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Sample records for haploid parental selection

  1. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

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    Navarro Luis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9, one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22 and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18 of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus.

  2. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence.

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    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Hernández, María; Pina, José A; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-08-22

    In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats) analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9), one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22) and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18) of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus.

  3. Adaptation to the cost of resistance in a haploid clonally reproducing organism: The role of mutation, migration and selection

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    Jeger, M.J.; Wijngaarden, P.J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    A model of compensatory evolution with respect to fungicide resistance in a haploid clonally reproducing fungus is developed in which compensatory mutations mitigate fitness costs associated with resistance. The role of mutation, migration and selection in invasion of rare genotypes when the environ

  4. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

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    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  5. Haploid Origin of Cork Oak Anther Embryos Detected by Enzyme and RAPD Gene Markers.

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    Bueno; Agundez; Gomez; Carrascosa; Manzanera

    2000-05-01

    In vitro-induced cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from anther cultures proved to be of haploid origin both by enzyme and RAPD gene marker analysis. The problem considered was to ascertain if embryo cultures originated either from a single haploid cell, from a microspore, or from multiple haploid cells. Therefore, a heterozygotic gene was searched for in the parent tree. The gene coding for shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH1) proved to be heterozygous in the parental tree, and subsequently, these allozymes were screened for the embryos induced in anther cultures from the same tree. Only haploid embryos were found, confirming the microspore origin. Different genotypes were not identified inside each anther by isozyme analysis, probably because of selective pressure for one embryo early in development, but both parental SKDH1 alleles were found in the embryos of different anthers. The banding patterns detected by RAPD markers permitted the identification of multiple microspore origins inside each anther.

  6. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

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    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  7. Diploid versus Haploid Organisms

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    Ticona, Armando; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo C.

    Using a bit string model, we show that asexual reproduction for diploids is more efficient than for haploids: it improves genetic material producing new individuals with less deleterious mutations. We also see that in a system where competition is present, diploids dominate, even though we consider some dominant loci.

  8. Parental selection of children's sexual orientation.

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    Greenberg, A S; Bailey, J M

    2001-08-01

    As we learn more about the causes of sexual orientation, the likelihood increases that parents will one day be able to select the orientation of their children. This possibility (at least that of selecting for heterosexuality) has generated a great deal of concern among supporters of homosexual rights, with such selection being widely condemned as harmful and morally repugnant. Notwithstanding this widespread condemnation, and even assuming, as we do, that homosexuality is entirely acceptable morally, allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality would be morally acceptable. This is because allowing parents to select their children's sexual orientation would further parent's freedom to raise the sort of children they wish to raise and because selection for heterosexuality may benefit parents and children and is unlikely to cause significant harm.

  9. Chromosome length scaling in haploid, asexual reproduction

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    de Oliveira, P. M. C.

    2007-02-01

    We study the genetic behaviour of a population formed by haploid individuals which reproduce asexually. The genetic information for each individual is stored along a bit-string (or chromosome) with L bits, where 0-bits represent the wild allele and 1-bits correspond to harmful mutations. Each newborn inherits this chromosome from its parent with a few random mutations: on average a fixed number m of bits are flipped. Selection is implemented according to the number N of 1-bits counted along the individual's chromosome: the smaller N the higher the probability an individual has to survive a new time step. Such a population evolves, with births and deaths, and its genetic distribution becomes stabilized after sufficiently many generations have passed. The question we pose concerns the procedure of increasing L. The aim is to get the same distribution of genetic loads N/L among the equilibrated population, in spite of a larger L. Should we keep the same mutation rate m/L for different values of L? The answer is yes, which intuitively seems to be plausible. However, this conclusion is not trivial, according to our simulation results: the question also involves the population size.

  10. Chromosome length scaling in haploid, asexual reproduction

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    Oliveira, P M C de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, avenida Litoranea s/n, Boa Viagem, Niteroi 24210-340 (Brazil)

    2007-02-14

    We study the genetic behaviour of a population formed by haploid individuals which reproduce asexually. The genetic information for each individual is stored along a bit-string (or chromosome) with L bits, where 0-bits represent the wild allele and 1-bits correspond to harmful mutations. Each newborn inherits this chromosome from its parent with a few random mutations: on average a fixed number m of bits are flipped. Selection is implemented according to the number N of 1-bits counted along the individual's chromosome: the smaller N the higher the probability an individual has to survive a new time step. Such a population evolves, with births and deaths, and its genetic distribution becomes stabilized after sufficiently many generations have passed. The question we pose concerns the procedure of increasing L. The aim is to get the same distribution of genetic loads N/L among the equilibrated population, in spite of a larger L. Should we keep the same mutation rate m/L for different values of L? The answer is yes, which intuitively seems to be plausible. However, this conclusion is not trivial, according to our simulation results: the question also involves the population size.

  11. Acting parentally: an argument against sex selection.

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    McDougall, R

    2005-10-01

    The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (HFEA) recent restrictive recommendations on sex selection have highlighted the need for consideration of the plausibility of ethical arguments against sex selection. In this paper, the author suggests a parental virtues approach to some questions of reproductive ethics (including sex selection) as a superior alternative to an exclusively harm focused approach such as the procreative liberty framework. The author formulates a virtue ethics argument against sex selection based on the idea that acceptance is a character trait of the good parent. It is concluded that, because the argument presented posits a wrong in the sex selecting agent's action that is not a harm, the argument could not function as a justification of the HFEA's restrictive position in light of their explicit commitment to procreative liberty; it does, however, suggest that ethical approaches focused exclusively on harm fail to capture all the relevant moral considerations and thus that we should look beyond such approaches.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast.

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    Oda, Y; Ouchi, K

    1989-07-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATalpha MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains.

  13. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population.

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    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

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    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  15. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

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    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  16. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

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    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  17. Study on Haploid Inducing and Its Meiotic Abnormality in Maize

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    TANG Qi-lin; FENG Yun-chao; HAN Xue-li; ZHENG Ming-min; RONG Ting-zhao

    2009-01-01

    The haploid-inducing line Stock 6 was used to produce haploid maize and expected to obtain maize haploid plants successfully. The detailed meiotic studies on selected haploid maize (n=x=10) were conducted. Cytogenetie analysis revealed a high frequency of meiotic abnormality occurred in both meiosis Ⅰ and meiosis Ⅱ. During the prophase I, univalents were common configurations, and there were bivalents or trivalents in some pollen mother cells, however, a few cells containing five bivalents were also observed. After prophase I, chromosomes did not congregate in a single metaphase plate but they were scattered in the cytoplasm. At anaphase I, the chromosome distribution was highly irregular with almost all possible combinations. In some cells, chromosomes were grouped into the three or four masses and several spindles appeared. At the tetrad stage of meiosis Ⅱ, cytokinesis splitting abnormality occurred, and a variety of diad, triad, tetrad, pentad, hexad, as well as decury microspores were easily observed. As a consequence of abnormalities of the two meiotic stages, various microspores and the pollen grains with different size were formed, and its pollen grains were almost completely sterile.

  18. Discrimination of Maize Haploid Seeds from Hybrid Seeds Using Vis Spectroscopy and Support Vector Machine Method.

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    Liu, Jin; Guo, Ting-ting; Li, Hao-chuan; Jia, Shi-qiang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Shao-jiang

    2015-11-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) lines are routinely applied in the hybrid maize breeding programs of many institutes and companies for their advantages of complete homozygosity and short breeding cycle length. A key issue in this approach is an efficient screening system to identify haploid kernels from the hybrid kernels crossed with the inducer. At present, haploid kernel selection is carried out manually using the"red-crown" kernel trait (the haploid kernel has a non-pigmented embryo and pigmented endosperm) controlled by the R1-nj gene. Manual selection is time-consuming and unreliable. Furthermore, the color of the kernel embryo is concealed by the pericarp. Here, we establish a novel approach for identifying maize haploid kernels based on visible (Vis) spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM) pattern recognition technology. The diffuse transmittance spectra of individual kernels (141 haploid kernels and 141 hybrid kernels from 9 genotypes) were collected using a portable UV-Vis spectrometer and integrating sphere. The raw spectral data were preprocessed using smoothing and vector normalization methods. The desired feature wavelengths were selected based on the results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The wavelengths with p values above 0. 05 were eliminated because the distributions of absorbance data in these wavelengths show no significant difference between haploid and hybrid kernels. Principal component analysis was then performed to reduce the number of variables. The SVM model was evaluated by 9-fold cross-validation. In each round, samples of one genotype were used as the testing set, while those of other genotypes were used as the training set. The mean rate of correct discrimination was 92.06%. This result demonstrates the feasibility of using Vis spectroscopy to identify haploid maize kernels. The method would help develop a rapid and accurate automated screening-system for haploid kernels.

  19. Selecting Silicon: Why Parents Choose Cybercharter Schools

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    Marsh, Rose M.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Sockman, Beth R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, 41 states in the United States had created charter school laws. Charter school laws provide the guidelines for creating independent public schools by educators, parents, community leaders, or educational entrepreneurs. The basic goal of charter schools is to create better educational opportunities for students. These schools provide an…

  20. 西葫芦单倍体诱导及分子检测鉴定%In vitro Induction of Haploid Plants in Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)and Selection by Molecular Markers

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    苏敏; 张国裕; 赵尊练; 张帆; 姜立纲; 李海真

    2011-01-01

    以3种基因型西葫芦为试材,探讨不同基因型与花粉辐照剂量(25~400 Gy)对西葫芦单倍体植株诱导的影响.结果表明,基因型与辐照剂量对植株坐果率和单倍体诱导率均有显著影响.辐照剂量率2 Gy/min,剂量125~250 Gy比较适宜西葫芦单倍体的诱导,获得的再生植株较多,有利于单倍体植株的产生.单倍体植株主要由点状胚与箭形胚发育而来.基因型330的单倍体诱导率为5.08%,基因型331的为7.40%,而基因型332未能获得单倍体植株.利用特异的EST-SSR标记快速对再生植株中的单倍体或自然加倍单倍体植株进行鉴定,并通过保卫细胞叶绿体计数法及流式细胞仪验证SSR标记分析结果的可靠性,确定植株染色体倍性水平.西葫芦单倍体植株生长势弱,叶片较小,花粉败育.%The influence of pollen irradiation and plant genotype on the production of in vitro haploid plants from in situ induced haploid embryos was investigated in squash (Cucurbita pepo L. ). Pollen was irradiated at different gamma-ray doses (25 - 400 Gray). Production of in vitro haploid plantlets was influenced by irradiation dose, genotype, embryo type and embryo stage. Embryos were obtained from irradiation doses within the range of 125 to 250 Gray. Necrotic embryos were higher than normal embryos when the irradiation doses higher than 250 Gray. The haploid plants were produced mostly from point and arrow-tip embryos. The frequencies of haploid plantlets were 5. 08% and 7. 40% for genotype 330 and 331, respectively. EST-SSR, chloroplast number per guard cell counting and flow cytometry were used to determine the haploid plants in this study. The haploid plants achieved low growth ability and small leaves with sterile stamen.

  1. Patterns of DNA cytosine methylation between haploids and corresponding diploids in rice

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    ZHANG Hongyu; PENG Hai; LI Yun; XU Peizhou; WANG Xudong; WU Xianjun

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen pairs of diploid-haploid twinseedlings were identified and screened out from special rice SARⅡ-628 population. Five pairs of them were selected and randomly designated as A, B, C, D and E. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis showed that there was no difference among 310 sites,which indicated that there was no base mutation on DNA primary structure. DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression regulation during growth and development stages in eukaryotes. A modified AFLP technique (methylation-sensitive AFLP, MSAP) was employed to detect the DNA methylation patterns in the 5'-CCGG sites of the five pairs of twin-seedlings. Although no methylation mutation was detected among the five diploids,forty-three methylation mutation sites were found from the corresponding haploids. The MSAP ratios,which were the ratios of MSAP sites to the total amplified sites, in five haploids were 18.79%, 19.35%,18.49%, 18.45% and 18.75%, respectively. And corresponding full methylation levels (5'-CmCGG in double strands) of those haploids were 10.58%,11.3%, 10.11%, 10.09% and 10.34%, respectively.Both MSAP and full methylation levels in the five haploids were higher than that of their corresponding diploids, which suggested that hypermethylation occurred in some 5'-CCGG sites. Five types of MASP patterns among the five pairs of twin-seedlings were detected as follows: (1) no changes, methylation levels were the same in both haploids and diploids; (2)demethylation, diploid was methylated but no methylation in the same site in haploid; (3) hypermethylation, the methylation level in haploid was higher than those in diploid; (4) hypomethylation, methylation in haploid was lower than those in diploid; (5)undecided pattern, change trend of methylation levels in haploids was not decided. The bands of 18 sites were reclaimed, then sequenced and searched on website to determine the sites of those sequences on rice chromosomes. The result showed that the methylation

  2. A set of haploid strains available for genetic studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts.

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    Coi, Anna Lisa; Legras, Jean-Luc; Zara, Giacomo; Dequin, Sylvie; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-09-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied for biofilm formation, however the lack of specific haploid model strains has limited the application of genetic approaches such as gene knockout, allelic replacement and Quantitative Trait Locus mapping for the deciphering of the molecular basis of velum formation under biological ageing. The aim of this work was to construct a set of flor isogenic haploid strains easy to manipulate genetically. The analysis of the allelic variations at 12 minisatellite loci of 174 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains allowed identifying three flor parental strains with different phylogenic positions. These strains were characterized for sporulation efficiency, growth on galactose, adherence to polystyrene, agar invasion, growth on wine and ability to develop a biofilm. Interestingly, the inability to grow on galactose was found associated with a frameshift in GAL4 gene that seems peculiar of flor strains. From these wild flor strains, isogenic haploid strains were constructed by deleting HO gene with a loxP-KanMX-loxP cassette followed by the removal of the kanamycin cassette. Haploid strains obtained were characterized for their phenotypic and genetic properties and compared with the parental strains. Preliminary results showed that the haploid strains represent new tools for genetic studies and breeding programs on biofilm formation.

  3. Soybean parent selection based on genetic diversity

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    Valéria Carpentieri-Pípolo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four soybean lines were assessed for twelve traits. The genetic distances were estimates using multivariate techniques, to identify parents to be included in breeding programs for hybridization. Grouping by the Tocher method, from generalized Mahalanobis distances, divided the 34 lines into four groups. The most important agronomic traits, weight of seeds per plot, plant height, height of first pod and days to maturity were considered when recommending for crossing. The following crosses were recommended based on the genetic divergence and the key agronomic traits: lines 23, 10, 2, 27 and 25 (group I with genotype 6 (group II and genotype 16 (group III. Thus only ten crosses would be made, representing only 2% of the total crosses which could be made in the partial diallel among the 34 lines assessed, which would allow up to 561 combinations.Trinta e quatro linhagens de soja foram avaliadas para doze características. As distâncias genéticas foram estimadas utilizando técnicas multivariadas com objetivo de identificar parentais a serem incluidos em um programa de melhoramento envolvendo hibridação. O agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, a partir das distâncias generalizadas de Mahalanobis, dividiu as 34 linhagens em 4 grupos. As caracterísiticas agronômicas mais importantes, peso de sementes por parcela, altura de planta, altura da primeira vagem e dias para maturação foram consideradas para a recomendação dos cruzamentos. Os seguintes cruzamentos foram recomendados baseado na divergência genética e nas características agronômicas chave: linhagens 23, 10, 2, 27 e 25 (grupo I com genótipo 6 (grupoII e com o genótipo 16 (grupo III. Portanto somente 10 cruzamentos poderiam ser realizados representando somente 2% do total de cruzamentos qu poderiam ser realizados em um dialelo parcial entre as 34 linhagens avaliadas as quais admitiriam até 561 combinações.

  4. Parental assessment and treatment of food selectivity in natural settings.

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    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Doney, Janice K; Ghezzi, Patrick M

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a parent-conducted functional analysis and treatment consisting of differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior, escape extinction, and demand fading on food selectivity in a young child with autism. Increases in food acceptance at home and in a restaurant were obtained.

  5. Haploids in the genetic improvement of solanaceous species

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    Xiong Xingyao; George C.C.Tai

    2004-01-01

    Research work in haploids represents a very fruitful field in the Solanaceae crop species. The various applications of haploids in genetic and breeding research in potatoes, tobacco, tomato and pepper are reviewed.

  6. Exact Markov chains versus diffusion theory for haploid random mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyvand, Peder A; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2010-05-01

    Exact discrete Markov chains are applied to the Wright-Fisher model and the Moran model of haploid random mating. Selection and mutations are neglected. At each discrete value of time t there is a given number n of diploid monoecious organisms. The evolution of the population distribution is given in diffusion variables, to compare the two models of random mating with their common diffusion limit. Only the Moran model converges uniformly to the diffusion limit near the boundary. The Wright-Fisher model allows the population size to change with the generations. Diffusion theory tends to under-predict the loss of genetic information when a population enters a bottleneck.

  7. Development and Characterization of Elite Doubled Haploid Lines from Two Indica Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rukmini MISHRA; Gundimeda Jwala Narashima RAO; Ravi Nageswara RAO; Pankaj KAUSHAL

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant yield advantage over inbred rice, the adoption rate of hybrid rice in India is very low due to the high seed cost and poor quality of the produce. To alleviate the problem, we initiated a doubled haploid (DH) breeding approach to develop new lines from two elite indica rice hybrids (CRHR5 and CRHR7) through rapid fixation of homozygosity in the recombinants.In vitro culture of the rice anthers resulted in 243 and 186 fertile DH lines of CRHR5 and CRHR7, respectively. Flow cytometric and pollen fertility analyses confirmed the DH ploidy status of the regenerations. Morpho-agronomic evaluation revealed 100% uniformity and stability for all the characters in the DH lines of both hybrids. Nineteen promising DH lines of each hybrid were advanced to A2 generation for yield evaluation. The yield levels of the DH lines ranged from 5 097–6 965 kg/hm2 for CRHR5 and 5 141–7 235 kg/hm2 for CRHR7, which were at par or higher than the parental hybrids. Physico-chemicalcharacterization and cooking quality analyses revealed significant and acceptable values for grain length and width, alkali spreading value, amylose content and water uptake ratio of the selected DH lines. Three DH lines, CR5-10, CR5-49, CR5-61 from CRHR5, and four DH lines, CR7-5, CR7-7, CR7-12 and CR7-52 from CRHR7, showed significant grain yield and quality characteristics and have been recommended for multi-location trials for subsequent release as new indicadoubled haploid rice varieties.

  8. The evolution of sex chromosomes in organisms with separate haploid sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Otto, Sarah Perin

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes is driven largely by the evolution of reduced recombination and the subsequent accumulation of deleterious mutations. Although these processes are increasingly well understood in diploid organisms, the evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes in haploid organisms (U/V) has been virtually unstudied theoretically. We analyze a model to investigate the evolution of linkage between fitness loci and the sex-determining region in U/V species. In a second step, we test how prone nonrecombining regions are to degeneration due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. Our modeling predicts that the decay of recombination on the sex chromosomes and the addition of strata via fusions will be just as much a part of the evolution of haploid sex chromosomes as in diploid sex chromosome systems. Reduced recombination is broadly favored, as long as there is some fitness difference between haploid males and females. The degeneration of the sex-determining region due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations is expected to be slower in haploid organisms because of the absence of masking. Nevertheless, balancing selection often drives greater differentiation between the U/V sex chromosomes than in X/Y and Z/W systems. We summarize empirical evidence for haploid sex chromosome evolution and discuss our predictions in light of these findings.

  9. Identification of haploid maize by flow cytometry, morphological and molecular markers Identificação de milho haploide por citometria de fluxo, marcadores morfológicos e moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Giselly de Oliveira Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of homozygous breeding lines in maize may be accelerated through the use of haploids. Thus, the obtaining and prior identification of haploids generated by the haploid inducer lines is an important factor. The purpose of this study was to identify haploids by flow cytometry and to correlate the nuclear DNA content to the morphological and morphometric traits of the seeds that gave rise to them. In addition, molecular markers were used to confirm the androgenetic nature of the haploid. The seeds obtained were derived from the cross between the inbred line W23 and the commercial hybrid P30F90. Among these seeds, a group was selected, putative haploids, whose embryo was white and the pericarp purplish. This group, consisting of 330 seeds, was characterized based on seed morphology, seed morphometry and nuclear DNA content. Flow cytometry analyses identified four haploids, and all of them were small size plants and had brittle leaves. The weight, length, thickness and width of the haploid seeds were very variable indicating that morphometric traits do not constitute reliable data for visual selection of haploid seeds. Based on results, the inbred line W23 induced haploid maize even under tropical conditions. Microsatellite molecular markers (SSR proved to be efficient, confirming the androgenetic trait of the haploids.O desenvolvimento de linhagens homozigotas em milho pode ser acelerado por meio do uso de haploides. Para isso, a obtenção e identificação prévia dos haploides gerados pelas linhagens indutoras de haploidia é um fator importante. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar haplóides por meio de citometria de fluxo para então correlacionar o conteúdo de DNA nuclear aos caracteres morfológicos e morfométricos das sementes que os originaram. Além disso, marcadores moleculares foram utilizados para confirmar a natureza androgenética do haploide. As sementes obtidas foram provenientes do cruzamento entre a linhagem W

  10. Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Ido; Chia, Gloryn; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Peretz, Mordecai; Weissbein, Uri; Sui, Lina; Sauer, Mark V; Yanuka, Ofra; Egli, Dieter; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2016-04-07

    Diploidy is a fundamental genetic feature in mammals, in which haploid cells normally arise only as post-meiotic germ cells that serve to ensure a diploid genome upon fertilization. Gamete manipulation has yielded haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells from several mammalian species, but haploid human ES cells have yet to be reported. Here we generated and analysed a collection of human parthenogenetic ES cell lines originating from haploid oocytes, leading to the successful isolation and maintenance of human ES cell lines with a normal haploid karyotype. Haploid human ES cells exhibited typical pluripotent stem cell characteristics, such as self-renewal capacity and a pluripotency-specific molecular signature. Moreover, we demonstrated the utility of these cells as a platform for loss-of-function genetic screening. Although haploid human ES cells resembled their diploid counterparts, they also displayed distinct properties including differential regulation of X chromosome inactivation and of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, alongside reduction in absolute gene expression levels and cell size. Surprisingly, we found that a haploid human genome is compatible not only with the undifferentiated pluripotent state, but also with differentiated somatic fates representing all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, despite a persistent dosage imbalance between the autosomes and X chromosome. We expect that haploid human ES cells will provide novel means for studying human functional genomics and development.

  11. Discrimination of haploid and diploid maize kernels via multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Adsetts Edberg Hansen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and (ii) doubling of the haploid genome to produce fertile inbred lines. This study is focused on the first step. Currently, identification of maize haploid progeny is performed manually using the R1-nj seed colour marker. This is a labour-intensive and time-consuming process; a method for automated...... sorting of haploids would increase the efficiency of DH line development. In this study, six inbred lines were crossed with the maternal haploid inducer ‘RWS/RWK-76’ and a sample of seed was sorted manually for each line. Using the VideometerLab 3 system, spectral imaging techniques were applied...

  12. Investigating Kindergarten Parents' Selection of After-School Art Education Settings in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Kuo, Ting-Yin

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose was to investigate kindergarten parents' selection of after-school art education settings in Taiwan. A review of the literature and interviews with parents were conducted to identify several possible factors that would impact on parents' selection of after-school art education settings for their children. Then, the researcher…

  13. Obtention of in vitro Haploid Plants From in situ Induced Haploid Embryos in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In this study the obtention of in vitro haploid plants from haploid embryos induced by pollination with irradiated pollen was investigated. The haploid embryos of four cucumber genotypes obtained in different season of the year were cultured on the E20A medium under aseptic condition in 1992-1994. The percentage of embryos that turned into plantlets, duration needed for plant formation, and in situ plantlet development were investigated. Also, the micropropagation possibility with clonning an...

  14. Influence of time of auxin application on wheat haploid embrio formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Slaven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid interspecies zygote appears after crosses between wheat and maize Zygote derived after usual self-fertilization in wheat is dividing by mitotic divisions into embryo. However, interspecies zygote aborts soon. Auxin treatment is widely used to promote its development. Growth hormones auxins have stimulative ortoxic effects on plant tissue sin relation to its concentration and the time of application. In this paper the effect of time of auxin dicamba application on embryo in wheat x maize crosses was investigated. Chromosomes of pollen donor parent are eliminated quickly in cells of such embryos and they become haploid. It was concluded that for the production of haploid embryos the best time for auxin application is one day after pollination with maize.

  15. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  16. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species. PMID:27293778

  17. Influence and Selection Processes in Friendships and Adolescent Smoking Behaviour: The Role of Parental Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vitaro, Frank; Blokland, Endy Den Exter; de Kemp, Raymond; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerning the role of parental smoking on development of adolescent smoking, most studies have exclusively focused on the direct effects of parents' smoking on youths' smoking. However, parental smoking may also play an indirect role by affecting youths' susceptibility to peer influences and by affecting friendship selection. Data were from a…

  18. Parental Involvement, Selected Student Attributes, and Learning Outcomes in Instrumental Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdzinski, Stephen F.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses relationships among selected aspects of parental involvement as they relate to the cognitive, affective, and performance outcomes of instrumental music students. Discovers that for cognitive musical and musical performance outcomes parental influence is strongest at the elementary level. For affective outcomes parental involvement…

  19. Sexual selection under parental choice: a revision to the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2014-06-01

    Across human cultures, parents exercise considerable influence over their children's mate choices. The model of parental choice provides a good account of these patterns, but its prediction that male parents exercise more control than female ones is not well founded in evolutionary theory. To address this shortcoming, the present article proposes a revision to the model. In particular, parental uncertainty, residual reproductive value, reproductive variance, asymmetry in the control of resources, physical strength, and access to weaponry make control over mating more profitable for male parents than female ones; in turn, this produces an asymmetrical incentive for controlling mate choice. Several implications of this formulation are also explored.

  20. Effective de novo assembly of fish genome using haploid larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuki; Nishiki, Issei; Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Kai, Wataru; Nomura, Kazuharu; Yoshida, Kazunori; Nomura, Yousuke; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technology have made it possible to do whole genome sequencing, on even non-model eukaryote species with no available reference genomes. However, de novo assembly of diploid genomes is still a big challenge because of allelic variation. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of utilizing the genome of haploid fish larvae for de novo assembly of whole-genome sequences. We compared the efficiency of assembly using the haploid genome of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) with that using the diploid genome obtained from the dam. De novo assembly from the haploid and the diploid sequence reads (100 million reads per each datasets) generated by the Ion Proton sequencer (200 bp) was done under two different assembly algorithms, namely overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) and de Bruijn graph (DBG). This revealed that the assembly of the haploid genome significantly reduced (approximately 22% for OLC, 9% for DBG) the total number of contigs (with longer average and N50 contig lengths) when compared to the diploid genome assembly. The haploid assembly also improved the quality of the scaffolds by reducing the number of regions with unassigned nucleotides (Ns) (total length of Ns; 45,331,916 bp for haploids and 67,724,360 bp for diploids) in OLC-based assemblies. It appears clear that the haploid genome assembly is better because the allelic variation in the diploid genome disrupts the extension of contigs during the assembly process. Our results indicate that utilizing the genome of haploid larvae leads to a significant improvement in the de novo assembly process, thus providing a novel strategy for the construction of reference genomes from non-model diploid organisms such as fish.

