cardiovascular complications associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome and isolated supravalvular aortic stenosis. Significant variability exists in the vascular pathology in these individuals. Using the Eln+/− mouse, we sought to identify the source of this variability. Following outcrossing of C57Bl/6J Eln+/−, two backgrounds were identified whose cardiovascular parameters deviated significantly from the parental strain. F1 progeny of the C57Bl/6J; Eln+/−x129X1/SvJ were more hypertensive and their arteries less compliant. In contrast, Eln+/− animals crossed to DBA/2J were protected from the pathologic changes associated with elastin insufficiency. Among the crosses, aortic elastin and collagen content did not correlate with quantitative vasculopathy traits. Quantitative trait locus analysis performed on F2 C57; Eln+/−x129 intercrosses identified highly significant peaks on chromosome 1 (LOD 9.7) for systolic blood pressure and on chromosome 9 (LOD 8.7) for aortic diameter. Additional peaks were identified that affect only Eln+/−, including a region upstream of Eln on chromosome 5 (LOD 4.5). Bioinformatic analysis of the quantitative trait locus peaks revealed several interesting candidates, including Ren1, Ncf1, and Nos1; genes whose functions are unrelated to elastic fiber assembly, but whose effects may synergize with elastin insufficiency to predispose to hypertension and stiffer blood vessels. Real time RT-PCR studies show background-specific increased expression of Ncf1 (a subunit of the NOX2 NAPDH oxidase) that parallel the presence of increased oxidative stress in Eln+/− aortas. This finding raises the possibility that polymorphisms in genes affecting the generation of reactive oxygen species alter cardiovascular function in individuals with elastin haploinsufficiency through extrinsic noncomplementation. PMID:22049077

  15. Increased cost of motor activity and heat transfer between non-shivering thermogenesis, motor activity and thermic effect of feeding in mice housed at room temperature – Implications in pre-clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Christian Even

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR, resting metabolic rate (RMR, thermogenic response to feeding (TEF, activity and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22°C and 30° C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than 2 times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction. This phenomenon induced a considerable underestimation of TEF and prevented its reliable measurement when mice were housed at 22°C. Correlation between TMR and activity measured across time in individual mice was very strong at both 22°C and 30°C, but the correlation measured across mice was much weaker at 30°C and no longer significant at 22°C. We suspect that this phenomenon was due to the fact that RMR is a much more reliable predictor of TMR than activity. RMR is more variable at 22°C than at 30°C because of heat-transfers between thermal regulation and heat released by other discontinuous processes such as activity and TEF. Therefore more noise is introduced into the correlations performed across multiple mice between TMR and activity at 22°C. On the other hand it should be kept in mind that the doubling of TMR and RMR at 22°C is fueled by an increased non-shivering thermogenesis that can obviously modify how the mouse responds to pharmacological and nutritional challenges. Taken together these results suggest that in pre-clinical studies, mice should be housed in conditions where thermal regulation is limited as is generally the case in humans. However, the increased sensitivity of mice to small changes in ambient temperature can also be

  16. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Willecke

    Full Text Available We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/- mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR. After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD, showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states.

  17. Liver-specific Aquaporin 11 knockout mice show rapid vacuolization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in periportal hepatocytes after amino acid feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojek, Aleksandra; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Füchtbauer, Annette C.

    2013-01-01

    -specific Aqp11 KO mice, allowing us to study the role of AQP11 protein in liver of mice with normal kidney function. The unchallenged liver-specific Aqp11 KO mice have normal longevity, their livers appeared normal, and the plasma biochemistries revealed only a minor defect in lipid handling. Fasting......Aquaporin 11 (AQP11) is a protein channel expressed intracellularly in multiple organs, yet its physiological function is unclear. Aqp11 knockout (KO) mice die early due to malfunction of the kidney, a result of hydropic degeneration of proximal tubule cells. Here we report the generation of liver...... protein or larger doses of various amino acids. The fasting/refeeding challenge is associated with increased expression of markers of ER stress Grp78 and GADD153 and decreased glutathione levels, suggesting that ER stress may play role in the development of vacuoles in the AQP11-deficient hepatocytes. NMR...

  18. Haploinsufficiency of a spliceosomal GTPase encoded by EFTUD2 causes mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Matthew A; Huang, Lijia; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Douglas, Stuart L; Lynch, Danielle C; Beaulieu, Chandree; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Gener, Blanca; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Nava, Caroline; Baujat, Geneviève; Horn, Denise; Kini, Usha; Caliebe, Almuth; Alanay, Yasemin; Utine, Gulen Eda; Lev, Dorit; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Grix, Arthur W; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Hehr, Ute; Böhm, Detlef; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Boycott, Kym M

    2012-02-10

    Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a rare sporadic syndrome comprising craniofacial malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay, and a recognizable dysmorphic appearance. Major sequelae, including choanal atresia, sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft palate, each occur in a significant proportion of affected individuals. We present detailed clinical findings in 12 unrelated individuals with MFDM; these 12 individuals compose the largest reported cohort to date. To define the etiology of MFDM, we employed whole-exome sequencing of four unrelated affected individuals and identified heterozygous mutations or deletions of EFTUD2 in all four. Validation studies of eight additional individuals with MFDM demonstrated causative EFTUD2 mutations in all affected individuals tested. A range of EFTUD2-mutation types, including null alleles and frameshifts, is seen in MFDM, consistent with haploinsufficiency; segregation is de novo in all cases assessed to date. U5-116kD, the protein encoded by EFTUD2, is a highly conserved spliceosomal GTPase with a central regulatory role in catalytic splicing and post-splicing-complex disassembly. MFDM is the first multiple-malformation syndrome attributed to a defect of the major spliceosome. Our findings significantly extend the range of reported spliceosomal phenotypes in humans and pave the way for further investigation in related conditions such as Treacher Collins syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai-Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook-Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David

    2017-06-08

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.

  20. Identification of Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that Are Haploinsufficient for Overcoming Amino Acid Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to amino acid deprivation by activating a pathway conserved in eukaryotes to overcome the starvation stress. We have screened the entire yeast heterozygous deletion collection to identify strains haploinsufficient for growth in the presence of sulfometuron methyl, which causes starvation for isoleucine and valine. We have discovered that cells devoid of MET15 are sensitive to sulfometuron methyl, and loss of heterozygosity at the MET15 locus can complicate screening the heterozygous deletion collection. We identified 138 cases of loss of heterozygosity in this screen. After eliminating the issues of the MET15 loss of heterozygosity, strains isolated from the collection were retested on sulfometuron methyl. To determine the general effect of the mutations for a starvation response, SMM-sensitive strains were tested for the ability to grow in the presence of canavanine, which induces arginine starvation, and strains that were MET15 were also tested for growth in the presence of ethionine, which causes methionine starvation. Many of the genes identified in our study were not previously identified as starvation-responsive genes, including a number of essential genes that are not easily screened in a systematic way. The genes identified span a broad range of biological functions, including many involved in some level of gene expression. Several unnamed proteins have also been identified, giving a clue as to possible functions of the encoded proteins.

  1. SIX2 haploinsufficiency causes conductive hearing loss with ptosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Dayong; Cao, Wenjian; Zhao, Yali; Du, Renqian; Yuan, Hu; Liu, Qiong; Lan, Lan; Zong, Liang; Yang, Ju; Yin, Zifang; Han, Bing; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Qiuju

    2016-11-01

    The ossicles represent one of the most fundamental morphological features in evolutionary biology of the mammalians. The mobile ossicular morphology abnormalities result in the severe conductive hearing loss. Development and patterning of the middle ear malformation depend on genetic and environmental causes. However, the genetic basis for the risk of congenital ossicle malformation is poorly understood. We show here nine affected individuals in a Chinese pedigree who had bilateral conductive hearing loss with ptosis. We performed whole-genome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis on DNA samples from the Chinese pedigree. We confirmed the presence of a novel 60 kb heterozygous deletion in size, encompassing SIX2 in our family. Mutation screening in 169 sporadic cases with external ear and middle ear malformations identified no pathogenic variant or polymorphism. We suggest SIX2 haploinsufficiency as a potential congenital factor could be attributed to developmental malformation of the middle ear ossicles and upper eyelid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to provide a description of copy number variation in the SIX2 gene resulting in syndromic conductive hearing loss.

  2. Brain size regulations by cbp haploinsufficiency evaluated by in-vivo MRI based volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateca-Cabarga, Juan C.; Cosa, Alejandro; Pallarés, Vicente; López-Atalaya, José P.; Barco, Ángel; Canals, Santiago; Moratal, David

    2015-11-01

    The Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS) is a congenital disease that affects brain development causing severe cognitive deficits. In most cases the disease is associated with dominant mutations in the gene encoding the CREB binding protein (CBP). In this work, we present the first quantitative analysis of brain abnormalities in a mouse model of RSTS using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two novel self-developed automated algorithms for image volumetric analysis. Our results quantitatively confirm key syndromic features observed in RSTS patients, such as reductions in brain size (-16.31%, p < 0.05), white matter volume (-16.00%, p < 0.05), and corpus callosum (-12.40%, p < 0.05). Furthermore, they provide new insight into the developmental origin of the disease. By comparing brain tissues in a region by region basis between cbp+/- and cbp+/+ littermates, we found that cbp haploinsufficiency is specifically associated with significant reductions in prosencephalic tissue, such us in the olfactory bulb and neocortex, whereas regions evolved from the embryonic rhombencephalon were spared. Despite the large volume reductions, the proportion between gray-, white-matter and cerebrospinal fluid were conserved, suggesting a role of CBP in brain size regulation. The commonalities with holoprosencephaly and arhinencephaly conditions suggest the inclusion of RSTS in the family of neuronal migration disorders.

  3. Crif1 Deficiency Reduces Adipose OXPHOS Capacity and Triggers Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Yong Kyung; Choi, Min Jeong; Tadi, Surendar; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Seong Eun; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Jung, Saet Byel; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jo, Young Suk; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin Man; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Park, Ki Cheol; Lee, Jung Uee; Kong, Young Yun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chung, Jongkyeong; Shong, Minho

    2013-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has been proposed as an etiological mechanism underlying insulin resistance. However, the initiating organ of OXPHOS dysfunction during the development of systemic insulin resistance has yet to be identified. To determine whether adipose OXPHOS deficiency plays an etiological role in systemic insulin resistance, the metabolic phenotype of mice with OXPHOS–deficient adipose tissue was examined. Crif1 is a protein required for the intramitochondrial production of mtDNA–encoded OXPHOS subunits; therefore, Crif1 haploinsufficient deficiency in mice results in a mild, but specific, failure of OXPHOS capacity in vivo. Although adipose-specific Crif1-haploinsufficient mice showed normal growth and development, they became insulin-resistant. Crif1-silenced adipocytes showed higher expression of chemokines, the expression of which is dependent upon stress kinases and antioxidant. Accordingly, examination of adipose tissue from Crif1-haploinsufficient mice revealed increased secretion of MCP1 and TNFα, as well as marked infiltration by macrophages. These findings indicate that the OXPHOS status of adipose tissue determines its metabolic and inflammatory responses, and may cause systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:23516375

  4. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of nitrofurantoin (CAS No. 67-20-9) in F344/n rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Two-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering diets containing 0, 600, or 1,300 ppm nitrofurantoin to groups of 50 female rats for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 male rats and 50 mice of each sex were fed diets containing 0, 1,300 or 2,500 ppm for 103 weeks. Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for male F344/N rats as shown by increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms. Uncommon osteosarcomas of the bone and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue were observed in dosed male rats. Incidences of interstitial cell adenomas of the testis and neoplasms of the preputial gland were decreased in the 2,500-ppm group of male rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for female F344/N rats fed diets containing 600 ppm or 1,300 ppm for 2 years. Female rats may have been able to tolerate higher doses. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for male B6C3F(1) mice fed diets containing 1,300 ppm or 2,500 ppm for 2 years. There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for female B6C3F(1) mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.

  5. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  6. Ultradian feeding in mice not only affects the peripheral clock in the liver, but also the master clock in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Satish; Raingard, Hélène; Dumont, Stéphanie; Kalsbeek, A.; Vuillez, Patrick; Challet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Restricted feeding during the resting period causes pronounced shifts in a number of peripheral clocks, but not the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By contrast, daily caloric restriction impacts also the light-entrained SCN clock, as indicated by shifted oscillations of clock

  7. VDR haploinsufficiency impacts body composition and skeletal acquisition in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Francisco J A; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Bornstein, Sheila; Rostama, Bahman; Le, Phuong; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-09-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is crucial for virtually all of vitamin D's actions and is thought to be ubiquitously expressed. We hypothesized that disruption of one allele of the VDR gene would impact bone development and would have metabolic consequences. Body composition and bone mass (BMD) in VDR heterozygous (VDR HET) mice were compared to those obtained in male and female VDR KO and WT mice at 8 weeks of age. Male mice were also evaluated at 16 weeks, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation was evaluated in VDR female mice. Additionally, female VDR HET and WT mice received intermittent PTH treatment or vehicle (VH) for 4 weeks. BMD was determined at baseline and after treatment. MRI was done in vivo at the end of treatment; μCT and bone histomorphometry were performed after killing the animals. VDR HET male mice had normal skeletal development until 16 weeks of age but showed significantly less gain in fat mass than WT mice. In contrast, female VDR HET mice showed decreased total-body BMD at age 8 weeks but had a normal skeletal response to PTH. MSC differentiation was also impaired in VDR HET female mice. Thus, female VDR HET mice show early impairment in bone acquisition, while male VDR HET mice exhibit a lean phenotype. Our results indicate that the VDR HET mouse is a useful model for studying the metabolic and skeletal impact of decreased vitamin D sensitivity.

  8. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  9. Mice long-term high-fat diet feeding recapitulates human cardiovascular alterations: an animal model to study the early phases of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián D Calligaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  10. Haploinsufficiency of the Sec7 guanine nucleotide exchange factor gea1 impairs septation in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Eckler

    Full Text Available Membrane trafficking is essential to eukaryotic life and is controlled by a complex network of proteins that regulate movement of proteins and lipids between organelles. The GBF1/GEA family of Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs regulates trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on ADP Ribosylation Factors (Arfs. Activated Arfs recruit coat protein complex 1 (COP-I to form vesicles that ferry cargo between these organelles. To further explore the function of the GBF1/GEA family, we have characterized a fission yeast mutant lacking one copy of the essential gene gea1 (gea1+/-, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog of GBF1. The haploinsufficient gea1+/- strain was shown to be sensitive to the GBF1 inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA and was rescued from BFA sensitivity by gea1p overexpression. No overt defects in localization of arf1p or arf6p were observed in gea1+/- cells, but the fission yeast homolog of the COP-I cargo sac1 was mislocalized, consistent with impaired COP-I trafficking. Although Golgi morphology appeared normal, a slight increase in vacuolar size was observed in the gea1+/- mutant strain. Importantly, gea1+/- cells exhibited dramatic cytokinesis-related defects, including disorganized contractile rings, an increased septation index, and alterations in septum morphology. Septation defects appear to result from altered secretion of enzymes required for septum dynamics, as decreased secretion of eng1p, a β-glucanase required for septum breakdown, was observed in gea1+/- cells, and overexpression of eng1p suppressed the increased septation phenotype. These observations implicate gea1 in regulation of septum breakdown and establish S. pombe as a model system to explore GBF1/GEA function in cytokinesis.

  11. The contribution of CLIP2 haploinsufficiency to the clinical manifestations of the Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Van der Aa, Nathalie; Reyniers, Edwin; Kooy, R Frank

    2012-06-08

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare contiguous gene syndrome, characterized by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, connective-tissue abnormalities, cardiac defects, structural brain abnormalities, and transient infantile hypercalcemia. Genes lying telomeric to RFC2, including CLIP2, GTF2I and GTF2IRD1, are currently thought to be the most likely major contributors to the typical Williams syndrome cognitive profile, characterized by a better-than-expected auditory rote-memory ability, a relative sparing of language capabilities, and a severe visual-spatial constructive impairment. Atypical deletions in the region have helped to establish genotype-phenotype correlations. So far, however, hardly any deletions affecting only a single gene in the disease region have been described. We present here two healthy siblings with a pure, hemizygous deletion of CLIP2. A putative role in the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities seen in Williams-Beuren patients has been suggested for this gene on the basis of observations in a knock-out mouse model. The presented siblings did not show any of the clinical features associated with the syndrome. Cognitive testing showed an average IQ for both and no indication of the Williams syndrome cognitive profile. This shows that CLIP2 haploinsufficiency by itself does not lead to the physical or cognitive characteristics of the Williams-Beuren syndrome, nor does it lead to the Williams syndrome cognitive profile. Although contribution of CLIP2 to the phenotype cannot be excluded when it is deleted in combination with other genes, our results support the hypothesis that GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I are the main genes causing the cognitive defects associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of p,p'-dichlorophenyl sulfone (CAS No. 80-07-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    p,pN-Dichlorodiphenyl sulfone is used as a starting material in the production of polysulfones and polyethersulfones and as a component in reactive dyes in the textile industry; it is also a by-product of pesticide production. p,pN-Dichlorodiphenyl sulfone was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its history of high production and use, the prospect of increased production and use, and the absence of adequate toxicity testing. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed top,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (greater than 99% pure)in feed for 14 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium,cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse bone marrow. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 0, 30, 100, 300, 1,000, or 3,000 ppm p,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 2, 6, 19, 65, or 200 mgp,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone/kg body weight) for 14 weeks. All rats survived until the end of the study. Mean body weights of groups exposed to 300 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the controls. Liver weights of groups exposed to 100 ppm or greater and kidney weights of 1,000 and 3,000 ppm male rats were significantly greater than those of the controls. Centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy of the liver was observed in most male rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater and in all female rats exposed to 300 ppm or greater, and the severities were increased in 300 ppm males and 1,000 and 3,000 ppm males and females. The incidences of nephropathy in 1,000 and 3,000 ppm female rats were significantly increased. Dose-related increases in severity of nephropathy were observed in male rats. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were fed diets containing 0, 30, 100, 300, 1,000, or 3,000 ppm p,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 3.5, 15, 50

  13. Age-dependent effect of every-other-day feeding and aerobic exercise in ubiquinone levels and related antioxidant activities in mice muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Aging affects many biochemical, cellular, and physiological processes in the organisms. Accumulation of damage based on oxidized macromolecules is found in many age-associated diseases. Coenzyme Q (Q) is one of the main molecules involved in metabolic and antioxidant activities in cells. Q-dependent antioxidant activities are importantly involved on the protection of cell membranes against oxidation. Many studies indicate that Q decay in most of the organs during aging. In our study, no changes in Q levels were found in old animals in comparison with young animals. On the other hand, the interventions, caloric restriction based on every-other-day feeding procedure, and physical exercise were able to increase Q levels in muscle, but only in old and not in young animals. Probably, this effect prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation found in aged animals and also protein carbonylation. Further, Q-dependent antioxidant activities such as NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 are also modulated by both exercise and every other day feeding. Taken together, we demonstrate that exercise and dietary restriction as every-other-day procedure can regulate endogenous synthesized Q levels and Q-dependent antioxidant activities in muscle, preventing oxidative damage in aged muscle. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Duarte Linhares

    Full Text Available Abstract Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS, we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients.

  15. MEF2C Haploinsufficiency features consistent hyperkinesis, variable epilepsy, and has a role in dorsal and ventral neuronal developmental pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Traylor, Ryan N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Hoover, Jacqueline M.; Harris, Catharine J.; Winter, Susan; Lacassie, Yves; Bialer, Martin; Lamb, Allen N.; Schultz, Roger A.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Porter, Brenda E.; Falk, Marni; Venkat, Anu; Vanzo, Rena J.; Cohen, Julie S.; Fatemi, Ali; Dobyns, William B.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Ballif, Blake C.; Marsh, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome is an emerging neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, autistic features, epilepsy, and abnormal movements. We report 16 new patients with MEF2C haploinsufficiency, including the oldest reported patient with MEF2C deletion at 5q14.3. We detail the neurobehavioral phenotype, epilepsy, and abnormal movements, and compare our subjects with those previously reported in the literature. We also investigate Mef2c expression in the developing mouse forebrain. A spectrum of neurofunctional deficits emerges, with hyperkinesis a consistent finding. Epilepsy varied from absent to severe, and included intractable myoclonic seizures and infantile spasms. Subjects with partial MEF2C deletion were statistically less likely to have epilepsy. Finally, we confirm that Mef2c is present both in dorsal primary neuroblasts and ventral gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)ergic interneurons in the forebrain of the developing mouse. Given interactions with several key neurodevelopmental genes such as ARX, FMR1, MECP2, and TBR1, it appears that MEF2C plays a role in several developmental stages of both dorsal and ventral neuronal cell types. PMID:23389741

  16. Chronic Intake of Commercial Sweeteners Induces Changes in Feeding Behavior and Signaling Pathways Related to the Control of Appetite in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Correa, Alberto A; Estrada, José A; Martel, Caroline; Olivier, Martin; López-Santiago, Rubén; Contreras, Irazú

    2018-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweetener use is a common practice worldwide. Although considered safe for human consumption, accumulating evidence suggests these compounds may affect metabolic homeostasis; however, there is no consensus on the role of frequent sweetener intake in appetite and weight loss. We sought to determine whether frequent intake of commercial sweeteners induces changes in the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in the brain of mice, as it is involved in the regulation of appetite and body composition. We supplemented adult BALB/c mice with sucrose, steviol glycosides (SG), or sucralose, daily, for 6 weeks. After supplementation, we evaluated body composition and expression of total and phosphorylated JAK2, STAT3, and Akt, as well as SOCS3 and ObRb, in brain tissue. Our results show that frequent intake of commercial SG decreases energy intake, adiposity, and weight gain in male animals, while increasing the expression of pJAK2 and pSTAT3 in the brain, whereas sucralose increases weight gain and pJAK2 expression in females. Our results suggest that chronic intake of commercial sweeteners elicits changes in signaling pathways that have been related to the control of appetite and energy balance in vivo , which may have relevant consequences for the nutritional state and long term health of the organism.

  17. Attenuated hypertrophic response to pressure overload in a lamin A/C haploinsufficiency mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Cupesi, Mihaela; Yoshioka, Jun; Gannon, Joseph; Kudinova, Anastacia; Stewart, Colin L.; Lammerding, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Inherited mutations cause approximately 30% of all dilated cardiomyopathy cases, with autosomal dominant mutations in the LMNA gene accounting for more than one third of these. The LMNA gene encodes the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, which provide structural support to the nucleus and also play critical roles in transcriptional regulation. Functional deletion of a single allele is sufficient to trigger dilated cardiomyopathy in humans and mice. However, whereas Lmna−/− mice develop...

  18. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Smith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related protein (AgRP neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons.