  1. Selection on parental performance opposes selection for larger body mass in a wild population of blue tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Caroline E; Bayer, Florian; Crouch, Nicholas; Farrell, Samantha; Heap, Elizabeth; Mittell, Elizabeth; Zurita-Cassinello, Mar; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2017-03-01

    There is abundant evidence in many taxa for positive directional selection on body size, and yet little evidence for microevolutionary change. In many species, variation in body size is partly determined by the actions of parents, so a proposed explanation for stasis is the presence of a negative genetic correlation between direct and parental effects. Consequently, selecting genes for increased body size would result in a correlated decline in parental effects, reducing body size in the following generation. We show that these arguments implicitly assume that parental care is cost free, and that including a cost alters the predicted genetic architectures needed to explain stasis. Using a large cross-fostered population of blue tits, we estimate direct selection on parental effects for body mass, and show it is negative. Negative selection is consistent with a cost to parental care, mainly acting through a reduction in current fecundity rather than survival. Under these conditions, evolutionary stasis is possible for moderately negative genetic correlations between direct and parental effects. This is in contrast to the implausibly extreme correlations needed when care is assumed to be cost-free. Thus, we highlight the importance of accounting correctly for complete selection acting on traits across generations.

  2. Mutations affecting mitotic recombination frequency in haploids and diploids of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Y; Parag, G

    1975-01-01

    A haploid strain of Asp. nidulans with a chromosome segment in duplicate (one in normal position on chromosome I, one translocated to chromosome II) shows mitotic recombination, mostly by conversion, in adE in a frequency slightly higher than in the equivalent diploid. A method has been devised, using this duplication, for the selection of rec and uvs mutations. Six rec mutations have been found which decrease recombination frequency in the haploid. One mutation selected as UV sensitive showed a hundred fold increase in recombination frequency in the haploid (pop mutation) and probably the same in diploids. The increased frequency is both in gene conversion and in crossing over, and the exchanges appear in clusters of two or more. pop is allelic to uvsB (Jansen, 1970) which had been found to affect mitotic but not meiotic recombination. It is suggested that mutations of this type interfere with the control mechanism which determines that high recombination is confirmed to the meiotic nuclei and avoided in somatic nuclei.

  3. Potential use of RAPD markers in characteristics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids and double-haploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was designed to obtain hapolid and double haploid (DH plants from cucumber cultivars tolerant to Pseudoperonospora cubensis. The main goal was to identify RAPD molecular markers associated with downy mildew resistance. On average, 20% of embryos generated in two experiments, were converted to haploid plants. RAPD markers that differentiated susceptible and resistant H and DH plants were identified. Somaclonal variation in DH lines was seldom detected.

  4. Mapping QTLs for Drought Tolerance at Seedling Stage in Rice Using Doubled Haploid Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qun; YUAN Xiao-ping; Yu Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua

    2011-01-01

    QTLs for drought tolerance at the rice seedling stage were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population consisted of 251 lines from the cross between a japonica parent Maybelle and an indica parent Baiyeqiu.A genetic linkage map with 226 SSR marker loci was constructed.Single-locus analysis following composite interval mapping (CIM) detected a total of five QTLs located on five different chromosomes of rice.Four QTLs were also detected following two-locus analysis,resolving two pairs of epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) with positive and additive genetic effects.The results indicated that the alleles from the parent Baiyeqiu contributed DH population to improve drought tolerance at the seedling stage.

  5. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cegielska-Taras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. Material and methods. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. Results. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%. The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114 was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg. The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH. Signifi cantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p < 0.01, γ-T (r = –0,34, p < 0.01 and PC-8 content (r = 0.29, p < 0.01. Correlations between the seed color with total tocopherol and total phytosterol content were not noted. Conclusion. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may

  6. The microarray analysis for gene expression in haploids and diploids derived from twin-seedling rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, microarray technique was employed to analyze the gene expression at the RNA level between haploids and corresponding diploids derived from a rice twin-seedling line SARII-628. Differ- ent degrees of expression variations were observed in the plant after haploidization. The main results are as follows: (1) after haploidization, the ratio of the sensitive loci was 2.47% of the total loci designed on chip. Those loci were randomly distributed on the 12 pairs of rice chromosomes and the activated loci were more than the silenced ones. (2) Gene clusters on chromosome were observed for 33 se- quences. (3) GoPipe function classification for 575 sensitive loci revealed an involvement in the bio- logical process, cell component and molecular function. (4) RT-PCR generally validated the result from microarray with a coincidence rate of 83.78%. And for the randomly-selected activated or silenced loci in chip analysis, the coincidence rate was up to 91.86%.

  7. "It Was like a Book Buffet!" Parents and Children Selecting African American Children's Literature Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by research…

  8. Patterns of Parental Involvement in Selected OECD Countries: Cross-National Analyses of PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), patterns of parental involvement were examined in selected OECD countries. The findings showed that, irrespective of educational qualifications, parents were frequently involved in their children's learning at the start of primary school and at age 15. Cross-national…

  9. Parental Smoking-Specific Communication, Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Friendship Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether parental smoking-specific communication is related to adolescents' friendship-selection processes. Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents and their best friends influence each other over time, and what role parents play in this process. In the present study we used data from the Family and Health…

  10. Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Parental Treatment of Children's Food Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in…

  11. Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Parental Treatment of Children's Food Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in…

  12. Parental smoking-specific communication, adolescents' smoking behavior and friendship selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Harakeh, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether parental smoking-specific communication is related to adolescents' friendship-selection processes. Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents and their best friends influence each other over time, and what role parents play in this process. In the present

  13. More Careful or Less Marriageable? Parental Divorce, Spouse Selection and Entry into Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erola, Jani; Harkonen, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population…

  14. Selective impact of early parental responsivity on adolescent stress reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Hackman

    Full Text Available Research in animals has shown that early life experience, particularly parenting behaviors, influences later-life stress reactivity. Despite the tremendous relevance of this finding to human development and brain function, it has not been tested prospectively in humans. In this study two aspects of parenting were measured at age 4 in a sample of healthy, low socioeconomic status, African American children, and stress reactivity was measured in the same children 11-14 years later using a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 55. Salivary cortisol was measured before, during and after the stressor and data were analyzed using piecewise hierarchical linear modeling. Parental responsivity, independent of the use of physical discipline, was positively related to cortisol reactivity. Effects were independent of subjective appraisals of the stressor and were also independent of other environmental risk factors and current psychosocial functioning. Therefore this study demonstrates in a novel and precise fashion that early childhood parental responsivity prospectively and independently predicts stress reactivity in adolescence.

  15. Resources of Selected Metals in Parent Bodies of Ordinary Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczek, K.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2013-09-01

    Certain metals in OC exceed mean content of these metals in the Earth’s crust. Content of Fe and Ni in OC is even higher than in Earth's deposits. Parent bodies of OC, can be regarded as Fe-Ni deposits, while accompanying ores are Mn,Cr,Co,Cu,Ag,Au.

  16. The role of Parenting and Goal Selection in Positive Youth Development: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Christopher M.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Depping, Miriam; von Eye, Alexander; Chase, Paul; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2011-01-01

    Using a person-centered approach, we examined the relations between goal selection, various indicators of parenting, and positive development among 510 Grades 9 to 11 participants (68% female) in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents. Goal selection was operationalized by the "Selection"…

  17. Patterns of Parental Investment and Sexual Selection in Teleost Fishes: Do They Support Bateman's Principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar

    2005-11-01

    Bateman demonstrated differences in variance for fertility and mating success between the sexes, with males usually having a greater variance than females. Thus in general, male reproductive success increases with number of mates acquired. These results have been referred to as "Bateman's principles" and taken together with other parameters (e.g., relative parental investment) have been proposed to estimate a component of sexual selection. For this review I examine patterns of parental care and sexual selection in teleost fishes (substrate brooding and with internal fertilization). I present data for the pumpkinseed sunfish Lepomis gibbosus, in which I estimated cost of paternal care and compared direct measures of the intensity of selection on possible sexually selected traits to measures of sexual selection based on Bateman's principles.Despite high levels of paternal care in substrate brooding fishes, sexual selection tends to act more strongly on males than on females, which suggests that maternal investment is higher than paternal investment and that parental care does not limit the reproductive rate for males. In pumpkinseed sunfish, selection favors parents with high levels of defense that may exclude predators more effectively and, as suggested by Bateman's measures, alternative reproductive strategies may decrease the opportunity for sexual selection within the parental strategy. In teleost fishes with internal fertilization, patterns of parental investment and intensity of sexual selection seem to support Bateman's principles, but further studies using these systems and these measures of selection will improve the understanding of factors affecting the intensity of sexual selection and its relation to mating systems.

  18. Assessing Spoken Language Competence in Children with Selective Mutism: Using Parents as Test Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R.; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Shipon-Blum, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) display a failure to speak in select situations despite speaking when comfortable. The purpose of this study was to obtain valid assessments of receptive and expressive language in 33 children (ages 5 to 12) with SM. Because some children with SM will speak to parents but not a professional, another purpose was…

  19. Film Selection in a Cinematherapy Intervention with Preadolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsick, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Film selection and children's reactions to films are discussed in this article based on a qualitative multiple-case study with three preadolescent-aged children experiencing parental divorce. Six films were selected based on recommended films in cinematherapy. Although many films have been recommended for cinematherapy, multiple participants'…

  20. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize: A look into haploid induction and chromosomal doubling of haploids from temperate-adapted tropical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubled haploid technology is used to develop completely homozygous inbred lines, where each of the chromatids making up a chromosome pair are identical. Two inbred lines, PHB47 and PHZ51, were used to make backcrosses to 18 maize landraces, generating 36 populations. The landraces were chosen bas...

  1. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents.

  2. Genetic Expeditions with Haploid Human Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jae, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Random mutagenesis followed by phenotypic selection (forward genetics) is among the most powerful tools to elucidate the molecular basis of intricate biological processes and has been used in a suite of model organisms throughout the last century. However, its application to cultured mammalian cells

  3. Genetic Expeditions with Haploid Human Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jae, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Random mutagenesis followed by phenotypic selection (forward genetics) is among the most powerful tools to elucidate the molecular basis of intricate biological processes and has been used in a suite of model organisms throughout the last century. However, its application to cultured mammalian cells

  4. Food parenting: a selective review of current measurement and an empirical examination to inform future measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; Kiefner, Allison

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between parents and children in regard to food are an important part of the development of food preferences and intake patterns for children. The measurement of this complex and multidimensional construct is very challenging. This article examines the current status of measurement in this domain in a selective review, considers qualitative input from parents and adolescents in an empirical examination of the topic, and makes concrete recommendations for the future. Qualitatively, there were important differences between what the adolescents reported that their parents did to impact their eating habits, what parents of younger children report they currently do, and what researchers typically measure in research on parental feeding practices. On the basis of these empirical findings and our review of the literature, we recommend that food parenting be measured on three levels: Feeding styles (e.g., authoritative), food parenting practices (e.g., restriction), and specific feeding behaviors (e.g., putting food out of the child's reach). Specific recommendations for future study are given for each level of measurement.

  5. Economic uncertainty, parental selection, and the criminal activity of the 'children of the wall'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, A.; Marie, O.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the link between parental selection and criminality of children in a new context. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, East Germany experienced a very large, but temporary, drop in birth rates mostly driven by economic uncertainty. We exploit this natural experiment in a

  6. Economic uncertainty, parental selection, and the criminal activity of the ‘children of the wall’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, A.; Marie, O.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the link between parental selection and criminality of children in a new context. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, East Germany experienced a very large, but temporary, drop in birth rates mostly driven by economic uncertainty. We exploit this natural experiment in a

  7. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  8. Economic uncertainty, parental selection, and the criminal activity of the ‘children of the wall’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, A.; Marie, O.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the link between parental selection and criminality of children in a new context. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, East Germany experienced a very large, but temporary, drop in birth rates mostly driven by economic uncertainty. We exploit this natural experiment in a differe

  9. Economic uncertainty, parental selection, and the criminal activity of the 'children of the wall'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, A.; Marie, O.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the link between parental selection and criminality of children in a new context. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, East Germany experienced a very large, but temporary, drop in birth rates mostly driven by economic uncertainty. We exploit this natural experiment in a differe

  10. Economic Uncertainty, Parental Selection, and the Criminal Activity of the "Children of the Wall"

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We study the link between parental selection and children criminality in a new context. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, East Germany experienced an unprecedented temporary drop in fertility driven by economic uncertainty. We exploit this natural experiment to estimate that the children from these (smaller) cohorts are 40 percent more likely to commit crimes. We show that women who gave birth at this period were negatively selected. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms reveals that em...

  11. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis for Bolting Based on a Double Haploid Population of Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yang; Yang-Jun Yu; Feng-Lan Zhang; Zhi-Rong Zou; Xiu-Yun Zhao; De-Shuang Zhang; Jia-Bing Xu

    2007-01-01

    Early bolting of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) during spring cultivation often has detrimental effects on the yield and quality of the harvested products. Breeding late bolting varieties is a major objective of Chinese cabbage breeding programs. in order to analyze the genetic basis of bolting traits, a genetic map of B. rapa was constructed based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), simple sequence repeat (SSR), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and isozyme markers. Marker analysis was carried out on 81 double haploid (DH) lines obtained by mlcrospore culture from F1 progeny of two homozygous parents: B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (BY) (an extra-early bolting Chinese cabbage line) and B. rapa L. ssp. rapifera (MM) (an extra-late bolting European turnip line). A total of 326 markers including 130 AFLPs, 123 SRAPs, 16 SSRs, 43RAPDs and 14 isozymes were used to construct a linkage map with 10 linkage groups covering 882 cM with an average distance of 2.71 cM between loci. The bolting trait of each DH line was evaluated by the bolting index under controlled conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted using multiple QTL model mapping with MapQTL5.0 software. Eight QTLs controlling bolting resistance were identified. These QTLs, accounting for 14.1% to 25.2% of the phenotyplc variation with positive additive effects, were distributed into three linkage groups. These results provide useful information for molecular marker-assisted selection of late bolting traits in Chinese cabbage breeding programs.

  12. Evaluation of Doubled Haploid Derivatives of the Flue-cured Nicotianatabacum cv. Wislica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 doubled haploid (DH derivatives of the flue-cured true-breeding tobacco variety Wislica were obtained via anther culture and colchicine-induced chromosome doubling. Of that number eight DH lines showed morphological aberrations and/or reduced vigour that made them unfit to be grown in the field. The remaining 43 DH lines were grown in 2001 under regular flue-cured tobacco management and evaluated for principal growth indicators, yield, curability and gross money returns from unit area. In 2002, the evaluation was scaled down to include 13 best performing DH lines of 2001. The DH lines showed a considerable variation for basic growth parameters. Usually, the DH lines had more leaves but were shorter than the parental genotype mostly due to shorter internodes. The majority of DH lines showed delayed flowering compared to the parental cultivar. Yields of cured leaves varied extensively, some of the DH lines yielding above and some below cv. Wislica. Curability measured as percentage of light (1st to 3rd grades was generally lower in DH lines compared to that in cv. Wislica. However, because of the high leaf yield some of the DH lines were not inferior to the parental cultivar with respect to money returns from unit area.

  13. Resistance to Alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B N; Jansky, S H

    2012-02-01

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic loss in many potato-growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early blight resistant clone of the diploid wild species S. raphanifolium was crossed as a male to a haploid (2n=2x) of cultivated potato. Hybrids were backcrossed to both parents. Eight families were created and evaluated for early blight resistance in the field. Families created by backcrossing to the wild species parent exhibited significantly lower relative area under the disease progress curve means than those from backcrossing to the cultivated parent, leading to the conclusion that S. raphanifolium contributes genes for early blight resistance. The mechanism of resistance in S. raphanifolium is unique because A. solani could not be recovered from lesions. Clones were identified with high levels of resistance and adaptation to the photoperiod of a temperate production region.

  14. Cryptic fitness advantage: diploids invade haploid populations despite lacking any apparent advantage as measured by standard fitness assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleeza C Gerstein

    Full Text Available Ploidy varies tremendously within and between species, yet the factors that influence when or why ploidy variants are adaptive remains poorly understood. Our previous work found that diploid individuals repeatedly arose within ten replicate haploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in each case we witnessed diploid takeover within ~1800 asexual generations of batch culture evolution in the lab. The character that allowed diploids to rise in frequency within haploid populations remains unknown. Here we present a number of experiments conducted with the goal to determine what this trait (or traits might have been. Experiments were conducted both by sampling a small number of colonies from the stocks frozen every two weeks (~ 93 generations during the original experiment, as well through sampling a larger number of colonies at the two time points where polymorphism for ploidy was most prevalent. Surprisingly, none of our fitness component measures (lag phase, growth rate, biomass production indicated an advantage to diploidy. Similarly, competition assays against a common competitor and direct competition between haploid and diploid colonies isolated from the same time point failed to indicate a diploid advantage. Furthermore, we uncovered a tremendous amount of trait variation among colonies of the same ploidy level. Only late-appearing diploids showed a competitive advantage over haploids, indicating that the fitness advantage that allowed eventual takeover was not diploidy per se but an attribute of a subset of diploid lineages. Nevertheless, the initial rise in diploids to intermediate frequency cannot be explained by any of the fitness measures used; we suggest that the resolution to this mystery is negative frequency-dependent selection, which is ignored in the standard fitness measures used.

  15. Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Hinde, Camilla A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2014-07-01

    According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-evolution between traits involved in mating and parental care as a result of costs associated with these social interactions (i.e. sexual conflict). In burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides), we use artificial selection on a paternity assurance trait, and crosses within and between selection lines, to show that selection acting on females, not males, can drive the co-evolution of paternity assurance traits and parental care. Males do not care more in response to selection on mating rate. Instead, patterns of parental care change as an indirect response to costs of mating for females.

  16. Evaluasi keseragaaman, keragaman, dan kestabilan karakter agronomi galur-galur padi haploid ganda hasil kultur antera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIATNA SASMITA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sasmita P. 2011. Evaluasi keseragaman, keragaman, dan kestabilan karakter agronomi galur-galur padi haploid ganda hasil kultur antera. Bioteknologi 8: 10-17. Pembentukan galur haploid ganda dalam kultur antera bertujuan untuk mempercepat perolehan galur murni. Seleksi karakter yang diinginkan dapat dilakukan langsung terhadap progeni hasil kultur antera pada generasi awal. Percobaan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik agronomi, keseragaman, dan kestabilan galur haploid ganda, serta mendapatkan putatif galur-gallur haploid ganda sebagai bahan evaluasi lebih lanjut untuk mendapatkan galur harapan. Percobaan pertama menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap diulang lima kali. Perlakuannya aadalah 111 galur haploid ganda hasil kultur antera generasi pertama (DH1. Percobaan kedua menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah dengan perlakuan petak utama adalah galur haploid ganda hasil kultur antera dan perlakuan anak petaknya generasi galur haploid ganda kedua (DH2 hingga kelima (DDH5. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa setiap tanaman dalam galur yang sama memiliki karakter agronnomi seragam, sedangkan tanaman antar galur berbeda memiliki karakter agronomi beragam. Hasil evaluasi lebih lanjut terhadap tiga dari 111 galur haploid ganda yang berasal dari generasi kedua hingga kelima menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan karakter antar generasi untuk setiap p galur yang sama. Hasil penelitian tersebut menunjukkan pula bahwa karakteristik agronomi galur haploid ganda stabil dari generasi ke generasi.

  17. Special DNA Methylated Sites Between Haploid of Twin-Seedling and Its Hybrids in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-hua; XUE Jing-jing; ZHANG Hong-yu; XU Pei-zhou; WU Xian-jun

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic phenomena which can be transferred to the offspring by cell division in the evolution of organisms.The epigenetic regulation accompanied by gene expression can be found directly in the phenotype of haploidy plants.DNA cytosine methylation at the 5'-CpCpGpG sites of haploid,Shuhui 527,Shuhui 363 and their hybrids was analyzed by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) method.There were 765 DNA methylated sites detected and the methylation level was lower in hybrids than parents.Meanwhile,the different bands between hybrids and parents were analyzed and two types of methylated sites were detected,of which one inherited from haploid,and the other did not.The biological functions of genes related to methylated sites involved in cell structure,metabolize and response factor.Therefore,DNA methylated modifications can activate and silence the genes and play an important role in plant growth,development and evolution.

  18. Detection of QTLs with Additive Effects,Epistatic Effects, and QTL ×Environment Interactions for Zeleny Sedimentation Value Using a Doubled Haploid Population in Cultivated Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; LIU Bin; ZHANG Kun-pu; TIAN Ji-chun; DENG Zhi-ying

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand thegenetic basis for Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV) of wheat,a doubled haploid (DH) population Huapei 3×Yumai 57 (Yumai 57 is superior to Huapei 3 for ZSV),and a linkage map consisting of 323 marker loci were used to search QTLs for ZSV.This program was based on mixed linear models and allowed simultaneous mapping of additive effect QTLs,epistatic QTLs,and QTL×environment interactions (QEs).The DH population and the parents were evaluated for ZSV in three field trials.Mapping analysis produced a total of 8 QTLs and 2 QEs for ZSV with a single QTL explaining 0.64-14.39% of phenotypic variations.Four additive QTLs,4 pairs ofepistatic QTLs,and two QEs collectively explained 46.11% of the phenotypic variation (PVE).This study provided a precise location of ZSV gene within the Xwmc 93 and GluD1 interval.which was designated as Qzsv-1D.The information obtained in this study should be useful for manipulating the QTLs for ZSV by marker assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs.

  19. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  20. Generation of doubled haploid transgenic wheat lines by microspore transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A T; Ankrah, Nii; Liu, Weiguo; Konzak, Calvin F; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Microspores can be induced to develop homozygous doubled haploid plants in a single generation. In the present experiments androgenic microspores of wheat have been genetically transformed and developed into mature homozygous transgenic plants. Two different transformation techniques were investigated, one employing electroporation and the other co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Different tissue culture and transfection conditions were tested on nine different wheat cultivars using four different constructs. A total of 19 fertile transformants in five genotypes from four market classes of common wheat were recovered by the two procedures. PCR followed by DNA sequencing of the products, Southern blot analyses and bio/histo-chemical and histological assays of the recombinant enzymes confirmed the presence of the transgenes in the T0 transformants and their stable inheritance in homozygous T1∶2 doubled haploid progenies. Several decisive factors determining the transformation and regeneration efficiency with the two procedures were determined: (i) pretreatment of immature spikes with CuSO4 solution (500 mg/L) at 4°C for 10 days; (ii) electroporation of plasmid DNA in enlarged microspores by a single pulse of ∼375 V; (iii) induction of microspores after transfection at 28°C in NPB-99 medium and regeneration at 26°C in MMS5 medium; (iv) co-cultivation with Agrobacterium AGL-1 cells for transfer of plasmid T-DNA into microspores at day 0 for co-cultivation with timentin (200-400 mg/L).

  1. High frequency production of haploid embryos in asparagus anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X R; Wolyn, D J

    1991-12-01

    A method for obtaining a high frequency of haploid asparagus embryos through anther culture was developed. Flowers collected from plants in the field in July, August and September 1990, for the genotype G203, were stored at 5°C for 24 h. Anthers were placed on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 500 mg l (-1) casein hydrolysate, 800 mg l(-1) glutamine, 2 mg l (-1) NAA, 1 mg l (-1) BA and 5 % sucrose at 32 °C in the dark for three to four weeks to induce calli. Calli were then grown at 25 °C with a 16 h photoperiod for three to four weeks. Developing embryos and calli were transferred to embryo maturation medium, MS containing 6% sucrose, 0.1 mg l (-1) NAA, 0.1 mg l (-1) kinetin and 0.65 mg l (-1) ancymidol, for four weeks. More than 50% of the recovered mature embryos germinated on MS containing l mg l (-1) GA3. Anthers with microspores at the late-uninucleate stage had the highest frequency of total and embryogenic calli formation, 40% and 15%, respectively. Each embryogenic callus usually produced 10-15 embryos. Aproximately 75 plants per 100 anthers cultured were recovered: 76% haploid, 22% diploid and 2% triploid. High temperature was critical for the induction of embryogenic callus.

  2. Progeny test of tetraploid Betula platyphylla and preliminary selection of hybrid parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanwen Xu; Yu Liu; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Xiyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Estimating genetic parameters of parental lines through progeny testing and choosing good hybrid parents are important for genetically improving seed orchard trees. In this study, 24 tetraploid progeny seedlings were used as experimental materials, which came from test cross design:six tetraploid Betula platyphylla lines (Q33, Q13, Q103, Q19, Q83 and Q14) as female parents and four individual B. platyphylla diploid lines (F3, F4, F9 and F11) as male parents were crossed. Variance analysis of height, diame-ter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance showed that the differences between hybrid combinations reached highly significant levels. Using multi-objective decisionmaking, we performed a comprehensive assess-ment of the various hybrid combinations. Using a selection rate of 20% of the standard, five hybrids were selected;their genetic gains in average height, diameter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance were 20.95, 6.07, 13.07 and 8.96%, respectively. We also analyzed the combining ability and genetic parameter effect values of parents and hybrid combinations. The combined analysis revealed that Q13, Q103, Q33 and Q83 were superior females; F3, F4, and F9 were superior males; and F3 9 Q13, F4 9 Q83 and F9 9 Q33 were superior hybrid combinations. The heights and diameters of these proge-nies were 22.49 and 11.48% greater than average, respectively.

  3. Children's selective attention to pain and avoidance behaviour: the role of child and parental catastrophizing about pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing about pain (ie, rumination, magnification, and helplessness). Participants were 59 children (31 boys) aged 10-16 years and one of their parents (41 mothers). Children performed a dot-probe task in which child facial pain displays of varying pain expressiveness were presented. Child avoidance behaviour was indexed by child pain tolerance during a cold-pressor task. Children and parents completed measures of child and parent pain catastrophizing, respectively. Findings indicated that both the nature of child selective attention to pain and the impact of selective attention upon child avoidance behaviour were differentially sensitive to specific dimensions of child and parental catastrophizing. Specifically, findings showed greater tendency to shift attention away from pain faces (i.e.,, attentional avoidance) among children reporting greater pain magnification. A similar pattern was observed in terms of parental characteristics, such that children increasingly shifted attention away from pain with increasing levels of parental rumination and helplessness. Furthermore, child attentional avoidance was associated with greater avoidance behaviour (i.e., lower pain tolerance) among children reporting high levels of pain magnification and those whose parents reported greater rumination about pain. The current findings corroborate catastrophizing as a multidimensional construct that may differentially impact outcomes and attest to the importance of assessing both child and parental characteristics in relation to child pain-related attention and avoidance behaviour. Further research directions are discussed.

  4. Role of Parents in the Education of Mentally Retarded Learners in Selected Schools in Madaraka Zone, Kiambu County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gathua; Muthee, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of parent's involvement in education on the academic performance of the mentally retarded learners in primary schools of selected schools in Thika Municipality, Kiambu County. The objectives of the study was to determine whether cultural beliefs among the parents affects the enrolments of…

  5. Parent-Implemented Procedural Modification of Escape Extinction in the Treatment of Food Selectivity in a Young Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Schiff, Averil; Najdowski, Adel C.

    2010-01-01

    Fool selectivity is characterized by the consumption of an inadequate variety of foods. The effectiveness of behavioral treatment procedures, particularly nonremoval of the spoon, is well validated by research. The role of parents in the treatment of feeding disorders and the feasibility of behavioral procedures for parent implementation in the…

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC MARKERS LINKED TO SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HAPLOID-DIPLOID RED ALGA GRACILARIA CHILENSIS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Huanel, Oscar R; Martínez, Enrique A

    2012-04-01

    Bulk segregant analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to identify sex-linked molecular markers in the haploid-diploid rhodophyte Gracilaria chilensis C. J. Bird, McLachlan et E. C. Oliveira. One hundred and eighty 10 bp primers were tested on three bulks of DNA: haploid males, haploid females, and diploid tetrasporophytes. Three RAPD primers (OPD15, OPG16, and OPN20) produced male-specific bands; and one RAPD primer (OPD12), a female-specific band. The sequences of the cloned putative sex-specific PCR fragments were used to design specific primers for the female marker SCAR-D12-386 and the male marker SCAR-G16-486. Both SCAR markers gave unequivocal band patterns that allowed sex and phase to be determined in G. chilensis. Thus, all the females presented only the female band, and all the males only the male band, while all the tetrasporophytes amplified both male and female bands. Despite this sex-specific association, we were able to amplify SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 in both sexes at low melting temperature. The differences between male and female sequences were of 8%-9% nucleotide divergence for SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486, respectively. SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 could represent degenerated or diverged sequences located in the nonrecombining region of incipient sex chromosomes or heteromorphic sex chromosomes with sequence differences at the DNA level such that PCR primers amplify only one allele and not the other in highly specific PCR conditions. Seven gametic progenies composed of 19 males, 19 females, and the seven parental tetrasporophytes were analyzed. In all of them, the two SCAR markers segregated perfectly with sexual phenotypes.

  7. Evolution of learning and levels of selection: a lesson from avian parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Arnon; Biran-Yoeli, Inbar

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the evolution of behavior may be better understood as the evolution of the learning mechanisms that produce it, and that such mechanisms should be modeled and tested explicitly. However, this approach, which has recently been applied to animal foraging and decision-making, has rarely been applied to the social and communicative behaviors that are likely to operate in complex social environments and be subject to multi-level selection. Here we use genetic, agent-based evolutionary simulations to explore how learning mechanisms may evolve to adjust the level of nestling begging (offspring signaling of need), and to examine the possible consequences of this process for parent-offspring conflict and communication. In doing so, we also provide the first step-by-step dynamic model of parent-offspring communication. The results confirm several previous theoretical predictions and demonstrate three novel phenomena. First, negatively frequency-dependent group-level selection can generate a stable polymorphism of learning strategies and parental responses. Second, while conventional reinforcement learning models fail to cope successfully with family dynamics at the nest, a newly developed learning model (incorporating behaviors that are consistent with recent experimental results on learning in nestling begging) produced effective learning, which evolved successfully. Third, while kin-selection affects the frequency of the different learning genes, its impact on begging slope and intensity was unexpectedly negligible, demonstrating that evolution is a complex process, and showing that the effect of kin-selection on behaviors that are shaped by learning may not be predicted by simple application of Hamilton's rule.

  8. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...... of hybrid and haploid tillers were investigated....

  9. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  10. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  11. [Comparative study of the protein makeup in diploid and haploid forms of Saccharomyces and Pichia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temina, A V; Tolstorukov, I I; Korogodin, V I; Gololobov, A D

    1979-01-01

    The rates of growth, biomass accumulation, and electrophoretic spectra of mobile cytoplasmic proteins were studied with nonisogenous haploid and diploid cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia guilliermondii as well as with isogenous haploid-diploid pairs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pinus. On a mineral medium with glucose, differences in these parameters in various yeast strains were found to be due to the genotype of a strain rather than to ploidy: nonisogenous haploid and diploid cultures displayed considerable and random variability of these properties while no differences were found in isogenous haploid-diploid pairs. Studies on solubility of protein fractions in various solvents made it possible to reveal differences connected with ploidy, namely: both in nonisogenous and isogenous haploid-diploid systems, the content of the water-soluble fraction decreased in diploid cultures.

  12. Enterovirus D68 receptor requirements unveiled by haploid genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggen, Jim; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Staring, Jacqueline; Jae, Lucas T; Liu, Yue; Guo, Hongbo; Slager, Jasper J; de Bruin, Jost W; van Vliet, Arno L W; Blomen, Vincent A; Overduin, Pieter; Sheng, Ju; de Haan, Cornelis A M; de Haan Xander, Cornelis A M; de Vries, Erik; Meijer, Adam; Rossmann, Michael G; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-02-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen that can cause severe respiratory disease and is associated with cases of paralysis, especially among children. Heretofore, information on host factor requirements for EV-D68 infection is scarce. Haploid genetic screening is a powerful tool to reveal factors involved in the entry of pathogens. We performed a genome-wide haploid screen with the EV-D68 prototype Fermon strain to obtain a comprehensive overview of cellular factors supporting EV-D68 infection. We identified and confirmed several genes involved in sialic acid (Sia) biosynthesis, transport, and conjugation to be essential for infection. Moreover, by using knockout cell lines and gene reconstitution, we showed that both α2,6- and α2,3-linked Sia can be used as functional cellular EV-D68 receptors. Importantly, the screen did not reveal a specific protein receptor, suggesting that EV-D68 can use multiple redundant sialylated receptors. Upon testing recent clinical strains, we identified strains that showed a similar Sia dependency, whereas others could infect cells lacking surface Sia, indicating they can use an alternative, nonsialylated receptor. Nevertheless, these Sia-independent strains were still able to bind Sia on human erythrocytes, raising the possibility that these viruses can use multiple receptors. Sequence comparison of Sia-dependent and Sia-independent EV-D68 strains showed that many changes occurred near the canyon that might allow alternative receptor binding. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the identity of the EV-D68 receptor and suggest the possible existence of Sia-independent viruses, which are essential for understanding tropism and disease.

  13. Generation of doubled haploid transgenic wheat lines by microspore transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda A T Brew-Appiah

    Full Text Available Microspores can be induced to develop homozygous doubled haploid plants in a single generation. In the present experiments androgenic microspores of wheat have been genetically transformed and developed into mature homozygous transgenic plants. Two different transformation techniques were investigated, one employing electroporation and the other co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Different tissue culture and transfection conditions were tested on nine different wheat cultivars using four different constructs. A total of 19 fertile transformants in five genotypes from four market classes of common wheat were recovered by the two procedures. PCR followed by DNA sequencing of the products, Southern blot analyses and bio/histo-chemical and histological assays of the recombinant enzymes confirmed the presence of the transgenes in the T0 transformants and their stable inheritance in homozygous T1∶2 doubled haploid progenies. Several decisive factors determining the transformation and regeneration efficiency with the two procedures were determined: (i pretreatment of immature spikes with CuSO4 solution (500 mg/L at 4°C for 10 days; (ii electroporation of plasmid DNA in enlarged microspores by a single pulse of ∼375 V; (iii induction of microspores after transfection at 28°C in NPB-99 medium and regeneration at 26°C in MMS5 medium; (iv co-cultivation with Agrobacterium AGL-1 cells for transfer of plasmid T-DNA into microspores at day 0 for <24 hours; and (v elimination of AGL-1 cells after co-cultivation with timentin (200-400 mg/L.

  14. Parents of Young Children Select Picture Books Based on Information Not Found in Bibliographic Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Muriel Lavallee Warren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Švab, K. & Žumer, M. (2015. The value of a library catalog for selecting children's picture books. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 53(7, 717-737. doi: 10.1080/01639374.2015.1044059 Objective – To determine how parents select picture books for their children, and which bibliographic data are important when selecting a specific version of a title with multiple interpretations. Design – Qualitative, with interviews and task-based controlled observational studies. Setting – A public library in Slovenia. Subjects – 36 parents of children between one and 6 years of age. Methods – The researchers recruited parents via convenience sampling in non-library, family-oriented locations (parks, playgrounds, beaches, and others. Participants were all interviewed regarding their methods of picture book selection and their use of library catalogues. Participants were then given six print bibliographic records for copies of Cinderella, available in libraries, and asked to select a book for their child based solely on these records. They were then presented with their selection and interviewed regarding their satisfaction with the book selected and their decision-making process. Finally, the researchers presented participants with all six physical copies of the book that had been represented by bibliographic records, and asked participants to select one of the books for their child. The researchers then interviewed participants regarding what information about the physical books should be included in records to assist in their decision-making. Main Results – Interviews indicated that the majority of participants did not use the library catalogue to select books for their children, and did not expect librarian or bookseller assistance. Many participants expressed browsing behaviours as the primary method of obtaining new picture books, and the strongest criteria for picture book selection among participants were subjective

  15. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature.

  16. Ploidy effect and genetic architecture exploration of stalk traits using DH and its corresponding haploid populations in maize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meng, Yujie; Li, Junhui; Liu, Jianju; Hu, Haixiao; Li, Wei; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Shaojiang

    2016-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) lines produced via in vivo haploid induction have become indispensable in maize research and practical breeding, so it is important to understand traits characteristics in DH and its corresponding...

  17. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  18. Brassica juncea Lines with Substituted Chimeric GFP-CENH3 Give Haploid and Aneuploid Progenies on Crossing with Other Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Anshul; Singh, Sunil K.; Bhadouria, Jyoti; Naresh, Vasupalli; Bishoyi, Ashok K.; K.A. Geetha; Chamola, Rohit; Pattanayak, Debasis; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2017-01-01

    Haploids and doubled haploids are invaluable for basic genetic studies and in crop improvement. A novel method of haploid induction through genetic engineering of the Centromere Histone Protein gene, CENH3, has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. The present study was undertaken to develop haploid inducer (HI) lines of Brassica juncea based on the principles elaborated in Arabidopsis. B. juncea was found to carry three copies of CENH3 which generated five different transcripts, of which three t...

  19. Non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Włodarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. However, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. We suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as a long time interval between territory establishment and young fledgling should reduce predictability of conditions during the critical stages of brood care. In this study, we investigated adaptiveness of territory selection in a migratory bird with exceptionally long parental care, the mute swan Cygnus olor, which requires over four months to complete the entire reproductive cycle from egg laying to young fledging. For this purpose, we collected information on the long-term (10–19 years occupancy of 222 swan breeding territories and correlated it with reproductive performance (n = 1,345 breeding attempts and body condition of breeding adults. We found that long-term occupancy positively correlated with the timing of breeding, suggesting that individuals settled earlier in the attractive, frequently occupied territories. By contrast, we found no relationship between territory occupancy and reproductive output (hatching and fledging success or adult body condition. The results indicate that at the time of territory selection swans might not be able to reliably assess territory quality, likely due to: (1 exceptionally long period of parental care, which reduces temporal correlation between the conditions at the time of territory selection and conditions during chick rearing; and (2 unpredictability of human-related activities that had a major impact on reproductive output of swan pairs in our population.

  20. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  1. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  2. Efficient purging of deleterious mutations in plants with haploid selfing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szovenyi, Peter [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Shaw, Jon [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Devos, Nicolas [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-30

    In diploid organisms, selfing reduces the efficiency of selection in removing deleterious mutations from a population. This need not be the case for all organisms. Some plants, for example, undergo an extreme form of selfing known as intragametophytic selfing, which immediately exposes all recessive deleterious mutations in a parental genome to selective purging. Here we ask how effectively deleterious mutations are removed from such plants. Specifically, we study the extent to which deleterious mutations accumulate in a predominantly selfing and a predominantly outcrossing pair of moss species, using genome-wide transcriptome data. We find that the selfing species purge significantly more non-synonymous mutations, as well as a greater proportion of radical amino acid changes which alter physicochemical properties of amino acids. Moreover, their purging of deleterious mutation is especially strong in conserved regions of protein-coding genes. Our observations show that selfing need not impede but can even accelerate the removal of deleterious mutations, and do so on a genome-wide scale.

  3. Tapping the genetic diversity of landraces in allogamous crops with doubled haploid lines: a case study from European flint maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Juliane; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Utz, H Friedrich; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2017-05-01

    Using landraces for broadening the genetic base of elite maize germplasm is hampered by heterogeneity and high genetic load. Production of DH line libraries can help to overcome these problems. Landraces of maize (Zea mays L.) represent a huge reservoir of genetic diversity largely untapped by breeders. Genetic heterogeneity and a high genetic load hamper their use in hybrid breeding. Production of doubled haploid line libraries (DHL) by the in vivo haploid induction method promises to overcome these problems. To test this hypothesis, we compared the line per se performance of 389 doubled haploid (DH) lines across six DHL produced from European flint landraces with that of four flint founder lines (FFL) and 53 elite flint lines (EFL) for 16 agronomic traits evaluated in four locations. The genotypic variance ([Formula: see text]) within DHL was generally much larger than that among DHL and exceeded also [Formula: see text] of the EFL. For most traits, the means and [Formula: see text] differed considerably among the DHL, resulting in different expected selection gains. Mean grain yield of the EFL was 25 and 62% higher than for the FFL and DHL, respectively, indicating considerable breeding progress in the EFL and a remnant genetic load in the DHL. Usefulness of the best 20% lines was for individual DHL comparable to the EFL and grain yield (GY) in the top lines from both groups was similar. Our results corroborate the tremendous potential of landraces for broadening the narrow genetic base of elite germplasm. To make best use of these "gold reserves", we propose a multi-stage selection approach with optimal allocation of resources to (1) choose the most promising landraces for DHL production and (2) identify the top DH lines for further breeding.

  4. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSWANHADI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the difference between closely related clones. The genetic variability or phylogenetic relationships among rubber clones can be analysis using RAPD method, and based on the result, the parent trees can be selected. This research was aimed to analyze the genetic distance among rubber clones using RAPD method. Analysis was conducted on 45 rubber clones with 12 random primers. Pair-wise comparisons of unique and shared polymorphic amplification products were used to generate similarity coefficients. These coefficients were employed to construct a dendogram by using an Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA. The amplification of genomic DNA from 45 clones yielded 2408 DNA fragments, ranging in size from 250 bp to 3000 bp. The range of genetic similarity matrix was very wide (59.18%-94.23%. It indicated that most of the clones have a low level of polymorphism. The lowest genetic similarity (59,18% was found between RRIC 110 and AVROS 352 clones, while the highest (94.23% was between IRR 41 and IRR 42 clones. Cluster analysis showed that 45 clones of rubber were divided into two groups, the biggest group consisted of 30 clones, while the other one consisted of 15 clones with a genetic similarity value of 0,73.

  5. Nonmaternal Care's Association With Mother's Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Demaris, Alfred

    2013-06-01

    Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers' parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children's lives, with special attention to selection effects and moderation by resource levels. Findings from fixed-effects regression models suggested that, on average, there is little relationship between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity, once selection factors are held constant. Some evidence of moderation effects was found, however. Excellent-quality care is related to more sensitivity for mothers with lower family income. Poor-quality care is related to lower sensitivity for single mothers, but not partnered mothers. In sum, nonmaternal care characteristics do not seem to have as much influence on mothers' parenting as attachment theory claims.

  6. Toward an Optimal Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Parental Psychopathology, Selective Attention, and Cognitive Coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present thesis was to explore wether parental psychopathology and threat-related selective attention were related to outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. Pre- to post-treatment changes of selective attention were also exam

  7. Definitions of fitness in age-structured populations: Comparison in the haploid case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Sabin; Soares, Cintia

    2016-02-21

    Fisher's (1930) Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection (FTNS), and in particular the development of an explicit age-structured version of the theorem, is of everlasting interest. In a recent paper, Grafen (2015a) argues that Fisher regarded his theorem as justifying individual rather than population fitness maximization. The argument relies on a new definition of fitness in age-structured populations in terms of individual birth and death rates and age-specific reproductive values in agreement with a principle of neutrality. The latter are frequency-dependent and defined without reference to genetic variation. In the same paper, it is shown that the rate of increase in the mean of the breeding values of fitness weighted by the reproductive values, but keeping the breeding values constant as in Price (1972) is equal to the additive genetic variance in fitness. Therefore, this partial change is obtained by keeping constant not only the genotypic birth and death rates but also the mean age-specific birth and death rates from which the age-specific reproductive values are defined. In this paper we reaffirm that the Malthusian parameter which measures the relative rate of increase or decrease in reproductive value of each genotype in a continuous-time age-structured population is the definition of fitness used in Fisher's (1930) FTNS. This is shown by considering an age-structured asexual haploid population with constant age-specific birth and death (or survival) parameters for each type. Although the original statement of the FTNS is for a diploid population, this simplified haploid model allows us to address the definition of fitness meant in this theorem without the complexities and effects of a changing genic environment. In this simplified framework, the rate of change in mean fitness in continuous time is expected to be exactly equal to the genetic variance in fitness (or to the genetic variance in fitness divided by the mean fitness in discrete time), which can

  8. The Changing Nature of Parent-Teacher Communication: Mode Selection in the Smartphone Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Blair Christopher; Mazer, Joseph P.; Flood Grady, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Parent-teacher communication continues to evolve due to smartphones and other new communication technologies. In all, 1,349 parents completed the Parental Academic Support Scale to assess the frequency and importance of communication across modes. Confirmatory analysis revealed a good model fit. Media richness theory was applied to parents'…

  9. Explaining and Selecting Treatments for Autism: Parental Explanatory Models in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Tsai, Jia-Ling; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2010-01-01

    Parental explanatory models about autism influence the type of therapy a child receives, the child's well-being, and the parents' own psychological adaptation. This qualitative study explored explanatory models used by parents of children with autism. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 parents of children with autism from a medical center…

  10. The Changing Nature of Parent-Teacher Communication: Mode Selection in the Smartphone Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Blair Christopher; Mazer, Joseph P.; Flood Grady, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Parent-teacher communication continues to evolve due to smartphones and other new communication technologies. In all, 1,349 parents completed the Parental Academic Support Scale to assess the frequency and importance of communication across modes. Confirmatory analysis revealed a good model fit. Media richness theory was applied to parents'…

  11. Comparative Haploid Genetic Screens Reveal Divergent Pathways in the Biogenesis and Trafficking of Glycophosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Davis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs play essential roles in physiology, but their biogenesis and trafficking have not been systematically characterized. Here, we took advantage of the recently available haploid genetics approach to dissect GPI-AP pathways in human cells using prion protein (PrP and CD59 as model molecules. Our screens recovered a large number of common and unexpectedly specialized factors in the GPI-AP pathways. PIGN, PGAP2, and PIGF, which encode GPI anchor-modifying enzymes, were selectively isolated in the CD59 screen, suggesting that GPI anchor composition significantly influences the biogenesis of GPI-APs in a substrate-dependent manner. SEC62 and SEC63, which encode components of the ER-targeting machinery, were selectively recovered in the PrP screen, indicating that they do not constitute a universal route for the biogenesis of mammalian GPI-APs. Together, these comparative haploid genetic screens demonstrate that, despite their similarity in overall architecture and subcellular localization, GPI-APs follow markedly distinct biosynthetic and trafficking pathways.

  12. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  13. Genome engineering of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells using the Cas9/RNA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Horii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs are useful for studying mammalian genes because disruption of only one allele can cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Here, we report the use of haploid ESCs and the CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease gene-targeting system to manipulate mammalian genes. Co-transfection of haploid ESCs with vectors expressing Cas9 nuclease and single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs targeting Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 resulted in the complete disruption of all three genes and caused a loss-of-function phenotype with high efficiency (50%. Co-transfection of cells with vectors expressing Cas9 and sgRNAs targeting two loci on the same chromosome resulted in the creation of a large chromosomal deletion and a large inversion. Thus, the use of the CRISPR system in combination with haploid ESCs provides a powerful platform to manipulate the mammalian genome.

  14. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  15. The evolutionary advantage of haploid versus diploid microbes in nutrient-poor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Iwasa, Yoh; Day, Troy

    2015-10-21

    Sexual eukaryotic organisms are characterized by haploid and diploid nuclear phases. In many organisms, growth and development occur in both haploid and diploid phases, and the relative length of these phases exhibits considerable diversity. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the maintenance of this diversity of life cycles and the advantage of being haploid versus that of being diploid. The nutrient-limitation hypothesis postulates that haploid cells, because they are small and thus have a higher surface area to volume ratio, are advantageous in nutrient-poor environments. In this paper, we examine this hypothesis theoretically and determine the conditions under which it holds. On the basis of our analysis, we make the following predictions. First, the relative advantages of different ploidy levels strongly depend on the ploidy-dependent energy conversion efficiency and the scaling of mortality with cell size. Specifically, haploids enjoy a higher intrinsic population growth rate than diploids do under nutrient-poor conditions, but under nutrient-rich conditions the intrinsic population growth rate of diploids is higher, provided that the energy conversion efficiency of diploids is higher than that of haploids and the scaling of mortality with cell size is weak. Second, differences in nutrient concentration in the inflowing medium have almost no effect on the relative advantage of ploidy levels at population equilibrium. Our study illustrates the importance of explicit modeling of microbial life history and population dynamics to understand the evolution of ploidy levels.

  16. [Allelic Composition in the VRN-A1, VRN-B1, and VRN-B3 Genes of Double Haploid Lines of Hexaploid Triticale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, O I; Lemesh, V A

    2015-07-01

    Vernalization genes are associated with the adaptation capability, heading dates, and yield potential of grain crops. The allelic composition in the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-B3 genes was defined in 42 lines of double haploids of hexaploid triticale, which were produced through in vitro anther culture. Two alleles (Vrn-A1a and vrn-A1) were found at the Vrn-A1[ital] locus and three alleles (Vrn-B1a, Vrn-B1c, and vrn-B1) were found at the Vrn-B1 locus. All double haploids carried the recessive allele at the Vrn-B3[ital] locus. Twelve lines of spring triticale were selected, and they were characterized by an allelic composition associated with early maturity and high potential of grain yield.

  17. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education: Selected Activities for Preschool Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Betty Clark

    The manual is designed to provide special education preschool teachers with a guide for parent involvement activities. The guide presents 32 activities divided into three topical areas: (1) communicating with parents (orientation packet, newsletter, school-home notebook, bulletin board for parents); (2) resource activities (field trips, home…

  18. Social and genetic benefits of parental investment suggest sex differences in selection pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, Julia; Cleasby, Ian; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry

    Provisioning behavior in altricial birds is often used to measure parental investment and is assumed to have fitness consequences to the parents providing it, with the benefits outweighing the costs. Here we investigate the fitness costs and benefits (parent survival and offspring recruitment) of

  19. Parental Involvement in Selected PISA Countries and Economies. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovi, Francesca; Montt, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of parental involvement in children's educational lives. Few studies, however, analyse parental involvement in a cross-national perspective and few evaluate a wide array of forms of involvement. In 2009, 14 countries and economies implemented the parental questionnaire option in the PISA 2009 cycle.…

  20. Economic Uncertainty, Parental Selection and the Criminal Activity of the "Children of the Wall." CEP Discussion Paper No. 1256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud; Marie, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We study the link between parental selection and children criminality in a new context. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, East Germany experienced an unprecedented temporary drop in fertility driven by economic uncertainty. We exploit this natural experiment to estimate that the children from these (smaller) cohorts are 40 percent more likely to…

  1. Career Choice And College Students: Parental Influence on Career Choice Traditionalism among College Students in Selected Cities in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sella Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the influence of parents on choosing career among college students in selected private colleges situated around Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. Choosing a suitable career is a vital part in every student’s life. Further, it ignites a person’s future life for his/her own job preference and life style. In this context, influence of social members is inevitable; generally the influence of family members and most particularly parents play a major role as an influencer and determiner o...

  2. Do We Invest Less Time in Children? Trends in Parental Time in Selected Industrialized Countries Since the 1960's

    OpenAIRE

    Anne H. Gauthier; Timothy M. Smeeding; Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines trends in parental time in selected industrialized countries since the 1960s using time-use survey data. Despite the time pressures to which today’s families are confronted, parents appear to be devoting more time to children than they did some 40 years ago. Results also suggest a decrease in the differences between fathers and mothers in time devoted to children. Mothers continue to devote more time to childcare than fathers, but the gender gap has been reduced. These res...

  3. Molecular and morphological evaluation of doubled-haploid lines in maize. 2. Comparison with single-seed-descent lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murigneux, A; Baud, S; Beckert, M

    1993-10-01

    Doubled-haploid (DH) and single-seed-descent (SSD) lines in maize have been compared for quantitatively inherited traits and for RFLP markers. The comparisons of the distributions for agromorphological traits do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn on the similarity of the two reproductive systems. We have used more than 100 RFLP markers to provide a precise description of the parental allele frequency and the recombination fractions. A comparison of two DH populations shows that non-random meiotic reassortment is influenced by differences in the anther culture capacities of the two parental lines. For the DH lines derived from the cross DH5 x DH7, involving two responsive lines in anther culture, the distortion in segregation (P description of the material at the molecular level, it has not been possible to make a definite conclusion as to whether or not the differences in some morphological characters are the consequences of differences in the segregation ratio and/or the recombination frequency. However, the agromorphological evaluation shows a narrow range in differences between the two types of lines and suggests that the use of DH lines is possible in breeding programmes.

  4. The Parenting Challenge: Selecting Technology and Non-Technology Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Parkman, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a Spectrum of Disorders (ASD) that affects 1 in 88 children. The issues and decisions parents face are almost insurmountable depending on the child's diagnosis, available interventions, the knowledge of parents, proximity to professionals and interventions, financial resources, and the individual needs of the child. There is no cure for…

  5. Synthesizing double haploid hexaploid wheat populations based on a spontaneous alloploidization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianquan Zhang; Youliang Zheng; Dengcai Liu; Yang Yen; Li Zhang; Jiangtao Luo; Wenjie Chen; Ming Hao; Baolong Liu; Zehong Yan; Bo Zhang; Huaigang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) populations are useful to scientists and breeders in both crop improvement and basic research. Current methods of producing DHs usually need in vitro culture for extracting haploids and chemical treatment for chromosome doubling. This report describes a simple method for synthesizing DHs (SynDH) especially for allopolyploid species by utilizing meiotic restitution genes. The method involves three steps: hybridization to induce recombination, interspecific hybridization to extract haploids, and spontaneous chromosome doubling by selfing the interspecific F1s. DHs produced in this way contain recombinant chromosomes in the genome(s) of interest in a homogeneous background. No special equipment or treatments are involved in the DH production and it can be easily applied in any breeding and/or genetic program. Triticum turgidum L. and Aegilops tauschii Coss, the two ancestral species of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and molecular markers were used to demonstrate the SynDH method.

  6. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the haploid-diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, Nicole M; Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A; Byers, James E; Greig, Thomas W; Strand, Allan E; Weinberger, Florian; Sotka, Erik E

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci are popular molecular markers due to their resolution in distinguishing individual genotypes. However, they have rarely been used to explore the population dynamics in species with biphasic life cycles in which both haploid and diploid stages develop into independent, functional organisms. We developed microsatellite loci for the haploid-diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a widespread non-native species in coastal estuaries of the Northern hemisphere. Forty-two loci were screened for amplification and polymorphism. Nine of these loci were polymorphic across four populations of the extant range with two to eleven alleles observed. Mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.265 to 0.527 and 0.317 to 0.387, respectively. Overall, these markers will aid in the study of the invasive history of this seaweed and further studies on the population dynamics of this important haploid-diploid primary producer.

  7. Chinese Experts Successfully Produced Transgenic Animals from Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Individual animals produced by haploid stem cells are ideal models for studying recessive genes. Hap- loid stem cells not only can maintain haploidy, but also are capable of replicating themselves infinitely. Modified genes can be passed on to future generations through genetic engineering of haploid embryonic stem cells, which thus avoids the germlinechimerism caused by other transgenic methods and greatly im- proves the analysis efficiency of the function of gene modification. However, natural haploids are only re- stricted to germline cells in mammals. Currently in mammals, only the embryonic stem cells in rats and mice can be used as the carrier of gene modification, but the embryonic stem cells of other mammals, in- eluding primates, cannot guarantee germline transmission, which has seriously hindered the establishment of disease models by using these species.