  19. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Katsouri, Loukia; Irvine, Elaine E; Hankir, Mohammed K; Pedroni, Silvia M A; Voshol, Peter J; Gordon, Matthew W; Choudhury, Agharul I; Woods, Angela; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J

    2015-04-21

    Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MTH1 and RGT1 demonstrate combined haploinsufficiency in regulation of the hexose transporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietzel Kevin L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SNF3 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a low glucose sensor that regulates expression of an important subset of the hexose transporter (HXT superfamily. Null mutations of snf3 result in a defect in growth on low glucose concentrations due to the inability to relieve repression of a subset of the HXT genes. The snf3 null mutation phenotype is suppressed by the loss of either one of the downstream co-repressor proteins Rgt1p or Mth1p. The relief of repression allows expression of HXT transporter proteins, the resumption of glucose uptake and therefore of growth in the absence of a functional Snf3 sensor. Results Strains heterozygous for both the RGT1 and MTH1 genes (RGT1/rgt1Δ MTH1/mth1Δ snf3Δ/snf3Δ but homozygous for the snf3∆ were found to grow on low glucose. Since null alleles in the heterozygous state lead to suppression, MTH1 and RGT1 display the phenomenon of combined haploinsufficiency. This observed haploinsufficiency is consistent with the finding of repressor titration as a mechanism of suppression of snf3. Mutants of the STD1 homolog of MTH1 did not display haploinsufficiency singly or in combination with mutations in RGT1. HXT gene reporter fusion assays indicated that the presence of heterozygosity at the MTH1 and RGT1 alleles leads to increased expression of the HXT2 gene. Deletion of the HXT2 gene in a heterozygous diploid, RGT1/rgt1Δ MTH1/mth1Δ snf3Δ/snf3Δ hxt2Δ/hxt2Δ, prevented the suppression of snf3Δ. Conclusions These findings support the model of relief of repression as the mechanism of restoration of growth on low glucose concentrations in the absence of functional Snf3p. Further, the observation that HXT2 is the gene responsible for restoration of growth under these conditions suggests that the numbers of repressor binding domains found in the regulatory regions of members of the HXT family may have biological relevance and enable differential regulation.

  1. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of acrylamide (CASRN 79-06-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed and drinking water studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    diet. The neuronal degenerative changes were accompanied, at times, by atrophy in skeletal muscle of the hind-limb and luminal dilation of the urinary bladder. Degeneration of the germ cells in the testes was observed in six of eight male mice given 3.52 mM acrylamide and seven of seven mice fed 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet. 2 YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 48 male and 48 female F344/N rats were administered acrylamide in the drinking water ad libitum for 2 years. Concentrations of 0.0875, 0.175, 0.35, and 0.70 mM acrylamide (6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm acrylamide) resulted in an average daily consumption of approximately 0.33, 0.66, 1.32, and 2.71 mg acrylamide per kg body weight in male F344/N rats and 0.44, 0.88, 1.84, and 4.02 mg acrylamide per kg body weight in female F344/N rats. Acrylamide had no effect upon the survival of male F344/N rats. Female F344/N rats administered 0.175, 0.35, or 0.70 mM acrylamide had decreased survival compared to control female F344/N rats. Acrylamide caused significant dose-related decreasing trends in body weight in F344/N rats. At the end of the 2 year period, male and female F344/N rats administered 0.70 mM acrylamide weighed 86% and 85% of their respective control groups. Feed consumption was generally not affected by acrylamide; water consumption in female F344/N rats was increased at later time points. In male F344/N rats, the incidence of epididymis malignant mesothelioma, combined epididymis or testicular tunica malignant mesothelioma, heart malignant incidences of schwannoma, pancreatic islets adenoma, thyroid gland follicular cell carcinoma, and combined thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma or carcinoma was increased significantly in the 0.70 mM acrylamide group. In female F344/N rats, the incidence of clitoral gland carcinoma was increased significantly in the 0.0875, 0.175, and 0.70 mM acrylamide groups. The incidence of mammary gland fibroadenoma was increased significantly at 0.175, 0.35, and 0.70 mM acrylamide

  2. RanBP2 modulates Cox11 and hexokinase I activities and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 causes deficits in glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Aslanukov

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2 is a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein. Several molecular partners with distinct functions interacting specifically with selective modules of RanBP2 have been identified. Yet, the significance of these interactions with RanBP2 and the genetic and physiological role(s of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two novel partners of RanBP2 and a novel physiological role of RanBP2 in a mouse model. RanBP2 associates in vitro and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI via its leucine-rich domain. The leucine-rich domain of RanBP2 also exhibits strong chaperone activity toward intermediate and mature folding species of Cox11 supporting a chaperone role of RanBP2 in the cytosol during Cox11 biogenesis. Cox11 partially colocalizes with HKI, thus supporting additional and distinct roles in cell function. Cox11 is a strong inhibitor of HKI, and RanBP2 suppresses the inhibitory activity of Cox11 over HKI. To probe the physiological role of RanBP2 and its role in HKI function, a mouse model harboring a genetically disrupted RanBP2 locus was generated. RanBP2(-/- are embryonically lethal, and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 in an inbred strain causes a pronounced decrease of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system. Inbred RanBP2(+/- mice also exhibit deficits in growth rates and glucose catabolism without impairment of glucose uptake and gluconeogenesis. These phenotypes are accompanied by a decrease in the electrophysiological responses of photosensory and postreceptoral neurons. Hence, RanBP2 and its partners emerge as critical modulators of neuronal HKI, glucose catabolism, energy homeostasis, and targets for metabolic, aging disorders and allied neuropathies.

  3. RanBP2 modulates Cox11 and hexokinase I activities and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 causes deficits in glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanukov, Azamat; Bhowmick, Reshma; Guruju, Mallikarjuna; Oswald, John; Raz, Dorit; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A; Lu, Xinrong; Bock, Cheryl B; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2006-10-01

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein. Several molecular partners with distinct functions interacting specifically with selective modules of RanBP2 have been identified. Yet, the significance of these interactions with RanBP2 and the genetic and physiological role(s) of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two novel partners of RanBP2 and a novel physiological role of RanBP2 in a mouse model. RanBP2 associates in vitro and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI) via its leucine-rich domain. The leucine-rich domain of RanBP2 also exhibits strong chaperone activity toward intermediate and mature folding species of Cox11 supporting a chaperone role of RanBP2 in the cytosol during Cox11 biogenesis. Cox11 partially colocalizes with HKI, thus supporting additional and distinct roles in cell function. Cox11 is a strong inhibitor of HKI, and RanBP2 suppresses the inhibitory activity of Cox11 over HKI. To probe the physiological role of RanBP2 and its role in HKI function, a mouse model harboring a genetically disrupted RanBP2 locus was generated. RanBP2(-/-) are embryonically lethal, and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 in an inbred strain causes a pronounced decrease of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system. Inbred RanBP2(+/-) mice also exhibit deficits in growth rates and glucose catabolism without impairment of glucose uptake and gluconeogenesis. These phenotypes are accompanied by a decrease in the electrophysiological responses of photosensory and postreceptoral neurons. Hence, RanBP2 and its partners emerge as critical modulators of neuronal HKI, glucose catabolism, energy homeostasis, and targets for metabolic, aging disorders and allied neuropathies.

  4. Effect of Feeding High Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Containing Giant Embryo Black Sticky Rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Anxiety-Related Behavior of C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sung-Gon; Lee, Jin-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Son, Beung-Gu; Kim, Jong-Woo; Suh, Jae-Won

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding high gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing black sticky rice giant embryo (BSRGE, Oryza sativa L.) on anxiety-related behavior of C57BL/6 mice. Experimental feedstuff (BSRGE with high GABA+AIN-76A) and control (AIN-76A) were provided to C57BL/6 mouse for 10 days. Antianxiety effects of BSRGE with high GABA were measured using an elevated plus maze. On day 8, the number of open arm entries by GABA and control groups were 1.10 ± 1.60 (mean ± SD) and 0.00 ± 0.00 (P = .030). On day 10, the number of open arm entries by the GABA group was 2.00 ± 1.89, which was significantly (P = .025) higher than that in the control group (0.40 ± 0.84). On day 8, the time the mice spent in open arm in the GABA group and control group was 3.60 ± 7.06 and 0.00 ± 0.00 sec (P = .068), respectively. On day 10, the time the mice in the GABA and control groups spent in open arm was 6.20 ± 5.35 sec and 1.80 ± 3.82 sec (P = .042), respectively. In repeated analysis of variance for the number of entries into open arm and time spent in open arm, significant differences were found between the two groups. Therefore, BSRGE with high GABA content might have an antianxiety effect. This study can serve as a preliminary study so that further antianxiety effects of BSRGE can be determined in more extended animal or clinical research studies in the future.

  5. Haploinsufficient Bmp4 ocular phenotypes include anterior segment dysgenesis with elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusinowitz Steven

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a blinding disease usually associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP. In some families, abnormal anterior segment development contributes to glaucoma. The genes causing anterior segment dysgenesis and glaucoma in most of these families are not identified and the affected developmental processes are poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs participate in various developmental processes. We tested the importance of Bmp4 gene dosage for ocular development and developmental glaucoma. Results Bmp4+/- mice have anterior segment abnormalities including malformed, absent or blocked trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal drainage structures. Mice with severe drainage structure abnormalities, over 80% or more of their angle's extent, have elevated IOP. The penetrance and severity of abnormalities is strongly influenced by genetic background, being most severe on the C57BL/6J background and absent on some other backgrounds. On the C57BL/6J background there is also persistence of the hyaloid vasculature, diminished numbers of inner retinal cells, and absence of the optic nerve. Conclusions We demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of BMP4 results in anterior segment dysgenesis and elevated IOP. The abnormalities are similar to those in human patients with developmental glaucoma. Thus, BMP4 is a strong candidate to contribute to Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and other developmental conditions associated with human glaucoma. BMP4 also participates in posterior segment development and wild-type levels are usually critical for optic nerve development on the C57BL/6J background. Bmp4+/- mice are useful for studying various components of ocular development, and may allow identification of strain specific modifiers affecting a variety of ocular phenotypes.

  6. Human NF-κB1 Haploinsufficiency and Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Disease-Molecular Mechanisms and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeger, Birgit; Serwas, Nina Kathrin; Boztug, Kaan

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 1 (NF-κB1)-related human primary immune deficiencies have initially been characterized as defining a subgroup of common variable immunodeficiencies (CVIDs), representing intrinsic B-cell disorders with antibody deficiency and recurrent infections of various kind. Recent evidence indicates that NF-κB1 haploinsufficiency underlies a variable type of combined immunodeficiency (CID) affecting both B and T lymphocyte compartments, with a broadened spectrum of disease manifestations, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced lymphoproliferative disease and immediate life-threatening consequences. As part of this review series focused on EBV-related primary immunodeficiencies, we discuss the current clinical and molecular understanding of monoallelic NFKB1 germline mutations with special focus on the emerging context of EBV-associated disease. We outline mechanistic implications of dysfunctional NF-κB1 in B and T cells and discuss the fatal relation of impaired T-cell function with the inability to clear EBV infections. Finally, we compare common and suggested treatment angles in the context of this complex disease.

  7. CHCHD10 mutations p.R15L and p.G66V cause motoneuron disease by haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Sarah J; Freischmidt, Axel; Oeckl, Patrick; Müller, Kathrin; Ponna, Srinivas K; Helferich, Anika M; Paone, Christoph; Reinders, Jörg; Kojer, Kerstin; Orth, Michael; Jokela, Manu; Auranen, Mari; Udd, Bjarne; Hermann, Andreas; Danzer, Karin M; Lichtner, Peter; Walther, Paul; Ludolph, Albert C; Andersen, Peter M; Otto, Markus; Kursula, Petri; Just, Steffen; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-02-15

    Mutations in the mitochondrially located protein CHCHD10 cause motoneuron disease by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigate the mutations p.R15L and p.G66V in comparison to wild-type CHCHD10 and the non-pathogenic variant p.P34S in vitro, in patient cells as well as in the vertebrate in vivo model zebrafish. We demonstrate a reduction of CHCHD10 protein levels in p.R15L and p.G66V mutant patient cells to approximately 50%. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that expression of CHCHD10 p.R15L, but not of CHCHD10 p.G66V, is already abrogated at the mRNA level. Altered secondary structure and rapid protein degradation are observed with regard to the CHCHD10 p.G66V mutant. In contrast, no significant differences in expression, degradation rate or secondary structure of non-pathogenic CHCHD10 p.P34S are detected when compared with wild-type protein. Knockdown of CHCHD10 expression in zebrafish to about 50% causes motoneuron pathology, abnormal myofibrillar structure and motility deficits in vivo. Thus, our data show that the CHCHD10 mutations p.R15L and p.G66V cause motoneuron disease primarily based on haploinsufficiency of CHCHD10. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Haploinsufficiency of KDM6A is associated with severe psychomotor retardation, global growth restriction, seizures and cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Amelia M; Hoyos, Tatiana; Talkowski, Michael E; Hanscom, Carrie; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Ernst, Carl; Pereira, Shahrin; Ordulu, Zehra; Clericuzio, Carol; Drautz, Joanne M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Velsher, Lea; Pynn, Tania; Vermeesch, Joris; Harris, David J; Gusella, James F; Liao, Eric C; Morton, Cynthia C

    2013-05-01

    We describe a female subject (DGAP100) with a 46,X,t(X;5)(p11.3;q35.3)inv(5)(q35.3q35.1)dn, severe psychomotor retardation with hypotonia, global postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, globally reduced cerebral volume, seizures, facial dysmorphia and cleft palate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that the X chromosome breakpoint disrupts KDM6A in the second intron. No genes were directly disrupted on chromosome 5. KDM6A is a histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase and a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Expression of KDM6A is significantly reduced in DGAP100 lymphoblastoid cells compared to control samples. We identified nine additional cases with neurodevelopmental delay and various other features consistent with the DGAP100 phenotype with copy number variation encompassing KDM6A from microarray databases. We evaluated haploinsufficiency of kdm6a in a zebrafish model. kdm6a is expressed in the pharyngeal arches and ethmoid plate of the developing zebrafish, while a kdm6a morpholino knockdown exhibited craniofacial defects. We conclude KDM6A dosage regulation is associated with severe and diverse structural defects and developmental abnormalities.

  9. Congenital Hyperinsulinism in Infants with Turner Syndrome: Possible Association with Monosomy X and KDM6A Haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christopher E; Boodhansingh, Kara E; Li, Changhong; Conlin, Laura; Chen, Pan; Becker, Susan A; Bhatti, Tricia; Bamba, Vaneeta; Adzick, N Scott; De Leon, Diva D; Ganguly, Arupa; Stanley, Charles A

    2018-06-14

    Previous case reports have suggested a possible association of congenital hyperinsulinism with Turner syndrome. We examined the clinical and molecular features in girls with both congenital hyperinsulinism and Turner syndrome seen at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) between 1974 and 2017. Records of girls with hyperinsulinism and Turner syndrome were reviewed. Insulin secretion was studied in pancreatic islets and in mouse islets treated with an inhibitor of KDM6A, an X chromosome gene associated with hyperinsulinism in Kabuki syndrome. Hyperinsulinism was diagnosed in 12 girls with Turner syndrome. Six were diazoxide-unresponsive; 3 had pancreatectomies. The incidence of Turner syndrome among CHOP patients with hyperinsulinism (10 of 1,050 from 1997 to 2017) was 48 times more frequent than expected. The only consistent chromosomal anomaly in these girls was the presence of a 45,X cell line. Studies of isolated islets from 1 case showed abnormal elevated cytosolic calcium and heightened sensitivity to amino acid-stimulated insulin release; similar alterations were demonstrated in mouse islets treated with a KDM6A inhibitor. These results demonstrate a higher than expected frequency of Turner syndrome among children with hyperinsulinism. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency for KDM6A due to mosaic X chromosome monosomy may be responsible for hyperinsulinism in Turner syndrome. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Haploinsufficiency in the PPARα and LDL receptor genes leads to gender- and age-specific obesity and hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Eiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Yokoyama, Shin; Li Yufeng; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-01-01

    When preparing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α:low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) double knockout mice, we unexpectedly found a unique gender- and age-specific obesity in the F1 generation, PPARα (+/-):LDLR (+/-), even in mice fed standard chow. Body weights of the male heterozygous mice increased up to about 60 g at 75 weeks of age, then decreased by about 30 g at 100 weeks of age. More than 95% of the heterozygous mice between 35- and 75-week-olds were overweight. Of interest, the obese heterozygous mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia correlating with moderate insulin resistance. Hepatic gene expression of LDLR was lower than expected in the heterozygous mice, particularly at 50 and 75 weeks of age. In contrast, the hepatic expression of PPARα was higher than expected in obese heterozygous mice, but decreased in non-obese older heterozygous mice. Modulated expression of these genes may be partially associated with the onset of the hyperinsulinemia

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  14. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  15. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  16. Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Randal J; Tomberg, Kärt; Siebert, Amy E; Zhu, Guojing; Winn, Mary E; Dobies, Sarah L; Manning, Sara L; Brake, Marisa A; Cleuren, Audrey C; Hobbs, Linzi M; Mishack, Lena M; Johnston, Alexander J; Kotnik, Emilee; Siemieniak, David R; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun Z; Saunders, Thomas L; Ginsburg, David

    2017-09-05

    Factor V Leiden ( F5 L ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5 L ( F5 L/L ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor ( Tfpi +/- ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- mice, demonstrating that F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5 L/L males and F5 L/+ Tfpi +/- females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5 L/L Tfpi +/- offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden ( MF5L1-16 )," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene ( F3 ). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 ( F3 +/- ) suppressed F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality ( P = 1.7 × 10 -6 ), suggesting that Actr2 p.R258G is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2 p.R258G Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5 L and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.

  17. Carcass glycogen repletion on carbohydrate re-feeding after starvation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D J; Palmer, T N

    1987-01-01

    In mice, the response of carcass glycogen to glucose re-feeding after starvation is biphasic. The initial repletive phase is followed by partial (greater than 50%) glycogen mobilization. This turnover of carcass glycogen in response to carbohydrate re-feeding may play an important role in the provision of C3 precursors for hepatic glycogen synthesis.

  18. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cortical Neurons for High Throughput Medication Screening in Autism: A Proof of Concept Study in SHANK3 Haploinsufficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Darville

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders affect millions of individuals worldwide, but their heterogeneity complicates therapeutic intervention that is essentially symptomatic. A versatile yet relevant model to rationally screen among hundreds of therapeutic options would help improving clinical practice. Here we investigated whether neurons differentiated from pluripotent stem cells can provide such a tool using SHANK3 haploinsufficiency as a proof of principle. A library of compounds was screened for potential to increase SHANK3 mRNA content in neurons differentiated from control human embryonic stem cells. Using induced pluripotent stem cell technology, active compounds were then evaluated for efficacy in correcting dysfunctional networks of neurons differentiated from individuals with deleterious point mutations of SHANK3. Among 202 compounds tested, lithium and valproic acid showed the best efficacy at corrected SHANK3 haploinsufficiency associated phenotypes in cellulo. Lithium pharmacotherapy was subsequently provided to one patient and, after one year, an encouraging decrease in autism severity was observed. This demonstrated that pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons provide a novel cellular paradigm exploitable in the search for specific disease-modifying treatments.

  19. [Premature immunosenescence in catecholamines syntesis deficient mice. Effect of social environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Antonio; Cruces, Julia; Iriarte, Idoia; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; de Pablo, Flora; de la Fuente, Mónica

    Healthy state depends on the appropriate function of the homeostatic systems (nervous, endocrine and immune systems) and the correct communication between them. The functional and redox state of the immune system is an excellent marker of health, and animals with premature immunosenescence show a shorter lifespan. Since catecholamines modulate the function of immune cells, the alteration in their synthesis could provoke immunosenescence. The social environment could be a strategy for modulating this immunosenescence. To determine if an haploinsufficiency of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the limiting enzyme of synthesis of catecholamines, may produce a premature immunosenescence and if this immunosenescence could be modulated by the social environment. Adult (9±1 months) male ICR-CD1 mice with deletion of a single allele (hemi-zygotic: HZ) of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme (TH-HZ) and wild-type (WT) mice were used. Animals were housed in four subgroups: WT>50% (in the cage, the proportion of WT mice was higher than 50% in relation to TH-HZ), WT50%. Peritoneal leukocytes were collected and phagocytosis, chemotaxis and proliferation of lymphocytes in the presence of lipopolysaccharide were analyzed. Glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio were studied. TH-HZ>50% mice showed a deteriorated function and redox state in leukocytes respect to WT>50% and similar to old mice. However, TH-HZ<50% animals had similar values to those found in WT<50% mice. The haploinsufficiency of TH generates premature immunosenescence, which appears to be compensated by living together with an appropriate number of WT animals. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Exercise on Progranulin Levels and Gliosis in Progranulin-Insufficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Patel, Aashka R; Roberson, Erik D

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin ( GRN ) are one of the most common genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no available disease-modifying treatments. Through haploinsufficiency, these mutations reduce levels of progranulin, a protein that has neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing progranulin expression from the intact allele is therefore a potential approach for treating individuals with GRN mutations. Based on the well-known effects of physical exercise on other neurotrophic factors, we hypothesized that exercise might increase brain progranulin levels. We tested this hypothesis in progranulin heterozygous ( Grn + / - ) mice, which model progranulin haploinsufficiency. We housed wild-type and progranulin-insufficient mice in standard cages or cages with exercise wheels for 4 or 7.5 weeks, and then measured brain and plasma progranulin levels. Although exercise modestly increased progranulin in very young (2-month-old) wild-type mice, this effect was limited to the hippocampus. Exercise did not increase brain progranulin mRNA or protein in multiple regions, nor did it increase plasma progranulin, in 4- to 8-month-old wild-type or Grn + / - mice, across multiple experiments and under conditions that increased hippocampal BDNF and neurogenesis. Grn - / - mice were included in the study to test for progranulin-independent benefits of exercise on gliosis. Exercise attenuated cortical microgliosis in 8-month-old Grn - / - mice, consistent with a progranulin-independent, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. These results suggest that exercise may have some modest, nonspecific benefits for FTD patients with progranulin mutations, but do not support exercise as a strategy to raise progranulin levels.

  1. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  2. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, F.; Papachristos, E. B.; Gallistel, C. R.; Brunner, D.; Gibson, J.; Shumyatsky, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout ...

  3. GABAergic neuron deficit as an idiopathic generalized epilepsy mechanism: the role of BRD2 haploinsufficiency in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Velíšek

    Full Text Available Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE syndromes represent about 30% of all epilepsies. They have strong, but elusive, genetic components and sex-specific seizure expression. Multiple linkage and population association studies have connected the bromodomain-containing gene BRD2 to forms of IGE. In mice, a null mutation at the homologous Brd2 locus results in embryonic lethality while heterozygous Brd2+/- mice are viable and overtly normal. However, using the flurothyl model, we now show, that compared to the Brd2+/+ littermates, Brd2+/- males have a decreased clonic, and females a decreased tonic-clonic, seizure threshold. Additionally, long-term EEG/video recordings captured spontaneous seizures in three out of five recorded Brd2+/- female mice. Anatomical analysis of specific regions of the brain further revealed significant differences in Brd2+/- vs +/+ mice. Specifically, there were decreases in the numbers of GABAergic (parvalbumin- or GAD67-immunopositive neurons along the basal ganglia pathway, i.e., in the neocortex and striatum of Brd2+/- mice, compared to Brd2+/+ mice. There were also fewer GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR, yet there was a minor, possibly compensatory increase in the GABA producing enzyme GAD67 in these SNR cells. Further, GAD67 expression in the superior colliculus and ventral medial thalamic nucleus, the main SNR outputs, was significantly decreased in Brd2+/- mice, further supporting GABA downregulation. Our data show that the non-channel-encoding, developmentally critical Brd2 gene is associated with i sex-specific increases in seizure susceptibility, ii the development of spontaneous seizures, and iii seizure-related anatomical changes in the GABA system, supporting BRD2's involvement in human IGE.

  4. Meis1: effects on motor phenotypes and the sensorimotor system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro V. Salminen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MEIS1 encodes a developmental transcription factor and has been linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and has a substantial impact on the quality of life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the system with the most potential for modeling RLS in animals. We used heterozygous Meis1-knockout mice to study the effects of Meis1 haploinsufficiency on mouse behavioral and neurological phenotypes, and to relate the findings to human RLS. We exposed the Meis1-deficient mice to assays of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive ability, and assessed the effect of a dopaminergic receptor 2/3 agonist commonly used in the treatment of RLS. The mutant mice showed a pattern of circadian hyperactivity, which is compatible with human RLS. Moreover, we discovered a replicable prepulse inhibition (PPI deficit in the Meis1-deficient animals. In addition, these mice were hyposensitive to the PPI-reducing effect of the dopaminergic receptor agonist, highlighting a role of Meis1 in the dopaminergic system. Other reported phenotypes include enhanced social recognition at an older age that was not related to alterations in adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis previously shown to be implicated in this behavior. In conclusion, the Meis1-deficient mice fulfill some of the hallmarks of an RLS animal model, and revealed the role of Meis1 in sensorimotor gating and in the dopaminergic systems modulating it.

  5. EPHA4 haploinsufficiency is responsible for the short stature of a patient with 2q35-q36.2 deletion and Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Chen, Rongyu; Fan, Xin; Luo, Jingsi; Qian, Jiale; Wang, Jin; Xie, Bobo; Shen, Yiping; Chen, Shaoke

    2015-04-11

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), an auditory-pigmentary genetic disorder, is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PAX3. Abnormal physical signs such as dystopia canthorum, patchy hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss are common, but short stature is not associated with WS1. We reported a 4-year and 6 month-old boy with a rare combination of WS1 and severe short stature (83.5 cm (-5.8SD)). His facial features include dystopia canthorum, mild synophrys, slightly up-slanted palpebral fissure, posteriorly rotated ears, alae nasi hypoplasia and micrognathia. No heterochromia was noticed. He had a normal intelligence quotient and hearing. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was 52.7 ng/ml, lower than the normal range (55 ~ 452 ng/ml) and the peak growth hormone level was 7.57 ng/ml at 90 minutes after taking moderate levodopa and pyridostigmine bromide. The patient exhibited a good response to human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy, showing a 9.2 cm/year growth rate and an improvement of 1 standard deviation (SD) of height after one year treatment. CMA test of patient's DNA revealed a 4.46 Mb de novo deletion at 2q35-q36.2 (hg19; chr2:221,234,146-225,697,363). PAX3 haploinsufficiency is known to cause Waardenburg syndrome. Examining overlapping deletions in patients led to the conclusion that EPHA4 is a novel short stature gene. The finding is supported by the splotch-retarded and epha4 knockout mouse models which both showed growth retardation. We believe this rare condition is caused by the haploinsufficiency of both PAX3 and EPH4 genes. We further reported a growth response to recombinant human growth hormone treatment in this patient.

  6. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ARID1B-mediated disorders and identification of altered cell-cycle dynamics due to ARID1B haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joe C H; White, Susan M; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Gabrielle R; Gillies, Greta; Pope, Kate; Mountford, Hayley S; Torring, Pernille M; McKee, Shane; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Amor, David J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-03-27

    Mutations in genes encoding components of the Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex have recently been shown to contribute to multiple syndromes characterised by developmental delay and intellectual disability. ARID1B mutations have been identified as the predominant cause of Coffin-Siris syndrome and have also been shown to be a frequent cause of nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of a patient with an overlapping but distinctive phenotype of intellectual disability, plantar fat pads and facial dysmorphism. High density microarray analysis of the patient demonstrated a heterozygous deletion at 6q25.3, which resulted in the loss of four genes including AT Rich Interactive Domain 1B (ARID1B). Subsequent quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed ARID1B haploinsufficiency in the patient. Analysis of both patient-derived and ARID1B knockdown fibroblasts after serum starvation demonstrated delayed cell cycle re-entry associated with reduced cell number in the S1 phase. Based on the patient's distinctive phenotype, we ascertained four additional patients and identified heterozygous de novo ARID1B frameshift or nonsense mutations in all of them. This study broadens the spectrum of ARID1B associated phenotypes by describing a distinctive phenotype including plantar fat pads but lacking the hypertrichosis or fifth nail hypoplasia associated with Coffin-Siris syndrome. We present the first direct evidence in patient-derived cells that alterations in cell cycle contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of syndromes associated with ARID1B haploinsufficiency.

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  11. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  15. Enhanced leptin sensitivity and improved glucose homeostasis in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in POMC-expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Paul; Howard, Jane K; Badman, Michael K; Balthasar, Nina; Coppari, Roberto; Mori, Hiroyuki; Lee, Charlotte E; Elmquist, Joel K; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Flier, Jeffrey S

    2006-08-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (Socs-3) negatively regulates the action of various cytokines, as well as the metabolic hormones leptin and insulin. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Socs-3, or those with neuronal deletion of Socs-3, are lean and more leptin and insulin sensitive. To examine the role of Socs-3 within specific neurons critical to energy balance, we created mice with selective deletion of Socs-3 within pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cells. These mice had enhanced leptin sensitivity, measured by weight loss and food intake after leptin infusion. On chow diet, glucose homeostasis was improved despite normal weight gain. On a high-fat diet, the rate of weight gain was reduced, due to increased energy expenditure rather than decreased food intake; glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were substantially improved. These studies demonstrate that Socs-3 within POMC neurons regulates leptin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and plays a key role in linking high-fat diet to disordered metabolism.

  16. Increased insulin sensitivity and changes in the expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes and beta cell transcription factors in diabetic KKAy-mice after feeding with a soy bean protein rich diet high in isoflavone content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, I; Jeppesen, P B; Hong, J; Abudula, R; Hermansen, K

    2008-06-25

    High content isoflavone soy protein (SBP) (Abalon) has been found in animal studies to possess beneficial effects on a number of the characteristic features of the insulin resistance syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SBP exerts beneficial effects on metabolism in the diabetic KKAy-mouse. Furthermore, we investigated the long-term in vivo effect of SBP on the expression profile in islets of key insulin regulatory genes. Twenty KKAy-mice, aged 5 weeks, were divided into 2 groups and treated for 9 weeks with either (A) standard chow diet (control) or (B) chow + 50% SBP. Twenty normal C57BL-mice fed with standard chow diet served as nondiabetic controls (C). Blood samples were collected and analyzed before and after intervention. Gene expression was determined in islets by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Affymetrix microarray. It was demonstrated that long-term treatment with SBP improves glucose homeostasis, increases insulin sensitivity, and lowers plasma triglycerides in diabetic KKAy-mice. SBP reduces fasting plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, SBP markedly changes the gene expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes GLUT2, GLUT3, Ins1, Ins2, IGF1, Beta2/Neurod1, cholecystokinin, and LDLr, and proliferative genes in islets isolated from KKAy-mice. After 9 weeks of treatment with SBP, plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis was normalized compared to start levels. The results indicate that SBP improves glucose and insulin sensitivity and up-regulates the expression of key insulin regulatory genes.

  17. Cortical Development Requires Mesodermal Expression of Tbx1, a Gene Haploinsufficient in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Gemma; Cioffi, Sara; Bilio, Marchesa; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, proper temporal control of neurogenesis and neural migration during embryonic development ensures correct formation of the cerebral cortex. Changes in the distribution of cortical projection neurons and interneurons are associated with behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and autism, suggesting that disrupted cortical connectivity contributes to the brain pathology. TBX1 is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), a chromosomal deletion disorder characterized by a greatly increased risk for schizophrenia. We have previously shown that Tbx1 heterozygous mice have reduced prepulse inhibition, a behavioral abnormality that is associated with 22q11.2DS and nonsyndromic schizophrenia. Here, we show that loss of Tbx1 disrupts corticogenesis in mice by promoting premature neuronal differentiation in the medio-lateral embryonic cortex, which gives rise to the somatosensory cortex (S1). In addition, we found altered polarity in both radially migrating excitatory neurons and tangentially migrating inhibitory interneurons. Together, these abnormalities lead to altered lamination in the S1 at the terminal stages of corticogenesis in Tbx1 null mice and similar anomalies in Tbx1 heterozygous adult mice. Finally, we show that mesoderm-specific inactivation of Tbx1 is sufficient to recapitulate the brain phenotype indicating that Tbx1 exerts a cell nonautonomous role in cortical development from the mesoderm. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of Exercise on Progranulin Levels and Gliosis in Progranulin-Insufficient Mice1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E.; Patel, Aashka R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are one of the most common genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no available disease-modifying treatments. Through haploinsufficiency, these mutations reduce levels of progranulin, a protein that has neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing progranulin expression from the intact allele is therefore a potential approach for treating individuals with GRN mutations. Based on the well-known effects of physical exercise on other neurotrophic factors, we hypothesized that exercise might increase brain progranulin levels. We tested this hypothesis in progranulin heterozygous (Grn+/−) mice, which model progranulin haploinsufficiency. We housed wild-type and progranulin-insufficient mice in standard cages or cages with exercise wheels for 4 or 7.5 weeks, and then measured brain and plasma progranulin levels. Although exercise modestly increased progranulin in very young (2-month-old) wild-type mice, this effect was limited to the hippocampus. Exercise did not increase brain progranulin mRNA or protein in multiple regions, nor did it increase plasma progranulin, in 4- to 8-month-old wild-type or Grn+/− mice, across multiple experiments and under conditions that increased hippocampal BDNF and neurogenesis. Grn−/−mice were included in the study to test for progranulin-independent benefits of exercise on gliosis. Exercise attenuated cortical microgliosis in 8-month-old Grn−/−mice, consistent with a progranulin-independent, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. These results suggest that exercise may have some modest, nonspecific benefits for FTD patients with progranulin mutations, but do not support exercise as a strategy to raise progranulin levels. PMID:26361634

  19. Absence of strong strain effects in behavioral analyses of Shank3-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Drapeau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, caused by chromosomal abnormalities or mutations that disrupt one copy of the gene, leads to a neurodevelopmental syndrome called Phelan-McDermid syndrome, symptoms of which can include absent or delayed speech, intellectual disability, neurological changes and autism spectrum disorders. The SHANK3 protein forms a key structural part of the post-synaptic density. We previously generated and characterized mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin-repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions, in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Changes in phenotype owing to a mutation at a single locus are quite frequently modulated by other loci, most dramatically when the entire genetic background is changed. In mice, each strain of laboratory mouse represents a distinct genetic background and alterations in phenotype owing to gene knockout or transgenesis are frequently different across strains, which can lead to the identification of important modifier loci. We have investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of Shank3 heterozygous, knockout and wild-type mice, using C57BL/6, 129SVE and FVB/Ntac strain backgrounds. We focused on observable behaviors with the goal of carrying out subsequent analyses to identify modifier loci. Surprisingly, there were very modest strain effects over a large battery of analyses. These results indicate that behavioral phenotypes associated with Shank3 haploinsufficiency are largely strain-independent.

  20. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  1. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  2. Autistic-like behaviour in Scn1a+/- mice and rescue by enhanced GABA-mediated neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung; Tai, Chao; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Yu, Frank H; Cheah, Christine S; Potter, Gregory B; Rubenstein, John L; Scheuer, Todd; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Catterall, William A

    2012-09-20

    Haploinsufficiency of the SCN1A gene encoding voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.1 causes Dravet's syndrome, a childhood neuropsychiatric disorder including recurrent intractable seizures, cognitive deficit and autism-spectrum behaviours. The neural mechanisms responsible for cognitive deficit and autism-spectrum behaviours in Dravet's syndrome are poorly understood. Here we report that mice with Scn1a haploinsufficiency exhibit hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviours, social interaction deficits and impaired context-dependent spatial memory. Olfactory sensitivity is retained, but novel food odours and social odours are aversive to Scn1a(+/-) mice. GABAergic neurotransmission is specifically impaired by this mutation, and selective deletion of Na(V)1.1 channels in forebrain interneurons is sufficient to cause these behavioural and cognitive impairments. Remarkably, treatment with low-dose clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(A) receptors, completely rescued the abnormal social behaviours and deficits in fear memory in the mouse model of Dravet's syndrome, demonstrating that they are caused by impaired GABAergic neurotransmission and not by neuronal damage from recurrent seizures. These results demonstrate a critical role for Na(V)1.1 channels in neuropsychiatric functions and provide a potential therapeutic strategy for cognitive deficit and autism-spectrum behaviours in Dravet's syndrome.

  3. Visual impairment in FOXG1-mutated individuals and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, E M; Pancrazi, L; Gennaro, M; Lo Rizzo, C; Mari, F; Meloni, I; Ariani, F; Panighini, A; Novelli, E; Biagioni, M; Strettoi, E; Hayek, J; Rufa, A; Pizzorusso, T; Renieri, A; Costa, M

    2016-06-02

    The Forkead Box G1 (FOXG1 in humans, Foxg1 in mice) gene encodes for a DNA-binding transcription factor, essential for the development of the telencephalon in mammalian forebrain. Mutations in FOXG1 have been reported to be involved in the onset of Rett Syndrome, for which sequence alterations of MECP2 and CDKL5 are known. While visual alterations are not classical hallmarks of Rett syndrome, an increasing body of evidence shows visual impairment in patients and in MeCP2 and CDKL5 animal models. Herein we focused on the functional role of FOXG1 in the visual system of animal models (Foxg1(+/Cre) mice) and of a cohort of subjects carrying FOXG1 mutations or deletions. Visual physiology of Foxg1(+/Cre) mice was assessed by visually evoked potentials, which revealed a significant reduction in response amplitude and visual acuity with respect to wild-type littermates. Morphological investigation showed abnormalities in the organization of excitatory/inhibitory circuits in the visual cortex. No alterations were observed in retinal structure. By examining a cohort of FOXG1-mutated individuals with a panel of neuro-ophthalmological assessments, we found that all of them exhibited visual alterations compatible with high-level visual dysfunctions. In conclusion our data show that Foxg1 haploinsufficiency results in an impairment of mouse and human visual cortical function. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  5. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  6. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  7. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  8. A Transition Zone Showing Highly Discontinuous or Alternating Levels of Stem Cell and Proliferation Markers Characterizes the Development of PTEN-Haploinsufficient Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvai, Kevin J; Hsu, Ya-Hsuan; Lee, Lobin A; Jones, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Stepwise acquisition of oncogene mutations and deletion/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes characterize the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic events interact with discrete morphologic transitions from hyperplastic mucosa to adenomatous areas, followed by in situ malignant transformation and finally invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study was to identify tissue markers of the adenoma-carcinoma morphogenetic transitions in CRC. We analyzed the patterns of expression of growth regulatory and stem cell markers across these distinct morphologic transition zones in 735 primary CRC tumors. In 202 cases with preserved adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition, we identified, in 37.1% of cases, a zone of adenomatous epithelium, located immediately adjacent to the invasive component, that showed rapidly alternating intraglandular stretches of PTEN+ and PTEN- epithelium. This zone exactly overlapped with similar alternating expression of Ki-67 and inversely with the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) growth regulator SMAD4. These zones also show parallel alternating levels and/or subcellular localization of multiple cancer stem/progenitor cell (CSC) markers, including β-catenin/CTNNB1, ALDH1, and CD44. PTEN was always re-expressed in the invasive tumor in these cases, unlike those with complete loss of PTEN expression. Genomic microarray analysis of CRC with prominent CSC-like expansions demonstrated a high frequency of PTEN genomic deletion/haploinsufficiency in tumors with CSC-like transition zones (62.5%) but not in tumors with downregulated but non-alternating PTEN expression (14.3%). There were no significant differences in the levels of KRAS mutation or CTNNB1 mutation in CSC-like tumors as compared to unselected CRC cases. In conclusion, we have identified a distinctive CSC-like pre-invasive transition zone in PTEN-haploinsufficient CRC that shows convergent on-off regulation of the PTEN/AKT, TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. This

  9. A Transition Zone Showing Highly Discontinuous or Alternating Levels of Stem Cell and Proliferation Markers Characterizes the Development of PTEN-Haploinsufficient Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Arvai

    Full Text Available Stepwise acquisition of oncogene mutations and deletion/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes characterize the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. These genetic events interact with discrete morphologic transitions from hyperplastic mucosa to adenomatous areas, followed by in situ malignant transformation and finally invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study was to identify tissue markers of the adenoma-carcinoma morphogenetic transitions in CRC.We analyzed the patterns of expression of growth regulatory and stem cell markers across these distinct morphologic transition zones in 735 primary CRC tumors. In 202 cases with preserved adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition, we identified, in 37.1% of cases, a zone of adenomatous epithelium, located immediately adjacent to the invasive component, that showed rapidly alternating intraglandular stretches of PTEN+ and PTEN- epithelium. This zone exactly overlapped with similar alternating expression of Ki-67 and inversely with the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β growth regulator SMAD4. These zones also show parallel alternating levels and/or subcellular localization of multiple cancer stem/progenitor cell (CSC markers, including β-catenin/CTNNB1, ALDH1, and CD44. PTEN was always re-expressed in the invasive tumor in these cases, unlike those with complete loss of PTEN expression. Genomic microarray analysis of CRC with prominent CSC-like expansions demonstrated a high frequency of PTEN genomic deletion/haploinsufficiency in tumors with CSC-like transition zones (62.5% but not in tumors with downregulated but non-alternating PTEN expression (14.3%. There were no significant differences in the levels of KRAS mutation or CTNNB1 mutation in CSC-like tumors as compared to unselected CRC cases.In conclusion, we have identified a distinctive CSC-like pre-invasive transition zone in PTEN-haploinsufficient CRC that shows convergent on-off regulation of the PTEN/AKT, TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt

  10. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  14. Haploinsufficiency of MeCP2-interacting transcriptional co-repressor SIN3A causes mild intellectual disability by affecting the development of cortical integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Josefine S; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Dombroski, Thaís C D; van Bakel, Nick H M; Nillesen, Willy M; van Hulten, Josephus A; Jansen, Eric J R; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A; Visser, Jasper E; Brunner, Han G; Martens, Gerard J M; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development.

  15. LETM1 haploinsufficiency causes mitochondrial defects in cells from humans with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: implications for dissecting the underlying pathomechanisms in this condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS represents an archetypical example of a contiguous gene deletion disorder – a condition comprising a complex set of developmental phenotypes with a multigenic origin. Epileptic seizures, intellectual disability, growth restriction, motor delay and hypotonia are major co-morbidities in WHS. Haploinsufficiency of LETM1, which encodes a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein functioning in ion transport, has been proposed as an underlying pathomechanism, principally for seizures but also for other core features of WHS, including growth and motor delay. Growing evidence derived from several model organisms suggests that reduced LETM1 expression is associated with some element of mitochondrial dysfunction. Surprisingly, LETM1-dependent mitochondrial functional deficits have not previously been described in cells from individuals with WHS. Here, using a unique panel of WHS-patient-derived cell lines with deletions of differing sizes, incorporating LETM1 or not, we show, for the first time, that LETM1 expression is reduced in mitochondria isolated from WHS-patient cells. Furthermore, we show that this is associated with distinct mitochondrial phenotypes, including altered intracellular [Ca2+] levels, dysfunctional mitochondrial transition-pore opening, hyperpolarization and superoxide leakage from resting mitochondria. Interestingly, we find that these phenotypes segregate with seizures in our WHS cohort. Our findings identify novel cellular phenotypes in WHS attributable to a 50% reduction in LETM1 expression level; these phenotypes could underlie and/or contribute to some of the core clinical features of this condition.

  16. LETM1 haploinsufficiency causes mitochondrial defects in cells from humans with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: implications for dissecting the underlying pathomechanisms in this condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lesley; Rauch, Anita; Carr, Antony M; Vermeesch, Joris R; O'Driscoll, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) represents an archetypical example of a contiguous gene deletion disorder - a condition comprising a complex set of developmental phenotypes with a multigenic origin. Epileptic seizures, intellectual disability, growth restriction, motor delay and hypotonia are major co-morbidities in WHS. Haploinsufficiency of LETM1, which encodes a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein functioning in ion transport, has been proposed as an underlying pathomechanism, principally for seizures but also for other core features of WHS, including growth and motor delay. Growing evidence derived from several model organisms suggests that reduced LETM1 expression is associated with some element of mitochondrial dysfunction. Surprisingly, LETM1-dependent mitochondrial functional deficits have not previously been described in cells from individuals with WHS. Here, using a unique panel of WHS-patient-derived cell lines with deletions of differing sizes, incorporating LETM1 or not, we show, for the first time, that LETM1 expression is reduced in mitochondria isolated from WHS-patient cells. Furthermore, we show that this is associated with distinct mitochondrial phenotypes, including altered intracellular [Ca(2+)] levels, dysfunctional mitochondrial transition-pore opening, hyperpolarization and superoxide leakage from resting mitochondria. Interestingly, we find that these phenotypes segregate with seizures in our WHS cohort. Our findings identify novel cellular phenotypes in WHS attributable to a 50% reduction in LETM1 expression level; these phenotypes could underlie and/or contribute to some of the core clinical features of this condition.

  17. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  18. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  9. GABAergic projections from lateral hypothalamus to paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus promote feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) cause hypophagia. However, activation of glutamatergic neurons in LH inhibits feeding. These results suggest a potential importance for other LH neurons in stimulating feeding. Our current study in mice showed that disruption of GABA release from adult LH GAB...