  8. The development of haploid embryoids from anther cultures of Atropa belladonna L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A; Street, H E

    1973-09-01

    Development of haploid embryoids from the microspores of Atropa belladonna occurs with relatively high frequency when anthers are excised from buds in which the petals are shorter than the sepals (at this stage microspores are predominantly uninucleate) and cultured on a medium containing iron as the ferric salt of ethylenediamine-di-O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (FeEDDHA). Additions of combinations of kinetin, auxin and casamino-acids to the culture medium induce callusing in both haploid and diploid tissues, lead to the origin of embryoids from somatic tissues of the anther and should be avoided. Simple techniques for the maintenance of haploid clones are described.Stages in early embryogenesis in the pollen grains have been observed and these indicate that embryogenesis is most frequently initiated by an equal division in the uninucleate spore. The frequency of grains showing embryoid formation is very low and it is estimated that plantlets are formed from up to 50% of these grains.

  9. Single-Cell Dynamic Analysis of Mitosis in Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells Shows the Prolonged Metaphase and Its Association with Self-diploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent establishment of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs provides new possibilities for genetic screening and for understanding genome evolution and function. However, the dynamics of mitosis in haploid ESCs is still unclear. Here, we report that the duration of mitosis in haploid ESCs, especially the metaphase, is significantly longer than that in diploid ESCs. Delaying mitosis by chemicals increased self-diploidization of haploid ESCs, while shortening mitosis stabilized haploid ESCs. Taken together, our study suggests that the delayed mitosis of haploid ESCs is associated with self-diploidization.

  10. Isolation and Screening of Haploid of Baker's Yeast with High Sugar Tolerance%耐高糖面包酵母单倍体的分离筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封冰; 张翠英; 肖冬光

    2014-01-01

    Spore-producing culture of baker's yeast BY-6 with high sugar tolerance was carried out to obtain its haploids. 6 strains of type alpha haploid and 5 strains of type a haploid were separated and identified by matching and PCR authentication. Compared with the parental strain, a-70 strain andα-24 strain were obtained based on their excellent performance in biomass, growth curve, fermentation ability in high-sugar dough, and gas production in the simulation of high-sugar dough. This study laid a good foundation for genetic breeding of baker's yeast with high sugar toler-ance in the future.%以耐高糖面包酵母BY-6为出发菌株进行生孢培养制备单倍体,通过单倍体的分离、配型验证和PCR验证,获得6株α型单倍体,5株a型单倍体。通过比较单倍体菌株的生长和发酵性能,筛选出生长性能较好,在高糖模拟面团中产气量较大,并且在高糖面团中发酵力较高的优良单倍体菌株70a和24α,这为后续通过基因工程改造提高面包酵母的高糖耐性奠定了良好的基础。

  11. Nonmaternal Care’s Association With Mother’s Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers’ parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children’s lives, with special attention to selection effects and mo...

  12. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in

  13. Evaluation of Gynogenic Responsiveness and Pollen Viability of Selfed Doubled Haploid Onion Lines and Chromosome Doubling via Somatic Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although haploid induction has been practiced in onions for the last 20 years, several obstacles limit its use in plant breeding programmes. To overcome some of them, we investigated three parameters: efficiency of doubled haploid (DH) lines and their selfed progeny as sources of high responsiveness...

  14. General and food-selection specific parenting style in relation to the healthfulness of parent-child choices while grocery shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Graham, Dan J; Ullrich, Emily; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen. Participants were 153 parent (88 mothers) - child (6-9 years old) dyads. Dyads were brought to a laboratory set up like a grocery store aisle and asked to choose two items from each of three categories (cookies/crackers, cereals, chips/snacks). Parents were observed in terms of warmth, responsiveness, autonomy granting, and limit setting; children were observed in terms of resistance and negotiation. Parents reported behaviors related to general parenting. Regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Observed parental limit setting was related to general parenting style; observed warmth was not. Observed limit setting (but not observed warmth or self-reported parenting style) was related to the healthfulness of food choices. Limit setting appears to be the dimension of parenting style that is expressed during grocery shopping, and that promotes healthier food choices. Implications are discussed regarding consistencies in parenting style across situations as well as contributions of parenting style to the development of children's healthy eating.

  15. Prospects of isolated microspore culture for haploid production in Anemone coronaria L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paladines, R.; Jurado, D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Quiñones, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a procedure to obtain haploid plants from microspore cultures of Anemone coronaria L., an important ornamental crop known worldwide due to its commercial value in the cut flower industry. Microspores were isolated from two genotypes of A. coronaria: ‘Blue’

  16. Prospects of isolated microspore culture for haploid production in Anemone coronaria L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paladines, R.; Jurado, D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Quiñones, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a procedure to obtain haploid plants from microspore cultures of Anemone coronaria L., an important ornamental crop known worldwide due to its commercial value in the cut flower industry. Microspores were isolated from two genotypes of A. coronaria: ‘Blue’ (pla

  17. Stem cells and small molecule screening: haploid embryonic stem cells as a new tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi WU; Wei LI; Liu WANG; Zhong-hua LIU; Xiao-yang ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells can both self-renew and differentiate into various cell types under certain conditions,which makes them a good model for development and disease studies.Recently,chemical approaches have been widely applied in stem cell biology by promoting stem cell self-renewal,proliferation,differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming using specific small molecules.Conversely,stem cells and their derivatives also provide an efficient and robust platform for small molecule and drug screening.Here,we review the current research and applications of small molecules that modulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and improve reprogramming,as well as the applications that use stem cells as a tool for small molecule screening.Moreover,we introduce the recent advance in haploid embryonic stem cells research.Haploid embryonic stem cells maintain haploidy and stable growth over extensive passages,possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo,and contribute to the germlines of chimeras when injected into blastocysts.Androgenetic haploid stem cells can also be used in place of sperm to produce fertile progeny after intracytoplasmic injection into mature oocytes.Such characteristics demonstrate that haploid stem cells are a new approach for genetic studies at both the cellular and animal levels and that they are a valuable platform for future small molecule screening.

  18. Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication.

  19. Generation of Mouse Haploid Somatic Cells by Small Molecules for Genome-wide Genetic Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Quan He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of derivation of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs has provided a powerful tool for large-scale functional analysis of the mammalian genome. However, haESCs rapidly become diploidized after differentiation, posing challenges for genetic analysis. Here, we show that the spontaneous diploidization of haESCs happens in metaphase due to mitotic slippage. Diploidization can be suppressed by small-molecule-mediated inhibition of CDK1 and ROCK. Through ROCK inhibition, we can generate haploid somatic cells of all three germ layers from haESCs, including terminally differentiated neurons. Using piggyBac transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, we generated a haploid neural cell library harboring genome-wide mutations for genetic screening. As a proof of concept, we screened for Mn2+-mediated toxicity and identified the Park2 gene. Our findings expand the applications of mouse haploid cell technology to somatic cell types and may also shed light on the mechanisms of ploidy maintenance.

  20. Improved stress resistance and ethanol production by segmental haploidization of the diploid genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboli, Saeed; Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sunada, Keisuke; Sasano, Yu; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Harashima, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from industrial and natural geographical environments are reported to show great variation in copy number of chromosomal regions. Such variation contributes to the mechanisms underlying adaptation to different environments. Here, we created and phenotypically analyzed segmentally haploidized strains, each harboring a deletion of one copy of approximately 100-300 kb of the left or right terminal region of 16 chromosomes in a diploid strain by using a PCR-mediated chromosomal deletion method. No haploidized strain of the 158-kb deleted right terminal region of chromosome III or the 172-kb deleted right terminal region of chromosome VI was produced; however, segmentally haploidized strains of the remaining 30 terminal regions were obtained. Among these 30 strains, two exhibited higher lactic acid resistance and two displayed higher thermo-tolerance at 41°C versus the host diploid strain. By contrast, four and two segmentally haploidized strains showed sensitivity to 6% lactic acid and low temperature at 13°C, respectively. The effect of the decreased copy number of the chromosomal terminal regions on ethanol production was analyzed. As compared with the host diploid strain, a 3.8% and 4.3% improvement in ethanol production in 10% glucose medium was observed for two strains in which one of two copies of the 197-kb left terminal region of chromosome V and one of two copies of the 195-kb left terminal region of chromosome X was deleted, respectively. These results indicate that artificial segmental haploidization might contribute to improvement of industrially important phenotypes and provide a new approach to breeding superior yeast strains. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  2. Career Choice And College Students: Parental Influence on Career Choice Traditionalism among College Students in Selected Cities in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the influence of parents on choosing career among college students in selected private colleges situated around Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. Choosing a suitable career is a vital part in every student’s life. Further, it ignites a person’s future life for his/her own job preference and life style. In this context, influence of social members is inevitable; generally the influence of family members and most particularly parents play a major role as an influencer and determiner on choosing a career option. Students in Ethiopia are not exceptional to this phenomenon of selecting right and suitable career. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted and multi stage sampling technique was employed to identify the participants. Totally, 175 participants (Male=99 and (Female =76 responded to Holland Personality Inventory (Holland, 1997 and Career Choice Traditionalism Scale (Hensely, 2003. The collected data were statistically processed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive and inferential statistics was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that there is a significant influence of parents on career choice among students. Specifically, father’s influence is found to be more significant on career choice decision making among students than their mothers.

  3. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of parent and photodegradation products of some selected pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. P. Vaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical behavior of pesticides is extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the study of their degradation products (by-products by electrochemical methods. However, the degradation products of pesticides can be even more toxic then the parent products and such studies should be encouraged. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the electroactivity of by-products of imazaquin, methylparathion, bentazon and atrazine, generated by UV irradiation and measured using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Results have shown that several by-products exhibit electroactivity, allowing, in some cases, the simultaneous determination of both parent and degradation products.

  5. Analysis of quantitative trait loci affecting chlorophyll content of rice leaves in a double haploid population and two backcross populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gonghao; Zeng, Jing; He, Yuqing

    2014-02-25

    Chlorophyll content, one of the most important physiological parameters related to plant photosynthesis, is usually used to predict yield potential. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the chlorophyll content of rice leaves, a double haploid (DH) population was developed from an indica/japonica (Zhenshan 97/Wuyujing 2) crossing and two backcross populations were established subsequently by backcrossing DH lines with each of their parents. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were determined by using a spectrophotometer to directly measure the leaf chlorophyll extracts. To determine the leaf chlorophyll retention along with maturation, all measurements were performed on the day of heading and were repeated 30 days later. A total of 60 QTLs were resolved for all the traits using these three populations. These QTLs were distributed on 10 rice chromosomes, except chromosomes 5 and 10; the closer the traits, the more clustering of the QTLs residing on common rice chromosomal regions. In general, the majority of QTLs that specify chlorophyll a content also play a role in determining chlorophyll b content. Strangely, chlorophyll content in this study was found mostly to be lacking or to have a negative correlation with yield. In both backcross F1 populations, overdominant (or underdominant) loci were more important than complete or partially dominant loci for main-effect QTLs and epistatic QTLs, thereby supporting previous findings that overdominant effects are the primary genetic basis for depression in inbreeding and heterosis in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Adolescent Substance Use in Mexican Origin Families: Peer Selection, Peer Influence, and Parental Monitoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. Method 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade(10.4 years old at fifth grade)on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Results Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Conclusions Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence PMID:26525416

  7. Epistasis can accelerate adaptive diversification in haploid asexual populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cortland K

    2015-03-07

    A fundamental goal of the biological sciences is to determine processes that facilitate the evolution of diversity. These processes can be separated into ecological, physiological, developmental and genetic. An ecological process that facilitates diversification is frequency-dependent selection caused by competition. Models of frequency-dependent adaptive diversification have generally assumed a genetic basis of phenotype that is non-epistatic. Here, we present a model that indicates diversification is accelerated by an epistatic basis of phenotype in combination with a competition model that invokes frequency-dependent selection. Our model makes use of a genealogical model of epistasis and insights into the effects of balancing selection on the genealogical structure of a population to understand how epistasis can facilitate diversification. The finding that epistasis facilitates diversification may be informative with respect to empirical results that indicate an epistatic basis of phenotype in experimental bacterial populations that experienced adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Carbon Isotope Discrimination and its Relation to Yield in a Wheat Doubled Haploid Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianshan Wu; Xiaoping Chang; Ruilian Jing

    2011-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (△13C) is considered a useful indicator for indirect selection of grain yield (GY) in cereals.Therefore,it is important to evaluate the genetic variation in △13C and its relationship with GY.A doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross of two common wheat varieties,Hanxuan 10 (H10) and Lumai 14 (L14),was phenotyped for △13C in the flag leaf,GY and yield associated traits in two trials contrasted by water availability,specifically,rain-fed and irrigated.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by single locus and two locus QTL analyses.QTLs for △13C were located on chromosomes 1A,2B,3B,5A,7A and 7B,and QTLs for other traits on all chromosomes except 1A,4D,5A,5B and 6D.The population selected for high △13C had an increased frequency of QTL for high △13C,GY and number of spikes per plant (NSP) when grown under rain-fed conditions and only for high △13C and NSP when grown under irrigated conditions,which was consistent with agronomic performance of the corresponding trait values in the high △13C progeny; that is,significantly greater than that in the low △13C.Therefore,selection for △13C was beneficial in increasing grain yield in rain-fed environments.

  9. Nest site selection and nutritional provision through excreta: a form of parental care in a tropical endogeic earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel I. Ortiz-Ceballos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nest construction is a common form of parental care in soil organisms. However, it is unknown whether the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus produces nests in soils with low nutritional quality habitats. Here we studied the reproductive behaviour and nest site selection of P. corethrurus, and tested the hypothesis whether P. corethrurus produces more cocoons in habitats with low nutritional quality. In bidimensional terrariums we evaluated the combined effect of the nutritional quality of habitat: (Poor Quality Habitat = PQH, Medium Quality Habitat = MQH, High Quality Habitat = HQH and soil depth (Shallow, Intermediate, Deep in a factorial 32 design. The number and biomass of cocoons, progeny and the production of internal and external excreta were evaluated. The quality habitat and depth of soil and their interaction had a significant effect on nest site construction and the deposition of internal excreta. Pontoscolex corethrurus built a higher amount of nests in the PQH-Intermediate and MQH-Intermediate treatments while more internal excreta were found in the HQH-Intermediate treatment. Offspring biomass was positively associated with internal excreta in the PQH (soil only and MQH (soil + grass treatments, suggesting that this could be a form of parental care. Since P. corethrurus produces more cocoons in low and medium quality habitats, while produces more internal excreta at high quality habitats, there does not seem to be an association between number of offspring and parental care. We suggest P. corethrurus could have two reproductive strategies that act as diversified bet-hedging (do not put all cocoons in one basket behavior in unpredictable environment, and thus build a higher amount of nests in low and medium quality habitats; and another where they produce more internal excreta as a form of parental care in high quality habitats. Parental care in the form of internal excreta may be particularly important in poor and medium

  10. Nest site selection and nutritional provision through excreta: a form of parental care in a tropical endogeic earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ceballos, Angel I; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino

    2016-01-01

    Nest construction is a common form of parental care in soil organisms. However, it is unknown whether the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus produces nests in soils with low nutritional quality habitats. Here we studied the reproductive behaviour and nest site selection of P. corethrurus, and tested the hypothesis whether P. corethrurus produces more cocoons in habitats with low nutritional quality. In bidimensional terrariums we evaluated the combined effect of the nutritional quality of habitat: (Poor Quality Habitat = PQH, Medium Quality Habitat = MQH, High Quality Habitat = HQH) and soil depth (Shallow, Intermediate, Deep) in a factorial 3(2) design. The number and biomass of cocoons, progeny and the production of internal and external excreta were evaluated. The quality habitat and depth of soil and their interaction had a significant effect on nest site construction and the deposition of internal excreta. Pontoscolex corethrurus built a higher amount of nests in the PQH-Intermediate and MQH-Intermediate treatments while more internal excreta were found in the HQH-Intermediate treatment. Offspring biomass was positively associated with internal excreta in the PQH (soil only) and MQH (soil + grass) treatments, suggesting that this could be a form of parental care. Since P. corethrurus produces more cocoons in low and medium quality habitats, while produces more internal excreta at high quality habitats, there does not seem to be an association between number of offspring and parental care. We suggest P. corethrurus could have two reproductive strategies that act as diversified bet-hedging (do not put all cocoons in one basket) behavior in unpredictable environment, and thus build a higher amount of nests in low and medium quality habitats; and another where they produce more internal excreta as a form of parental care in high quality habitats. Parental care in the form of internal excreta may be particularly important in poor and medium quality habitats

  11. Genetic dissection of mammalian ERAD through comparative haploid and CRISPR forward genetic screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timms, Richard T.; Menzies, Sam A.; Tchasovnikarova, Iva A.

    2016-01-01

    The application of forward genetic screens to cultured human cells represents a powerful method to study gene function. The repurposing of the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system provides an effective method to disrupt gene function in mammalian cells, and has been applied to genome-wide screens. Here, we...... compare the efficacy of genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated forward genetic screens versus gene-trap mutagenesis screens in haploid human cells, which represent the existing ‘gold standard’ method. This head-to-head comparison aimed to identify genes required for the endoplasmic reticulum....../3-associated disulphide reductase. Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated screens together with haploid genetic screens provide a powerful addition to the forward genetic toolbox....

  12. How microspores transform into haploid embryos: changes associated with embryogenesis induction and microspore-derived embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Nuez, Fernando

    2008-09-01

    Microspore embryogenesis is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce haploid and doubled haploid plants. To deviate a microspore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the microspore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of microspore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. In this review, we compile the most recent advances in the understanding of the changes undergone by the induced microspore to readapt to the new developmental scenario. We devote special attention to the efforts made to uncover changes in the transcriptome of the induced microspore and microspore-derived embryo (MDE). Finally, we discuss the influence that an in vitro environment exerts over the MDE, as compared with its zygotic counterpart.

  13. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  14. Genome-wide genetic screening with chemically mutagenized haploid embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Forment, Josep V.; Herzog, Mareike; Coates, Julia; Konopka, Tomasz; Gapp, Bianca V.; Nijman, Sebastian M.; Adams, David J; Keane, Thomas M.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. In model organisms, classical genetic screening via random mutagenesis provides key insights into the molecular bases of genetic interactions, helping to define synthetic lethality, synthetic viability and drug-resistance mechanisms. The limited genetic tractability of diploid mammalian cells, however, precludes this approach. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of classical genetic screening in mammalian systems by using haploid cells, chemical mut...

  15. Characters that differ between diploid and haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Trenzcek, Tina; Fahrenhorst, Hartmut; Engels, Wolf

    2005-12-30

    Diploid males have long been considered a curiosity contradictory to the haplo-diploid mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera. In Apis mellifera, 'false' diploid male larvae are eliminated by worker cannibalism immediately after hatching. A 'cannibalism substance' produced by diploid drone larvae to induce worker-assisted suicide has been hypothesized, but it has never been detected. Diploid drones are only removed some hours after hatching. Older larvae are evidently not regarded as 'false males' and instead are regularly nursed by the brood-attending worker bees. As the pheromonal cues presumably are located on the surface of newly hatched bee larvae, we extracted the cuticular secretions and analyzed their chemical composition by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Larvae were sexed and then reared in vitro for up to three days. The GC-MS pattern that was obtained, with alkanes as the major compounds, was compared between diploid and haploid drone larvae. We also examined some physical parameters of adult drones. There was no difference between diploid and haploid males in their weight at the day of emergence. The diploid adult drones had fewer wing hooks and smaller testes. The sperm DNA content was 0.30 and 0.15 pg per nucleus, giving an exact 2:1 ratio for the gametocytes of diploid and haploid drones, respectively. Vitellogenin was found in the hemolymph of both types of imaginal drones at 5 to 6 days, with a significantly lower titer in the diploids.

  16. Regeneration of haploid plants from isolated microspores of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C J; Wang, H L; Ma, Y; Kang, Y Q

    1994-08-01

    High percentages of micro-calli and micro-derived embryos were produced from isolated asparagus microspores at late uninucleate stage on MS liquid medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D and 0.5 mg l(-1) BA. Two types of calli, namely compact callus (CC) and loose callus (LC), were found. Plantlets were regenerated via organogenesis, when these calli were transferred onto MS solid medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) BA and 0.2 mg l(-1) IBA 6 weeks. Embryos were produced from liquid cultured microspores, or from solid cultured micro-calli. The frequencies of haploid plant production from organogenesis and embryogenesis were compared. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus production, plantlet regeneration, and haploid plant production were tested. The combination of BA 1.0 mg l(-1) and IBA 0.2 mg l(-1) resulted the highest precentage of haploid plant production (7.7% from CC, 4.3% from LC).

  17. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  18. Family policy instruments oriented towards single parent families in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with family policy oriented towards single parent families. This thesis tries to define reasons why single parent families are arising. It addresses the divorce rate, birth rate, and extramarital fertility. Differences between families with both parents and single parent families are defined and the subjective views of single parents in the Czech Republic are described in this thesis. Provisions from family policy, which take into account single parent families in t...

  19. Cacao families and parents selected as resistant to natural infection of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known sources of resistance to witches’ broom (WB, a severe disease of cacao, are limited. Aiming to identify families and parents resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa, a population of 22 families was evaluated by assessing the number of brooms formed per tree during 10 years under field conditions. The population was established in randomized blocks with three replications of 12 plants each. Significant differences were observed among families. The most outstanding families were NA33 x RB39 and RB39 x P4B, which presented the lowest WB incidence during 10 years. The increase in natural field infection of Scavina clones families and their descendants were clearly demonstrated after 2006. The existence of additive effects for resistance appears clearly for families, which had other source of resistance associated with Scavina. Clones RB39, RB36, P4B, NA33 and CSUL3 are promising parents for pyramiding resistance genes and increasing the stability and durability of resistance to WB.

  20. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon J. Mordecai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV; a double stranded DNA (dsDNA virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  1. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells.

  2. Study on the in vitro culture of cut plants in wheat haploid embryo induction by a wheat × maize cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian GU; Kun LIU; Shaoxiang LI; Yuxian TIAN; Hexian YANG; Mujun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The wheat × maize system is one of the most effective ways to produce haploids in wheat. Whether and how it could be successfully applied in practical breeding mostly depends upon the efficiency of haploid embryo pro-duction. To perfect the protocols of haploid embryo induc-tion, the efficiency of haploid embryo production between in vitro culture of cut plant and intact plant growth for hybrid spikes with two F1 wheat hybrids and two maize varieties was compared. Effects of different cutting plant times and formulas of nutrient solutions for cut plant cul-ture on haploid embryo formation were also studied. Results indicated that the embryo rate of in vitro culture was 3.29 times that of intact plant growth, with the figures of 31.6% vs 9.6%, respectively. The optimal time for cut plant culture was 24 h after pollination. Formulas of nutri-ent solutions significantly affected the efficiency of haploid embryo induction. With an embryo rate of 0-35.5%, add-could raise the caryopsis and embryo rates. According to this study, the best medium for cut plant culture was: phate, with which a caryopsis rate of 95% and an embryo rate of about 30% could be obtained.

  3. Haploid meiosis in Arabidopsis: double-strand breaks are formed and repaired but without synapsis and crossovers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cifuentes

    Full Text Available Two hallmark features of meiosis are i the formation of crossovers (COs between homologs and ii the production of genetically-unique haploid spores that will fuse to restore the somatic ploidy level upon fertilization. In this study we analysed meiosis in haploid Arabidopsis thaliana plants and a range of haploid mutants to understand how meiosis progresses without a homolog. Extremely low chiasma frequency and very limited synapsis occurred in wild-type haploids. The resulting univalents segregated in two uneven groups at the first division, and sister chromatids segregated to opposite poles at the second division, leading to the production of unbalanced spores. DNA double-strand breaks that initiate meiotic recombination were formed, but in half the number compared to diploid meiosis. They were repaired in a RAD51- and REC8-dependent manner, but independently of DMC1, presumably using the sister chromatid as a template. Additionally, turning meiosis into mitosis (MiMe genotype in haploids resulted in the production of balanced haploid gametes and restoration of fertility. The variability of the effect on meiosis of the absence of homologous chromosomes in different organisms is then discussed.

  4. Haploid meiosis in Arabidopsis: double-strand breaks are formed and repaired but without synapsis and crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Marta; Rivard, Maud; Pereira, Lucie; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Mercier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Two hallmark features of meiosis are i) the formation of crossovers (COs) between homologs and ii) the production of genetically-unique haploid spores that will fuse to restore the somatic ploidy level upon fertilization. In this study we analysed meiosis in haploid Arabidopsis thaliana plants and a range of haploid mutants to understand how meiosis progresses without a homolog. Extremely low chiasma frequency and very limited synapsis occurred in wild-type haploids. The resulting univalents segregated in two uneven groups at the first division, and sister chromatids segregated to opposite poles at the second division, leading to the production of unbalanced spores. DNA double-strand breaks that initiate meiotic recombination were formed, but in half the number compared to diploid meiosis. They were repaired in a RAD51- and REC8-dependent manner, but independently of DMC1, presumably using the sister chromatid as a template. Additionally, turning meiosis into mitosis (MiMe genotype) in haploids resulted in the production of balanced haploid gametes and restoration of fertility. The variability of the effect on meiosis of the absence of homologous chromosomes in different organisms is then discussed.

  5. Comparison of different methods for separation of haploid embryo induced through irradiated pollen and their economic analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktemur, Gökhan; Taşkın, Hatıra; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as "inspecting the seeds one by one" is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. "Inspecting the seeds one by one" was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were "sowing seeds direct nutrient media," "inspecting seeds in the light source," "floating seeds on liquid media," and "floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization." Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods "inspecting the seeds one by one," "sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media," and "inspecting seeds in the light source," although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were "sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media" and "inspecting seeds in the light source."

  6. Comparison of Different Methods for Separation of Haploid Embryo Induced through Irradiated Pollen and Their Economic Analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baktemur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as “inspecting the seeds one by one” is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. “Inspecting the seeds one by one” was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were “sowing seeds direct nutrient media,” “inspecting seeds in the light source,” “floating seeds on liquid media,” and “floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization.” Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods “inspecting the seeds one by one,” “sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media,” and “inspecting seeds in the light source,” although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were “sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media“ and ”inspecting seeds in the light source.”

  7. Differences in Parental Involvement Typologies among Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y Parents: A Study of Select Bay Area Region of Houston Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…

  8. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L., an emerging model for plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Chiyoda, Shota; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2008-07-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has not been practical in pteridophytes, bryophytes and algae to date, although it is commonly used in model plants including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we present a rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. using immature thalli developed from spores. Hundreds of hygromycin-resistant plants per sporangium were obtained by co-cultivation of immature thalli with Agrobacterium carrying the binary vector that contains a reporter, the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene with an intron, and a selection marker, the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene. In this system, individual gemmae, which arise asexually from single initial cells, were analyzed as isogenic transformants. GUS activity staining showed that all hygromycin-resistant plants examined expressed the GUS transgene in planta. DNA analyses verified random integration of 1-5 copies of the intact T-DNA between the right and the left borders into the M. polymorpha genome. The efficient and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of M. polymorpha should provide molecular techniques to facilitate comparative genomics, taking advantage of this unique model plant that retains many features of the common ancestor of land plants.

  10. Evolution of egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes: the roles of parental care and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amcoff, M; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Kolm, N

    2013-11-01

    Sexual selection has been suggested to be an important driver of speciation in cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa, and the presence of male egg dummies is proposed to have played a key role. Here, we investigate how mouthbrooding and egg dummies have evolved in Tanganyikan cichlids, the lineage which seeded the other African radiations, with a special emphasis on the egg dummies. Using modern phylogenetic comparative analyses and a phylogeny including 86% of the 200 described species, we provide formal evidence demonstrating correlated evolution between mouthbrooding and egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlids. These results concur with existing evidence, suggesting that egg dummies have evolved through sensory exploitation. We also demonstrate that there is a strong evolutionary correlation between the presence of egg dummies and both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. Moreover, egg dummy evolution was contingent on the intensity of pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in Tanganyikan cichlids. In sum, our results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis of egg dummies evolving through sensory exploitation and highlight the role of sexual selection in favouring the evolution and maintenance of this trait. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. 菊科植物单倍体研究进展%Progress of Haploid Production in Compositae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婕; 高亦珂

    2012-01-01

    单倍体培养是快速获得菊科纯合系的重要途径.目前已进行单倍体研究的菊科植物共有13个种,其中9个已成功获得单倍体植株.菊科中诱导单倍体的途径有花药培养、小孢子培养、离体雌核培养、远源杂交和辐射花粉诱导单倍体.本文详细论述了不同外植体发育时期、预处理、培养基、培养条件等因素对单倍体植株诱导再生的影响.对菊科植物单倍体诱导的几种途径进行对比总结,指出研究中存在的问题并提出思路和建议.%Haploid induction is an important method for obtaining homozygous lines in Compositae. Haploids have been induced in 13 Compoditae species, and 9 species was successfully obtained. The pathways to obtain haploid plants in Compositae include anther culture, isolated microspore culture, in vitro gynogenesis culture, intergeneric hybridization and induction of haploid by irradiated pollen. The factors affecting in vitro induction and regeneration of haploids including developmental period of the explant, pretreatment, medium and its component , and culture condition were discussed in the paper. The methods of haploid induction in Compositae were compared. This review also proposed some problems in the Compositae haploid research, and provided reasonable suggestions.

  12. Pollen and Anther Cultures as Potential Means in Production of Haploid Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus for human needs. It is annual upright plant that produces high biomass, has good adaptability to its environment and inexpensive to be grown. Kenaf has been cultivated in many countries since long time ago mainly for fibers. In Malaysia, however, this plant is considered new and cultivated especially in the eastern parts of Peninsular to replace tobacco plantations that have been no longer supported by the government. This plant has potential to be bred to improve the quality and the adaptability. One of the potential breeding methods to improve the plant is by the production of hybrid varieties. These varieties are superior over the inbred varieties because of the heterosis effect (hybrid vigor ofF1heterozygous. Hybrid varieties can be produced by reciprocal combinations of crosses among homozygous lines. Homozygous lines conventionally can bachieved by repeated selfing till seven or more generations that need a lot of times. The production of haploid plants in vitro followed by chromosome doubling is a ‘short-cut’ method to produce homozygous lines in relatively short time compared to conventional methods. The objective of this study is to produce haploid lines through pollen and anther cultures in vitro. The population of haploid plantlets from this research will be induced for diploidization to produce homozygous-heterogeneous population as a basis for the production of hybrid varieties. Preliminary result showed that callus can easily be induced from the anthers compared those from the pollen grains.

  13. Dicer is required for haploid male germ cell differentiation in mice.

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    Hanna M Korhonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RNase III endonuclease Dicer is an important regulator of gene expression that processes microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. The best-characterized function of miRNAs is gene repression at the post-transcriptional level through the pairing with mRNAs of protein-encoding genes. Small RNAs can also act at the transcriptional level by controlling the epigenetic status of chromatin. Dicer and other mediators of small RNA pathways are present in mouse male germ cells, and several miRNAs and endogenous siRNAs are expressed in the testis, suggesting that Dicer-dependent small RNAs are involved in the control of the precisely timed and highly organised process of spermatogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Being interested in the Dicer-mediated functions during spermatogenesis, we have analysed here a male germ cell-specific Dicer1 knockout mouse model, in which the deletion of Dicer1 takes place during early postnatal development in spermatogonia. We found that Dicer1 knockout testes were reduced in size and spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules was disrupted. Dicer1 knockout epididymides contained very low number of mature sperm with pronounced morphological abnormalities. Spermatogonial differentiation appeared unaffected. However, the number of haploid cells was decreased in knockout testes, and an increased number of apoptotic spermatocytes was observed. The most prominent defects were found during late haploid differentiation, and Dicer was demonstrated to be critical for the normal organization of chromatin and nuclear shaping of elongating spermatids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that Dicer and Dicer-dependent small RNAs are imperative regulators of haploid spermatid differentiation and essential for male fertility.

  14. A stable hybrid containing haploid genomes of two obligate diploid Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Uttara; Mohamed, Aiyaz; Kakade, Pallavi; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Sadhale, Parag P; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are diploid, predominantly asexual human-pathogenic yeasts. In this study, we constructed tetraploid (4n) strains of C. albicans of the same or different lineages by spheroplast fusion. Induction of chromosome loss in the tetraploid C. albicans generated diploid or near-diploid progeny strains but did not produce any haploid progeny. We also constructed stable heterotetraploid somatic hybrid strains (2n + 2n) of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by spheroplast fusion. Heterodiploid (n + n) progeny hybrids were obtained after inducing chromosome loss in a stable heterotetraploid hybrid. To identify a subset of hybrid heterodiploid progeny strains carrying at least one copy of all chromosomes of both species, unique centromere sequences of various chromosomes of each species were used as markers in PCR analysis. The reduction of chromosome content was confirmed by a comparative genome hybridization (CGH) assay. The hybrid strains were found to be stably propagated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with antibodies against centromere-specific histones (C. albicans Cse4/C. dubliniensis Cse4) revealed that the centromere identity of chromosomes of each species is maintained in the hybrid genomes of the heterotetraploid and heterodiploid strains. Thus, our results suggest that the diploid genome content is not obligatory for the survival of either C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. In keeping with the recent discovery of the existence of haploid C. albicans strains, the heterodiploid strains of our study can be excellent tools for further species-specific genome elimination, yielding true haploid progeny of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis in future.

  15. In vivo evolutionary engineering for ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells triggers diploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanlı-Yıldız, Burcu; Benbadis, Laurent; Alkım, Ceren; Sezgin, Tuğba; Akşit, Arman; Gökçe, Abdülmecit; Öztürk, Yavuz; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Çakar, Zeynep Petek; François, Jean M

    2017-09-01

    Microbial ethanol production is an important alternative energy resource to replace fossil fuels, but at high level, this product is highly toxic, which hampers its efficient production. Towards increasing ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the so far best industrial ethanol-producer, we evaluated an in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy based on batch selection under both constant (5%, v v(-1)) and gradually increasing (5-11.4%, v v(-1)) ethanol concentrations. Selection under increasing ethanol levels yielded evolved clones that could tolerate up to 12% (v v(-1)) ethanol and had cross-resistance to other stresses. Quite surprisingly, diploidization of the yeast population took place already at 7% (v v(-1)) ethanol level during evolutionary engineering, and this event was abolished by the loss of MKT1, a gene previously identified as being implicated in ethanol tolerance (Swinnen et al., Genome Res., 22, 975-984, 2012). Transcriptomic analysis confirmed diploidization of the evolved clones with strong down-regulation in mating process, and in several haploid-specific genes. We selected two clones exhibiting the highest viability on 12% ethanol, and found productivity and titer of ethanol significantly higher than those of the reference strain under aerated fed-batch cultivation conditions. This higher fermentation performance could be related with a higher abundance of glycolytic and ribosomal proteins and with a relatively lower respiratory capacity of the evolved strain, as revealed by a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis between the evolved and the reference strains. Altogether, these results emphasize the efficiency of the in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy for improving ethanol tolerance, and the link between ethanol tolerance and diploidization. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Haploid Induction via In vitro Gynogenesis in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO He; WANG Xiao-xuan; DU Yong-chen; ZHU De-wei; GUO Yan-mei; GAO Jian-chang; LI Fei; John CSnyder

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the potential for haploid induction via in vitro gynogenesis in tomato, the ovules and protoplasts of embryo sacs from the hybrids Zhongza 101 and Zhongza 105 were cultured. An efifcient method of ovule isolation was established in this study. Using this method, 100-150 ovules could be isolated from one ovary. Isolated ovules were cultured on three induction media to induce gynogenesis in vitro. During culture, ovules were enlarged markedly, with opaque white color. When observed microscopically, there were cell divisions and cell clumps in embryo sacs. Subsequently, the cell clumps in embryo sacs ceased growth, likely because the integument grew faster than embryo sacs did and hindered the further development of embryo sacs. Therefore, subsequent callus morphogenesis might be originated from the integument. Thousands of calli from the two tomato varieties were obtained. Five diploid plants were regenerated after 15 months of subculturing. To eliminate the hindering effect of integument on embryo sac cells, the protoplasts of embryo sacs were prepared and cultured. After 48 hours of culture, the protoplasts of embryo sacs doubled in size and gradually formed clusters of cells. These results suggested that gynogenesis might be a potential way for haploid induction in tomato.

  17. Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2010-06-01

    The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent.

  18. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

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    Charles A. Easley, IV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs but not into spermatogonia, haploid spermatocytes, or spermatids. Here, we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages, including postmeiotic, spermatid-like cells, in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating PSCs into UTF1-, PLZF-, and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells; HIWI- and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells; and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1, and protamine 1 (proteins that are uniquely found in spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to those of human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male PSCs have the ability to differentiate directly into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro.

  19. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A.; Phillips, Bart T.; McGuire, Megan M.; Barringer, Jennifer M.; Valli, Hanna; Hermann, Brian P.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Miki, Toshio; Orwig, Kyle E.; Schatten, Gerald P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs) but not into spermatogonia nor haploid spermatocytes or spermatids. Here we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages including post-meiotic, spermatid-like cells in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating pluripotent stem cells into UTF1, PLZF and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells, HIWI and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells, and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1 and protamine 1, proteins found uniquely in either spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male pluripotent stem cells have the capability to directly differentiate into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro. PMID:22921399

  20. Brewing characteristics of haploid strains isolated from sake yeast Kyokai No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2008-11-01

    Sake yeast exhibit various characteristics that make them more suitable for sake brewing compared to other yeast strains. Since sake yeast strains are Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterothallic diploid strains, it is likely that they have heterozygous alleles on homologous chromosomes (heterozygosity) due to spontaneous mutations. If this is the case, segregation of phenotypic traits in haploid strains after sporulation and concomitant meiosis of sake yeast strains would be expected to occur. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 100 haploid strains from Kyokai No. 7 (K7), a typical sake yeast strain in Japan, and compared their brewing characteristics in small-scale sake-brewing tests. Analyses of the resultant sake samples showed a smooth and continuous distribution of analytical values for brewing characteristics, suggesting that K7 has multiple heterozygosities that affect brewing characteristics and that these heterozygous alleles do segregate after sporulation. Correlation and principal component analyses suggested that the analytical parameters could be classified into two groups, indicating fermentation ability and sake flavour.

  1. Selección de progenitores en espárrago Parent selection in asparagus

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    I. Gatti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi determinar as variáveis que melhor explicam a variação entre indivíduos dentro da população de aspargos originária da cultivar Argenteüil e selecionar plantas superiores para compor novas populações. O ensaio, composto por 1280 plantas, foi instalado no campo experimental da Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina, em 1996. Durante os anos de 1997 e 1998, foram avaliadas as variáveis: número de turiões por planta (TU; peso médio do turião (PM; diâmetro do turião (DI; produção total por planta (RE; produção comercial por planta (RM; número de dias para início da colheita (DAC; número de hastes por planta (NUTA; altura da haste principal (ALT e peso fresco da massa verde (MASAV. De acordo com a análise de componentes principais, as variáveis RE, RM, PM, DI e TU, são responsáveis por 60% da variação existente dentro da população avaliada. A análise de agrupamento baseada nestas variáveis, permitiu a identificação de cinco grupos distintos para os dois sexos. Os grupos G5 de plantas estaminadas e G5 de plantas pistiladas (7,51% da população total apresentaram as melhores características de RE e qualidade. Destes grupos, foram selecionadas 6 plantas estaminadas e 8 plantas pistiladas para serem utilizadas como genitores no programa de melhoramento de aspargos.The principal aim of this experiment was to ascertain what the variables are which best explain the variations among individuals within the populations of asparagus which originates from the cultivar Argenteüil and as a result select better plants to form new populations. The test, using 1,280 plants, was carried out at he experimental farm in the Facultad Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fé, Argentina, in 1996. During 1997 and 1998 the number of spears per plant (TU, the mean weight of spears (PM, mean diameter of spears (DI total yield

  2. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  3. Phenotypic Expression of Whitebacked Planthopper Resistance in the Newly Established japonica / indica Doubled Haploid Rice Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazushige SOGAWA; SUN Zong-xiu; QIAN Qian; ZENG Da-li

    2004-01-01

    A new doubled haploid (DH) rice population was established from a cross between WBPH-resistant japonica Chunjiang 06 (C J-06) and susceptible indica TN1. Sucking inhibitory and ovicidal resistance of the DH rice lines were evaluated on the basis of non-preference response of WBPH immigrants and honeydew excretion by WBPH females, and appearance of watery lesions in the necrotic discoloration of leaf sheaths ovipositied by WBPH,respectively. Both the major gene resistance to WBPH, sucking inhibitory and ovicidal resistance, showed 1 (resistant): 1 (susceptible) segregation ratio in the DH population. Relative density of WBPH populations and damage scores in the DH population indicated combined functions of both the major resistance genes as well as QTLs affecting the host plant response to WBPH infestations. Thus, the newly developed CJ-06/TN1 DH population could be a useful material to analyze major genes and QTLs for WBPH resistance in japonica rice.

  4. Deciphering the glycosylome of dystroglycanopathies using haploid screens for lassa virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Lucas T; Raaben, Matthijs; Riemersma, Moniek; van Beusekom, Ellen; Blomen, Vincent A; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M; Carette, Jan E; Topaloglu, Haluk; Meinecke, Peter; Wessels, Marja W; Lefeber, Dirk J; Whelan, Sean P; van Bokhoven, Hans; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2013-04-26

    Glycosylated α-dystroglycan (α-DG) serves as cellular entry receptor for multiple pathogens, and defects in its glycosylation cause hereditary Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS). At least eight proteins are critical to glycosylate α-DG, but many genes mutated in WWS remain unknown. To identify modifiers of α-DG, we performed a haploid screen for Lassa virus entry, a hemorrhagic fever virus causing thousands of deaths annually that hijacks glycosylated α-DG to enter cells. In complementary screens, we profiled cells for absence of α-DG carbohydrate chains or biochemically related glycans. This revealed virus host factors and a suite of glycosylation units, including all known Walker-Warburg genes and five additional factors critical for the modification of α-DG. Our findings accentuate the complexity of this posttranslational feature and point out genes defective in dystroglycanopathies.

  5. Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, M.L.; Hinde, C.A.; Moore, A.J.; Royle, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-e

  6. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Haploid and Diploid Embryos Reveals Early Zygotic Transcription during Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Camilla Valente; Freitas, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dearden, Peter K.; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees, the haplodiploid sex determination system promotes a unique embryogenesis process wherein females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. However, the developmental strategies of honeybees during early embryogenesis are virtually unknown. Similar to most animals, the honeybee oocytes are supplied with proteins and regulatory elements that support early embryogenesis. As the embryo develops, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic products gradually replace the preloaded maternal material. The analysis of small RNA and mRNA libraries of mature oocytes and embryos originated from fertilized and unfertilized eggs has allowed us to explore the gene expression dynamics in the first steps of development and during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We localized a short sequence motif identified as TAGteam motif and hypothesized to play a similar role in honeybees as in fruit flies, which includes the timing of early zygotic expression (MZT), a function sustained by the presence of the zelda ortholog, which is the main regulator of genome activation. Predicted microRNA (miRNA)-target interactions indicated that there were specific regulators of haploid and diploid embryonic development and an overlap of maternal and zygotic gene expression during the early steps of embryogenesis. Although a number of functions are highly conserved during the early steps of honeybee embryogenesis, the results showed that zygotic genome activation occurs earlier in honeybees than in Drosophila based on the presence of three primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) (ame-mir-375, ame-mir-34 and ame-mir-263b) during the cleavage stage in haploid and diploid embryonic development. PMID:26751956

  8. A human haploid gene trap collection to study lncRNAs with unusual RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Aleksandra E; Vlatkovic, Irena; Neesen, Jürgen; Barlow, Denise P; Pauler, Florian M

    2016-01-01

    Many thousand long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are mapped in the human genome. Time consuming studies using reverse genetic approaches by post-transcriptional knock-down or genetic modification of the locus demonstrated diverse biological functions for a few of these transcripts. The Human Gene Trap Mutant Collection in haploid KBM7 cells is a ready-to-use tool for studying protein-coding gene function. As lncRNAs show remarkable differences in RNA biology compared to protein-coding genes, it is unclear if this gene trap collection is useful for functional analysis of lncRNAs. Here we use the uncharacterized LOC100288798 lncRNA as a model to answer this question. Using public RNA-seq data we show that LOC100288798 is ubiquitously expressed, but inefficiently spliced. The minor spliced LOC100288798 isoforms are exported to the cytoplasm, whereas the major unspliced isoform is nuclear localized. This shows that LOC100288798 RNA biology differs markedly from typical mRNAs. De novo assembly from RNA-seq data suggests that LOC100288798 extends 289kb beyond its annotated 3' end and overlaps the downstream SLC38A4 gene. Three cell lines with independent gene trap insertions in LOC100288798 were available from the KBM7 gene trap collection. RT-qPCR and RNA-seq confirmed successful lncRNA truncation and its extended length. Expression analysis from RNA-seq data shows significant deregulation of 41 protein-coding genes upon LOC100288798 truncation. Our data shows that gene trap collections in human haploid cell lines are useful tools to study lncRNAs, and identifies the previously uncharacterized LOC100288798 as a potential gene regulator.

  9. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  10. Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: The case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, Lucía; Le Gac, Mickael; Hunsperger, Heather M; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe; Cock, J Mark; Ahmed, Sophia; Coelho, Susana M; Valero, Myriam; Peters, Akira F

    2015-07-01

    The evolutionary stability of haploid-diploid life cycles is still controversial. Mathematical models indicate that niche differences between ploidy phases may be a necessary condition for the evolution and maintenance of these life cycles. Nevertheless, experimental support for this prediction remains elusive. In the present work, we explored this hypothesis in natural populations of the brown alga Ectocarpus. Consistent with the life cycle described in culture, Ectocarpus crouaniorum in NW France and E. siliculosus in SW Italy exhibited an alternation between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes. Our field data invalidated, however, the long-standing view of an isomorphic alternation of generations. Gametophytes and sporophytes displayed marked differences in size and, conforming to theoretical predictions, occupied different spatiotemporal niches. Gametophytes were found almost exclusively on the alga Scytosiphon lomentaria during spring whereas sporophytes were present year-round on abiotic substrata. Paradoxically, E. siliculosus in NW France exhibited similar habitat usage despite the absence of alternation of ploidy phases. Diploid sporophytes grew both epilithically and epiphytically, and this mainly asexual population gained the same ecological advantage postulated for haploid-diploid populations. Consequently, an ecological interpretation of the niche differences between haploid and diploid individuals does not seem to satisfactorily explain the evolution of the Ectocarpus life cycle. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. The contribution of haploids, diploids and clones to fine-scale population structure in the seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Strate, H. J.; van de Zande, L.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Local populations of Cladophoropsis membranacea exist as mats of coalesced thalli composed of free-living haploid and diploid plants including clonally reproduced plants of either phase. None of the phases are morphologically distinguishable. We used eight microsatellite loci to explore clonality an

  12. A comparative study on rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots in haploid, diploid and tetraploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haploid, diploid and tetraploid shoots of Echinacea purpurea L. sharing the same genome were cultured in medium and their rooting response to the composition of the culture medium was investigated. It was found that in medium without growth regulators, haploid shoots could initiate roots quite efficiently with the shortest time required for the emergence of roots and with the highest rooting rate; the response of the diploids was similar to that of the haploids and largely different from that of the tetraploids. The tetraploids obviously required longer time for the initiation of roots and had the lowest rooting rate. Supplementing the medium with 0.05 and 0.15 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid or 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA had little positive effect on the rooting of diploid shoots and, in some cases, had even negative effect on the rooting of haploid shoots, but enhanced effectively the rooting of the tetraploid shoots. By supplementing the medium with 0.3 mg/L IBA, the time required for the emergence of roots from the tetraploid shoots was shortened and the rooting rate was increased largely. As a result, healthy tetraploid plantlets with fully developed root system could be efficiently propagated.

  13. Comparative Mapping of the Oregon Wolfe Barley Using Doubled Haploid Lines Derived from Female and Male Gametes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population is a resource for genetics research and instruction. Prior reports are based on a population of doubled haploid (DH) lines developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (H.b.) method, which samples female gametes. We developed new DH lines from the same cross using ant...

  14. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

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    Oreto eFayos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their

  15. Associations of collectivism with relationship commitment, passion, and mate selection: opposing roles of parental influence and family allocentrism

    OpenAIRE

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (refer...

  16. SCREENING FOR CUCUMBER MOSAIC RESISTANT LINES FROM THE OVULE CULTURE DERIVED DOUBLE HAPLOID CUCUMBERS

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    Parichat Plapung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA (2:1 or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino purine (2ip and IAA (5:1 and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.

  17. Gynogenesis in Beta vulgaris L.: From in vitro culture of unpollinated ovules to the production of doubled haploid plants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossoutrot, D; Hosemans, D

    1985-12-01

    Our study concerns the different stages involved in the production of doubled haploid beet plants by in vitro gynogenesis. A histological study shows that the embryos obtained could come from the oosphere or the antipodals. Gynogenesis using male fertile plants gives nearly two haploid plants for 1000 ovules cultured: in this case, the problem is to avoid plating fertilized ovules. The gynogenetic plants obtained display an endopolyploidy phenomenon at the root meristem level while their shoot meristem remains haploid.Colchicine doubling during in vitro vegetative propagation of buds has been carried out successfully.

  18. QTL analysis of the rice seedling cold tolerance in a double haploid population derived from anther culture of a hybrid between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population,derived from anther culture of Fl hybrid between a typical indica cv.and a japonica cv.has been used to investigate the seedling cold tolerance (SCT) in growth cabinet.By dynamically analyzing every day's survival percentages of the parents and DH lines under 7-d cold plus 9-d normal temperature condition,the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SCT have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population.The results show that two parents had significant differences in SCT and the segregation of SCT in DH lines was basically a continuous distribution with most serious injury on the 6th d of the cold treatment.A total of 4 QTLs for SCT have been identified on chromosomes 1,2,3 and 4 respectively.The additive effects of qSCT-1,qSCT-2 and qSCT-3 have been contributed by the japonica cv JX17,but that of qSCT-4 has been contributed by the indica cv ZYQ8.The mechanism of SCT seems complicated since the above 4 QTLs detected at different stages during the treatment.Further study on the genotypes for these SCT QTLs in the DH lines shows transgressive segregation.It is demonstrated that the lines with stronger SCT over JXl7 have 3-4 loci for SCT.Integration of these QTLs into an appropriate variety may lead to a successful rice breeding program for cold tolerance.

  19. Eligiendo un Programa: Guia para los padres de infantes y pre-escolares con incapacidades visuales (Selecting a Program: A Guide for Parents of Infants & Preschoolers with Visual Impairments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deborah; McCann, Mary Ellen

    Translated into Spanish, this booklet is intended for parents of infants and preschoolers with visual impairments or blindness. The guide focuses on the parent's role in selecting an appropriate program and helping the child make a positive transition into the program. The first section looks at feelings about transitions and positive steps…

  20. Exact Markov chain and approximate diffusion solution for haploid genetic drift with one-way mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A; Miloh, Touvia

    2016-02-01

    The classical Kimura solution of the diffusion equation is investigated for a haploid random mating (Wright-Fisher) model, with one-way mutations and initial-value specified by the founder population. The validity of the transient diffusion solution is checked by exact Markov chain computations, using a Jordan decomposition of the transition matrix. The conclusion is that the one-way diffusion model mostly works well, although the rate of convergence depends on the initial allele frequency and the mutation rate. The diffusion approximation is poor for mutation rates so low that the non-fixation boundary is regular. When this happens we perturb the diffusion solution around the non-fixation boundary and obtain a more accurate approximation that takes quasi-fixation of the mutant allele into account. The main application is to quantify how fast a specific genetic variant of the infinite alleles model is lost. We also discuss extensions of the quasi-fixation approach to other models with small mutation rates.

  1. Organogenesis of stem and leaf protoplasts of a haploid golden delicious apple clone (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat-Ochatt, E M; Boccon-Gibod, J; Duron, M; Ochatt, S J

    1993-01-01

    Highly viable protoplasts were isolated in large numbers from in vitro-grown leaf and stem tissues of a haploid clone of the apple scion cultivar Golden Delicious (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.). Protoplasts from both sources divided rapidly to give microcallus, when cultured in a modified Kao and Michayluk-based medium. Following two successive subcultures for callusing, shoot buds were regenerated from such calli, on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an increased concentration of group B vitamins and containing 5.0 mg.l(-1) 6-benzyl-aminopurine and 0.1 mg.l(-1) l-naphthaleneacetic acid (for the leaf protoplast-derived calli) or 4-indole-3yl-butyric acid (for stem protoplast-derived calli). The mesophyll protoplast-derived shoots were enfeebled and vitrified, in time with their ultimate death. Conversely, for those shoots deriving from the stem protoplasts, in vitro propagation was successfully achieved. This is the first report on the successful isolation, culture and organogenesis from stem protoplasts of a woody plant genotype.

  2. Impact of genetic structures on haploid genome-based quantification of genetically modified DNA: theoretical considerations, experimental data in MON 810 maize kernels (Zea mays L.) and some practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David; Corlet, Aurélie; Fouilloux, Stephane

    2008-06-01

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assays are widely used to estimate the content of genetically modified (GM) materials in food, feed and seed. It has been known that the genetic structures of the analyte can significantly influence the GM content expressed by the haploid genome (HG) % estimated using real-time PCR assays; this kind of influence is also understood as the impact of biological factors. The influence was first simulated at theoretical level using maize as a model. We then experimentally assessed the impact of biological factors on quantitative results, analysing by quantitative real-time PCR six maize MON 810 hybrid kernels with different genetic structures: (1) hemizygous from transgenic male parent, (2) hemizygous from transgenic female parent and (3) homozygous at the transgenic locus. The results obtained in the present study showed clear influences of biological factors on GM DNA quantification: 1% of GM materials by weight (wt) for the three genetic structures contained 0.39, 0.55 and 1.0% of GM DNA by HG respectively, from quantitative real-time PCR analyses. The relationships between GM wt% and GM HG% can be empirically established as: (1) in the case of the presence of a single GM trait: GM HG% = GM wt% x (0.5 +/- 0.167Y), where Y is the endosperm DNA content (%) in the total DNA of a maize kernel, (2) in the case of the presence of multiple GM traits: GM HG% = N x GM wt% x (0.5 +/- 0.167Y), where N is the number of GM traits (stacked or not) present in an unknown sample. This finding can be used by stakeholders related to GMO for empirical prediction from one unit of expression to another in the monitoring of seed and grain production chains. Practical equations have also been suggested for haploid copy number calculations, using hemizygous GM materials for calibration curves.