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  11. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) haploinsufficiency with lower adaptive behaviour and reduced cognitive functioning in WAGR/11p13 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Thurm, Audrey; Golden Williams, Christine; Joseph, Lisa A; Zein, Wadih M; Brooks, Brian P; Butman, John A; Brady, Sheila M; Fuhr, Shannon R; Hicks, Melanie D; Huey, Amanda E; Hanish, Alyson E; Danley, Kristen M; Raygada, Margarita J; Rennert, Owen M; Martinowich, Keri; Sharp, Stephen J; Tsao, Jack W; Swedo, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity. WAGR (Wilms tumour, Aniridia, Genitourinary anomalies, and mental Retardation) syndrome is caused by 11p13 deletions of variable size near the BDNF locus and can serve as a model for studying human BDNF haploinsufficiency (+/-). We hypothesized that BDNF+/- would be associated with more severe cognitive impairment in subjects with WAGR syndrome. Twenty-eight subjects with WAGR syndrome (6-28 years), 12 subjects with isolated aniridia due to PAX6 mutations/microdeletions (7-54 years), and 20 healthy controls (4-32 years) received neurocognitive assessments. Deletion boundaries for the subjects in the WAGR group were determined by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Within the WAGR group, BDNF+/- subjects (n = 15), compared with BDNF intact (+/+) subjects (n = 13), had lower adaptive behaviour (p = .02), reduced cognitive functioning (p = .04), higher levels of reported historical (p = .02) and current (p = .02) social impairment, and higher percentage meeting cut-off score for autism (p = .047) on Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. These differences remained nominally significant after adjusting for visual acuity. Using diagnostic measures and clinical judgement, 3 subjects (2 BDNF+/- and 1 BDNF+/+) in the WAGR group (10.7%) were classified with autism spectrum disorder. A comparison group of visually impaired subjects with isolated aniridia had cognitive functioning comparable to that of healthy controls. In summary, among subjects with WAGR syndrome, BDNF+/- subjects had a mean Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Compose score that was 14-points lower and a mean intelligence quotient (IQ) that was 20-points lower than BDNF+/+ subjects. Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF plays an important role in human neurocognitive development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Autism-like Deficits in Shank3-Deficient Mice Are Rescued by Targeting Actin Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. Duffney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency of the Shank3 gene, which encodes a scaffolding protein at glutamatergic synapses, is a highly prevalent and penetrant risk factor for autism. Using combined behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical, imaging, and molecular approaches, we find that Shank3-deficient mice exhibit autism-like social deficits and repetitive behaviors, as well as the significantly diminished NMDA receptor (NMDAR synaptic function and synaptic distribution in prefrontal cortex. Concomitantly, Shank3-deficient mice have a marked loss of cortical actin filaments, which is associated with the reduced Rac1/PAK activity and increased activity of cofilin, the major actin depolymerizing factor. The social deficits and NMDAR hypofunction are rescued by inhibiting cofilin or activating Rac1 in Shank3-deficient mice and are induced by inhibiting PAK or Rac1 in wild-type mice. These results indicate that the aberrant regulation of synaptic actin filaments and loss of synaptic NMDARs contribute to the manifestation of autism-like phenotypes. Thus, targeting actin regulators provides a strategy for autism treatment.

  13. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  14. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  15. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  16. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  17. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María González-Núñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1 is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−. We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

  18. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  19. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  20. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  2. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  3. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  5. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  6. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  7. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  8. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Molecular annotation of integrative feeding neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristian A; Stanley, Sarah A; Wysocki, Robert W; Havranova, Jana; Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca; Onyimba, Frances; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2011-02-02

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control feeding is unknown. We injected pseudorabies virus, a retrograde tracer, into masseter muscle, salivary gland, and tongue of BAC-transgenic mice expressing GFP in specific neural populations and identified several CNS regions that project multisynaptically to the periphery. MCH and orexin neurons were identified in the lateral hypothalamus, and Nurr1 and Cnr1 in the amygdala and insular/rhinal cortices. Cholera toxin β tracing showed that insular Nurr1(+) and Cnr1(+) neurons project to the amygdala or lateral hypothalamus, respectively. Finally, we show that cortical Cnr1(+) neurons show increased Cnr1 mRNA and c-Fos expression after fasting, consistent with a possible role for Cnr1(+) neurons in feeding. Overall, these studies define a general approach for identifying specific molecular markers for neurons in complex neural circuits. These markers now provide a means for functional studies of specific neuronal populations in feeding or other complex behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  11. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  12. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  13. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  14. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  15. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  16. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Progranulin contributes to endogenous mechanisms of pain defense after nerve injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Young; Albuquerque, Boris; Häussler, Annett; Myrczek, Thekla; Ding, Aihao; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2012-04-01

    Progranulin haploinsufficiency is associated with frontotemporal dementia in humans. Deficiency of progranulin led to exaggerated inflammation and premature aging in mice. The role of progranulin in adaptations to nerve injury and neuropathic pain are still unknown. Here we found that progranulin is up-regulated after injury of the sciatic nerve in the mouse ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, most prominently in the microglia surrounding injured motor neurons. Progranulin knockdown by continuous intrathecal spinal delivery of small interfering RNA after sciatic nerve injury intensified neuropathic pain-like behaviour and delayed the recovery of motor functions. Compared to wild-type mice, progranulin-deficient mice developed more intense nociceptive hypersensitivity after nerve injury. The differences escalated with aging. Knockdown of progranulin reduced the survival of dissociated primary neurons and neurite outgrowth, whereas addition of recombinant progranulin rescued primary dorsal root ganglia neurons from cell death induced by nerve growth factor withdrawal. Thus, up-regulation of progranulin after neuronal injury may reduce neuropathic pain and help motor function recovery, at least in part, by promoting survival of injured neurons and supporting regrowth. A deficiency in this mechanism may increase the risk for injury-associated chronic pain. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  19. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  20. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  1. Germline Mutations in Mtap Cooperate with Myc to Accelerate Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwaraj Kadariya

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the methionine salvage pathway methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP is a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in a wide variety of human cancers. In this study, we have examined if heterozygosity for a null mutation in Mtap (Mtap(lacZ could accelerate tumorigenesis development in two different mouse cancer models, Eμ-myc transgenic and Pten(+/- .Mtap Eμ-myc and Mtap Pten mice were generated and tumor-free survival was monitored over time. Tumors were also examined for a variety of histological and protein markers. In addition, microarray analysis was performed on the livers of Mtap(lacZ/+ and Mtap (+/+ mice.Survival in both models was significantly decreased in Mtap(lacZ/+ compared to Mtap(+/+ mice. In Eµ-myc mice, Mtap mutations accelerated the formation of lymphomas from cells in the early pre-B stage, and these tumors tended to be of higher grade and have higher expression levels of ornithine decarboxylase compared to those observed in control Eµ-myc Mtap(+/+ mice. Surprisingly, examination of Mtap status in lymphomas in Eµ-myc Mtap(lacZ/+ and Eµ-myc Mtap(+/+ animals did not reveal significant differences in the frequency of loss of Mtap protein expression, despite having shorter latency times, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of Mtap may be playing a direct role in accelerating tumorigenesis. Consistent with this idea, microarray analysis on liver tissue from age and sex matched Mtap(+/+ and Mtap(lacZ/+ animals found 363 transcripts whose expression changed at least 1.5-fold (P<0.01. Functional categorization of these genes reveals enrichments in several pathways involved in growth control and cancer.Our findings show that germline inactivation of a single Mtap allele alters gene expression and enhances lymphomagenesis in Eµ-myc mice.

  2. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  3. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. A novel ENU-mutation in ankyrin-1 disrupts malaria parasite maturation in red blood cells of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Greth

    Full Text Available The blood stage of the plasmodium parasite life cycle is responsible for the clinical symptoms of malaria. Epidemiological studies have identified coincidental malarial endemicity and multiple red blood cell (RBC disorders. Many RBC disorders result from mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins and these are associated with increased protection against malarial infections. However the mechanisms underpinning these genetic, host responses remain obscure. We have performed an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen and have identified a novel dominant (haploinsufficient mutation in the Ank-1 gene (Ank1(MRI23420 of mice displaying hereditary spherocytosis (HS. Female mice, heterozygous for the Ank-1 mutation showed increased survival to infection by Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS with a concomitant 30% decrease in parasitemia compared to wild-type, isogenic mice (wt. A comparative in vivo red cell invasion and parasite growth assay showed a RBC-autonomous effect characterised by decreased proportion of infected heterozygous RBCs. Within approximately 6-8 hours post-invasion, TUNEL staining of intraerythrocytic parasites, showed a significant increase in dead parasites in heterozygotes. This was especially notable at the ring and trophozoite stages in the blood of infected heterozygous mutant mice compared to wt (p<0.05. We conclude that increased malaria resistance due to ankyrin-1 deficiency is caused by the intraerythrocytic death of P. chabaudi parasites.

  5. Reduction of the cholesterol sensor SCAP in the brains of mice causes impaired synaptic transmission and altered cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Suzuki

    Full Text Available The sterol sensor SCAP is a key regulator of SREBP-2, the major transcription factor controlling cholesterol synthesis. Recently, we showed that there is a global down-regulation of cholesterol synthetic genes, as well as SREBP-2, in the brains of diabetic mice, leading to a reduction of cholesterol synthesis. We now show that in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, this is, in part, the result of a decrease of SCAP. Homozygous disruption of the Scap gene in the brains of mice causes perinatal lethality associated with microcephaly and gliosis. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Scap in the brain show a 60% reduction of SCAP protein and ~30% reduction in brain cholesterol synthesis, similar to what is observed in diabetic mice. This results in impaired synaptic transmission, as measured by decreased paired pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, and is associated with behavioral and cognitive changes. Thus, reduction of SCAP and the consequent suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brain may play an important role in the increased rates of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease observed in diabetic states.

  6. Mutations in Mll2, an H3K4 Methyltransferase, Result in Insulin Resistance and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, David; Matthews, Helen C.; Bogani, Debora; Moir, Lee; Long, Anna; Church, Christopher; Hugill, Alison; Anstee, Quentin M.; Goldin, Rob; Thursz, Mark; Hollfelder, Florian; Cox, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify novel monogenic determinants of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that haplo-insufficiency of the histone methyltransferase myeloid-lineage leukemia (Mll2/Wbp7) gene causes type 2 diabetes in the mouse. We have shown that mice heterozygous for two separate mutations in the SET domain of Mll2 or heterozygous Mll2 knockout mice were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Consistent with previous Mll2 knockout studies, mice homozygous for either ENU mutation (or compound heterozygotes) died during embryonic development at 9.5–14.5 days post coitum. Heterozygous deletion of Mll2 induced in the adult mouse results in a normal phenotype suggesting that changes in chromatin methylation during development result in the adult phenotype. Mll2 has been shown to regulate a small subset of genes, a number of which Neurod1, Enpp1, Slc27a2, and Plcxd1 are downregulated in adult mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that histone H3K4 methyltransferase Mll2 is a component of the genetic regulation necessary for glucose homeostasis, resulting in a specific disease pattern linking chromatin modification with causes and progression of type 2 diabetes, providing a basis for its further understanding at the molecular level. PMID:23826075

  7. Mutations in Mll2, an H3K4 methyltransferase, result in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Goldsworthy

    Full Text Available We employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify novel monogenic determinants of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that haplo-insufficiency of the histone methyltransferase myeloid-lineage leukemia (Mll2/Wbp7 gene causes type 2 diabetes in the mouse. We have shown that mice heterozygous for two separate mutations in the SET domain of Mll2 or heterozygous Mll2 knockout mice were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Consistent with previous Mll2 knockout studies, mice homozygous for either ENU mutation (or compound heterozygotes died during embryonic development at 9.5-14.5 days post coitum. Heterozygous deletion of Mll2 induced in the adult mouse results in a normal phenotype suggesting that changes in chromatin methylation during development result in the adult phenotype. Mll2 has been shown to regulate a small subset of genes, a number of which Neurod1, Enpp1, Slc27a2, and Plcxd1 are downregulated in adult mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that histone H3K4 methyltransferase Mll2 is a component of the genetic regulation necessary for glucose homeostasis, resulting in a specific disease pattern linking chromatin modification with causes and progression of type 2 diabetes, providing a basis for its further understanding at the molecular level.

  8. Craniosynostosis of coronal suture in Twist1+/- mice occurs through endochondral ossification recapitulating the physiological closure of posterior frontal suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eBehr

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of cranial suture, is a pathologic condition that affects 1/2000 live births. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by craniosynostosis. The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, which is defined by loss-of-function mutations in the TWIST gene, is the second most prevalent craniosynostosis. Although much of the genetics and phenotypes in craniosynostosis syndromes is understood, less is known about the underlying ossification mechanism during suture closure. We have previously demonstrated that physiological closure of the posterior frontal (PF suture occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, we revealed that antagonizing canonical Wnt signaling in the sagittal suture leads to endochondral ossification of the suture mesenchyme and sagittal synostosis, presumably by inhibiting Twist1. Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is characterized by coronal synostosis, and the haploinsufficient Twist1+/- mice represents a suitable model for studying this syndrome. Thus, we seeked to understand the underlying ossification process in coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1+/- mice. Our data indicate that coronal suture closure in Twist1+/- mice occurs between postnatal day 9 to 13 by endochondral ossification, as shown by histology, gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, this study reveals that coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1+/- mice occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, it suggests that haploinsufficency of Twist1 gene, a target of canonical Wnt-signaling, and inhibitor of chondrogenesis, mimics conditions of inactive canonical Wnt-signaling leading to craniosynostosis.

  9. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  10. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  11. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  12. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  13. Behavioral Characteristics of Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 46-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saki; Kano, Makoto; Nonoyama, Keiko; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified Usp46, which encodes for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46, as a quantitative trait gene affecting the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test. The mutation that we identified was a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine (Lys 92), and mice with this mutation (MT mice), as well as Usp46 KO mice exhibited shorter TST immobility times. Behavioral pharmacology suggests that the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor is involved in regulating TST immobility time. In order to understand how far Usp46 controls behavioral phenotypes, which could be related to mental disorders in humans, we subjected Usp46 MT and KO mice to multiple behavioral tests, including the open field test, ethanol preference test, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, marble burying test, and novel object recognition test. Although behavioral phenotypes of the Usp46 MT and KO mice were not always identical, deficiency of Usp46 significantly affected performance in all these tests. In the open field test, activity levels were lower in Usp46 KO mice than wild type (WT) or MT mice. Both MT and KO mice showed lower ethanol preference and shorter recovery times after ethanol administration. Compared to WT mice, Usp46 MT and KO mice exhibited decreased sucrose preference, took longer latency periods to bite pellets, and buried more marbles in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and marble burying test, respectively. In the novel object recognition test, neither MT nor KO mice showed an increase in exploration of a new object 24 hours after training. These findings indicate that Usp46 regulates a wide range of behavioral phenotypes that might be related to human mental disorders and provides insight into the function of USP46 deubiquitinating enzyme in the neural system. PMID:23472206

  14. Behavioral characteristics of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Imai

    Full Text Available We have previously identified Usp46, which encodes for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46, as a quantitative trait gene affecting the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test. The mutation that we identified was a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine (Lys 92, and mice with this mutation (MT mice, as well as Usp46 KO mice exhibited shorter TST immobility times. Behavioral pharmacology suggests that the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptor is involved in regulating TST immobility time. In order to understand how far Usp46 controls behavioral phenotypes, which could be related to mental disorders in humans, we subjected Usp46 MT and KO mice to multiple behavioral tests, including the open field test, ethanol preference test, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, marble burying test, and novel object recognition test. Although behavioral phenotypes of the Usp46 MT and KO mice were not always identical, deficiency of Usp46 significantly affected performance in all these tests. In the open field test, activity levels were lower in Usp46 KO mice than wild type (WT or MT mice. Both MT and KO mice showed lower ethanol preference and shorter recovery times after ethanol administration. Compared to WT mice, Usp46 MT and KO mice exhibited decreased sucrose preference, took longer latency periods to bite pellets, and buried more marbles in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and marble burying test, respectively. In the novel object recognition test, neither MT nor KO mice showed an increase in exploration of a new object 24 hours after training. These findings indicate that Usp46 regulates a wide range of behavioral phenotypes that might be related to human mental disorders and provides insight into the function of USP46 deubiquitinating enzyme in the neural system.

  15. Peptide YY induces characteristic meal patterns of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-01

    Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device. Plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels were assessed under the several feeding status or after treatment of PYY. PYY and its receptor (NPY Y2 receptor, Y2R) antagonist were intraperitoneally administered 30min before the monitoring. Although the basal 24-h meal amounts did not differ by age, the total meal time and frequency of minimum feeding activity (bout) were significantly increased and the average bout size and time per bout were significantly decreased in aged mice. PYY dynamics were abnormal and the temporal reduction in food intake by exogenous PYY was more prominent in aged mice than in young mice. PYY administration to young mice induced aged-like meal patterns, and Y2R antagonist administration to aged mice induced young-like meal patterns. Aged mice exhibited characteristic meal patterns probably due to PYY metabolism dysfunction and/or enhanced PYY-Y2R signaling, suggesting a novel method for assessing eating difficulties in aged animals and a potential target for the remedy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sociability Deficits and Altered Amygdala Circuits in Mice Lacking Pcdh10, an Autism Associated Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Hannah; Kreibich, Arati S; Ferri, Sarah L; White, Rachel S; Bohorquez, Dominique; Banerjee, Anamika; Port, Russell G; Dow, Holly C; Cordero, Lucero; Pallathra, Ashley A; Kim, Hyong; Li, Hongzhe; Bilker, Warren B; Hirano, Shinji; Schultz, Robert T; Borgmann-Winter, Karin; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Carlson, Gregory C; Abel, Ted; Brodkin, Edward S

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been attributed to abnormal neuronal connectivity, but the molecular bases of these behavioral and brain phenotypes are largely unknown. Human genetic studies have implicated PCDH10, a member of the δ2 subfamily of nonclustered protocadherin genes, in ASD. PCDH10 expression is enriched in the basolateral amygdala, a brain region implicated in the social deficits of ASD. Previous reports indicate that Pcdh10 plays a role in axon outgrowth and glutamatergic synapse elimination, but its roles in social behaviors and amygdala neuronal connectivity are unknown. We hypothesized that haploinsufficiency of Pcdh10 would reduce social approach behavior and alter the structure and function of amygdala circuits. Mice lacking one copy of Pcdh10 (Pcdh10 +/- ) and wild-type littermates were assessed for social approach and other behaviors. The lateral/basolateral amygdala was assessed for dendritic spine number and morphology, and amygdala circuit function was studied using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. Expression of Pcdh10 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits was assessed in postsynaptic density fractions of the amygdala. Male Pcdh10 +/- mice have reduced social approach behavior, as well as impaired gamma synchronization, abnormal spine morphology, and reduced levels of NMDAR subunits in the amygdala. Social approach deficits in Pcdh10 +/- male mice were rescued with acute treatment with the NMDAR partial agonist d-cycloserine. Our studies reveal that male Pcdh10 +/- mice have synaptic and behavioral deficits, and establish Pcdh10 +/- mice as a novel genetic model for investigating neural circuitry and behavioral changes relevant to ASD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  18. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  19. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  20. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  1. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  2. Normal macrophage function in copper deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasewycz, O.A.; Kolquist, K.L.; Prohaska, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Copper deficiency (-Cu) was produced in C57 BL and C58 mice by feeding a low copper diet (modified AIN-76A) from birth. Mice given supplemental copper in the drinking water (+Cu) served as controls. Copper status was monitored by assay of ceruloplasmin (CP) activity. Macrophages (M0) were obtained from matched +Cu and -Cu male 7 week-old mice by peritoneal lavage 3 days after thioglycollate stimulation. M0 were assayed in terms of lipopolysaccharide-induced hexose monophosphate shunt activity by monitoring 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]-glucose and by the determination of phagocytic index using fluorescein labelled latex bead ingestion. M0 from -Cu mice were equivalent to those of +Cu mice in both these parameters. However, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase activities were both significantly lower in -Cu M0, confirming a functional copper deficiency. Previous results from this laboratory have shown that -Cu mice have a decreased antibody response to sheep erythrocyte antigens and a diminished reactivity to B and T cell mitogens. These immunological insufficiencies appear to be proportional to the severity of copper depletion as determined by CP levels. Furthermore, -Cu lymphocytes exhibit depressed mixed lymphocyte reactivity consistent with alterations at the membrane surface. The present results suggest that M0/monocytes are less severely affected than lymphocytes in copper deficiency states

  3. Circadian rhythms and food anticipatory behavior in Wfs1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luuk, Hendrik; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    in significantly lower body weight and reduced wheel-running activity. Circadian rhythmicity of behavior was normal in Wfs1-deficient mice under ad libitum feeding apart from elongated free-running period in constant light. The amount of food anticipatory activity induced by restricted feeding...

  4. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  5. Effect of Different Starvation Levels on Cognitive Ability in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Zhi, Guoguo; Yu, Yi; Cai, Lingyu; Li, Peng; Zhang, Danhua; Bao, Shuting; Hu, Wenlong; Shen, Haiyan; Song, Fujuan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of different starvation levels on cognitive ability in mice. Method: Mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, dieting group A, dieting group B, dieting group C. The mice of normal group were given normal feeding amount, the rest of groups were given 3/4 of normal feeding amount, 2/4 of normal feeding amount and 1/4 of normal feeding amount. After feeding mice four days, the weight was observed and T-maze experiment, Morris water maze test, open field test and Serum Catalase activity were detected. Result: Compared with the normal group, the correct rate of the intervention group in the T-maze experiment was decreased and dieting group A> dieting group B> dieting group C. In the Morris water maze test, Compared with the normal group, the correct rate of the intervention group was increased. Among these three intervention groups, dieting group A had the highest correct rate and the difference of dieting group B and dieting group C were similar. In the open field test, Compared with the normal group, the exploration rate of the surrounding environment in the intervention group was increased. In the Serum Catalase test, Compared with the normal group, the activities of serum peroxidase in the intervention groups were decreased and dieting group A> dieting group B> dieting group C. Conclusion: A certain level of starvation could affect the cognitive ability of mice. In a certain range, the level of starvation is inversely proportional to cognitive ability in mice.