  3. Separated Families and Children Who Refuse Access to a Parent. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Emilia

    On the whole, professionals agree that there is an advantage in both parents having access to the child or children after separation. This paper provides (1) an overview of the controversy over the value of such access; (2) a description of various contexts of access disputes and perspectives involved in the assessment of access situations; (3) a…

  4. When father doesn't know best: selective disagreement between self-report and informant report of the broad autism phenotype in parents of a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J; Faso, Daniel J; Parlier, Morgan; Daniels, Julie L; Piven, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) is a reliable tool for identifying three autism-related traits-social aloofness, pragmatic language abnormalities and rigid personality--within families of a person with autism and the general population. Although little is known concerning agreement between self-report and informant report versions of the BAPQ, identifying individual characteristics affecting agreement between the two can highlight important considerations for maximizing its yield, particularly when only one version is administered. Here, analysis of self-report and informant report of the BAPQ completed by 444 parents of a child with autism revealed moderate to strong agreement between the two versions for all three broad autism phenotype (BAP) traits when the self-reporting parent did not possess the trait being assessed. In contrast, disagreement selectively occurred when the assessed parent was positive for the BAP trait being rated. This pattern was driven primarily by fathers who were positive for a BAP trait endorsing lower levels of that trait relative to informant report. This discrepancy did not occur for mothers, nor did it occur for fathers lacking BAP traits. Because this pattern was specific to fathers positive for BAP traits, it likely reflects selective "blind spots" in their self-reporting and not poorer self-reporting by fathers more broadly, nor a general tendency of overreporting by informant mothers. The presence of BAP traits in informing parents, however, largely did not reduce agreement between self-report and informant report. In sum, self-report may underestimate the presence of BAP traits in fathers but is generally consistent with informant report for mothers.

  5. [Sedentary behaviour 13-years-olds and its association with selected health behaviours, parenting practices and body mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Tabak, Izabela; Oblacińska, Anna; Stalmach, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    1. To estimate the time spent in sedentary behaviour (watching TV, using the computer, doing homework). 2. To assess the link between the total time spent on watching TV, using the computer, doing homework and dietary habits, physical activity, parental practices and body mass. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Poland in 2008 among 13-year olds (n=600). They self-reported their time of TV viewing, computer use and homework. Their dietary behaviours, physical activity (MVPA) and parenting practices were also self-reported. Height and weight were measured by school nurses. Descriptive statistics and correlation were used in this analysis. The mean time spent watching television in school days was 2.3 hours for girls and 2.2 for boys. Boys spent significantly more time using the computer than girls - respectively 1.8 and 1.5 hours, while girls took longer doing homework - respectively 1.7 and 1.3 hours. Mean screen time was about 4 hours in school days and about 6 hours during weekend, statistically longer for boys in weekdays. Screen time was positively associated with intake of sweets, chips, soft drinks, "fast food" and meals consumption during TV, and negatively with regularity of meals and parental supervision. There was no correlation between screen time with physical activity and body mass. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity are not competing behaviours in Polish teenagers, but their relationship with unhealthy dietary patterns may lead to development of obesity. Good parental practices, both mother's and father's supervision seems to be crucial for screen time limitation in their children. Parents should become aware that relevant lifestyle monitoring of their children is a crucial element of health education in prevention of civilization diseases. This is a task for both healthcare workers and educational staff.

  6. Mapping of QTL for tiller number at different stages of growth in wheat using double haploid and immortalized F2 populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhuokun Li; Tao Peng; Quangang Xie; Shuxiao Han; Jichun Tian

    2010-12-01

    Effective tiller number is one of the most important traits for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, but the inheritance of tillering is poorly understood. A set of 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines derivatives of a cross between two winter wheat cultivars (Huapei 3 and Yumai 57), and an immortalized F2 (IF2) population generated by randomly permutated intermating of these DHs were investigated, and QTLs of tillering related to the maximum tillering of pre-winter (MTW), maximum tillering in spring (MTS), and effective tillering in harvest (ETH) were mapped. Phenotypic data were collected for the two populations from two different environments. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM), a total of 9 and 18 significant QTL were detected across environments for tillering in the DH and IF2 populations, respectively. Four QTLs were common between two populations. A major QTL located on the 5D chromosome with the allele originating from Yumai 57 was detected and increased 1.92 and 3.55 tillers in MTW and MTS, respectively. QTLs (QMts6D, QEth6D) having a neighbouring marker interval at Xswes679.1 and Xcfa2129 on chromosome 6D was detected in MTS and ETH. These results provide a better understanding of the genetic factors for selectively expressing the control of tiller number in different growth stages and facilitate marker-assisted selection strategy in breeding.

  7. Critical mutation rate has an exponential dependence on population size in haploid and diploid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Elizabeth; Channon, Alastair; Day, Charles; Knight, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effect of population size on the key parameters of evolution is particularly important for populations nearing extinction. There are evolutionary pressures to evolve sequences that are both fit and robust. At high mutation rates, individuals with greater mutational robustness can outcompete those with higher fitness. This is survival-of-the-flattest, and has been observed in digital organisms, theoretically, in simulated RNA evolution, and in RNA viruses. We introduce an algorithmic method capable of determining the relationship between population size, the critical mutation rate at which individuals with greater robustness to mutation are favoured over individuals with greater fitness, and the error threshold. Verification for this method is provided against analytical models for the error threshold. We show that the critical mutation rate for increasing haploid population sizes can be approximated by an exponential function, with much lower mutation rates tolerated by small populations. This is in contrast to previous studies which identified that critical mutation rate was independent of population size. The algorithm is extended to diploid populations in a system modelled on the biological process of meiosis. The results confirm that the relationship remains exponential, but show that both the critical mutation rate and error threshold are lower for diploids, rather than higher as might have been expected. Analyzing the transition from critical mutation rate to error threshold provides an improved definition of critical mutation rate. Natural populations with their numbers in decline can be expected to lose genetic material in line with the exponential model, accelerating and potentially irreversibly advancing their decline, and this could potentially affect extinction, recovery and population management strategy. The effect of population size is particularly strong in small populations with 100 individuals or less; the exponential model has

  8. The novel, actin-like protein Tact3 is expressed in rodent testicular haploid germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung-Dug; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Jae-Il; Chun, Sang-Young; Ryu, Tae-hun; Soh, Jaemog

    2013-12-01

    Mouse testis actin-like proteins 1 and 2 (mTact1 and mTact2), which are expressed in murine haploid germ cells, have been described previously. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a third actin-like protein from rat, rat testis actin-like protein 3 (rTact3). The complete cDNA of the rTact3 gene was approximately 3.7 kb in length, and its corresponding amino acid sequence consisted of 1219 amino acids. The rTact3 gene lacks introns, similar to mTact1 and mTact2. The 356 C-terminal amino acids of rTact3 showed 43% homology with mTact1, whereas the 863 N-terminal amino acids did not show any significant homology. Northern blot analysis revealed that rTact3 mRNA was expressed only in adult rat testes and not during the prepubescent stage. In situ hybridization revealed that rTact3 was expressed exclusively during round and elongated spermatids maturation stages in rat testes. Immunohistochemical experiments using antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide showed that the expression of the rTact3 protein was also restricted in round and elongated spermatids, specifically in the head and acrosome of mature rat sperm. The 5′-flanking region of the mTact3 gene was found to contain a TATA-box motif as well as two putative CREB/c-Jun and five C/EBP motifs. mTact3 promoter activity was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by the transfection of CREB, c-Jun, or C/EBP in NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that Tact3 proteins might play an important role in rodent germ-cell development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Parents are Educators: Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ed

    1982-01-01

    Discusses growing recognition of the importance of parenting and of parents as educators, due to the increase in single-parent households and awareness of importance of early childhood learning experiences. Ways outdoor education can help (emphasizing methods, materials, motivations) are described, including 11 starting points and 15 tips for…

  10. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  11. Fertilization in Flowering Plants: 2. Selection of the Male Partner is the Prerogative of the Maternal Parent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-01

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourcedagents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to selectthe right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in humanbeings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screeningprocess to select the right pollen grains and to reject thewrong ones. Even after initial screening for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe girl (ovule) has no say in this selection.

  12. An AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) using haploid DNA samples of megagametophytes from a single maternal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Yul; Choi, Hyung-Soon; Kang, Bum-Yong

    2005-10-31

    We have constructed an AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc.) using haploid DNA samples of 96 megagametophytes from a single maternal tree, selection clone Kyungbuk 4. Twenty-eight primer pairs generated a total of 5,780 AFLP fragments. Five hundreds and thirteen fragments were verified as genetic markers with two alleles by their Mendelian segregation. At the linkage criteria LOD 4.0 and maximum recombination fraction 0.25(theta), a total of 152 markers constituted 25 framework maps for 19 major linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2,341 cM with an average framework marker spacing of 18.4 cM. The estimated genome size was 2,662 cM. With an assumption of equal marker density, 82.2% of the estimated genome would be within 10 cM of one of the 230 linked markers, and 68.1% would be within 10 cM of one of the 152 framework markers. We evaluated map completeness in terms of LOD value, marker density, genome length, and map coverage. The resulting map will provide crucial information for future genomic studies of the Japanese red pine, in particular for QTL mapping of economically important breeding target traits.

  13. Genetic Diversity in Haploid Nicotiana alata Induced by Gamma Irradiation, Salt Tolerance and Detection of These Differences by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haploid plants of Nicotiana alata were cultured in vitro on MS medium with IAA + KIN. The resulting plantlets were irradiated using gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. Single node pieces were cut and transferred onto fresh MS medium. Gamma radiation doses caused the death of 9% and up to 28% of explants. NaCl concentrations caused the death of 8% up to 36% of explants, while the combined effect between gamma radiation doses and salinity had an impact suffused on the percentage of survival. The combined effect of gamma radiation doses 20 Gy and 25 Gy on NaCl concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 mM were deadly. Even more, the combined effect of gamma radiation doses and salinity had a severe negative impact on both the proline content and total soluble protein. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different haploid plantlets treated were amplified using five arbitrary primers. Two hundred and seventy bands were detected from plantlets irradiated with doses of 15, 20 and 25 Gy, with polymorphic band number 226 (83.7%. The total number of bands resulted from plant grew on 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl were 260 bands with polymorphic bands 185 (85.6%. However, the total number of bands produced from combined effects between gamma rays and salinity (20 Gy X 50 mM NaCl, 20 Gy X 100 mM NaCl and 25 Gy X 50 mM NaCl were 270, with polymorphic band number 231 (85.5%. High similarity between treatments was revealed. Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA based on RAPD data.

  14. A comparison of selected Precambrian Brazilian chromitites: Chromite, PGE-PGM, and Re/Os as parental source indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, V. A. V.; Ferrario, A.; Correia, C. T.; Diella, V.

    2006-03-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies were carried out in chromitites belonging to the mafic-ultramafic bodies of Niquelândia, Luanga, and Campo Formoso, which are, respectively, included in the Goiás Massif and the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. The main platinum-group minerals (PGM) included or associated with chromite grains are laurite in Niquelândia and Campo Formoso and sperrylite and braggite in Luanga. The most common primary base metal sulfides (BMS) are pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrrhotite. Also present are base metal alloys (BMA), such as awaruite, and the BMS millerite, pyrite, and copper as secondary mineral phases linked to later alteration process. The Luanga chromites display the lowest Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios. The chondrite-normalized profiles are strongly enriched in the platinum PGE subgroup (PPGE, Pt, Pd, Rh). The average Pd/Ir ratio (24.2) and 187Os/ 188Os values (0.17869-0.18584) are very high. Niquelândia chromites have higher Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios than Luanga. Its PGE contents are low and chondrite-normalized profiles depleted, mainly in the PPGE subgroup. The average Pd/Ir ratio (0.45) and 187Os/ 188Os values (0.12598-0.12777) are low. Campo Formoso chromites have the highest Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios; its average Pd/Ir ratio (0.72) and chondrite-normalized profiles (except the pronounced Ru spike) are closer to those of Niquelândia. The remarkable differences in terms of chromite bulk-composition, PGE contents and patterns, Pd/Ir ratios, and 187Os/ 188Os values associated with probable distinctions in the inferred geochemical compositions of the respective parental magmas indicate that the Luanga and Niquelândia complexes originated from distinct parental sources. Geochemical and isotopic features indicate that Luanga chromitites and associated rocks are consistent with a parental magma, either originated from an enriched mantle reservoir or strongly contaminated

  15. Legal size limit implies strong fisheries selection on sexually selected traits in a temperate wrasse providing male-only parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Aleksander Tallaksen Halvorsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops is a temperate wrasse displaying both sex and male dimorphism and is targeted in a size selective commercial fishery which has increased dramatically since 2008. Wrasses are supplied alive to salmon farms as cleaner fish to combat infestations of Salmon lice. In previous studies, growth and maturation has been found to differ among male morphs and sexes and these groups might therefore be targeted unevenly by the size selective fishery. In the present study, we address this by comparing size regulations and fishing practice with data on sex specific growth and maturation from Western and Southern Norway, two regions varying in density and life histories. Two years of field data on density and length measures was used together with a subsample of otoliths to determine sex specific growth patterns. In the region with high density, nesting males were found to grow faster and mature later than sneaker males and females. Here, most nesting males will reach the minimum size as juveniles, one and two years before females and sneakers respectively. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was much less pronounced in the low density region, and relaxed male-male competition over nesting sites seems a likely explanation for this pattern. Intensive harvesting with selective removal of the larger nesting males could potentially lead to short term effect such as sperm limitation and reduced offspring survival and thus affect the productivity of juveniles. In addition, the current fishing regime may select for reduced growth rates and earlier maturation and oppose sexual selection.

  16. Adaptation to the cost of resistance: a model of compensation, recombination, and selection in a haploid organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, P.J.; Bosch, van den F.; Jeger, M.J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of pathogenic organisms often evolve resistance in response to the use of pesticides or antibiotics. This rise of resistance may be followed by a fall when chemical control is suspended and resistance alleles carry a fitness cost. Another possibility is that mutations at secondary loci c

  17. Adaptation to the cost of resistance: a model of compensation, recombination, and selection in a haploid organism

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaarden, Pieter J.; van den Bosch, Frank; Jeger, Michael J.; Rolf F Hoekstra

    2004-01-01

    Populations of pathogenic organisms often evolve resistance in response to the use of pesticides or antibiotics. This rise of resistance may be followed by a fall when chemical control is suspended and resistance alleles carry a fitness cost. Another possibility is that mutations at secondary loci compensate for the cost, usually without loss of resistance. This enables resistant types to withstand invasion by the susceptible wild-type; resistance then persists in the population, which reduce...

  18. Standing at the gateway to Europe--the genetic structure of Western balkan populations based on autosomal and haploid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula.

  19. Culture and fusion of pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica with haploid mesophyll protoplasts of B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Ryschka, U; Marthe, F; Klocke, E; Schumann, G; Zhao, H

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid callus was formed from the successful protoplast fusion between pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea var. italica and haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Brassica rapa. The pollen protoplast isolation frequency in broccoli was highly related to the ratio of trinucleate pollens in the male gametophyte population. Large quantities of pollen protoplasts with high vigor could be isolated, and the isolation frequency reached up to 90% in 6.0-7.0 mm long flower buds with about 94.7% trinucleate-stage pollens. Pollen protoplasts could be collected and purified by discontinuous gradient centrifugation. In 1% Na-alginate embedding culture, cell divisions were observed but no further development was found. The haploid mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from in vitro haploid plants of B. rapa. Results strongly showed the variability in culturability of mesophyll protoplasts from different haploid lines. Both pollen protoplasts and haploid mesophyll protoplasts retained a stable round shape in the designed prefusion solution with an osmotic pressure of 0.74 osmol/kg. Polyethylene glycol was used for the protoplast fusion, and 40% polyethylene glycol 4000 enabled the highest fusion frequency of about 20%. Some postfusion protoplasts showed cell divisions up to callus proliferation. Calli were screened by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis for their hybrid character. Results revealed the existence of the hybrid calli. Some of the hybrid calli grew well with green color and shoot primordia. According to our knowledge, this is the first report about a hybrid formation between two haploid protoplasts. Potential comprehensive applications, as well as problems of this technique, are discussed.

  20. RNA-Guided Cas9-Induced Mutagenesis in Tobacco Followed by Efficient Genetic Fixation in Doubled Haploid Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, Sindy; Pencs, Stefanie; Hensel, Götz; Müller, Andrea; Rutten, Twan; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Customizable endonucleases are providing an effective tool for genome engineering. The resulting primary transgenic individuals (T0) are typically heterozygous and/or chimeric with respect to any mutations induced. To generate genetically fixed mutants, they are conventionally allowed to self-pollinate, a procedure which segregates individuals into mutant heterozygotes/homozygotes and wild types. The chances of recovering homozygous mutants among the progeny depend not only on meiotic segregation but also on the frequency of mutated germline cells in the chimeric mother plant. In Nicotiana species, the heritability of Cas9-induced mutations has not been demonstrated yet. RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease-mediated mutagenesis was targeted to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene harbored by a transgenic tobacco line. Upon retransformation using a GFP-specific guide RNA/Cas9 construct, the T0 plants were allowed to either self-pollinate, or were propagated via regeneration from in vitro cultured embryogenic pollen which give rise to haploid/doubled haploid plants or from leaf explants that form plants vegetatively. Single or multiple mutations were detected in 80% of the T0 plants. About half of these mutations proved heritable via selfing. Regeneration from in vitro cultured embryogenic pollen allowed for homozygous mutants to be produced more efficiently than via sexual reproduction. Consequently, embryogenic pollen culture provides a convenient method to rapidly generate a variety of genetically fixed mutants following site-directed mutagenesis. The recovery of a mutation not found among sexually produced and analyzed progeny was shown to be achievable through vegetative plant propagation in vitro, which eventually resulted in heritability when the somatic clones were selfed. In addition, some in-frame mutations were associated with functional attenuation of the target gene rather than its full knock-out. The generation of mutants with compromised rather than

  1. Genome Sequences of Industrially Relevant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain M3707, Isolated from a Sample of Distillers Yeast and Four Haploid Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Courtney M.; Clum, Alicia; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Sharma, Aditi; Zane, Matthew; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Davison, Brian H.; Lynd, Lee R.; Gilna, Paul; Hau, Heidi; Hogsett, David A.; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2013-04-19

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain M3707 was isolated from a sample of commercial distillers yeast, and its genome sequence together with the genome sequences for the four derived haploid strains M3836, M3837, M3838, and M3839 has been determined. Yeasts have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) for biofuel production, and access to these genome sequences will facilitate their development.

  2. Medaka haploid embryonic stem cells are susceptible to Singapore grouper iridovirus as well as to other viruses of aquaculture fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongming; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei; Hong, Yunhan

    2013-10-01

    Viral infection is a challenge in high-density aquaculture, as it leads to various diseases and causes massive or even complete loss. The identification and disruption of host factors that viruses utilize for infection offer a novel approach to generate viral-resistant seed stocks for cost-efficient and sustainable aquaculture. Genetic screening in haploid cell cultures represents an ideal tool for host factor identification. We have recently generated haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in the laboratory fish medaka. Here, we report that HX1, one of the three established medaka haploid ES cell lines, was susceptible to the viruses tested and is thus suitable for genetic screening to identify host factors. HX1 cells displayed a cytopathic effect and massive death upon inoculation with three highly infectious and notifiable fish viruses, namely Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed the expression of virus genes. SGIV infection in HX1 cells elicited a host immune response and apoptosis. Viral replication kinetics were determined from a virus growth curve, and electron microscopy revealed propagation, assembly and release of infectious SGIV particles in HX1 cells. Our results demonstrate that medaka haploid ES cells are susceptible to SGIV, as well as to SVCV and RGNNV, offering a unique opportunity for the identification of host factors by genetic screening.

  3. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  4. Are These Parents for Real? Students' Views of Parents in Realistic and Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Janis M.; Gonzales, Monica C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes what students had to say about parental roles. Includes students' views about parental roles in real life, their expectations of parental roles in realistic and historical novels, their impressions of the parents they encountered in the selected books, and a comparison across genres about these parental characters. Presents guidelines…

  5. Are These Parents for Real? Students' Views of Parents in Realistic and Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Janis M.; Gonzales, Monica C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes what students had to say about parental roles. Includes students' views about parental roles in real life, their expectations of parental roles in realistic and historical novels, their impressions of the parents they encountered in the selected books, and a comparison across genres about these parental characters. Presents guidelines…

  6. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  7. Sex-Biased Parent-Offspring Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo, T.; Gomendio, Montserrat; Medina, Rosario

    1992-01-01

    In species showing sexual dimorphism, parents may obtain different fitness returns per unit of parental expenditure from sons and daughters. Under these circumstances, parents are expected to invest extra resources in offspring of the most profitable sex. However, it is unclear whether sex-biased expenditure is the result of selection acting on parents, their offspring, or both. Current parent-offspring conflict theory is used to investigate whether sex biases in parental expenditure should b...

  8. Desenvolvimento de populações duplo-haplóides de cevada cervejeira associadas à atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases Development of doubled-haploids populations in malting barley associated to activity of enzymes (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Endres Georg-Kraemer

    2011-05-01

    culture protocol. Two crosses were performed with contrasting cultivars to (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases activity. Parental cultivars used were 'MN 698' and 'CEV 97047' for the development of 'green malt' population (MV and Embrapa 127 and 'CEV 96025' for the development of "dry malt" population (MS. For the MS and MV populations, 10,734 and 4,139 anthers were cultured, respectively. MV population produced 50% more green seedlings as compared to MS population, which reflects the importance of genotype to the culturing of anthers and to regeneration. Most doubled-haploid adult plants were obtained by in vitro spontaneous duplication of the haploid genome, which occurred in 66% of plants from the MS population and 76% of plants from the MV population. Haploid, triploid and tetraploid individuals were also observed, though at low frequencies. The anther culture protocol afforded to develop 204 double-haploid lineages, of which 72 were generated by the 'dry malt' population and 132 from the "green malt" population. This material should be considered as important germplasm for barley genetic improvement.

  9. Genetic and physiological variants of yeast selected from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Okerentugba, P O

    2001-01-01

    Genetic screening of 1200-palm wine yeasts lead to the selection of fourteen isolates with various genetic and physiological properties. Nine of the isolates were identified as Saccharamyces species, three as Candida species, one as Schizosaccharomyces species and one as Kluyveromyces species. Five of the isolates were wild type parents, two were respiratory deficient mutants (rho) and nine were auxotrophic mutants. Four isolates were heterozygous diploid (alphaa) and two were homozygous diploid (aa/alphaalpha) for the mating a mating types were further identified on mating with type loci. Four Mat alpha and four Mat a types were further identified on mating with standard haploid yeast strains. Forty-five percent sporulated on starvation medium producing tetrads. Fifty-two percent of the four-spored asci contained four viable spores. Maximum specific growth rate [micromax] of the fourteen isolates range from 0.13-0.26, five isolates were able to utilize exogenous nitrate for growth. Percentage alcohol production range between 5.8-8.8% for palm wine yeast, 8.5% for bakers' yeast and 10.4% for brewers yeast. The palm wine yeast were more tolerant to exogenous alcohol but had a low alcohol productivity. Hybridization enhanced alcohol productivity and tolerance in the palm wine yeasts.

  10. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  11. Parental Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  12. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salamanders) ferrets baby poultry (chicks, ducklings, goslings, turkeys) monkeys exotic animals Reptiles transmit salmonella , a kind of ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  13. Potent L-lactic acid assimilation of the fermentative and heterothallic haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain.

  14. Efficient assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of catfish by RNA-Seq analysis of a doubled haploid homozygote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shikai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon the completion of whole genome sequencing, thorough genome annotation that associates genome sequences with biological meanings is essential. Genome annotation depends on the availability of transcript information as well as orthology information. In teleost fish, genome annotation is seriously hindered by genome duplication. Because of gene duplications, one cannot establish orthologies simply by homology comparisons. Rather intense phylogenetic analysis or structural analysis of orthologies is required for the identification of genes. To conduct phylogenetic analysis and orthology analysis, full-length transcripts are essential. Generation of large numbers of full-length transcripts using traditional transcript sequencing is very difficult and extremely costly. Results In this work, we took advantage of a doubled haploid catfish, which has two sets of identical chromosomes and in theory there should be no allelic variations. As such, transcript sequences generated from next-generation sequencing can be favorably assembled into full-length transcripts. Deep sequencing of the doubled haploid channel catfish transcriptome was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, yielding over 300 million high-quality trimmed reads totaling 27 Gbp. Assembly of these reads generated 370,798 non-redundant transcript-derived contigs. Functional annotation of the assembly allowed identification of 25,144 unique protein-encoding genes. A total of 2,659 unique genes were identified as putative duplicated genes in the catfish genome because the assembly of the corresponding transcripts harbored PSVs or MSVs (in the form of pseudo-SNPs in the assembly. Of the 25,144 contigs with unique protein hits, around 20,000 contigs matched 50% length of reference proteins, and over 14,000 transcripts were identified as full-length with complete open reading frames. The characterization of consensus sequences surrounding start codon and the stop

  15. Mating system and gene flow in the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis: effect of haploid-diploid life history and intertidal rocky shore landscape on fine-scale genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C R; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    2004-04-01

    The impact of haploid-diploidy and the intertidal landscape on a fine-scale genetic structure was explored in a red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis. The pattern of genetic structure was compared in haploid and diploid stages at a microgeographic scale (shore. In this intertidal species, biased spore dispersal may occur during the transport of spores and gametes at low tide when small streams flow from high- to lower-shore pools. The longevity of both haploid and diploid free-living stages and the long generation times typical of G. gracilis populations may promote the observed pattern of high genetic diversity within populations relative to that among populations.

  16. Towards a Concept of Parental Authority in Adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metka Kuhar; Herwig Reiter

    2013-01-01

    .... However, the notion of ‘parental authority’ remains largely unspecified. The present article first critically reviews conceptualisations of parental authority in selected developmental-psychological approaches...