  6. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  7. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  8. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  9. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  10. Haploinsufficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase C-terminus of heat shock cognate 70 interacting protein (CHIP produces specific behavioral impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethann McLaughlin

    Full Text Available The multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is an essential interacting partner of HSP70, which together promote the proteasomal degradation of client proteins. Acute CHIP overexpression provides neuroprotection against neurotoxic mitochondrial stress, glucocorticoids, and accumulation of toxic amyloid fragments, as well as genetic mutations in other E3 ligases, which have been shown to result in familial Parkinson's disease. These studies have created a great deal of interest in understanding CHIP activity, expression and modulation. While CHIP knockout mice have the potential to provide essential insights into the molecular control of cell fate and survival, the animals have been difficult to characterize in vivo due to severe phenotypic and behavioral dysfunction, which have thus far been poorly characterized. Therefore, in the present study we conducted a battery of neurobehavioral and physiological assays of adult CHIP heterozygotic (HET mutant mice to provide a better understanding of the functional consequence of CHIP deficiency. We found that CHIP HET mice had normal body and brain weight, body temperature, muscle tone and breathing patterns, but do have a significant elevation in baseline heart rate. Meanwhile basic behavioral screens of sensory, motor, emotional and cognitive functions were normative. We observed no alterations in performance in the elevated plus maze, light-dark preference and tail suspension assays, or two simple cognitive tasks: novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Significant deficits were found, however, when CHIP HET mice performed wire hang, inverted screen, wire maneuver, and open field tasks. Taken together, our data indicate a clear subset of behaviors that are altered at baseline in CHIP deficient animals, which will further guide whole animal studies of the effects of CHIP dysregulation on cardiac function, brain circuitry and function, and responsiveness to environmental and

  11. NPY/AgRP neurons are not essential for feeding responses to glucoprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquet, Serge; Phillips, Colin T; Palmiter, Richard D

    2007-02-01

    Animals respond to hypoglycemia by eating and by stimulating gluconeogenesis. These responses to glucose deprivation are initiated by glucose-sensing neurons in the brain, but the neural circuits that control feeding behavior are not well established. Neurons in the arcuate region of the hypothalamus that express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) have been implicated in mediating the feeding response to glucoprivation. We devised a method to selectively ablate these neurons in neonatal mice and then tested adult mice for their feeding responses to fasting, mild hypoglycemia, 2-deoxy-d-glucose and a ghrelin receptor agonist. Whereas the feeding response to the ghrelin receptor agonist was completely abrogated, the feeding response to glucoprivation was normal. The feeding response after a fast was attenuated when standard chow was available but normal with more palatable solid or liquid diet. We conclude that NPY/AgRP neurons are not necessary for generating or mediating the orexigenic response to glucose deficiency, but they are essential for the feeding response to ghrelin and refeeding on standard chow after a fast.

  12. Metabolic characteristics of long-lived mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej eBartke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1. Long-lived GH-resistant GHRKO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1df and Snell dwarf (Pit1dw mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH, are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids. Body temperature is reduced in Ames, Snell, and female GHRKO mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that both Ames dwarf and GHRKO mice utilize more oxygen per gram (g of body weight than sex- and age-matched normal animals from the same strain. They also have reduced respiratory quotient (RQ, implying greater reliance on fats, as opposed to carbohydrates, as an energy source. Differences in oxygen consumption (VO2 were seen in animals fed or fasted during the measurements as well as in animals that had been exposed to 30% calorie restriction or every-other-day feeding. However, at the thermoneutral temperature of 30°C, VO2 did not differ between GHRKO and normal mice. Thus, the increased metabolic rate of the GHRKO mice, at a standard animal room temperature of 23°C, is apparently related to increased energy demands for thermoregulation in these diminutive animals. We suspect that increased oxidative metabolism combined with enhanced fatty acid oxidation contribute to the extended longevity of

  13. Differential impact of Met receptor gene interaction with early-life stress on neuronal morphology and behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2018-02-01

    Early adversity in childhood increases the risk of anxiety, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorders in adulthood, and specific gene-by-environment interactions may increase risk further. A common functional variant in the promoter region of the gene encoding the human MET receptor tyrosine kinase (rs1858830 ' C' allele) reduces expression of MET and is associated with altered cortical circuit function and structural connectivity. Mice with reduced Met expression exhibit changes in anxiety-like and conditioned fear behavior, precocious synaptic maturation in the hippocampus, and reduced neuronal arbor complexity and synaptogenesis. These phenotypes also can be produced independently by early adversity in wild-type mice. The present study addresses the outcome of combining early-life stress and genetic influences that alter timing of maturation on enduring functional and structural phenotypes. Using a model of reduced Met expression ( Met +/- ) and early-life stress from postnatal day 2-9, social, anxiety-like, and contextual fear behaviors in later life were measured. Mice that experienced early-life stress exhibited impairments in social interaction, whereas alterations in anxiety-like behavior and fear learning were driven by Met haploinsufficiency, independent of rearing condition. Early-life stress or reduced Met expression decreased arbor complexity of ventral hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons projecting to basolateral amygdala. Paradoxically, arbor complexity in Met +/- mice was increased following early-life stress, and thus not different from arbors in wild-type mice raised in control conditions. The changes in dendritic morphology are consistent with the hypothesis that the physiological state of maturation of CA1 neurons in Met +/- mice influences their responsiveness to early-life stress. The dissociation of behavioral and structural changes suggests that there may be phenotype-specific sensitivities to early-life stress.

  14. Protective effect of intermittent fasting on the mortality of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of 1 to 6 weeks' adaptation to intermittent fasting (alternating periods of 24 h fasting and subsequent 24 h feeding) on the manifestations of radioresistance of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation was studied. A favourable effect of this feeding regimen on the survival of irradiated animals was observed. The optimal redioprotective effect was achieved in mice adapted to intermittent fasting for 2 to 3 weeks and irradiated after 24 h of food intake. Furthermore, it was shown that the radioresistance of the adapted organism depends on the momentary state of food intake. After renewal of the normal ad libitum feeding the adaptively induced radioresistance decreases. (orig.) [de

  15. Protective effect of intermittent fasting on the mortality of gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1982-12-01

    The effect of 1 to 6 weeks' adaptation to intermittent fasting (alternating periods of 24 h fasting and subsequent 24 h feeding) on the manifestations of radioresistance of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation was studied. A favourable effect of this feeding regimen on the survival of irradiated animals was observed. The optimal redioprotective effect was achieved in mice adapted to intermittent fasting for 2 to 3 weeks and irradiated after 24 h of food intake. Furthermore, it was shown that the radioresistance of the adapted organism depends on the momentary state of food intake. After renewal of the normal ad libitum feeding the adaptively induced radioresistance decreases.

  16. Protective effect of intermittent fasting on the mortality of gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubik, A; Pospisil, M

    1982-12-01

    The effect of 1 to 6 weeks' adaptation to intermittent fasting (alternating periods of 24 h fasting and subsequent 24 h feeding) on the manifestations of radioresistance of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation was studied. A favourable effect of this feeding regimen on the survival of irradiated animals was observed. The optimal redioprotective effect was achieved in mice adapted to intermittent fasting for 2 to 3 weeks and irradiated after 24 h of food intake. Furthermore, it was shown that the radioresistance of the adapted organism depends on the momentary state of food intake. After renewal of the normal ad libitum feeding the adaptively induced radioresistance decreases.

  17. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  18. Mice with a Mutation in the Mdm2 Gene That Interferes with MDM2/Ribosomal Protein Binding Develop a Defect in Erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kamio

    Full Text Available MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important negative regulator of tumor suppressor p53. In turn the Mdm2 gene is a transcriptional target of p53, forming a negative feedback loop that is important in cell cycle control. It has recently become apparent that the ubiquitination of p53 by MDM2 can be inhibited when certain ribosomal proteins, including RPL5 and RPL11, bind to MDM2. This inhibition, and the resulting increase in p53 levels has been proposed to be responsible for the red cell aplasia seen in Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA and in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS. DBA and 5q- MDS are associated with inherited (DBA or acquired (5q- MDS haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins. A mutation in Mdm2 causing a C305F amino acid substitution blocks the binding of ribosomal proteins. Mice harboring this mutation (Mdm2C305F, retain a normal p53 response to DNA damage, but lack the p53 response to perturbations in ribosome biogenesis. While studying the interaction between RP haploinsufficiency and the Mdm2C305F mutation we noticed that Mdm2C305F homozygous mice had altered hematopoiesis. These mice developed a mild macrocytic anemia with reticulocytosis. In the bone marrow (BM, these mice showed a significant decrease in Ter119hi cells compared to wild type (WT littermates, while no decrease in the number of mature erythroid cells (Ter119hiCD71low was found in the spleen, which showed compensated bone marrow hematopoiesis. In methylcellulose cultures, BFU-E colonies from the mutant mice were slightly reduced in number and there was a significant reduction in CFU-E colony numbers in mutant mice compared with WT controls (p < 0.01. This erythropoietic defect was abrogated by concomitant p53 deficiency (Trp53ko/ko. Further investigation revealed that in Mdm2C305F animals, there was a decrease in Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK cells, accompanied by significant decreases in multipotent progenitor (MPP cells (p < 0.01. Competitive BM repopulation experiments

  19. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  20. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  1. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  2. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  3. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  4. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  5. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  6. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  7. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  8. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  9. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  10. [Physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Dong; Hua, Wei-Guo; Chu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ju

    2006-11-01

    To observe the physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice, and to evaluate the safety and beneficial effects of this regimen. One hundred and forty-four adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: standard feed AL group (ad libitum intake of standard feed), hunger-resistant food AL group (ad libitum intake of hunger-resistant food), standard feed IF group (feeding standard feed and fasting on alternate days), and hunger-resistant food IF group (feeding hunger-resistant food and fasting on alternate days). The experiment lasted for 4-8 weeks and all mice drank water freely. The quality of life, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid, blood routine test, liver and kidney functions as well as the viscera indexes were examined. Compared to the standard feed AL group, the caloric taking and the increment of body-weight were reduced (Pfasting blood glucose were reduced in standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group (Pintermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food is safe and beneficial to metabolic regulation, such as controlling body-weight and adjusting blood glucose and serum lipid. It is expected that development of this regimen will be helpful to the control of obesity and diabetes, etc.

  11. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  12. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  13. A potent feed preservative candidate produced by Calcarisporium sp., an endophyte residing in stargrass (Cynodon dactylon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Song, Y C; Tan, R X

    2004-01-01

    The cultures of an endophytic fungus Calcarisporium sp. were screened for inhibitors on the growth of feed-associated moulds and on the aflatoxin biosynthesis to find a safe and effective feed preservative. Eight test fungi were isolated from the spoiled poultry feed. The endophytic fungus Calcarisporium sp. was separated from the Chinese coastal grass Cynodon dactylon. The antifungal action concerning the endophytic culture extract (ECE) was performed with propionic acid (PPA) as the corresponding reference. The ECE had a similar antifungal efficacy to PPA in a concentration-dependent manner. The susceptibility order of the ECE to the test fungi was found to be Fusarium sp. > Aspergillus spp. > Penicillium spp. Furthermore, the application of the ECE in pelleted-layer duck feed as a preservative was carried out at a humidity of 10, 15 and 20%. It has been discerned that mould growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis could be co-inhibited almost completely by ECE at concentrations higher than 1.0% (w/w). The LD50 of the ECE on mice was shown to be higher than 28 g kg-1. The ECE can be selected as an inhibitor to preserve poultry feed on inhibiting the growth of mould and aflatoxin biosynthesis during feed storage. The ECE may be an effective and biosafe antifungal ingredient for poultry feed and holds a potential market prospect in feed industry.

  14. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  15. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  16. Similar efficacy from specific and non-specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment of muscular dystrophy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jeovanna; Floyd, Kyle T; Rastogi, Neha; Schultz, Eric J; Chadwick, Jessica A; Swager, Sarah A; Zins, Jonathan G; Kadakia, Feni K; Smart, Suzanne; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Raman, Subha V; Janssen, Paul M L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist improved cardiac and skeletal muscle function and pathology in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. MR is present in limb and respiratory skeletal muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor. The goals of the current study were to compare the efficacy of the specific MR antagonist eplerenone with the non-specific MR antagonist spironolactone, both in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Three groups of n=18 dystrophin-deficient, utrophin-haploinsufficient male mice were given chow containing: lisinopril plus spironolactone, lisinopril plus eplerenone, or no drug, from four to 20 weeks-of-age. Eighteen C57BL/10 male mice were used as wild-type controls. In vivo measurements included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, conscious electrocardiography, and grip strength. From each mouse in the study, diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus , and cardiac papillary muscle force was measured ex vivo , followed by histological quantification of muscle damage in heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and abdominal muscles. MR protein levels were also verified in treated muscles. Treatment with specific and non-specific MR antagonists did not result in any adverse effects to dystrophic skeletal muscles or heart. Both treatments resulted in similar functional and pathological improvements across a wide array of parameters. MR protein levels were not reduced by treatment. These data suggest that spironolactone and eplerenone show similar effects in dystrophic mice and support the clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  17. Neuropeptide Y deficiency attenuates responses to fasting and high-fat diet in obesity-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiralben R; Qi, Yong; Hawkins, Evan J; Hileman, Stanley M; Elmquist, Joel K; Imai, Yumi; Ahima, Rexford S

    2006-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding and weight gain, but deletion of the NPY gene does not affect food intake and body weight in mice bred on a mixed genetic background. We reasoned that the orexigenic action of NPY would be evident in C57Bl/6J mice susceptible to obesity. NPY deficiency has no significant effect in mice fed a normal rodent diet. However, energy expenditure is elevated during fasting, and hyperphagia and weight gain are blunted during refeeding. Expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) in the hypothalamus is increased in NPY knockout (NPYko) than wild-type mice, but unlike wild type there is no further increase in AGRP when NPYko mice are fasted. Moreover, NPYko mice have higher oxygen consumption and uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown adipose tissue during fasting. The failure of an increase in orexigenic peptides and higher thermogenesis may contribute to attenuation of weight gain when NPYko mice are refed. C57Bl/6J mice lacking NPY are also less susceptible to diet-induced obesity (DIO) as a result of reduced feeding and increased energy expenditure. The resistance to DIO in NPYko mice is associated with a reduction in nocturnal feeding and increased expression of anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides. Insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels increase with adiposity in both wild-type and NPYko mice.

  18. Breast feeding: is it vital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasir, F A

    1990-12-01

    Human milk is the natural food of infants. It is a naturally balanced diet which meets the needs of the newborn. No artificial food can compare with human milk's natural, nutritional, and anti-infective properties. Various agencies have therefore strongly advocated every infant's right to be breast fed. For example, the International Confederation of Midwives at their 1984 meeting recommended that breast feeding be undertaken for at least 6 months especially in areas of the world where the incidence of infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition is high. The majority of women should be able to breast feed even if malnourished, and providing food for a lactating woman is less expensive than providing artificial formula for her baby. In some Western countries, breasts are seen more as sex symbols than sources of nourishment for infants. Women in developing countries should instead retain their tradition of breast feeding in the best interest of both their children and society.

  19. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  20. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... exclusive bottle-feeding is, in theory, negligible. However, .... †Independent sample t-tests; categorical variables were tested using the X2-test. TABLE I. RESULTS FOR FIT ... increase the risk of diarrhoeal events.9. Frequent ...

  1. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  2. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... cells have short intense leakage burst, only a very small fraction of prey cells would be available to the copepod at any instance in time and, thus would be inefficient at low prey concentration. Finally, we report a few new observations of prey capture in two species of copepods, Temora longicornis...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  3. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African. Journal of Animal Science. .... mix (lick) supplied to producing SA. Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period.

  4. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  5. High fat diet drives obesity regardless the composition of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabot, Sylvie; Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Berger, Bernard; Moine, Déborah; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruneau, Aurélia; Gérard, Philippe; Siddharth, Jay; Lauber, Christian L; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2016-08-31

    The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1(st) week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not change obesity development or feed efficiency of recipients regardless whether the microbiota was taken before or after 10 weeks high fat (HF) feeding. Interestingly, HF-induced glucose intolerance was influenced by microbiota inoculation and improved glucose tolerance was associated with a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Transplantation of Bacteroidetes rich microbiota compared to a control microbiota ameliorated glucose intolerance caused by HF feeding. Altogether, our results demonstrate that gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the abundance of Bacteroidetes significantly modulates HF-induced glucose intolerance but has limited impact on obesity in mice. Our results suggest that gut microbiota is a part of complex aetiology of insulin resistance syndrome, individual microbiota composition may cause phenotypic variation associated with HF feeding in mice.

  6. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  7. Upregulation of Haploinsufficient Gene Expression in the Brain by Targeting a Long Non-coding RNA Improves Seizure Phenotype in a Model of Dravet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, J; Yuan, T Y; Tsai, M S; Lu, C Y; Lin, Y C; Lee, M L; Lin, S W; Chang, F C; Liu Pimentel, H; Olive, C; Coito, C; Shen, G; Young, M; Thorne, T; Lawrence, M; Magistri, M; Faghihi, M A; Khorkova, O; Wahlestedt, C

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. There are currently no treatments, but the upregulation of SCN1A healthy allele represents an appealing therapeutic strategy. In this study we identified a novel, evolutionary conserved mechanism controlling the expression of SCN1A that is mediated by an antisense non-coding RNA (SCN1ANAT). Using oligonucleotide-based compounds (AntagoNATs) targeting SCN1ANAT we were able to induce specific upregulation of SCN1A both in vitro and in vivo, in the brain of Dravet knock-in mouse model and a non-human primate. AntagoNAT-mediated upregulation of Scn1a in postnatal Dravet mice led to significant improvements in seizure phenotype and excitability of hippocampal interneurons. These results further elucidate the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and outline a possible new approach for the treatment of this and other genetic disorders with similar etiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Upregulation of Haploinsufficient Gene Expression in the Brain by Targeting a Long Non-coding RNA Improves Seizure Phenotype in a Model of Dravet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dravet syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. There are currently no treatments, but the upregulation of SCN1A healthy allele represents an appealing therapeutic strategy. In this study we identified a novel, evolutionary conserved mechanism controlling the expression of SCN1A that is mediated by an antisense non-coding RNA (SCN1ANAT. Using oligonucleotide-based compounds (AntagoNATs targeting SCN1ANAT we were able to induce specific upregulation of SCN1A both in vitro and in vivo, in the brain of Dravet knock-in mouse model and a non-human primate. AntagoNAT-mediated upregulation of Scn1a in postnatal Dravet mice led to significant improvements in seizure phenotype and excitability of hippocampal interneurons. These results further elucidate the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and outline a possible new approach for the treatment of this and other genetic disorders with similar etiology.

  9. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  11. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  12. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  13. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  14. The effect of organic quail egg supplementation on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus Norvegicus L.) during the lactation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).

  15. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  16. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  17. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation, and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed, and (ii) the possible occurrence of unintended (unexpected) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification. In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out, in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds, which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients, known anti-nutrients and toxins. Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects, which require further investigation. Section 2 provides an overview of studies performed for the safety and nutritional assessment of whole food and feed. Extensive experience has been built up in recent decades from the safety and nutritional testing in animals of irradiated foods, novel foods and fruit and vegetables. These approaches are also relevant for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. Many feeding trials have been reported in which GM foods like maize, potatoes, rice, soybeans and tomatoes have been fed to rats or mice for prolonged periods, and parameters such as body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, organ weights, histopathology etc have been measured. The food and feed under investigation were derived from GM plants with improved agronomic characteristics like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or tissues of exposed animals. In some cases adverse effects were noted, which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies. Many studies have also been carried out with feed derived from GM plants with agronomic input traits in target animal species to assess the nutritive value of the feed and their performance potential. Studies in sheep, pigs

  18. Reduction of Sodium Arsenite-Mediated Adverse Effects in Mice using Dietary Supplementation of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Root Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human.

  19. Effects of the antitumor drug OSI-906, a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, on the glycemic control, β-cell functions, and β-cell proliferation in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Eiko; Shimizu, Mari; Horigome, Yuka; Tuno, Takayuki; Hayasaka, Moe; Abe, Shiori; Fuse, Masahiro; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The IGF-1 receptor has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of OSI-906 (linstinib), a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, for solid cancers has been examined in clinical trials. The effects of OSI-906, however, on the blood glucose levels and pancreatic β-cell functions have not yet been reported. We investigated the impact of OSI-906 on glycemic control, insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and β-cell proliferation in male mice. Oral administration of OSI-906 worsened glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner in the wild-type mice. OSI-906 at a dose equivalent to the clinical daily dose (7.5 mg/kg) transiently evoked glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-deficient mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, both models of peripheral insulin resistance, exhibited more severe glucose intolerance after OSI-906 administration than glucokinase-haploinsufficient mice, a model of impaired insulin secretion. Phloridzin improved the hyperglycemia induced by OSI-906 in mice. In vitro, OSI-906 showed no effect on insulin secretion from isolated islets. After daily administration of OSI-906 for a week to mice, the β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation rate were significantly increased. The insulin signals in the β-cells were apparently unaffected in those mice. Taken together, the results suggest that OSI-906 could exacerbate diabetes, especially in patients with insulin resistance. On the other hand, the results suggest that the β-cell mass may expand in response to chemotherapy with this drug.

  20. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  1. Haploinsufficiency of Dmxl2, encoding a synaptic protein, causes infertility associated with a loss of GnRH neurons in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Tata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic defects causing gonadotropic deficiency has made a major contribution to elucidation of the fundamental role of Kisspeptins and Neurokinin B in puberty onset and reproduction. The absence of puberty may also reveal neurodevelopmental disorders caused by molecular defects in various cellular pathways. Investigations of these neurodevelopmental disorders may provide information about the neuronal processes controlling puberty onset and reproductive capacity. We describe here a new syndrome observed in three brothers, which involves gonadotropic axis deficiency, central hypothyroidism, peripheral demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy, mental retardation, and profound hypoglycemia, progressing to nonautoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. High-throughput sequencing revealed a homozygous in-frame deletion of 15 nucleotides in DMXL2 in all three affected patients. This homozygous deletion was associated with lower DMXL2 mRNA levels in the blood lymphocytes of the patients. DMXL2 encodes the synaptic protein rabconnectin-3α, which has been identified as a putative scaffold protein for Rab3-GAP and Rab3-GEP, two regulators of the GTPase Rab3a. We found that rabconnectin-3α was expressed in exocytosis vesicles in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH axonal extremities in the median eminence of the hypothalamus. It was also specifically expressed in cells expressing luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH within the pituitary. The conditional heterozygous deletion of Dmxl2 from mouse neurons delayed puberty and resulted in very low fertility. This reproductive phenotype was associated with a lower number of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Finally, Dmxl2 knockdown in an insulin-secreting cell line showed that rabconnectin-3α controlled the constitutive and glucose-induced secretion of insulin. In conclusion, this study shows that low levels of DMXL2 expression cause a

  2. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  3. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  4. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  5. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  6. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  7. Reward components of feeding behavior are preserved during mouse aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen R. Harb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating behavior depends on associations between the sensory and energetic properties of foods. Healthful balance of these factors is a challenge for industrialized societies that have an abundance of food, food choices and food-related cues. Here, we were interested in whether appetitive conditioning changes as a function of age. Operant and pavlovian conditioning experiments (rewarding stimulus was a palatable food in male mice (aged 3, 6 and 15 months showed that implicit (non-declarative memory remains intact during aging. Two other essential components of eating behavior, motivation and hedonic preference for rewarding foods, were also found not to be altered in aging mice. Specifically, hedonic responding by satiated mice to isocaloric foods of differing sensory properties (sucrose, milk was similar in all age groups; importantly, however, this paradigm disclosed that older animals adjust their energy intake according to energetic need. Based on the assumption that the mechanisms that control feeding are conserved across species, it would appear that overeating and obesity in humans reflects a mismatch between ancient physiological mechanisms and today’s cue-laden environment. The implication of the present results showing that aging does not impair the ability to learn stimulus-food associations is that the risk of overeating in response to food cues is maintained through to old age.

  8. Reward components of feeding behavior are preserved during mouse aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Mazen R; Sousa, Nuno; Zihl, Joseph; Almeida, Osborne F X

    2014-01-01

    Eating behavior depends on associations between the sensory and energetic properties of foods. Healthful balance of these factors is a challenge for industrialized societies that have an abundance of food, food choices and food-related cues. Here, we were interested in whether appetitive conditioning changes as a function of age. Operant and pavlovian conditioning experiments (rewarding stimulus was a palatable food) in male mice (aged 3, 6, and 15 months) showed that implicit (non-declarative) memory remains intact during aging. Two other essential components of eating behavior, motivation and hedonic preference for rewarding foods, were also found not to be altered in aging mice. Specifically, hedonic responding by satiated mice to isocaloric foods of differing sensory properties (sucrose, milk) was similar in all age groups; importantly, however, this paradigm disclosed that older animals adjust their energy intake according to energetic need. Based on the assumption that the mechanisms that control feeding are conserved across species, it would appear that overeating and obesity in humans reflects a mismatch between ancient physiological mechanisms and today's cue-laden environment. The implication of the present results showing that aging does not impair the ability to learn stimulus-food associations is that the risk of overeating in response to food cues is maintained through to old age.

  9. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  10. The use of multiple imputation for the accurate measurements of individual feed intake by electronic feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Obtaining accurate individual feed intake records is the key first step in achieving genetic progress toward more efficient nutrient utilization in pigs. Feed intake records collected by electronic feeding systems contain errors (erroneous and abnormal values exceeding certain cutoff criteria), which are due to feeder malfunction or animal-feeder interaction. In this study, we examined the use of a novel data-editing strategy involving multiple imputation to minimize the impact of errors and missing values on the quality of feed intake data collected by an electronic feeding system. Accuracy of feed intake data adjustment obtained from the conventional linear mixed model (LMM) approach was compared with 2 alternative implementations of multiple imputation by chained equation, denoted as MI (multiple imputation) and MICE (multiple imputation by chained equation). The 3 methods were compared under 3 scenarios, where 5, 10, and 20% feed intake error rates were simulated. Each of the scenarios was replicated 5 times. Accuracy of the alternative error adjustment was measured as the correlation between the true daily feed intake (DFI; daily feed intake in the testing period) or true ADFI (the mean DFI across testing period) and the adjusted DFI or adjusted ADFI. In the editing process, error cutoff criteria are used to define if a feed intake visit contains errors. To investigate the possibility that the error cutoff criteria may affect any of the 3 methods, the simulation was repeated with 2 alternative error cutoff values. Multiple imputation methods outperformed the LMM approach in all scenarios with mean accuracies of 96.7, 93.5, and 90.2% obtained with MI and 96.8, 94.4, and 90.1% obtained with MICE compared with 91.0, 82.6, and 68.7% using LMM for DFI. Similar results were obtained for ADFI. Furthermore, multiple imputation methods consistently performed better than LMM regardless of the cutoff criteria applied to define errors. In conclusion, multiple imputation

  11. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  12. Does breast-feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. H.; Ott, P.; Juul, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  13. The MICE Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to test transverse cooling of a muon beam, demonstrating an important step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beam facilities. Protons in the ISIS synchrotron impact a titanium target, producing pions which decay into muons that propagate through the beam line to the MICE cooling channel. Along the beam line, particle identification (PID) detectors, scintillating fiber tracking detectors, and beam diagnostic tools identify and measure individual muons moving through the cooling channel. The MICE Online Systems encompass all tools; including hardware, software, and documentation, within the MLCR (MICE Local Control Room) that allow the experiment to efficiently record high quality data. Controls and Monitoring (C&M), Data Acquisition (DAQ), Online Monitoring and Reconstruction, Data Transfer, and Networking all fall under the Online Systems umbrella. C&M controls all MICE systems including the target, conventional an...

  14. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  15. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  16. Caloric restriction in C57BL/6J mice mimics therapeutic fasting in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Christine A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caloric restriction (CR has long been recognized as a dietary therapy that improves health and increases longevity. Little is known about the persistent effects of CR on plasma biomarkers (glucose, ketone bodies, and lipids following re-feeding in mice. It is also unclear how these biomarker changes in calorically restricted mice relate to those observed previously in calorically restricted humans. Results Three groups of individually housed adult female C57BL/6J (B6 mice (n = 4/group were fed a standard rodent chow diet either: (1 unrestricted (UR; (2 restricted for three weeks to reduce body weight by approximately 15–20% (R; or (3 restricted for three weeks and then re-fed unrestricted (ad libitum for an additional three weeks (R-RF. Body weight and food intake were measured throughout the study, while plasma lipids and levels of glucose and ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate were measured at the termination of the study. Plasma glucose, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly lower in the R mice than in the UR mice. In contrast, plasma fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were significantly higher in the R mice than in the UR mice. CR had no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol levels. While body weight and plasma lipids of the R-RF mice returned to unrestricted levels upon re-feeding, food intake and glucose levels remained significantly lower than those prior to the initiation of CR. Conclusion CR establishes a new homeostatic state in B6 mice that persists for at least three weeks following ad libitum re-feeding. Moreover, the plasma biomarker changes observed in B6 mice during CR mimic those reported in humans on very low calorie diets or during therapeutic fasting.

  17. Dietary Uncoupling of Gut Microbiota and Energy Harvesting from Obesity and Glucose Tolerance in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Dalby; Alexander W. Ross; Alan W. Walker; Peter J. Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Summary Evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota composition may be involved in the development of obesity. Studies using mice made obese with refined high-fat diets have supported this; however, these have commonly used chow as a control diet, introducing confounding factors from differences in dietary composition that have a key role in shaping microbiota composition. We compared the effects of feeding a refined high-fat diet with those of feeding either a refined low-fat diet or a cho...

  18. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  19. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... hazards present in animal feeds pose a threat to human health. Public concern on health matters related to food has ... meat, milk or eggs (Park and Laing, 1993; Dorner et al.,. 1994). ... are used in animal feed production (yellow whole maize, sifted ... number of fungal species than processed food and feed.

  20. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  1. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  2. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F.

    2018-02-26

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host’s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host’s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  3. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F

    2017-12-07

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host\\'s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host\\'s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  4. Chronic ethanol feeding promotes azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing mucosal inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Mir, Hina; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major risk factors for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism involved in this effect of alcohol is unknown. We evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in mouse colon. Inflammation in colonic mucosa was assessed at a precancerous stage by evaluating mucosal infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, and analysis of cytokine and chemokine gene expression. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly increased the number and size of polyps in colon of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopic and immunoblot analyses showed a significant elevation of phospho-Smad, VEGF and HIF1α in the colonic mucosa. RT-PCR analysis at a precancerous stage indicated that ethanol significantly increases the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα, and the chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10 in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopy showed that ethanol feeding induces a dramatic elevation of myeloperoxidase, Gr1 and CD68-positive cells in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Ethanol feeding enhanced AOM/DSS-induced suppression of tight junction protein expression and elevated cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 in the colonic epithelium. This study demonstrates that chronic ethanol feeding promotes colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing inflammation and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines

  5. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  6. Production of cattle feed by the growth of bacteria on mesquite wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, D W

    1975-01-01

    The potential for the conversion of mesquite into either a complete animal feed or a protein supplement was evaluated. Species of bacteria which can use the extremely hard mesquite wood as their sole C source were isolated by enrichment culture techniques. Each species was evaluated for its rate of growth, protein production, cellulase activity, amino acid profile of the single-cell protein, and acute toxicity or pathogenicity for weanling mice. The growth products were analyzed for protein, lignin, ash, carbohydrates, and caloric value. The single-cell protein produced from mesquite exceeded or equaled the FAO reference protein in 8 essential amino acids including methionine. No pathogenicity or acute toxicity of the bacteria for weanling mice was found. The results indicate that a high-energy, high-protein, complete cattle feed or an excellent protein supplement can be produced from mesquite wood.

  7. Sex differences in obesity development in pair-fed neuronal lipoprotein lipase deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Compared to men, postmenopausal women suffer from a disproportionate burden of many co-morbidities associated with obesity, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. The underlying mechanism for this sex difference is not well understood but is believed to relate to absence of the protective effect of estrogen through the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in the central nervous system. With the recently developed neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice (NEXLPL−/− (Wang et al., Cell Metabolism, 2011 [15], we set to explore the possible role of lipid sensing in sex differences in obesity development. Methods: Both male and female NEXLPL−/− mice and littermate WT controls were subjected to pair feeding (pf where daily food amount given was adjusted according to body weight to match the food intake of ad libitum (ad fed control WT mice. Food intake and body weight were measured daily, and pair feeding was maintained to 42 wk in male mice and to 38 wk in female mice. Various brain regions of the mice were harvested, and ERα gene expression was examined in both male and female NEXLPL−/− and WT control mice under both ad- and pf-fed conditions. Results: Although both male and female NEXLPL−/− mice developed obesity similarly on standard chow, male NEXLPL−/− mice still developed obesity under with pair feeding, but on a much delayed time course, while female NEXLPL−/− mice were protected from extra body weight and fat mass gain compared to pair-fed WT control mice. Pair feeding alone induced extra fat mass gain in both male and female WT mice, and this was mostly driven by the reduction in physical activity. LPL deficiency resulted in an increase in ERα mRNA in the hypothalamus of ad-fed female mice, while pair feeding alone also resulted in an increase of ERα in both female WT control and NEXLPL−/− mice. The effect on increasing ERα by pair feeding and LPL deficiency was additive in

  8. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II and folate deficiencies result in reciprocal protection against cognitive and social deficits in mice: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Picker, Jonathan D; Rana, Jasmine; Kolodny, Nancy H; Shane, Barry; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E; Coyle, Joseph T

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors underlie a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ) and autism (AD). Due to the complexity and multitude of the genetic and environmental factors attributed to these disorders, recent research strategies focus on elucidating the common molecular pathways through which these multiple risk factors may function. In this study, we examine the combined effects of a haplo-insufficiency of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) and dietary folic acid deficiency. In addition to serving as a neuropeptidase, GCPII catalyzes the absorption of folate. GCPII and folate depletion interact within the one-carbon metabolic pathway and/or of modulate the glutamatergic system. Four groups of mice were tested: wild-type, GCPII hypomorphs, and wild-types and GCPII hypomorphs both fed a folate deficient diet. Due to sex differences in the prevalence of SZ and AD, both male and female mice were assessed on a number of behavioral tasks including locomotor activity, rotorod, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, and spatial memory. Wild-type mice of both sexes fed a folic acid deficient diet showed motor coordination impairments and cognitive deficits, while social interactions were decreased only in males. GCPII mutant mice of both sexes also exhibited reduced social propensities. In contrast, all folate-depleted GCPII hypomorphs performed similarly to untreated wild-type mice, suggesting that reduced GCPII expression and folate deficiency are mutually protective. Analyses of folate and neurometabolite levels associated with glutamatergic function suggest several potential mechanisms through which GCPII and folate may be interacting to create this protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mice lacking the conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) display increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Anderson, Peter; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Jane, Stephen M; Dworkin, Sebastian

    2016-10-18

    Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development. Using advanced imaging techniques and quantitative measurement, we show that genetic deletion of the highly-conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) in mice (Grhl3 -/- ) leads to decreased skull size, aberrant skull morphology and premature apposition of the coronal sutures during embryogenesis. Furthermore, Grhl3 -/- mice also present with premature collagen deposition and osteoblast alignment at the sutures, and the physical interaction between the developing skull, and outermost covering of the brain (the dura mater), as well as the overlying dermis and subcutaneous tissue, appears compromised in embryos lacking Grhl3. Although Grhl3 -/- mice die at birth, we investigated skull morphology and size in adult animals lacking one Grhl3 allele (heterozygous; Grhl3 +/- ), which are viable and fertile. We found that these adult mice also present with a smaller cranial cavity, suggestive of post-natal haploinsufficiency in the context of cranial development. Our findings show that our Grhl3 mice present with increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones, suggesting that Grhl3 may be involved in the developmental pathogenesis of craniosynostosis.

  10. Keap1 knockdown increases markers of metabolic syndrome after long-term high fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Xu, Jialin; Shimpi, Prajakta C; Belgrave, Clyde; Luyendyk, James P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway upregulates antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme expression to counter cellular oxidative stress. The contributions of Nrf2 to other cellular functions, such as lipid homeostasis, are emerging. This study was conducted to determine how enhanced Nrf2 activity influences the progression of metabolic syndrome with long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. C57BL/6 and Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice, which exhibit enhanced Nrf2 activity, were fed a HFD for 24 weeks. Keap1-KD mice had higher body weight and white adipose tissue mass compared to C57BL/6 mice on HFD, along with increased inflammation and lipogenic gene expression. HFD feeding increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation to a greater extent in Keap1-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was associated with increased liver Cd36, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expression, as well as increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression. The HFD altered short-term glucose homeostasis to a greater degree in Keap-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was accompanied by downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Together, the results indicate that Keap1 knockdown, on treatment with HFD, increases certain markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral characterization of a model of differential susceptibility to obesity induced by standard and personalized cafeteria diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, L; Kanaly, V; Ramirez, V; Teske, J A; Pinto, M P; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increase in obesity prevalence over the last decades, humans show large inter-individual variability for susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Understanding the biological basis of this susceptibility could identify new therapeutic alternatives against obesity. We characterized behavioral changes associated with propensity to obesity induced by cafeteria (CAF) diet consumption in mice. We show that Balb/c mice fed a CAF diet display a large inter-individual variability in susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, such that based on changes in adiposity we can classify mice as obesity prone (OP) or obesity resistant (OR). Both OP and OR were hyperphagic relative to control-fed mice but caloric intake was similar between OP and OR mice. In contrast, OR had a larger increase in locomotor activity following CAF diet compared to OP mice. Obesity resistant and prone mice showed similar intake of sweet snacks, but OR ate more savory snacks than OP mice. Two bottle sucrose preference tests showed that OP decreased their sucrose preference compared to OR mice after CAF diet feeding. Finally, to test the robustness of the OR phenotype in response to further increases in caloric intake, we fed OR mice with a personalized CAF (CAF-P) diet based on individual snack preferences. When fed a CAF-P diet, OR increased their calorie intake compared to OP mice fed the standard CAF diet, but did not reach adiposity levels observed in OP mice. Together, our data show the contribution of hedonic intake, individual snack preference and physical activity to individual susceptibility to obesity in Balb/c mice fed a standard and personalized cafeteria-style diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  13. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  14. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  16. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  17. Desacyl Ghrelin Decreases Anxiety-like Behavior in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbod, Parinaz; Smith, Eric P; Fitzgerald, Maureen E; Morano, Rachel L; Packard, Benjamin A; Ghosal, Sriparna; Scheimann, Jessie R; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Herman, James P; Tong, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid polypeptide that regulates feeding, glucose metabolism, and emotionality (stress, anxiety, and depression). Plasma ghrelin circulates as desacyl ghrelin (DAG) or, in an acylated form, acyl ghrelin (AG), through the actions of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), exhibiting low or high affinity, respectively, for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a. We investigated the role of endogenous AG, DAG, and GHSR1a signaling on anxiety and stress responses using ghrelin knockout (Ghr KO), GOAT KO, and Ghsr stop-floxed (Ghsr null) mice. Behavioral and hormonal responses were tested in the elevated plus maze and light/dark (LD) box. Mice lacking both AG and DAG (Ghr KO) increased anxiety-like behaviors across tests, whereas anxiety reactions were attenuated in DAG-treated Ghr KO mice and in mice lacking AG (GOAT KO). Notably, loss of GHSR1a (Ghsr null) did not affect anxiety-like behavior in any test. Administration of AG and DAG to Ghr KO mice with lifelong ghrelin deficiency reduced anxiety-like behavior and decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in wild-type mice, a site normally expressing GHSR1a and involved in stress- and anxiety-related behavior. Collectively, our data demonstrate distinct roles for endogenous AG and DAG in regulation of anxiety responses and suggest that the behavioral impact of ghrelin may be context dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  18. Iron bioavailibity from a tropical leafy vegetable in anaemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latunde-Dada Gladys O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Telfairia occidentalis is a vegetable food crop that is indigenous to West Africa. The leaves and seeds are the edible parts of the plant and are used in everyday meals by incorporation into soups and stews. Previous studies have attributed improved haematological indices to the vegetable and have advocated the use of T. occidentalis in the treatment of anemia. This study investigates the ameliorative effects of T. occidentalis when compared to FeSO4 as a reference salt in anaemic mice. It also compares the bioavailability of test iron and hepatic hepcidin expression for the estimation of iron absorption in the mice. Non-haem iron was determined in the liver of mice after the experimental feeding treatments. Hepcidin mRNA expression was carried out by quantitative RT-PCR. Administration of T. occidentalis leaves led to a modest increase in haemoglobin (Hb levels in anaemic mice that were comparable to the Hb repletion in anaemic mice given FeSO4. Hepatic iron increase in the mice given either T. occidentalis or FeSO4 led to a corresponding enhancement of hepcidin mRNA expression. Induced hepcidin mRNA expression was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid to the test dose of iron. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression was found to be responsive to increase in the relative bioavailability of iron from test diets.

  19. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, F; Papachristos, E B; Gallistel, C R; Brunner, D; Gibson, J; Shumyatsky, G P

    2008-04-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout of the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide that show enhanced (i.e. prolonged) freezing in fear conditioning. We have tested the hypothesis that the mutants freeze longer because they are more uncertain than wild types about when to expect the electric shock. The knockouts however show normal accuracy and precision in timing, so we have rejected this alternative hypothesis. Last, we conduct the pharmacological validation of our behavioral screen using d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. We suggest including the analysis of interval timing and temporal memory in tests of genetically modified mice for learning and memory and argue that our paradigm allows this to be done simply and efficiently.

  20. Concurrent and robust regulation of feeding behaviors and metabolism by orexin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutsuka, Ayumu; Inui, Azusa; Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Lazarus, Michael; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2014-10-01

    Orexin neurons in the hypothalamus regulate energy homeostasis by coordinating various physiological responses. Past studies have shown the role of the orexin peptide itself; however, orexin neurons contain not only orexin but also other neurotransmitters such as glutamate and dynorphin. In this study, we examined the physiological role of orexin neurons in feeding behavior and metabolism by pharmacogenetic activation and chronic ablation. We generated novel orexin-Cre mice and utilized Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus vectors to express Gq-coupled modified GPCR, hM3Dq or diphtheria toxin fragment A in orexin neurons. By intraperitoneal injection of clozapine-N oxide in orexin-Cre mice expressing hM3Dq in orexin neurons, we could selectively manipulate the activity of orexin neurons. Pharmacogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons simultaneously increased locomotive activity, food intake, water intake and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Elevation of blood glucose levels and RER persisted even after locomotion and feeding behaviors returned to basal levels. Accordantly, 83% ablation of orexin neurons resulted in decreased food and water intake, while 70% ablation had almost no effect on these parameters. Our results indicate that orexin neurons play an integral role in regulation of both feeding behavior and metabolism. This regulation is so robust that greater than 80% of orexin neurons were ablated before significant changes in feeding behavior emerged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  3. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  4. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ, acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM mice (50 mice/sex/group were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  5. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Body Weight, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigamani Masilamani Sakthivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ochratoxin A (OA on the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion was investigated in broiler chicken fed dietary levels of OA at 0, 1, and 2 ppm for 28 days from hatch. Feeding OA significantly reduced the growth rate of broiler chicken. The reduction was observed from the first week onwards in OA-treated groups. Feed consumption and feed conversion also showed a diminishing trend from the first week of feeding toxin. Its implication on the performance of broiler chicken is discussed.

  6. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  7. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  8. Evaluate the Influence of Eupatorium adenophorum Extract with Mice Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Xiang; Yang, Can; Yang, Yaojun; Liang, Zi; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Ting

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the influence of extract from Eupatorium adenophorum in mice organs, this experiment will be the basis of further study that make Eupatorium adenophorum become Phyto contraceptive, this experiment take the feeding respectively way after the completion of the 1D, 5D, 10d, 15d of Eupatorium adenophorum mice by intragastrical administration of levonorgestrel group and blank control group. After the same operation in different periods of small rat heart and kidney the uterus, testis, and other organs were observed. The results showed that after extraction of E. adenophorum changes in female mice uterus shape was perfused significantly, showed swelling larger. Data analysis of each viscera coefficient was found E. adenophorum had No obvious effect on the heart, kidneys and testicles of mice. but there are obvious differences date between the treatment group and the blank group. (5d: F=10. 800 P=0. 043 cases) from tissue sections we can see female mice uterus cell morphology changes significantly, there was a similar appearance change in the uterus of the female mice with the estradiol For a male mouse testis of E.adenophorum gavage had No obvious effect. And it is found that the heart, the treated mice kidney, testis, ovary and other organs were observed in each period of time the organization had No obvious change; only female mice uterus tissue sections of individual cells became larger, and the organization of the gap larger. This research shows that E.adenophorum extract has the potential to develop botanical contraceptives, we will conduct in-depth study.