  17. Parent selection for cocoa resistance to witches'-broom Seleção de progenitores de cacaueiro quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify genotypes with high general combining ability for resistance to witches'-broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa in populations formed from a first cycle of recurrent selection. Highly productive and resistant clones from different origins were interbred using the North Carolina II design. The clones SCA 6, CSUL 7, RB 39, CEPEC 89, OC 67, BE 4, EEG 29 and ICS 98 were used as paternal parents, while the maternal ones were NA 33, CCN 10, IMC 67, P 4B, CCN 51, CEPEC 86, SGU 54 and ICS 9. Twenty days after germination, 56 seedlings of each cross (four replicates of 14 seedlings received the inoculation of a 1-mL suspension with 7.5x10(4 basidiospores mL-1. Symptoms were evaluated 60 days after inoculation. Significant differences were observed among paternal and among maternal parents, for resistance to witches'-broom assessed according to the proportion of progeny seedlings with the disease symptoms. Differences were also observed between groups of mothers or fathers previously defined as resistant, and groups previously defined as susceptible. It is possible to obtain a combination of genes that can increase the level of resistance to witches'-broom directly from the first cycle of recurrent selection.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos com alta capacidade geral de combinação quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa (Moniliophthora perniciosa, em populações formadas a partir do primeiro ciclo de seleção recorrente. Clones altamente produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa, de diferentes procedências, foram intercruzados com uso do delineamento Carolina do Norte II. Como progenitores paternos, foram utilizados os clones SCA 6, CSUL 7, RB 39, CEPEC 89, OC 67, BE 4, EEG 29 e ICS 98 e, como maternos, NA 33, CCN 10, IMC 67, P 4B, CCN 51, CEPEC 86, SGU 54 e ICS 9. Vinte dias após a germinação, 56 plântulas de cada cruzamento (quatro repetições de 14 plântulas receberam inocula

  18. Genomic saturation mutagenesis and polygenic analysis identify novel yeast genes affecting ethyl acetate production, a non-selectable polygenic trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Den Abt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of mutants in populations of microorganisms has been a valuable tool in experimental genetics for decades. The main disadvantage, however, is the inability of isolating mutants in non-selectable polygenic traits. Most traits of organisms, however, are non-selectable and polygenic, including industrially important properties of microorganisms. The advent of powerful technologies for polygenic analysis of complex traits has allowed simultaneous identification of multiple causative mutations among many thousands of irrelevant mutations. We now show that this also applies to haploid strains of which the genome has been loaded with induced mutations so as to affect as many non-selectable, polygenic traits as possible. We have introduced about 900 mutations into single haploid yeast strains using multiple rounds of EMS mutagenesis, while maintaining the mating capacity required for genetic mapping. We screened the strains for defects in flavor production, an important non-selectable, polygenic trait in yeast alcoholic beverage production. A haploid strain with multiple induced mutations showing reduced ethyl acetate production in semi-anaerobic fermentation, was selected and the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTLs were mapped using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis after crossing with an unrelated haploid strain. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis and allele exchange identified PMA1 and CEM1 as causative mutant alleles and TPS1 as a causative genetic background allele. The case of CEM1 revealed that relevant mutations without observable effect in the haploid strain with multiple induced mutations (in this case due to defective mitochondria can be identified by polygenic analysis as long as the mutations have an effect in part of the segregants (in this case those that regained fully functional mitochondria. Our results show that genomic saturation mutagenesis combined with complex trait polygenic analysis could be used

  19. A proportion of mutations fixed in the genomes of in vitro selected isogenic drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants can be detected as minority variants in the parent culture

    KAUST Repository

    Bergval, Indra

    2015-01-09

    We studied genomic variation in a previously selected collection of isogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis laboratory strains subjected to one or two rounds of antibiotic selection. Whole genome sequencing analysis identified eleven single, unique mutations (four synonymous, six non-synonymous, one intergenic), in addition to drug resistance-conferring mutations, that were fixed in the genomes of six monoresistant strains. Eight loci, present as minority variants (five non-synonymous, three synonymous) in the genome of the susceptible parent strain, became fixed in the genomes of multiple daughter strains. None of these mutations are known to be involved with drug resistance. Our results confirm previously observed genomic stability for M. tuberculosis, although the parent strain had accumulated allelic variants at multiple locations in an antibiotic-free in vitro environment. It is therefore likely to assume that these so-called hitchhiking mutations were co-selected and fixed in multiple daughter strains during antibiotic selection. The presence of multiple allelic variations, accumulated under non-selective conditions, which become fixed during subsequent selective steps, deserves attention. The wider availability of \\'deep\\' sequencing methods could help to detect multiple bacterial (sub)populations within patients with high resolution and would therefore be useful in assisting in the detailed investigation of transmission chains.

  20. Using molecular markers to map multiple quantitative trait loci: models for backcross, recombinant inbred, and doubled haploid progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, S J

    1991-03-01

    To maximize parameter estimation efficiency and statistical power and to estimate epistasis, the parameters of multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) must be simultaneously estimated. If multiple QTL affect a trait, then estimates of means of QTL genotypes from individual locus models are statistically biased. In this paper, I describe methods for estimating means of QTL genotypes and recombination frequencies between marker and quantitative trait loci using multilocus backcross, doubled haploid, recombinant inbred, and testcross progeny models. Expected values of marker genotype means were defined using no double or multiple crossover frequencies and flanking markers for linked and unlinked quantitative trait loci. The expected values for a particular model comprise a system of nonlinear equations that can be solved using an interative algorithm, e.g., the Gauss-Newton algorithm. The solutions are maximum likelihood estimates when the errors are normally distributed. A linear model for estimating the parameters of unlinked quantitative trait loci was found by transforming the nonlinear model. Recombination frequency estimators were defined using this linear model. Certain means of linked QTLs are less efficiently estimated than means of unlinked QTLs.

  1. True-breeding targeted gene knock-out in barley using designer TALE-nuclease in haploid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Gurushidze

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are customizable fusion proteins able to cleave virtually any genomic DNA sequence of choice, and thereby to generate site-directed genetic modifications in a wide range of cells and organisms. In the present study, we expressed TALENs in pollen-derived, regenerable cells to establish the generation of instantly true-breeding mutant plants. A gfp-specific TALEN pair was expressed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in embryogenic pollen of transgenic barley harboring a functional copy of gfp. Thanks to the haploid nature of the target cells, knock-out mutations were readily detected, and homozygous primary mutant plants obtained following genome duplication. In all, 22% of the TALEN transgenics proved knocked out with respect to gfp, and the loss of function could be ascribed to the deletions of between four and 36 nucleotides in length. The altered gfp alleles were transmitted normally through meiosis, and the knock-out phenotype was consistently shown by the offspring of two independent mutants. Thus, here we describe the efficient production of TALEN-mediated gene knock-outs in barley that are instantaneously homozygous and non-chimeric in regard to the site-directed mutations induced. This TALEN approach has broad applicability for both elucidating gene function and tailoring the phenotype of barley and other crop species.

  2. Melatonin promotes development of haploid germ cells from early developing spermatogenic cells of Suffolk sheep under in vitro condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shou-Long; Chen, Su-Ren; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Ji-Xin; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Cheng, Jin-Mei; Jin, Cheng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bao-Lu; Yu, Kun; Lian, Zheng-Xing; Liu, Guo-Shi; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2016-05-01

    Promotion of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) differentiation into functional sperms under in vitro conditions is a great challenge for reproductive physiologists. In this study, we observed that melatonin (10(-7) M) supplementation significantly enhanced the cultured SSCs differentiation into haploid germ cells. This was confirmed by the expression of sperm special protein, acrosin. The rate of SSCs differentiation into sperm with melatonin supplementation was 11.85 ± 0.93% which was twofold higher than that in the control. The level of testosterone, the transcriptions of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were upregulated with melatonin treatment. At the early stage of SSCs culture, melatonin suppressed the level of cAMP, while at the later stage, it promoted cAMP production. The similar pattern was observed in testosterone content. Expressions for marker genes of meiosis anaphase, Dnmt3a, and Bcl-2 were upregulated by melatonin. In contrast, Bax expression was downregulated. Importantly, the in vitro-generated sperms were functional and they were capable to fertilize oocytes. These fertilized oocytes have successfully developed to the blastula stage.

  3. Proteomic analysis from haploid and diploid embryos of Quercus suber L. identifies qualitative and quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Aranzazu; López, Juan Antonio; Pintos, Beatriz; Camafeita, Emilio; Bueno, Ma Angeles

    2009-09-01

    Quercus suber L. is a Mediterranean forest species with ecological, social and economic value. Clonal propagation of Q. suber elite trees has been successfully obtained from in vitro-derived somatic and gametic embryos. These clonal lines play a main role in breeding and genetic studies of Q. suber. To aid in unravelling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach is proposed. The proteomic analysis of Q. suber somatic and gametic in vitro culture-derived embryos, based on DIGE and MALDI-MS, has produced for the first time proteomic data on this species. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins have been identified which display significantly altered levels between gametic and somatic embryos. These proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, most of which had been neither previously associated with embryo development nor identified in the genus Quercus. Some of these proteins are involved in stress and pollen development and others play a role in the metabolism of tannins and phenylpropanoids, which represent two of the major pathways for the synthesis of cork chemical components. Furthermore, the augmented expression levels found for specific proteins are probably related to the homozygous state of a doubled-haploid sample. Proteins involved in synthesis of cork components can be detected at such early stages of development, showing the potential of the method to be useful in searching for biomarkers related to cork quality.

  4. Developmental potential of embryonic cells in a nucleocytoplasmic hybrid formed using a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Sakao, Suzu; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, viable nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, formed by combining a nucleus from one species with the egg cytoplasm of another, have been used as one of the methods for breed improvement in aquaculture, but have been little exploited for developmental biology studies. Here, we used an artificial androgenesis technique to form nucleocytoplasmic hybrids comprising a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm. These hybrids were used to investigate interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasm during embryonic development. Additionally, the developmental characteristics of embryonic cells of nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were examined in chimeras produced by transplantation of blastomeres into recipient loach or goldfish embryos. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic hybrids arrested at the dome stage of embryonic development and did not form any gastrula structures. The goosecoid (gsc) and no tail (ntl) genes were expressed normally before gastrulation in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, similar to diploid loach. However, expression of the gsc and ntl genes was not maintained in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids. In chimeric embryos, blastomeres derived from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were found to mix with the cells of recipient loach embryos at the gastrula stage. The transplanted blastomeres formed small clusters at the somitogenesis stage and, finally, small spots at the hatching stage. In contrast, when the blastomeres were transplanted into goldfish embryos, the transplanted blastomeres aggregated in the chimeric embryos. Thus, embryonic cells from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids that arrest before gastrulation could survive beyond the somitogenesis stage depending on the cytoplasmic environment in the recipient embryos.

  5. Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents can continue to attend school Classes in parenting skills and child development Child health care Counseling ... the fact that success stories abound. There are single teenage mothers who complete their educations and go ...

  6. Single Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR some parents the responsibility of bringing up a child is a one person task. Shouldering parental duties of two, single parents not only raise the child, but bring home the bacon as well. This is life for many people—either because of the death of a spouse, divorce, living apart from a spouse, pregnancy without marriage, or abandonment—the parent and child

  7. A protocol for sonication-assisted Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of haploid and diploid sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek-Chodacka, Magdalena; Baranski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Hairy root cultures obtained after Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can serve as a model system for studying plant metabolism and physiology, or can be utilized for the production of secondary metabolites. So far no efficient protocol of hairy root development in sugar beet has been publically released. In this work, two A. rhizogenes strains (A4T and LBA1334) carrying a binary vector pBIN-m-gfp5-ER or pCAMBIA1301 possessing gfp and uidA reporter genes were used to transform petiole explants of haploid and diploid sugar beet genotypes. Five treatment combinations of sonicated-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were compared. Hairy roots appeared on 0% to 54% of explants depending on the treatment combination used. The highest frequency was achieved when explants of a diploid genotype were sonicated for 15 s in the inoculum containing A. rhizogenes of OD600=0.5 and then co-cultured for three days. Using the same treatment combinations the explants of haploid genotypes developed hairy roots with the frequency ranging from 10% to 36%. Transformation efficiency was independent on the bacterial strain used. The results indicate that haploid sugar beet explants are amenable to transformation using A. rhizogenes, and that the efficiency of that process can be increased by applying short ultrasound treatment.

  8. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. First description of heterogeneity in 18S rRNA genes in the haploid genome of Cryptosporidium andersoni Kawatabi type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Makoto; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Honma, Hajime; Kasai, Kenji; Kaneta, Yoshiyasu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium andersoni, is a species of gastric Cryptosporidium, is frequently detected in older calves and adult cattle. Genotyping analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences have been performed on a novel C. andersoni genotype, namely the Kawatabi type, and the oocysts were classified into two distinct groups genotypically: Type A (the sequence in GenBank) and Type B (with a thymine nucleotide insertion not in Type A). This study analyzed 3775 cattle at a slaughterhouse and 310 cattle at a farm using microscopy and found 175 Cryptosporidium-positive animals: 171 from the slaughterhouse and four from the farm, and all infecting parasites were determined to be C. andersoni from 18S rRNA gene sequences determined from fecal DNA. In genotyping analyses with single isolated oocysts, about a half of analyzed ones were clearly classified into well known two genotypes (Type A and B). In addition to these two known genotypes, we have detected some oocysts showing mixed signals of Types A and B in the electropherogram from the automated sequencer (the Type C genotype). To determine the genotypic composition of sporozoites carried by the Type C oocysts, we analyzed their 18S rRNA gene sequences using a single sporozoite isolation procedure. Some sporozoites were classified as either Type A or Type B. However, more than half of the analyzed isolated sporozoites showed a mixed signal identical to that of Type C oocysts, and both the Type A and B signals were surely detectable from such sporozoites after a cloning procedure. In conclusion, C. andersoni carries two different genotypes heterogeneously in its haploid genome.

  10. Reconstruction of linkage maps in the distorted segregation populations of backcross,doubled haploid and recombinant inbred lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ChengSong; WANG FuHua; WANG JianFei; LI GuangJun; ZHANG HongSheng; ZHANG YuanMing

    2007-01-01

    Non-Mendelian segregation of markers,known as distorted segregation,is a common biological phenomenon.Although segregation distortion affects the estimation of map distances and the results of quantitative trait loci(QTL)mapping,the effects of distorted markers are often ignored in the construction of linkage maps and in QTL mapping.Recently,we have developed a multipoint method via a Hidden Markov chain method to reconstruct linkage maps in an F2 population that corrects for bias of map distances between distorted markers.In this article,the method is extended to cover backcross,doubled haploid and recombinant inbred line(RIL)populations.The results from simulated experiments show that:(1)the degree that two linked segregation distortion loci(SDL)affect the estimation of map distances increases as SDL heritability and interval length between adjacent markers increase,whereas sample size has little effect on the bias;(2)two linked SDL result in the underestimation of linkage distances for most cases,overestimation for an additive model with opposite additive effects,and unbiased estimation for an epistatic model with negative additive-by-additive effects;(3)the proposed method can obtain the unbiased estimation of linkage distance.This new method was applied to a rice RIL population with severely distorted segregation to reconstruct the linkage maps,and a bootstrap method was used to Obtain 95% confidence intervals of map distances.The results from real data analysis further demonstrate the utility of our method,which provides a foundation for the inheritance analysis of quantitative and viability traits.

  11. Attachment Parenting: An Exploration of Demographics and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katherine E.; Groves, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify parenting behaviors practiced by a self-selected group of North American parents who identify themselves as attachment parents. This type of parenting is based on behaviors that are focused on infant needs and demands perhaps more strongly than are traditional mainstream western parenting practices. However,…

  12. Transitions in a genotype selection model driven by coloured noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Can-Jun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a genotype selection model subjected to both a multiplicative coloured noise and an additive coloured noise with different correlation time T1 and T2 by means of the numerical technique.By directly simulating the Langevin Equation,the following results are obtained.(1) The multiplicative coloured noise dominates,however,the effect of the additive coloured noise is not neglected in the practical gene selection process.The selection rate μ decides that the selection is propitious to gene A haploid or gene B haploid.(2) The additive coloured noise intensity α and the correlation time T2 play opposite roles.It is noted that α and T2 can not separate the single peak,while αcan make the peak disappear and T2 can make the peak be sharp.(3) The multiplicative coloured noise intensity D and the correlation time T1 can induce phase transition,at the same time they play opposite roles and the reentrance phenomenon appears.In this case,it is easy to select one type haploid from the group with increasing D and decreasing T1.

  13. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of the Perspectives of Teachers and Parents on the Literacy Media Selections for Independent Study of Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios S.; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Katsoulis, Philippos

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the choices of literacy media for independent study of students with visual impairments. The predictors that were taken into account were teachers' use of technology, experience in teaching, and mastery of braille and the knowledge of braille of students, parents, and close friends.

  15. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  16. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  17. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  18. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  19. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  20. A survey of selecting child food and parents' recognition on food additives%儿童食品选择及食品添加剂认知状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞田田; 闫思琪; 杨宇轩; 王嘉; 朱挺; 沈莹; 孙东东; 万田郎; 于燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the selecting of child food and parents' recognition on food additives, so as to enhance the social concern on child food safety and provide reference for parents in purchasing child food. Methods Random cluster sampling method was adopted to select three kindergartens and four primary schools from Yanta District, Xincheng District and Lintong District of Xi an City. The survey was conducted with questionnaires to all of the parents of children aged 3-7 years in school concerning food products selecting and recognition on food additives. Results There were 93% ( 1 068/1 148 ) of the parents often buying various types of child food, mainly including milk products, pastry, snacks, drinks and candy for their children. When selecting child food, 70% ( 748/1 068 ) of the parents only paid attention to manufacture date and validity date, 66% ( 705/1 068 ) to brand name, 58% ( 619/1 068 ) to their children' preference, and only 22% ( 235/1 068 ) to the information about food additives. Among the parents, 7% ( 80/1 148 ) thought that most additives were safe, 42% ( 482/1 148 ) thought that all of food additives had side effects, and only 37% ( 425/1 148 ) thought that food additives were harmless within a reasonable range. As for the type and amount of food additives used in child food, only 1% ( 12/1 148 ) were clear, and 31% ( 356/1 148 ) said they were totally ignorant. Parents who knowing food additives were significantly more than those not knowing (χ2=28. 228, P < 0.05 ). All of the parents showed great concern on the safety problems of food additives, and 82% ( 941/ 1 148 ) hoped that components and contents would be listed in food additives. Conclusion Parents in Xi' an lack related knowledge of food additives in selecting child food, but they show great concern on the safety problems of child food. Helping parents to understand food additives can provide scientific guide for parents in selecting child food, so as to promote healthy growth

  1. Parents' Voice: Concerns, barriers and benefits of Parental Involvement for children with Autism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    R Muralidharan, Gayathri Devi

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of parents at home and in school is a crucial factor in the development of child with autism. This qualitative study explored the similarities and difference between the perceptions of Malaysian parents on parental involvement. The selected participants are parents of children with autism, and are currently enrolled either in a primary government or private school. The present study used semi-structured interviews to examine the participants' views on parental involvement. A t...

  2. Development of industrial yeast strain with improved acid- and thermo-tolerance through evolution under continuous fermentation conditions followed by haploidization and mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Liu, Ze-Shen; Tang, Yue-Qin; Akamatsu, Takashi; Taguchi, Hisataka; Kida, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Continuous fermentation using the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strain WW was carried out under acidic or high-temperature conditions to achieve acid- or thermo-tolerant mutants. Mutants isolated at pH 2.5 and 41°C showed improved growth and fermentation ability under acidic and elevated temperature conditions. Haploid strains WW17A1 and WW17A4 obtained from the mutated diploid strain WW17A showed better growth and 4.5-6.5% higher ethanol yields at pH 2.7 than the original strains. Haploid strain WW12T4 obtained from mutated diploid strain WW12T showed 1.25-1.50 times and 2.8-4.7 times higher total cell number and cell viability, respectively, than the original strains at 42°C. Strain AT, which had significantly improved acid- and thermo-tolerance, was developed by mating strain WW17A1 with WW12T4. Batch fermentation at 41°C and pH 3.5 showed that the ethanol concentration and yield achieved during fermentation by strain AT were 55.4 g/L and 72.5%, respectively, which were 10 g/L and 13.4% higher than that of the original strain WW. The present study demonstrates that continuous cultivation followed by haploidization and mating is a powerful approach for enhancing the tolerance of industrial strains. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Katrin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parental responsibility can be broadly defined as a legal term that specifies rights and responsibilities of parents towards their children. It is usually given initially to the birth mother and the married father, though unmarried fathers can obtain it either with the agreement of the mother or through a court order. In accordance with the provisions in law the court can also transfer parental responsibility to other persons (e.g. adoptive parents or in cases of child abuse or neglect to the state, represented by local authority social services. While the concept of parental responsibility can be found in most countries, the exact terminology varies from one country to another, as well as over time.

  4. Distribution and Selective Effects of Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1 Genes in Derivative Varieties from Four Cornerstone Breeding Parents of Wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; LIU Wan-chen; LI Jun; WEI Hui-ting; HU Xiao-rong; LI Yue-jian; LU Bao-rong; YANG Wu-yun

    2010-01-01

    Vernalization, the process of a long exposure to low temperature to induce flowering in plants, is essential for plants to adapt to cold winters. The presence of vernalization genes Vrn-A1, -B1, and -D1 in four cornerstone breeding parents of wheat in China (Funo, Mentana, Yanda 1817, and Bima 4) and 322 derivative varieties (mostly winter wheat) from these parents were determined using PCR based molecular method. The frequencies of the VRN-1 genes in these derivative varieties were in order of Vrn-D1(67.1%)> Vrn-B1(19.6%)> Vrn-A1(5.3%), which are similar as the former conclusion that Vrn-D1 is associated with the latest heading time, Vrn-A1 the earliest, and Vrn-B1 intermediate values. The frequencies of Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 loci in the derivative varieties from winter wheat zones were higher than that from spring winter zones. Based on the wheat breeding history in China and the fact of non-random distribution of Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 in the derivative varieties from the four parents, there could be a strong selective effect on VRN-1 genes in different regions where the derivative varieties were cultivated.

  5. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  6. Application of cpDNA Marker Technique in Parents Selection and Combination of Potato Breeding%cpDNA标记在马铃薯杂交亲本选配中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祚; 郝大海; 段晓艳; 王兆富; 李周; 苏跃; 冯泽蔚; 李灿辉

    2011-01-01

    Parents selection and combination is the initiate and important step to potato breeding program. U-sing chloroplast DNA ( cpDNA) marker technique, the author detected cytoplast genetic background of the parents and 380 clones derived from hybrid true potato seeds of two cross combinations (Shepody x CIP 004 n = 187 and PB 06 x CIP 004 n = 193 ) . Results showed that Shepody harbored T-type markers of cpDNA which was subjected to the Tuberosum subspecies of Solarium tuberosum L. , but both PB 06 and CIP 004 had A-type markers of cpDNA which belonged to the Andigena subspecies of Solarium tuberosum L.. All clones tested could also be divided into two groups which separately shared the same cpDNA markers with female parents, and the averaged growth period of each group tended to female parents, respectively. The aboved results demonstrated that there was a great potential for cpDNA marker technique in parents selection and combination of potato breeding program.%亲本选配是马铃薯杂交育种工作的重点和难点.利用叶绿体DNA(cpDNA)标记方法,对两个马铃薯杂交组合(Shepody×CIP 004和PB 06×CIP 004)的亲本、及其杂交实生种子后代群体的细胞质遗传背景进行了分析.结果显示:Shepody拥有T-型cpDNA标记,属于普通栽培亚种(Solanium tuberosum ssp.tuberosum);CIP004和PB06拥有A-型cpDNA标记,均属于安第斯栽培亚种(Solanium tuberosum ssp.andigena);在cpDNA两个标记位点(H1和H2)上,2个杂交组合实生种子后代群体的细胞质遗传背景分别与其母本完全一致,平均生育期分别与其母本接近.上述结果表明,cpDNA标记技术在马铃薯杂交亲本选配和早世代选育中具有重要的应用价值.

  7. Fluctuating Selection in the Moran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Antony M.; Lehman, Clarence; Yi, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to classical population genetics theory, experiments demonstrate that fluctuating selection can protect a haploid polymorphism in the absence of frequency dependent effects on fitness. Using forward simulations with the Moran model, we confirm our analytical results showing that a fluctuating selection regime, with a mean selection coefficient of zero, promotes polymorphism. We find that increases in heterozygosity over neutral expectations are especially pronounced when fluctuations are rapid, mutation is weak, the population size is large, and the variance in selection is big. Lowering the frequency of fluctuations makes selection more directional, and so heterozygosity declines. We also show that fluctuating selection raises dn/ds ratios for polymorphism, not only by sweeping selected alleles into the population, but also by purging the neutral variants of selected alleles as they undergo repeated bottlenecks. Our analysis shows that randomly fluctuating selection increases the rate of evolution by increasing the probability of fixation. The impact is especially noticeable when the selection is strong and mutation is weak. Simulations show the increase in the rate of evolution declines as the rate of new mutations entering the population increases, an effect attributable to clonal interference. Intriguingly, fluctuating selection increases the dn/ds ratios for divergence more than for polymorphism, a pattern commonly seen in comparative genomics. Our model, which extends the classical neutral model of molecular evolution by incorporating random fluctuations in selection, accommodates a wide variety of observations, both neutral and selected, with economy. PMID:28108586

  8. Haploid genetic screens identify an essential role for PLP2 in the downregulation of novel plasma membrane targets by viral E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Timms

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2, a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system.

  9. Haploid genetic screens identify an essential role for PLP2 in the downregulation of novel plasma membrane targets by viral E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Timms

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2, a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system.

  10. Construction of an efficient xylose-fermenting diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain through mating of two engineered haploid strains capable of xylose assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rin; Lee, Ki-Sung; Kong, In Iok; Lesmana, Anastashia; Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-03-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered for xylose fermentation through introduction of wild type or mutant genes (XYL1/XYL1 (R276H), XYL2, and XYL3) coding for xylose metabolic enzymes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. The resulting engineered strains, however, often yielded undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation. In this study, we performed the mating of two engineered strains that exhibit suboptimal xylose-fermenting phenotypes in order to develop an improved xylose-fermenting diploid strain. Specifically, we obtained two engineered haploid strains (YSX3 and SX3). The YSX3 strain consumed xylose rapidly and produced a lot of xylitol. On the contrary, the SX3 strain consumed xylose slowly with little xylitol production. After converting the mating type of SX3 from alpha to a, the resulting strain (SX3-2) was mated with YSX3 to construct a heterozygous diploid strain (KSM). The KSM strain assimilated xylose (0.25gxyloseh(-1)gcells(-1)) as fast as YSX3 and accumulated a small amount of xylitol (0.03ggxylose(-1)) as low as SX3, resulting in an improved ethanol yield (0.27ggxylose(-1)). We found that the improvement in xylose fermentation by the KSM strain was not because of heterozygosity or genome duplication but because of the complementation of the two xylose-metabolic pathways. This result suggested that mating of suboptimal haploid strains is a promising strategy to develop engineered yeast strains with improved xylose fermenting capability.

  11. Maternal psychosocial predictors of controlling parental feeding styles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah; Brennan, Leah; Hayes, Louise; Miles, Cara L

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore the relative contribution of parental depression, anxiety and stress and parenting satisfaction and efficacy to the explanation of variance in controlling parental feeding styles and practices. The sample comprised 124 mothers (M=36.80 years, SD=4.62 years) who reported on both themselves and a selected child (59 male, 65 female; M=6.46 years, SD=0.95 years). Mothers completed several questionnaires examining demographic information, parental feeding styles, parental feeding practices, parental depression, anxiety and stress and parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Parenting satisfaction contributed significantly to the prediction of the parental feeding practice pressure to eat. Parenting satisfaction and parental anxiety contributed significantly to the prediction of the parental feeding practice restriction. The results of this study provide important insight into maternal characteristics associated with the use of controlling parental feeding styles and practices.

  12. Personal Transformations in the Post-Parental Period: A Cross-Cultural View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, David

    Using a transcultural perspective this model of the post-parental years assumes a "parental imperative" perspective of the entire life cycle and, thus, analyzes the post-parental years in relation to the pre-parental and parental years. Through this perspective, young parents recognize needs of infants for security, and select those…

  13. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  14. High Frequency Production of Doubled Haploid Rapeseed Plants by Direct Colchicine Treatment of Isolated Microspores%油菜小孢子秋水仙素直接处理增加纯合两倍体植株频率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟军; Per,H

    2000-01-01

    @@ Techniques for microspore culture of Brassica napus have been improved rapidly, and embryogenesis has been achieved in a wide range of genotypes. Plants regenerated from microspore-derived embryoids can be haploid, diploid or polyploid. From rapeseed microspore culture it is reported that 70%-90% of regenerated plants are haploid. The usual methods of chromosome doubling involve soaking roots (most common) or whole plants in a colchicine solution, or culturing plantlets in colchicine-containing medium in the greenhouse. Other alternatives are injecting colchicine into the secondary buds or applying colchicine-soaked cotton plugs to axillary buds.