  9. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10 -4 ; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10 -4 . Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10 -4 . Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10 -4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10 -4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Activated Braf induces esophageal dilation and gastric epithelial hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Takahara, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Niihori, Tetsuya; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Yoichi; Aoki, Yoko

    2017-12-01

    Germline mutations in BRAF are a major cause of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which is characterized by heart defects, characteristic craniofacial dysmorphology and dermatologic abnormalities. Patients with CFC syndrome also commonly show gastrointestinal dysfunction, including feeding and swallowing difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux. We have previously found that knock-in mice expressing a Braf Q241R mutation exhibit CFC syndrome-related phenotypes, such as growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphisms, congenital heart defects and learning deficits. However, it remains unclear whether BrafQ241R/+ mice exhibit gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here, we report that BrafQ241R/+ mice have neonatal feeding difficulties and esophageal dilation. The esophagus tissues from BrafQ241R/+ mice displayed incomplete replacement of smooth muscle with skeletal muscle and decreased contraction. Furthermore, the BrafQ241R/+ mice showed hyperkeratosis and a thickened muscle layer in the forestomach. Treatment with MEK inhibitors ameliorated the growth retardation, esophageal dilation, hyperkeratosis and thickened muscle layer in the forestomach in BrafQ241R/+ mice. The esophageal dilation with aberrant skeletal-smooth muscle boundary in BrafQ241R/+ mice were recovered after treatment with the histone H3K27 demethylase inhibitor GSK-J4. Our results provide clues to elucidate the pathogenesis and possible treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction and failure to thrive in patients with CFC syndrome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  12. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  13. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  14. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  15. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  16. Metabolic impacts of high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Madani; Fjære, Even; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of high exposure to dietary POPs remain unclear. We therefore investigated whether elevated exposure to POPs provided by whale meat supplementation could contribute to insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice...... were fed control (C) or very high-fat diet (VHF) containing low or high levels of POPs (VHF+POPs) for eight weeks. To elevate the dietary concentrations of POPs, casein was replaced by whale meat containing high levels of pollutants. Feeding VHF+POPs induced high POP accumulation in the adipose tissue...... of mice. However, compared with VHF-fed mice, animals fed VHF+POPs had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and reduced body weight. Levels of ectopic fat in skeletal muscles and liver were reduced in mice fed VHF+POPs. These mice also gained less adipose tissue and had a tendency...

  17. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  18. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D registration of micro-PET-CT for measurable correlates of dyspeptic symptoms in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Jon; Simpson, Kathryn; Bardsley, Michael R.; Popko, Laura N.; Young, David L.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Lowe, Val; Ordog, Tamas; Robb, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic calorie insufficiency commonly suffer from upper gastrointestinal dysfunction and consequent dyspeptic symptoms, which may interfere with their nutritional rehabilitation. To investigate the relationship between gastric dysfunction and feeding behavior, we exposed mice to chronic caloric restriction and demonstrated gastric motor abnormalities in them. Gastric dysmotility is typically associated with dyspeptic symptoms but sensations cannot be directly assessed in animal...

  20. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  1. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  2. Feed pumps for a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzhebaev, Eh.E.; Zhukov, V.M.; Evtushenko, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Given is a brief description of results of designing and testing the PE850-65 and SPE1650-75 pilot feed pumps for 440 MWe pressurized water reactors and for 1000 MWe boiling water reactors. Described is a bench-mark facility for the SPE1650-75 pump with full-scale parameters. The adjustment results of the preconnected axial wheel of the 1PE1650-75 pump during the service life tests of a pilot pump have been given. Practical results on new methods of the preconnected axial wheel protection have been obtained. The design criteria developed provide for the long life time within the proven range of circular velocities. Confirmed is a possibility of carrying out advanced tests for estimating the cavitation destruction intensity using the vibration due to cavitation

  3. Feed and product for AVLIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    Today, fuel cycle organizations around the world, including British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) are undertaking the development of a new and demanding enrichment technology, customarily referred to by its American Acronym AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation). Successful commercialization of the technology will threaten established fuel cycle activities and is likely to send shock waves throughout the world industry. The stakes are high for all involved in the civil nuclear industry: do the potential rewards match up? US Department of Energy (US DOE) is regarded as the organization most committed to the early commercialization of AVLIS technology and is aiming to deploy an initial commercial plant within 6 years. However, the timescale is of course subject to a satisfactory technical progress and, no less importantly, continued funding of the necessary development and construction activities. Coupled with the changes that will be needed at the enrichment plant interfaces, the implications for feed supply and product usage, it can be seen that the 1997 target deployment date is an ambitious one. Other organizations are also developing atomic laser enrichment routes, but for the post-2000 timeframe. US DOE's desire to push ahead with early AVLIS deployment has to be seen in this global context. The different feed and product material interface requirements could generate resistance to the use of AVLIS by customers and other fuel cycle companies. The BNFL/URENCO atomic vapor laser enrichment development program is able to profit from USDOE's experience by ensuring very early that it encompasses all fuel cycle aspects. A process is being developed that is optimized from yellowcake to ceramic UO 2 , rather than just the difficult enrichment process. This is far more likely, if it becomes economically competitive, to produce a good match with customer requirements and so reduce the commercial risks of such a decision

  4. Dwarf Mice and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masternak, Michal M; Darcy, Justin; Victoria, Berta; Bartke, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf mice have been studied for many decades, however, the focus of these studies shifted in 1996 when it was shown by Brown-Borg and her coworkers that Ames dwarf (Prop1 df ) mice are exceptionally long-lived. Since then, Snell dwarf (Pit1 dw ) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO, a.k.a. Laron dwarf) mice were also shown to be exceptionally long-lived, presumably due to their growth hormone (GH)-deficiency or -resistance, respectively. What is of equal importance in these dwarf mice is their extended health span, that is, these animals have a longer period of life lived free of frailty and age-related diseases. This review article focuses on recent studies conducted in these dwarf mice, which concerned brown and white adipose tissue biology, microRNA (miRNA) profiling, as well as early-life dietary and hormonal interventions. Results of these studies identify novel mechanisms linking reduced GH action with extensions of both life span and health span. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mesolimbic lipid sensing and the regulation of feeding behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansell Celine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In both developed and emerging countries, sedentary life style and over exposition to high energy dense foods has led to a thermodynamic imbalance and consequently obesity. Despite genetic predisposition, obesity often involves a behavioral component in which, similar to drugs of abuse, compulsive consumption of palatable food rich in lipids and sugar drives energy intake far beyond metabolic demands. Food intake is modulated by sensory inputs, such as tastes and odours, as well as by affective or emotional states. The mesolimbic pathway is well established as a main actor of the rewarding aspect of feeding. Particularly, the hedonic and motivational aspects of food are closely tied to the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA in striatal structure such as the Nucleus Accumbens (Nacc. In both rodent and humans several studies shows an attenuated activity of dopaminergic signal associated with obesity and there is evidence that consumption of palatable food per se leads to DA signalling alterations. Furthermore impaired cognition in obese mice is improved by selectively lowering triglycerides (TG and intracerebroventricular administration of TG induces by itself acquisition impairment in several cognitive paradigms in normal body weight mice. Together, these observations raise the possibility that nutritional lipids, particularly TG, directly affect cognitive and reward processes by modulating the mesolimbic pathway and might contribute to the downward spiral of compulsive consumption of palatable and obesity. This review is an attempt to capture recent evolution in the field that might point toward a direct action of nutritional lipid in the mesolimbic pathway.

  6. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  7. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cappel

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  8. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  9. Characterization and safety evaluation of a Deinococcus member as feed additive for hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Szu-Yin; Li, I-Chen; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2016-04-01

    As previous studies mainly focus on understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance in Deinococcus bacteria, the present study aimed at characterizing and verifying the safety use of the GKB-Aid 1995 strain, a member of the radiation-resistant bacterial genus Deinococcus, as an ingredient in feed supplements. Using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GKB-Aid 1995 most resembles Deinococcus grandis. The Ames test, in vitro chromosomal test, in vivo micronucleus test and acute toxicity test were performed subsequently for its safety evaluation. As there is a possibility that the pigment of GKB-Aid 1995 can pass from feed to eggs intended for human consumption, an acute toxicity test was also carried out in pigmented egg yolk. The results confirmed that GKB-Aid 1995 was non-genotoxic in three genotoxicity experiments, and the LD50 of GKB-Aid 1995 and the pigmented egg yolk in ICR mice was greater than 10 and 12 g kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Overall, these data indicate that GKB-Aid 1995 is a non-toxic substance with no genotoxicity and is therefore safe to be used as a feed supplement or feed additive. This study suggests there is potential in developing GKB-Aid 1995 as an animal feed additive intended to enhance yolk coloration to meet the demand of consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-07-14

    To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and oil-red-o staining; biochemical studies to look at ALT and triglyceride levels; RNA analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; and cytokine analysis, which included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to look at interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. Furthermore, at each length of feeding we also looked at insulin resistance and glucose tolerance using insulin tolerance tests (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests. There was no insulin resistance, steatosis, or inflammasome activation at 6 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk we found significant insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired glucose and ITT in male, but not female mice. In males, elevated alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride levels, indicated liver damage and steatosis, respectively. Increased liver TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein, correlated with steatohepatitis. The inflammasome components, adaptor molecule, Aim2, and NOD-like receptor 4, increased at the mRNA level, and functional inflammasome activation was indicated by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein levels in male mice fed a long-term HFD. Male mice on HFD had increased α-smooth muscle actin and pro-collagen-1 mRNA indicating evolving fibrosis. In contrast, female mice displayed only elevated triglyceride levels, steatosis, and no fibrosis. Our data

  11. Host feeding in insect parasitoids: why destructively feed upon a host that excretes an alternative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.S.M.; Reijnen, T.M.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Host feeding is the consumption of host tissue by the adult female parasitoid. We studied the function of destructive host feeding and its advantage over non-destructive feeding on host-derived honeydew in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We allowed

  12. Effects of feeding un-extruded floating feed to African giant catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...

  13. Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding induces myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction, and steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan V; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Paloczi, Janos; Lajtos, Tamas; Erdelyi, Katalin; Nemeth, Balazs T; Nan, Mintong; Hasko, Gyorgy; Gao, Bin; Pacher, Pal

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt). Isocalorically pair-fed mice served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function and morphology were assessed by invasive pressure-volume conductance approach and by echocardiography. Mitochondrial complex (I, II, IV) activities, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, gene expression of markers of oxidative stress (gp91phox, p47phox), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and fibrosis were examined. Cardiac steatosis and fibrosis were investigated by histological/immunohistochemical methods. Chronic and binge EtOH feeding (already in 10 days EtOH plus single binge group) was characterized by contractile dysfunction (decreased slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and preload recruitable stroke work), impaired relaxation (decreased time constant of LV pressure decay and maximal slope of systolic pressure decrement), and vascular dysfunction (impaired arterial elastance and lower total peripheral resistance). This was accompanied by enhanced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress (3-NT; gp91phox; p47phox; angiotensin II receptor, type 1a) and deterioration of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV activities and mitochondrial biogenesis, excessive cardiac steatosis, and higher mortality. Collectively, chronic plus binge EtOH feeding in mice leads to alcohol-induced cardiomyopathies (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism models) characterized by increased myocardial oxidative

  14. Aortic wall damage in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, N; Hagihara, H; Nakata, Y; Hiller, S; Wilder, J; Reddick, R

    2000-01-18

    By inactivating the gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme in ascorbic acid synthesis, we have generated mice that, like humans, depend on dietary vitamin C. Regular chow, containing about 110 mg/kg of vitamin C, is unable to support the growth of the mutant mice, which require L-ascorbic acid supplemented in their drinking water (330 mg/liter). Upon withdrawal of supplementation, plasma and tissue ascorbic acid levels decreased to 10-15% of normal within 2 weeks, and after 5 weeks the mutants became anemic, began to lose weight, and die. Plasma total antioxidative capacities were approximately 37% normal in homozygotes after feeding the unsupplemented diet for 3-5 weeks. As plasma ascorbic acid decreased, small, but significant, increases in total cholesterol and decreases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. The most striking effects of the marginal dietary vitamin C were alterations in the wall of aorta, evidenced by the disruption of elastic laminae, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and focal endothelial desquamation of the luminal surface. Thus, marginal vitamin C deficiency affects the vascular integrity of mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, with potentially profound effects on the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Breeding the vitamin C-dependent mice with mice carrying defined genetic mutations will provide numerous opportunities for systematic studies of the role of antioxidants in health and disease.

  15. Studies on the mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of irradiated wheat in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Ebenezer, D.N.; Naidu, N.V.; Goud, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to test the mutagenic and cytogenetic potentials of freshly and stored irradiated wheat in mice. In the first series, the effects of feeding of CBA mice for 8 weeks with the diet containing 60% of wheat freshly irradiated ( 3 H/He mice were undertaken. Feeding of both freshly and stored irradiated wheat showed neither an increase in dominant lethals and chromosomal aberrations nor a reduction in germ cells. In another series, the reproductive performance of the CBA females fed stored irradiated (75 krad) wheat was investigated and it was observed that the average total number of litters and the litter size did not vary from those of the females fed unirradiated wheat. (author)

  16. The relationship between different measures of feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Knauer, M; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2017-08-01

    Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior. The study herein used a data set of 14,901 Duroc boars with individual records on feed intake, feeding behavior, and other off-test traits. These traits were modeled with and without the random spatial effect of Pen_Room, a concatenation of room and pen, or random social interaction among pen mates. The nonheritable spatial effect of common Pen-Room was observed for traits directly measuring feed intake and accounted for up to 13% of the total phenotypic variance in the average daily feeding rate. The social interaction effect explained larger proportions of phenotypic variation in all the traits studied, with the highest being 59% for ADFI in the group of feeding behaviors, 73% for residual feed intake (RFI; RFI4 and RFI6) in the feed efficiency traits, and 69% for intramuscular fat percentage in the off-test traits. After accounting for the social interaction effect, residual BW gain and RFI and BW gain (RIG) were found to have the heritability of 0.38 and 0.18, respectively, and had strong genetic correlations with growth and off-test traits. Feeding behavior traits were found to be moderately heritable, ranging from 0.14 (ADFI) to 0.52 (average daily occupation time), and some of them were strongly correlated with feed efficiency measures; for example, there was a genetic correlation of 0.88 between ADFI and RFI6. Our work

  17. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.9 Section 3.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day...

  18. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed...

  19. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be...

  20. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de T.C.; Jong, de J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed

  1. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.

  2. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.105 Feeding. (a) The food for marine mammals must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.105 Section 3.105 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  3. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ..., drug toxicity, drug residues, antimicrobial resistance, or other reasons may dictate that the use of a... relating to the distribution and use of VFD drugs and animal feeds containing such drugs. FDA is... existed for regulating the distribution of animal drugs, including drugs in animal feed: (1) Over-the...

  4. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  5. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for .... However, there is no consistent rationale for setting ... feed and poultry growing mash) , eleven different raw ingredients that ..... containing culture material, deoxynivalenol-contaminated wheat, or their.

  6. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the

  7. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  8. Feeding Difficulties in Children with Esophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The evaluation of energy in fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the

  10. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  11. Breast Feeding as a Family Planning Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had a field day promoting the virtues of bottle feeding and won many followers. .... tains a better mix of nutrients compared with cow's milk and formula feeds and is more .... International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk. Substitutes. 4. King FS.

  12. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Eduardo N.; Velez, Zélia

    2011-01-01

    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  13. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1983-10-01

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  14. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. ... feeding and these were educational level of the mother, knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and ... only attained primary school education. Only 3 (2%) respondents had attained college education while.

  15. Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of including different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg gain), carcass characteristics and small intestinal morphology. Twenty Zandi male lambs (29.8 ...

  16. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  17. Isolation in immunodeficient mice of Sarcocystis neurona from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) faeces, and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    1998-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona was isolated in nude mice and gamma-interferon knockout mice fed sporocysts from faeces of naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Mice fed sporocysts became lethargic and developed encephalitis. Protozoa were first found in the brain starting 21 days post-inoculation. Sarcocystis neurona was recovered in cell culture from the homogenate of liver, spleen and brain of a nude mouse 11 days after feeding sporocysts. The protozoa in mouse brain and in cell culture multiplied by schizogony and mature schizonts often had a residual body. Sarcocystis falcatula, which has an avian-opossum cycle, was not infective to nude or knockout mice. Protozoa were not found in tissues of nude mice or knockout mice after subcutaneous injection with culture-derived S. falcatula merozoites and sporocysts from the faeces of opossums presumed to contain only S. falcatula. Results demonstrate that S. neurona is distinct from S. falcatula, and that opossums are hosts for both species.

  18. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  19. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is food sector, which is growing rapidly in the last 25 years with annual growth rate 8,2 . One of the mostperspective branches of aquaculture is shrimp farming. The cost of feeds is up to 80% of the cost of shrimp breeding, so providingthe industry with high-quality feeds is the important goal of the feed industry in all over the world. The theoretical research was devotedto the task of compound shrimp feed production. In order to satisfy shrimp requirements, shrimp feeding systems were shown.Existing shrimp breeding systems are shown as different from the type of reservoirs (static / running water, indoor or outdoor, feedingmethods, and the species of grown shrimp. Features of the nutritional standards for freshwater and saltwater shrimps were analyzed.Nutrient requirements of shrimp have been changed through shrimp life-cycle. The shrimp life-cycle was shown.World leaders-producers of compound mixed feeds for shrimps were shown. The analysis of pellet size and nutritional valueof compound mixed feeds of crude protein content in prestart, starter, grower and finish periods of cultivation and in accordancewith the system of cultivation and feeding shrimp (intensive, extensive, semi-intensive is carried out. The requirements for the contentof main minerals, vitamins and restrictions to the content of crude fiber are given. Traditional ingredients are described. Bindersand preservatives, which are used for shrimp feeds, are shown and subscribed. In raw material the main problem is the need to ensurehigh protein content in the shrimp feed recipes. Because of many factors, fish meal quantity should be reduced in recipes. Becauseof its attractive amino acid content, availability and relatively affordable price, soybean meal and soy concentrates have receivedincreasing attention as substitutes for marine animal meals.The features of technological lines and processes of production of mixed feeds for shrimp are shown.Еhe advantages and

  20. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin.

  1. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  2. Abolition of lemniscal barrellette patterning in Prrxl1 knockout mice: Effects upon ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Dana; Tamaiev, Jonathan; Zeigler, H Philip; Feinstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ingestive behaviors in mice are dependent on orosensory cues transmitted via the trigeminal nerve, as confirmed by transection studies. However, these studies cannot differentiate between deficits caused by the loss of the lemniscal pathway vs. the parallel paralemniscal pathway. The paired-like homeodomain protein Prrxl1 is expressed widely in the brain and spinal cord, including the trigeminal system. A knockout of Prrxl1 abolishes somatotopic barrellette patterning in the lemniscal brainstem nucleus, but not in the parallel paralemniscal nucleus. Null animals are significantly smaller than littermates by postnatal day 5, but reach developmental landmarks at appropriate times, and survive to adulthood on liquid diet. A careful analysis of infant and adult ingestive behavior reveals subtle impairments in suckling, increases in time spent feeding and the duration of feeding bouts, feeding during inappropriate times of the day, and difficulties in the mechanics of feeding. During liquid diet feeding, null mice display abnormal behaviors including extensive use of the paws to move food into the mouth, submerging the snout in the diet, changes in licking, and also have difficulty consuming solid chow pellets. We suggest that our Prrxl1(-/-) animal is a valuable model system for examining the genetic assembly and functional role of trigeminal lemniscal circuits in the normal control of eating in mammals and for understanding feeding abnormalities in humans resulting from the abnormal development of these circuits.

  3. Decreased triiodothyronine receptor binding in skeletal muscle nuclei and erythrocyte membranes of obese (ob/ob) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilvary, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Hindlimb skeletal muscle weights and binding of L-tri-iodothyronine (T 3 ) to isolated nuclei of this tissue were investigated in obese (ob/ob) mice and their lean littermates. Maximal binding capacities (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) were determined by incubating isolated muscle nuclei with increasing conc. of 125 I-T 3 (0.4 nM to 4nM). At 12 wks. of age, although weighing substantially more, obese mice had only 55% as much muscle mass as their lean littermates. There was no phenotype effect observed for Kd, however, Bmax was significantly less for the obese mice. In a second experiment, a 16-wk. feeding study was conducted with 4 groups of mice according to the following design: lean mice fed rodent chow; obese mice fed rodent chow; obese mice, n-6 fatty acid (FA)-rich diet; and obese mice, n-3FA-rich diet. Erythrocyte T 3 receptor binding capacities were measured by incubating red cell ghosts from mice of these 4 groups with 125 I-T 3 . As with skeletal muscle nuclei there were no phenotype effects observed for Kd between any two groups. In contrasts obese mice fed chow and n-6FA-rich diets both exhibited lower Bmax than their lean counterparts, while no significant difference was observed between the latter group and the obese mice fed an n-3FA-rich diet. Bmax values of the n-6 group were also decreased compared to the n-3 group

  4. Is tube feeding futile in advanced dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    It is controversial whether tube feeding in people with dementia improves nutritional status or prolongs survival. Guidelines published by several professional societies cite observational studies that have shown no benefit and conclude that tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia should be avoided. However, all studies on tube feeding in dementia have major methodological flaws that invalidate their findings. The present evidence is not sufficient to justify general guidelines. Patients with advanced dementia represent a very heterogeneous group, and evidence demonstrates that some patients with dementia benefit from tube feeding. However, presently available guidelines make a single recommendation against tube feeding for all patients. Clinicians, patients, and surrogates should be aware that the guidelines and prior commentary on this topic tend both to overestimate the strength of evidence for futility and to exaggerate the burdens of tube feeding. Shared decision making requires accurate information tailored to the individual patient's particular situation, not blanket guidelines based on flawed data. Lay Summary: Many doctors believe that tube feeding does not help people with advanced dementia. Scientific studies suggest that people with dementia who have feeding tubes do not live longer or gain weight compared with those who are carefully hand fed. However, these studies are not very helpful because of flaws in design, which are discussed in this article. Guidelines from professional societies make a blanket recommendation against feeding tubes for anyone with dementia, but an individual approach that takes each person's situation into account seems more appropriate. Patients and surrogates should be aware that the guidelines on this topic tend both to underestimate the benefit and exaggerate the burdens of tube feeding. PMID:27833208

  5. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  6. Refinement of Perioperative Feeding in a Mouse Model of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerning, Carolyn M; Burlingame, Lisa A; Lewis, Alfor G; Myronovych, Andriy; Seeley, Randy J; Lester, Patrick A

    2018-05-01

    Provision of liquid enteral nutrition (LEN) during the perioperative period is standard practice for rodents undergoing bariatric surgery, yet these diets are associated with several challenges, including coagulation of the liquid diet within the delivery system and decreased postoperative consumption. We investigated the use of a commercially available high-calorie dietary gel supplement (DG) as an alternative food source for mice during the perioperative period. C57BL/6J male mice were fed high-fat diet for 8 to 10 wk prior to surgery. The study groups were: vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) +DG, VSG+LEN, sham surgery+DG, and sham+LEN. Food and water intakes, body weight, and body fat composition was monitored throughout the study. Mice that received DG lost significantly more weight preoperatively than those fed LEN. However, during the postoperative period, body weight, body fat composition, and water and caloric intake were similar among all experimental diet groups. Three mice in the VSG+LEN group were euthanized due to clinical illness during the course of the study. In summary, feeding a high-calorie DG to mice undergoing VSG surgery is a viable alternative to LEN, given that DG does not significantly affect the surgical model of weight loss or result in adverse clinical outcomes. We recommend additional metabolic characterization of DG supplementation to ensure that this novel diet does not confound specific research goals in the murine VSG model.

  7. Of mice and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-01-01

    CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes...

  8. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may...

  9. Material awareness on natural feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.

  10. Docetaxel chronopharmacology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, M; Filipski, E; Liu, X H; Lemaigre, G; Li, X M; Vrignaud, P; François, E; Bissery, M C; Lévi, F

    1998-09-01

    Docetaxel tolerance and antitumor efficacy could be enhanced if drug administration was adapted to circadian rhythms. This hypothesis was investigated in seven experiments involving a total of 626 male B6D2F1 mice, synchronized with an alternation of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12:12), after i.v. administration of docetaxel. In experiment (Exp) 1, the drug was given once a week (wk) for 6 wks (20 mg/kg/wk) or for 5 wks (30 mg/kg/wk) at one of six circadian times, during light when mice were resting [3, 7, or 11 hours after light onset (HALO)], or during darkness, when mice were active (15, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were survival and body weight change. In Exp 2 and 3, docetaxel (30 mg/kg/wk) was administered twice, 1 wk apart, at one of four circadian stages (7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were hematological and intestinal toxicities. In Exp 4, circadian changes in cell cycle phase distribution and BCL-2 immunofluorescence were investigated in bone marrow as possible mechanisms of docetaxel tolerability rhythm. In Exp 5 to 7, docetaxel was administered to mice bearing measurable P03 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (270-370 mg), with tumor weight and survival as endpoints. Mice from Exp 5 and 6 received a weekly schedule of docetaxel at one of six circadian stages (20 or 30 mg/kg/wk at 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 HALO). In Exp 7, docetaxel (30 mg/kg) was given every 2 days (day 1, 3, 5 schedule) at 7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO. Docetaxel dosing in the second half of darkness (19 or 23 HALO) resulted in significantly worse toxicity than its administration during the light span (3, 7, or 11 HALO). The survival rate ranged from 56.3% in the mice treated at 23 HALO to 93.8 or 87.5% in those injected at 3 or 11 HALO, respectively (Exp 1, P active at 11 HALO (percentage increase in life span, 390%) and least active at 23 HALO (210%). Docetaxel tolerability and antitumor efficacy were simultaneously enhanced by drug dosing in the light span, when mice were resting. Mechanisms

  11. Effects of prenatal hypoxia on schizophrenia-related phenotypes in heterozygous reeler mice: a gene × environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2014-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although prenatal hypoxia is a potential environmental factor implicated in schizophrenia, very little is known about the consequences of combining models of genetic risk factor with prenatal hypoxia. Heterozygous reeler (haploinsufficient for reelin; HRM) and wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to prenatal hypoxia (9% oxygen for two hour) or normoxia at embryonic day 17 (E17). Behavioral (Prepulse inhibition, Y-maze and Open field) and functional (regional volume in frontal cortex and hippocampus as well as hippocampal blood flow) tests were performed at 3 months of age. The levels of hypoxia and stress-related molecules such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2/Flk1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were examined in frontal cortex and hippocampus at E18, 1 month and 3 months of age. In addition, serum VEGF and corticosterone levels were also examined. Prenatal hypoxia induced anxiety-like behavior in both HRM and WT mice. A significant reduction in hippocampal blood flow, but no change in brain regional volume was observed following prenatal hypoxia. Significant age and region-dependent changes in HIF-1α, VEGF, Flk1 and GR were found following prenatal hypoxia. Serum VEGF and corticosterone levels were found decreased following prenatal hypoxia. None of the above prenatal hypoxia-induced changes were either diminished or exacerbated due to reelin deficiency. These results argue against any gene-environment interaction between hypoxia and reelin deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Tread-water feeding of Bryde's whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takashi; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Thongsukdee, Surasak; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Sato, Katsufumi

    2017-11-06

    Many previous studies have shown that rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae), including the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whale (B. physalus), sei whale (B. borealis), Bryde's whale (B. edeni), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), employ a strategy called lunge feeding to capture a large amount of krill and/or fish for nourishment [1]. Lunge feeding entails a high energetic cost due to the drag created by an open mouth at high speeds [1,2]. In the upper Gulf of Thailand, Bryde's whales, which feed on small fish species [3], predominantly anchovies, demonstrated a range of feeding behaviors such as oblique, vertical, and lateral lunging. Moreover, they displayed a novel head-lifting feeding behavior characterized by holding the vertical posture for several seconds with an open mouth at the water surface. This study describes the head-lifting feeding by Bryde's whales, which is distinct from the typical lunge feeding of rorqual whales. Whales showing this behavior were observed on 58 occasions, involving 31 whales and including eight adult-calf pairs. Whales caught their prey using a series of coordinated movements: (i) lifting the head above the water with a closed mouth, (ii) opening the mouth until the lower jaw contacted the sea surface, which created a current of water flowing into the mouth, (iii) holding their position for several seconds, (iv) waiting for the prey to enter the mouth, and (v) closing the mouth and engulfing the prey underwater (Figure 1A-F, Movie S1 in Supplemental Information published with this article online). When a whale kept its upper jaw above the sea surface, many anchovies in the targeted shoal appeared to lose orientation and flowed passively into the mouth of the whale by the current created by the lower mandible breaking the surface of the water. We measured the duration of feeding events when the whales had a wide-open mouth mostly above the sea surface. The mean and maximum feeding

  13. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam

    2005-04-01

    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

  14. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in poultry feeds and feed ingredients from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, S T H; Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Tan, Eddie T; Bhanger, M I; Kara, Huseyin; Nizamani, S M

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in complete poultry feeds (n=80) and poultry feed ingredients (n=286) from Pakistan. All samples were first analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples with OTA concentrations above the European Union maximum regulatory limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) were further confirmed by HPLC-FLD. Contamination frequency and mean OTA levels were 31% and 51 μg/kg in feed ingredients, and the corresponding values for complete feeds were 38% and 75 μg/kg. Ten samples of complete poultry feed and 19 samples of feed ingredients contained OTA at levels higher than the MRL. The results of the present study indicate that there is a strong need for a more intense monitoring programs for OTA in poultry feed.

  15. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  16. β-endorphin modulates the effect of stress on novelty-suppressed feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Barfield

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders, not all individuals who suffer stressful life events develop psychopathology. Differential susceptibility to stress may be influenced by genetically-mediated differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and moderation of the stress response by the opioid peptide β-endorphin (β-E. The present study investigated genetic contributions to coping behavior by examining anxious behavior of transgenic mice with varying capacities to synthesize β-E (B6.129S2-Pomctm1Low/J; regulated by insertion of a premature stop codon into one or both copies of the proopiomelanocortin gene, both under normal conditions and following 3 minutes of forced swim. Ten minutes after this stress exposure or a control manipulation, acutely food-deprived female and male transgenic mice were subjected to a novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF test, during which their interaction with an almond slice located in the center of an open field box was measured. There was an interaction between genotype and stress for latency to approach the almond and whether or not the almond was approached, such that mice with low or absent β-E displayed a stronger aversion to novelty-feeding after stress exposure than did mice with normal levels. These data provide evidence for a moderating effect of β-E on the behavioral response to stress. Genotypic differences in anxious behavior emerged when mice were stressed prior to behavioral assessment, suggesting that β-E plays a role in coping behavior. These findings indicate that genetic variability in sensitivity of the β-E system to stress may contribute, at least in part, to heritable differences in stress reactivity as well as vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology.

  17. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  18. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  19. Feeding Immunity: Physiological and Behavioral Responses to Infection and Resource Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Budischak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources are a core currency of species interactions and ecology in general (e.g., think of food webs or competition. Within parasite-infected hosts, resources are divided among the competing demands of host immunity and growth as well as parasite reproduction and growth. Effects of resources on immune responses are increasingly understood at the cellular level (e.g., metabolic predictors of effector function, but there has been limited consideration of how these effects scale up to affect individual energetic regimes (e.g., allocation trade-offs, susceptibility to infection, and feeding behavior (e.g., responses to local resource quality and quantity. We experimentally rewilded laboratory mice (strain C57BL/6 in semi-natural enclosures to investigate the effects of dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode (Trichuris muris infection on individual-level immunity, activity, and behavior. The scale and realism of this field experiment, as well as the multiple physiological assays developed for laboratory mice, enabled us to detect costs, trade-offs, and potential compensatory mechanisms that mice employ to battle infection under different resource conditions. We found that mice on a low-protein diet spent more time feeding, which led to higher body fat stores (i.e., concentration of a satiety hormone, leptin and altered metabolite profiles, but which did not fully compensate for the effects of poor nutrition on albumin or immune defenses. Specifically, immune defenses measured as interleukin 13 (IL13 (a primary cytokine coordinating defense against T. muris and as T. muris-specific IgG1 titers were lower in mice on the low-protein diet. However, these reduced defenses did not result in higher worm counts in mice with poorer diets. The lab mice, living outside for the first time in thousands of generations, also consumed at least 26 wild plant species occurring in the enclosures, and DNA metabarcoding revealed that the consumption of different

  20. Recommended feeding regime and light climate in live feed cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Steensbjerg Bjørbæk, Niels; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2017-01-01

    (spiked feeding), in four equal pulses (pulsed feeding), and evenly over 24 h (continuous feeding). The feeding regimes were investigated at low food levels (~200 µg C L−1) and at full-saturated food levels (~1800 µg C L−1). As photoperiod may have an effect on feeding uptake and productivity, the present...

  1. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  2. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  3. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  4. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  6. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste Feed Evaporation Physical Properties Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the waste feed evaporator modeling work done in the Waste Feed Evaporation and Physical Properties Modeling test specification and in support of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project. A private database (ZEOLITE) was developed and used in this work in order to include the behavior of aluminosilicates such a NAS-gel in the OLI/ESP simulations, in addition to the development of the mathematical models. Mathematical models were developed that describe certain physical properties in the Hanford RPP-WTP waste feed evaporator process (FEP). In particular, models were developed for the feed stream to the first ultra-filtration step characterizing its heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, as well as the density of the evaporator contents. The scope of the task was expanded to include the volume reduction factor across the waste feed evaporator (total evaporator feed volume/evaporator bottoms volume). All the physical properties were modeled as functions of the waste feed composition, temperature, and the high level waste recycle volumetric flow rate relative to that of the waste feed. The goal for the mathematical models was to predict the physical property to predicted simulation value. The simulation model approximating the FEP process used to develop the correlations was relatively complex, and not possible to duplicate within the scope of the bench scale evaporation experiments. Therefore, simulants were made of 13 design points (a subset of the points used in the model fits) using the compositions of the ultra-filtration feed streams as predicted by the simulation model. The chemistry and physical properties of the supernate (the modeled stream) as predicted by the simulation were compared with the analytical results of experimental simulant work as a method of validating the simulation software

  8. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrolyzed sugar in cattle feeding. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, L K; Kurilov, N V; Mysnik, N D

    1978-01-01

    Hydrolyzed wood molasses (32% sugar) at 1 kg/day increased weight gains of bulls 14.6% in 86-day exports when given along with urea-containing granulated feed and straw. Rumen volatile fatty acids, feed digestibility, and N utilization were increased in bulls, and cow productivity was increased along with a 0.1 to 0.15% increase in milk fat content. Sulfite liquor at 400 g/day (4% of feed) also increased weight gains 13.9% in bulls.

  10. Melanocortin-3 receptors in the limbic system mediate feeding-related motivational responses during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mavrikaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Appetitive responses to weight loss are mediated by a nutrient-sensing neural network comprised of melanocortin neurons. The role of neural melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R in mediating these responses is enigmatic. Mc3r knockout mice exhibit a paradoxical phenotype of obesity and reduced feeding-related behaviors in situations of nutrient scarcity. Here we examined whether MC3Rs expressed in mesolimbic neurons regulate feeding-related motivational responses. Methods: Interactions between Mc3r genotype, cognitive function and energy balance on food self-administration were assessed using operant conditioning with fixed- and progressive ratio (FR1/PR1 settings. Inhibition of Mc3r transcription by a loxP-flanked transcriptional blocker (TB in C57BL/6JN mice (Mc3rTB/TB was reversed in mesolimbic neurons using DAT-Cre (DAT-MC3R. Results: Caloric restriction (CR caused 10–15% weight loss and increased motivation to acquire food rewards during training sessions. c-Fos-expression in the nucleus accumbens was increased 1 h following food presentation. While exhibiting weight loss, total food self-administration, enhanced motivation to self-administer food rewards in training sessions held during CR and c-Fos-activation in the nucleus accumbens following re-feeding were all markedly attenuated in Mc3rTB/TB mice. In contrast, cognitive abilities were normal in Mc3rTB/TB mice. Total food self-administration during FR1 sessions was not rescued in DAT-MC3R mice, however enhanced motivational responses to self-administer food rewards in PR1 conditions were restored. The nutrient-partitioning phenotype observed with Mc3r-deficiency was not rescued in DAT-MC3R mice. Conclusions: Mesolimbic MC3Rs mediate enhanced motivational responses during CR. However, they are insufficient to restore normal caloric loading when food is presented during CR and do not affect metabolic conditions altering nutrient partitioning. Author Video: Author Video Watch what

  11. effects of different grain starches as feed binders for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    KEY WORDS: Grain Starches; Feed Binder, AQUA-Feed, Pelletability Water ... in their incorporation in on farm aqua feed and thus. 19 ..... International Seminar on Advanced Extrusion. Technology in Food Application, Sao Paulo. Brazil pp.

  12. Animal proteins in feed : IAG ring rest 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the Inernational Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy.

  13. Exploitation of unconventional protein sources in the feed of weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploitation of unconventional protein sources in the feed of weaner rabbits ... as protein sources for feeding ruminants but rarely considered as feed for micro ... 26.88 g/100g DM in Centrosema pubescens and Moringa oleifera, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of various feeding programmes on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaq

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various feeding ... broiler or layer diets, since these feeds are readily available and easy to purchase. ... Research was conducted on multiple-phase broiler feeding ...

  15. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  16. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip......, but the level of manipulating floor in these pigs did not reach the level of manipulating wood chip among pigs on treatment 2. During normal days restrictively fed pigs spent less time feeding on a 24 h basis, but more time feeding during the first hour after feed allocation than ad libitum fed pigs. When...

  17. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvheim, Anita R.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Lin, Yu Hong

    2013-01-01

    , arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated......Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA......-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice....

  18. A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed and Feed Ingredients in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Morrison

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For the second collection, all samples were analyzed by ELISA while a subset was analyzed by HPLC. Of the 27 samples of finished feed, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA and European Union Commission (EUC maximum tolerable limit of 20 µg/kg, while for the feed ingredients, three of the 30 samples of feed ingredients exceeded the limit. Of the 93 samples of finished feed purchased from retailers, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the maximum tolerable limit. This survey indicates that most of the samples were below the maximum regulatory limit and maintained quality up to the point of sale for 2015 and 2016. However, given that some samples were above the limit, there is a need to monitor the production and marketing chain to ensure that the quality of the finished feed is not compromised.

  19. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  20. Responsive versus scheduled feeding in preterm infants (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-01-01

    Scheduled feeding of prescribed enteral volumes remains standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their feeding and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance parent experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud Objectives: To assess the effect of feeding pr...

  1. Bone Abnormalities in Mice with Protein Kinase A (PKA) Defects Reveal a Role of Cyclic AMP Signaling in Bone Stromal Cell-Dependent Tumor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Shapiro, J M; Saloustros, E; Stratakis, C A

    2016-11-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is an important enzyme for all eukaryotic cells. PKA phosphorylates other proteins, thus, it is essential for the regulation of many diverse cellular functions, including cytoplasmic trafficking and signaling, organelle structure and mitochondrial oxidation, nuclear gene expression, the cell cycle, and cellular division. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits. Four regulatory (R1α, R1β, R2α, and R2β) and 4 catalytic subunits (Cα, Cβ, Cγ, and Prkx) have been identified, giving rise to mainly PKA-I (when the 2 regulatory subunits are either R1α or R1β), or PKA-II (when the 2 regulatory subunits are either R2α or R2β). Mutations in the PKA subunits can lead to altered total PKA activity or abnormal PKA-I to PKA-II ratio, leading to various abnormalities in both humans and mice. These effects can be tissue-specific. We studied the effect of PKA subunit defects on PKA activity and bone morphology of mice that were single or double heterozygous for null alleles of the various PKA subunit genes. Bone lesions including fibrous dysplasia, myxomas, osteo-sarcomas, -chondromas and -chondrosarcomas were found in these mice. Observational and molecular studies showed that these lesions were derived from bone stromal cells (BSCs). We conclude that haploinsufficiency for different PKA subunit genes affected bone lesion formation, new bone generation, organization, and mineralization in variable ways. This work identified a PKA subunit- and activity-dependent pathway of bone lesion formation from BSCs with important implications for understanding how cyclic AMP affects the skeleton and its tumorigenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Feeding cycle-dependent circulating insulin fluctuation is not a dominant Zeitgeber for mouse peripheral clocks except in the liver: Differences between endogenous and exogenous insulin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Yasumoto, Yuki; Higo-Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Ohkura, Naoki

    2017-01-29

    The master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronizes peripheral clocks via humoral and neural signals in mammals. Insulin is thought to be a critical Zeitgeber (synchronizer) for peripheral clocks because it induces transient clock gene expression in cultured cells. However, the extent to which fluctuations in feeding-dependent endogenous insulin affect the temporal expression of clock genes remains unclear. We therefore investigated the temporal expression profiles of clock genes in the peripheral tissues of mice fed for 8 h during either the daytime (DF) or the nighttime (NF) for one week to determine the involvement of feeding cycle-dependent endogenous insulin rhythms in the circadian regulation of peripheral clocks. The phase of circulating insulin fluctuations was reversed in DF compared with NF mice, although those of circulating corticosterone fluctuations and nocturnal locomotor activity were identical between these mice. The reversed feeding cycle affected the circadian phases of Per1 and Per2 gene expression in the liver and not in heart, lung, white adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. On the other hand, injected exogenous insulin significantly induced Akt phosphorylation in the heart and skeletal muscle as well as the liver, and significantly induced Per1 and Per2 gene expression in all examined tissues. These findings suggest that feeding cycles and feeding cycle-dependent endogenous insulin fluctuations are not dominant entrainment signals for peripheral clocks other than the liver, although exogenous insulin might reset peripheral oscillators in mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mice take calculated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  4. 60 ASSESSMENT OF FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF BABOONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    results indicate high diversity and abundance of food items for baboons in the study area. A total of 16 food plants, ... Keywords: Feeding behavior, baboon, food items, nutritive value, Hong hills ..... Noy-Meir, I. (1973) Desert ecosystems:.

  5. How to Build an RSS 20 Feed

    CERN Document Server

    Woodman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The little orange feed icons are everywhere on the web. From search engines to shopping sites to blogs, Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) has become one of the hottest web technologies going. RSS 2.0 is a powerful - yet surprisingly easy - way to distributing timely content to a web-based audience. This Short Cut will give you the hands-on knowledge you need to build an RSS 2.0 feed. Along the way you'll learn not only the mechanics of building a feed, but industry-accepted best practices for creating feeds that perform well in various situations. Are you ready? Roll up your sleeves, c

  6. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  7. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEEDING FREQUENCIES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEEDING FREQUENCIES ON GROWTH .... using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ... SGR = Specific Growth Rate, FCR = Food Conversion Ratio, K = Condition Factor and SR = Survival Rate.

  8. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps required to provide continuous feed flow and withdrawal of process product and waste flows in support of thruput operation in the cascade or its elements. It particularly requires operator attention to safety considerations

  9. Approaching a feed-in tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-05-01

    New incentive programmes could mean that the Italian solar thermal market will see renewed growth. But instead of the planned feed-in tariff, the incentives will first come in the form of a grant scheme.

  10. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  11. Breast Feeding as a Family Planning Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women who are breast feeding is variable and in 2-10% of the women conception ... postpartum amenorrhoea is related to the working status of the mother. In urban .... paid maternity leave for all Government employees every three years.

  12. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example), that are easier to swallow, and by avoiding thin liquids and things that require chewing. Some ... feeding tubes actually extend life in end-stage Alzheimer's disease. For many, this is a quality of ...

  13. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  14. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impaired TFEB-mediated Lysosome Biogenesis and Autophagy Promote Chronic Ethanol-induced Liver Injury and Steatosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shaogui; Zhao, Katrina; Li, Yuan; Williams, Jessica A; Li, Tiangang; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng; Ballabio, Andrea; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2018-05-18

    Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfeb flox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls). TFEB was overexpressed from adenoviral vectors or knocked down with small interfering RNAs in mouse livers. Mice were placed on diets of chronic ethanol feeding plus an acute binge to induce liver damage (ethanol diet); some mice were also given injections of torin1, an inhibitor of the kinase activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblots, and quantitative real-time PCR to monitor lysosome biogenesis. We analyzed levels of TFEB in liver tissues from patients with alcoholic hepatitis and from healthy donors (controls) by immunohistochemistry. Liver tissues from mice on the ethanol diet had lower levels of total and nuclear TFEB, compared with control mice, and hepatocytes had reduced lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. Hepatocytes from mice on the ethanol diet had increased translocation of mTOR into lysosomes, resulting increased mTOR activation. Administration of torin1 increased liver levels of TFEB and reduced steatosis and liver injury induced by ethanol. Mice that overexpressed TFEB in liver developed less-severe ethanol-induced liver injury and had increased lysosomal biogenesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics compared to mice carrying a control vector. Mice with knockdown of TFEB, as well as TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice, developed more severe liver injury in response to the

  16. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-04-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for

  17. Multimodal Signal Integration for Feeding Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Marcus L; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-04-21

    Feeding is arguably one of the most well-conserved and important adaptive behaviors across all species. In this issue of Cell, Yapici et al. use a novel real-time feeding assay in Drosophila flies to identify a neural circuit that integrates gustatory input and hunger state to modulate food ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  19. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  20. Effect of feeding silkworm on growth performance and feed efficiency of snakehead (Channa striata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, U.; Lono

    2018-04-01

    The snakehead, Chana striata is a carnivorous freshwater fish and widely distributed in Asia. High demand of this fish has been triggering many aquaculturist to culture C. stiata. Feed was the important factor for fish growth. Silkworm has high protein content, low fat and can be used as natural feed for finfish. This study investigate the silkworm feed in C. striata. The treatment of this research were A (100 % pellet); B (100 % silkworm); C (combination of 75 % pellet and 25 % silkworm); D (combination of 50 % pellet and 50 % silkworm); and E (combination of 25 % pellet and 75 % silkworm). The variables measured in this study were relatif growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The result show that silkworm gave the high growth performance, feed efficiency and survival rate of the snakehead (Channa striata) compared with the control.