  15. Parenting and Development of One-Year-Olds: Links with Parental, Contextual, and Child Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Examined patterns of correlations among selected parental, contextual, and child characteristics accounting for variance in observed quality of parent-infant interaction and infant development with 15-month-olds and their families. Found that parental ego-resiliency and education, partner support, and infant social fearfulness explained…

  16. Marker-assisted selection for the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ar in a backcross population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A doubled-haploid (DH population, obtained by anther culture of F1 plants from a cross between a highlysusceptible rice cultivar Lijiangxintuanheigu and the resistant somaclone (SC09, of the cultivar Araguaia, was used to identifyRAPD markers linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-ar. The 86 DH plants, inoculated with the race IB-9 of Magnaportheoryzae, segregated in 1:1 ratio of resistant and susceptible plants. Of the 67 primers used 31 produced DNA profiles thatdifferentiated resistant and susceptible bulks as well as the parental cultivars. The resistance gene was found linked to theprimer OPS162072 (‘AGGGGGTTCC’ at a distance of 3.6 cM. The selection efficiency of this primer was assessed in a BC3 F1population derived from another cross between a susceptible cultivar IAC 201 and SC09. The marker OPS16 showedefficiency of 86.9%, when six resistant and two susceptible plants were considered as negatives in RAPD analysis.

  17. Parental involvement with their working teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Carol W; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Schulman, Michael D; Rauscher, Kimberly J

    2011-07-01

    Adolescents work in varied environments and are exposed to hazards. Parents of these working adolescents have an opportunity to help them select jobs and address worker safety issues with employers. The present study conducted telephonic interviews among a national sample of 922 working adolescents along with one parent of each to examine the involvement of parents in their children's employment and safety issues. Over 70% of parents were found who helped their children identify job opportunities, consider questions about work hours or tasks, fill out job applications, prepare for interviews, or handle difficult safety issues. Parents suggested stronger actions in response to hypothetical situations than when confronted with real problems. Mean level of parental involvement did not vary by the number of hazards reported by teen workers. Parents were involved in helping their teens with work. Further research should explore how to enhance parental effectiveness by making work safe for teens.

  18. Anadolu'ya Ait Makarnalık Buğdaylardan Cinslerarası Melezleme (Buğday x Mısır ile Elde Edilen Katlanmış Haploid (Doubled Haploid Hatların Tarımsal Kapasiteleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Şenay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada yerel makarnalık buğday çeşitlerden (T.durum Desf. Kunduru 1149, Berkmen 469 ve Çakmak 79 ve bunlardan elde edilen katlanmış haploid hatların tarla koşullarında tarımsal kapasiteleri, varyans analizi ve EKÖF testi ile karşılaştırıldı. Kunduru 1149'dan üretilen katlanmış haploid hatlar arasında, bitki yaşam oranı, başak çıkış zamanı, bitki boyu, başak uzunluğu, kardeşlenme sayısı, başakta başakçık sayısı, başakta tane sayısı, 100-tane ağırlığı, bitkide tane verimi ve hasat indeksi bakımından önemli farklılıklar bulundu. 'Berkmen 469'dan üretilen katlanmış haploid hatlar bitkide tane verimi ve kardeş sayısı dışında (P<0.05 morfolojik özelliklerin çoğunda önemli bir farklılık bulunmadı. Bu denemede 'Çakmak 79' dan üretilen hatlar arasında da hiçbir morfolojik özellikte önemli farklılık bulunmadı.

  19. Evaluation of Grain Quality and Nutritional Quality of Double Haploid DHP6, An Elite Rice Line in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoazanakolona Voahanginirina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anther/pollen culture technology is being efficiently used for accelerating rice breeding progress and improving grain quality characters. Using pollen culture technique, we obtained elite rice (Oryza sativa L. line DHP6, which is well adapted to the highlands of Madagascar. Here we show that certain grain, nutritional, and culinary quality characteristics have been significantly improved in line DHP6. Morphometric and physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that physical (colour, transluscency, and chalkiness, chemical (amylose content, alkali spreading value, and gel consistency and cooking (volume expansion, elongation ratio features were greatly improved compared to the parental line. Culinary and nutritional quality analyses showed a significant increase in nutritional values and mineral richness. Some desired concentrations of minerals like Mg and Cu were much higher (e.g. three times richer in Cu than those of its parental line (variety IR58614. Taken together, such ameliorated grain quality traits will promote its wide-scale planting by the farmers and should thus help to improve the nutritional quality of the population of Madagascar.

  20. When Does Frequency-Independent Selection Maintain Genetic Variation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Sebastian; Barton, Nicholas H

    2017-10-01

    Frequency-independent selection is generally considered as a force that acts to reduce the genetic variation in evolving populations, yet rigorous arguments for this idea are scarce. When selection fluctuates in time, it is unclear whether frequency-independent selection may maintain genetic polymorphism without invoking additional mechanisms. We show that constant frequency-independent selection with arbitrary epistasis on a well-mixed haploid population eliminates genetic variation if we assume linkage equilibrium between alleles. To this end, we introduce the notion of frequency-independent selection at the level of alleles, which is sufficient to prove our claim and contains the notion of frequency-independent selection on haploids. When selection and recombination are weak but of the same order, there may be strong linkage disequilibrium; numerical calculations show that stable equilibria are highly unlikely. Using the example of a diallelic two-locus model, we then demonstrate that frequency-independent selection that fluctuates in time can maintain stable polymorphism if linkage disequilibrium changes its sign periodically. We put our findings in the context of results from the existing literature and point out those scenarios in which the possible role of frequency-independent selection in maintaining genetic variation remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  2. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  3. A haploid HSV-1 genome platform for vector development: testing of the tetracycline-responsive switch shows interference by infected cell protein 0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalique, Hena; López Marco, Jorge; Lim, Filip

    2016-10-01

    Although herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has outstanding properties for gene delivery vectors and its genome is available in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for mutagenesis studies, one impediment is the presence of approximately 15.4 kb of DNA sequences that are duplicated in the HSV-1 genome, complicating vector construction and stability. As a useful platform for building HSV-1 vectors, we have constructed a fully haploid HSV-1 genome BAC by deletion of one of these repeats, confirming that viral propagation in culture is not impaired. We used this ΔIR mutant to subsequently investigate whether the insertion of tetracycline-responsive tetO elements into the ICP34.5-ICP0 gene region can be used to control HSV-1 lytic replication. The results of the present study show that ΔIR mutants deleted for ICP34.5 are viable for replication but not when the ICP0 promoter is also disrupted, thus indicating that regulation of infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) levels in the absence of ICP34.5 could be a viable means for controlling growth of HSV-1 vectors. Surprisingly, however, the tetO elements inserted into the ICP0 promoter did not confer ligand responsiveness to growth or ICP0 expression. Further analysis by transfection experiments revealed that ICP0 itself interferes with the tetracycline switch and reduces the the inducibility of this system. Our new haploid HSV-1 BAC is a useful platform for building multiply deleted HSV-1 vectors. Deletion of the gene for ICP34.5 in this backbone renders viral growth dependent on ICP0, although ICP0 expression could not be regulated by tet-responsive transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Quantitative analysis of viral load per haploid genome revealed the different biological features of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in skin tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ota

    Full Text Available Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has recently been identified in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, an aggressive cancer that occurs in sun-exposed skin. Conventional technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemistry, have produced conflicting results for MCPyV infections in non-MCC tumors. Therefore, we performed quantitative analyses of the MCPyV copy number in various skin tumor tissues, including MCC (n = 9 and other sun exposure-related skin tumors (basal cell carcinoma [BCC, n = 45], actinic keratosis [AK, n = 52], Bowen's disease [n = 34], seborrheic keratosis [n = 5], primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma [n = 5], malignant melanoma [n = 5], and melanocytic nevus [n = 6]. In a conventional PCR analysis, MCPyV DNA was detected in MCC (9 cases; 100%, BCC (1 case; 2%, and AK (3 cases; 6%. We then used digital PCR technology to estimate the absolute viral copy number per haploid human genome in these tissues. The viral copy number per haploid genome was estimated to be around 1 in most MCC tissues, and there were marked differences between the MCC (0.119-42.8 and AK (0.02-0.07 groups. PCR-positive BCC tissue showed a similar viral load as MCC tissue (0.662. Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against the MCPyV T antigen (CM2B4 demonstrated positive nuclear localization in most of the high-viral-load tumor groups (8 of 9 MCC and 1 BCC, but not in the low-viral-load or PCR-negative tumor groups. These results demonstrated that MCPyV infection is possibly involved in a minority of sun-exposed skin tumors, including BCC and AK, and that these tumors display different modes of infection.

  5. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  6. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  7. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  8. Responsive Parenting: One Approach for Teaching Single Parents Parenting Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marilyn C.; Nelson, Dorellis J.

    1981-01-01

    Responsive Parenting is a program designed to use parents in helping teach other parents to apply a behavior analysis approach in managing the behavior of their children. A description and evaluation of the adaptations for single-parents are discussed. Guidelines for program development and implementation are provided. (Author/RL)

  9. Reproductive semi-cloning respecting biparental embryo origin: embryos from syngamy between a gamete and a haploidized somatic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarik, J

    2002-08-01

    Embryos formed by somatic cell nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes (cloning) have given rise to viable offspring in several mammalian species. The possibility of future application of this technique to human assisted reproduction (reproductive cloning) has been widely debated. On this background there is current discussion of the potential for a cloning-derived technique, which aims at syngamy between a gamete nucleus from one parent and a somatic cell nucleus from the other. Critical analysis of the clinical indications, the current state of the art, biological concerns and ethical considerations relative to this technique, called here reproductive semi-cloning, are presented. Such a technique requires validation by further research before it can be considered as a treatment option. This debate explores issues raised by the technique.

  10. Sex-biased dispersal promotes adaptive parental effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Revardel, Emmanuelle; Franc, Alain; Petit, Rémy J

    2010-01-01

    In heterogeneous environments, sex-biased dispersal could lead to environmental adaptive parental effects, with offspring selected to perform in the same way as the parent dispersing least, because...

  11. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of "total toxaphene" and selected single congeners in biota by ion trap HRGC-EI-MS/MS using congener-optimized parent ion dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopp, Sonja; Oehme, Michael; Chu, Fong Lam; Yeboah, Faustinus; Chan, Hing Man

    2002-06-15

    A method for the quantification of selected toxaphene congeners as well as "total toxaphene" was developed based on electron ionization (EI) tandem (MS/MS) ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) and a combination of fragment ion dissociations. Congeners were separated by high-resolution gas chromatography. Compared to conventional EI low-resolution MS, a 5-20-fold gain in sensitivity could be obtained for octa- or nonachlorinated compounds such as toxaphene #26 and #62 (according to Parlar nomenclature), allowing for their detection in the low picogram range in biota. In addition, response factors for important congeners such as #26, #32, #40/41, #42, #44, #50, and #62 deviated not more than a factor of 2, which is much less as compared to negative ion chemical ionization. This reduces the risk for systematic errors when determining total toxaphene on the basis of a limited number of reference compounds or the technical mixture. Furthermore, chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls did not interfere when applying the proposed MS/MS technique. The applicability of the method was tested by determining both total toxaphene and levels of selected congeners in six Arctic wildlife samples collected from Nunavut, Canada, as well as by repetitive analyses of the SRM 1588 certified reference material.

  13. Helicopter Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宪国

    2008-01-01

    孩子的自理能力差,与父母的过度关心有关。请阅读下面一篇短文,想想你有此经历吗? Do you know parents of high school students who come to the rescue whenever their son or daughter is in a tough spot?Are they still delivering forgotten lunches or gym clothes to school?Have they tried to

  14. Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.

  15. Seleção de matrizes e clones de mangabeira para o cultivo in vitro Selection of parents and clones of mangabeira for in vitro cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Lima Machado

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Altas taxas de mortalidade em viveiro de mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa impedem seu uso na reversão do processo de degradação das terras e na manutenção da produtividade e integridade ambiental do Cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar matrizes e clones, provenientes de propagação sexuada e assexuada, com potencial de propagação in vitro, para produção de mudas de mangabeira. Foram coletados frutos de 11 matrizes e de cada matriz selecionaram-se 24 sementes em bom estado fitossanitário. Após a desinfecção, as sementes foram inoculadas em meio MS, sem reguladores de crescimento, obtendo-se uma média de germinação de 92,4%, e as matrizes não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si. Na fase de multiplicação, em meio MS, com os reguladores de crescimento BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e AIB (ácido indol-3-butírico, ambos na concentração de 1,28 mg L-1, a melhor matriz foi a C1 e o melhor clone foi o C1 15. Em todas as fases foi observada alta variabilidade, em menor porcentagem na matriz e maior porcentagem no clone dentro da matriz. A seleção deve ser realizada principalmente nos clones dentro da matriz.High tax of mortality of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa seedlings in greenhouse conditions hinders its use on the reversion of the degradation of the natural vegetation, as well as on the preservation of the production and environmental integrity. The objective of this work was to select better mother plants and clones from sexual and assexual propagation, with potential to survive in vitro, for producing mangaba seedlings. Fruits were collected from 11 mother plants and from each plant, 24 seeds without aparent diseases were selected. After superficial desinfection, seeds were inoculated in MS medium without growth regulators and having a germination of 92.4% without significant difference between mother plants. On multiplication phase, with MS medium, with growth regulators BAP (6-benzilaminopurine

  16. In vitro microspore selection in maize anther culture with oxidative-stress stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, H; Darko, E; Szabo, L; Bakos, F; Király, Z; Barnabás, B

    2006-08-01

    In order to produce doubled-haploid maize plants tolerant of oxidative stress, in vitro microspore selection was carried out in anther culture with reactive oxygen species (ROS) progenitors such as paraquat, menadione, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), and methionine combined with riboflavin. All the ROS progenitors reduced the anther induction, the formation of microspore-derived structures, and their regeneration potential. Abnormal cell divisions and progeny cell degradation could be observed during the development of microspores treated with ROS progenitors. Menadione and t-BHP influenced the microspore developmental pathway, as menadione induced the formation of embryoids, while t-BHP increased the proportion of calli in the microspore-derived structures. As the result of in vitro selection, 15, 10, 10, and 3 fertile doubled-haploid plants were obtained in cultures treated with paraquat, t-BHP, methionine combined with riboflavin, and menadione, respectively.

  17. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  18. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  19. Ethical Issues in Parent Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    1982-01-01

    Four areas of ethical concern are voiced in the training of parents of handicapped children: (1) selection of program goals, (2) problems involved with both positive reinforcement and punishment, (3) conflicts between experimentation and therapeutic intervention, and (4) level of parent training. Consideration of ethical issues at each step of…

  20. Chinese American Parents' Acculturation and Enculturation, Bicultural Management Difficulty, Depressive Symptoms, and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether Chinese American parents' acculturation and enculturation were related to parenting practices (punitive parenting, democratic child participation, and inductive reasoning) indirectly through the mediation of parents' bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood. Data came from a two-wave study of Chinese American families in Northern California. Mothers and fathers were assessed when their children were in early adolescence and then again in middle adolescence (407 mothers and 381 fathers at Wave 1; 308 mothers and 281 fathers at Wave 2). For both waves, we examined cross-sectional models encompassing both direct and indirect links from parental cultural orientations to parenting practices. We also used individual fixed-effects techniques to account for selection bias in testing model relationships at Wave 2. At Wave 1, via bicultural management difficulty and depressive symptoms, American orientation was related to less punitive parenting and more inductive reasoning for both parents, and Chinese orientation was related to more punitive parenting and less inductive reasoning for fathers. The findings indicate that bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood are important mechanisms to be considered when studying the relation between Chinese American parents' acculturation/enculturation and parenting.

  1. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  2. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  3. [Presence of parents in pediatric imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Kalifa, G; Devred, P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitude of French pediatric radiologists regarding the presence or absence of parents during pediatric imaging of their child. A mail survey was sent to the French members of the "Société Francophone de Radiologie Pédiatrique". We asked about the inclusion of parents during pediatric imaging procedures. They gave the reasons for their choice and stated if parental presence was helpful or not for the achievement of imaging procedures. Responses were received from 76% of those surveyed. Excluding vascular and interventional procedures, few respondents (13%) permit parents to be present for all types of examinations. One respondent excluded parents from every procedure. Others excluded parents from selected studies: plain films (18%), upper gastrointestinal series (33%), contrast enema (44%), retrograde (47%) and suprapubic (67%) voiding cystourethrography, intra-venous pyelography (45%), US (5%), CT (27%), MRI (25%). Regarding angiography, only 2% of the respondents allow parental presence. Every respondent performing interventional procedures did not accept parents in the interventional suite. When parents were present, they were close to their child (76%) and could help in his immobilization (47%). Most of the respondents (49%) thought parental presence to affect examination in a favorable way. The opposite opinion was supported by 25% of them. An equivocal response was given in 26% of the answers. Numerous reasons supported these responses, they could be classified according to the child and his illness, the parents, the radiologist and his team, the examination performed. Most pediatric radiologists in France allow parents to accompany their children during selected examinations. Radiologists vary in their perception of how parental presence affects the outcome of the pediatric imaging procedures.

  4. Approaches to Building Teacher-Parent Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franc Cankar; Tomi Deutsch; Sonja Sentočnik

    2012-01-01

    .... Data were obtained from a sample of 55 randomly selected primary schools. We analyzed school-to home communications, parentalinfluence on school decisions, and parent involvement in different school activities...

  5. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-04-21

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Differential Expression of Whitebacked Planthopper Resistance in the japonica/indica Doubled Haploid Rice Population under Field Evaluation and Seedbox Screening Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) -resistance in a japonica / indica doubled haploid (DH) rice population established from a cross between WBPH-resistant japonica Chunjiang 06 and susceptible indica TN1, was comparatively evaluated through a field experiment based on the WBPH immigrant density and standardized seedbox screening test (SSST). All the susceptible DH lines in the field experiment behaved accordingly in SSST. However, 35 of resistant 66 lines (53%) in the field, were categorized to susceptible groups in SSST. Likewise, there were no significant differences in WBPH immigrant densities among 70 DH lines that were highly resistant to susceptible in SSST. The results revealed that SSST could not evaluate properly WBPH resistance in the DH lines. Four QTLs for WBPH-resistance phenotyped by the immigrant density were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, and 11. Of them, the QTL on chromosome 4 was the most effective (LOD 21.8, variance 78%). Five QTLs associated with seedling mortality were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In addition to the QTL (LOD 10.5, variance 68%) on chromosome 4, there was another major QTL (LOD 12.7, variance 71%) located on chromosome 5, which was SSST-specific but might be irrespective of the WBPH resistance traits.

  7. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  8. Transformation of Pea Lectin Gene Into Haploid Tobacco%豌豆凝集素基因转化单倍体烟草

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逸群; 孙珊珊; 赵仁贵; 王玉兰

    2001-01-01

    豆科植物凝集素在对根瘤菌的识别中起重要作用。通过农杆菌介导,采用叶盘法将豌豆凝集素基因转化单倍体烟草,获得了转基因再生植株。对转基因植株进行了GUS检测。该转基因单倍体烟草可用于非豆科植物进行凝集素对根瘤菌的识别作用研究。%The leguminous lectin played an important role in the recognition of Rhizobia. The pea lectin gene was transformed into the haploid tobacco via Agrobacterium mediation using leaf disc method and the regenerated tobacco plants were obtained. Histochemical staining of GUS activity was made in the transgenic plants. This plants could be used in researches on the recognition of Rhizobia in the non-legumes.

  9. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation exposure. II. Combination of UV-irradiation and X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B; Zölzer, F; Kiefer, J

    2004-01-01

    Split-dose protocols can be used to investigate the kinetics of recovery from radiation damage and to elucidate the mechanisms of cell inactivation and mutation induction. In this study, a haploid strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wild-type with regard to radiation sensitivity, was irradiated with 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and then exposed to X-rays after incubation for 0-6 hr. The cells were incubated either on nutrient medium or salt agar between the treatments. Loss of reproductive ability and mutation to canavanine resistance were measured. When the X-ray exposure immediately followed UV-irradiation, the X-ray survival curves had the same slope irrespective of the pretreatment, while the X-ray mutation induction curves were changed from linear to linear quadratic with increasing UV fluence. Incubations up to about 3 hr on nutrient medium between the treatments led to synergism with respect to cell inactivation and antagonism with respect to mutation, but after 4-6 hr the two treatments acted independently. Incubation on salt agar did not cause any change in the survival curves, but there was a strong suppression of X-ray-induced mutation with increasing UV fluence. On the basis of these results, we suggest that mutation after combined UV and X-ray exposure is affected not only by the induction and suppression of DNA repair processes, but also by radiation-induced modifications of cell-cycle progression and changes in the expression of the mutant phenotype.

  10. 华北落叶松单亲本子代测定林遗传变异和选择研究%Study on Genetic Variation and Selection of Larix principis-rupprechtii Single Parent Progeny Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帮同; 文彦忠

    2015-01-01

    Study on genetic variation and selection of single parent progeny test is the basis of the work and an effective way for 1.5 generation seed orchard and a way to improve the quality of seed orchard .Progeny test of 20 years Larix principis-rup-prechtii seed orchard 70 single family in the Shanxi Province Jingle County State Seed Base of Larix principis-rupprechtii was studied.The results showed that different families between tree height and diameter at breast height had difference ;through the tree height and diameter at breast height , dual optimization were selected a pedigree with 25, and uniform numbers;tree high genetic gain was 11.95%, diameter genetic gain amounted to 11.75%.The research has technological basis for seed or-chard upgrade replacement .%单亲本子代测定林遗传变异的研究是种子园升级换代,建设1.5代种子园的基础工作,是种子园提高种子质量的有效途径. 通过对山西省静乐县国家华北落叶松良种基地20年生华北落叶松种子园70个单亲本家系子代测定林进行研究,结果显示:不同家系间树高和胸径差异显著;通过树高和胸径双重选优,共选出优良家系25个,并进行了统一编号;树高遗传增益为11.95%,胸径遗传增益达11.75%.为种子园升级换代奠定了技术基础.

  11. Viewing movie smoking undermines antismoking parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that viewing depictions of smoking in movies makes adolescents less responsive to parenting factors that prevent smoking. Cross-sectional survey of 4807 students (grades 5-8) through which we ascertained exposure to smoking in movies, parent smoking, and adolescents' perception of parental responsiveness (support), and parental demandingness (behavioral control). Adolescents attending randomly selected middle schools in the Northeastern U.S. ever tried smoking a cigarette. Exposure to movie smoking was ascertained by counting occurrences of tobacco use in 601 recent popular motion pictures; surveying students to identify films they had seen from a random subset of 50 films; and summing tobacco use occurrences for the films each adolescent reported seeing. We also measured adolescents' perceptions of parent smoking, parental responsiveness and demandingness. The overall prevalence of adolescent smoking was 17.4 percent. The prevalence of smoking increased with exposure to movie smoking (low vs. high exposure 8.8 vs. 25.8%, p Parenting factors associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking were parent non smoking status (11.0% vs. 27.7% for parents who smoke, p parental responsiveness (12.4% vs. 23.1% for low parental responsiveness, p Parenting factors were not strongly associated with exposure to movie smoking. For adolescents with low exposure to movie smoking the adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of smoking were 0.31 (0.23, 0.42) if parents did not smoke, 0.57 (0.42, 0.78) if parents exerted high demandingness, and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) if parents were highly responsive. Parents had significantly less influence for adolescents with high exposure to movie smoking, for whom the adjusted odds of smoking were only 0.50 if parents did not smoke (p = 0.014 for the interaction effect), 0.97 if parents exerted high demandingness (p = 0.007 for the interaction effect) and 0.73 if parents were highly responsive (p = 0.045 for the interaction

  12. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections ... this movie to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  13. Towards a Concept of Parental Authority in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Metka; Reiter, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    The notion of authority is common in the literature on parent-child relationships. However, the notion of "parental authority" remains largely unspecified. The present article first critically reviews conceptualisations of parental authority in selected developmental-psychological approaches. We find the absence of an explicit and…

  14. [Reading Lists on Separation, Divorce and Single Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents Without Partners, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Listed in this publication are various resources relevant to the study of single-parent families. Provided are names and addresses of organizations that provide services specifically to single parents, divorced couples, and children of single-parent families; listings of professional and general publications; selected nonfiction bibliographies…

  15. [Parenting styles and their relationship with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Herreruzo Cabrera, Javier; Pino Osuna, María José

    2008-11-01

    The present study aims to determine the relationship among factors that make up the parenting styles according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory) and hyperactivity reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children). We selected a sample of 32 children between 3 and 14 years old (23 male and 9 female) with risk scores in hyperactivity and another similar group with low scores in hyperactivity. After administering both instruments to the parents, we carried out a binomial logistic regression analysis which resulted in a prediction model for 84.4% of the sample, made up of the PCRI factors: fathers' involvement, communication and role orientation, mothers' parental support, and both parents' limit-setting and autonomy. Moreover, our analysis of the variance produced significant differences in the support perceived by the fathers and mothers of both groups. Lastly, the utility of results to propose intervention strategies within the family based on an authoritative style is discussed.

  16. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  17. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  18. 小麦×玉米远缘杂交技术以及在单倍体育种上的应用评价%The Distant Hybridization Technology of Wheat×Maize System and Application Evaluation of Haploid Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑萍; 王雪征; 唐怀君; 茜晓哲

    2011-01-01

    为了提高小麦作物育种选择的精确性和效率,应用小麦亲本杂交后代F1(或F2)代与玉米进行远缘杂交,经激素诱导和组织培养形成单倍体胚及植株,加倍单倍体(DH)育种结合分子标记和性状表达,达到了单代纯化培育小麦新品系的生产能力;本文阐述了小麦×玉米远缘杂交发展进程,分析了小麦×玉米远缘杂交较孤雄生殖、球茎大麦技术等具备的优势特点,探讨了提高单倍体胚、单倍体植株产生频率以及染色体加倍效率的途径,展望了小麦×玉米杂交组合对于未来高效改进小麦育种程序具有的巨大潜力和发展前景.%In order to in crease the precision and efficacy of selection process in crop breeding, the distant hybridization between wheat filial generation of F, (or F2) and Maize intergeneric crosses is applied, after auxin 2,4-D induction and tissue culture, polyhaploid embryo and plant have developed, The use of dihaploid (DH) technology combining with molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) and trait expression greatly enhances the production of complete homozygous wheat lines in a single generation; In this paper, we try to elucidate the methods available for haploid production, reveal the superiority of wheatxmaize system of crosses over Androgenesis and Bulbosum techniques, research the strategic on enhancement of embryo formation, green polyhaploid plant regeneration and doubled haploid, look ahead the potentiality and the prospect of wheatxmaize system of crosses for improving the efficiency of future wheat breeding program.

  19. Co-Parenting Quality, Parenting Stress, and Feeding Challenges in Families with a Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Bonsall, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    113 parents of children aged 5-13 with ASD completed online surveys assessing co-parenting quality, parenting stress, and child feeding challenges. Results indicated that food selectivity was both the most frequently reported type of challenging feeding behavior and the most often reported as problematic but was also the only type of challenging…

  20. Towards a Concept of Parental Authority in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Metka Kuhar; Herwig Reiter

    2013-01-01

    The notion of authority is common in the literature on parent-child relationships. However, the notion of ‘parental authority’ remains largely unspecified. The present article first critically reviews conceptualisations of parental authority in selected developmental-psychological approaches. We find the absence of an explicit and integrated theoretical and empirical conceptualisation of parental authority, as well as a certain lack of consistency in the application of the concept. Against th...

  1. Family Relationships and Parenting Education: With Special Emphasis on Parenting. Instructor Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This unit on Parenting, one of several modules designed for instructional use at the 11th and 12th grade levels, is part of a series representing selected elements of a Family Relationships and Parenting Education semester-long course. The materials in this instructor manual, designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills needed for…

  2. Choosing adolescent smokers as friends : The role of parenting and parental smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years

  3. Choosing Adolescent Smokers as Friends: The Role of Parenting and Parental Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years) during spring 2006. Follow-up was conducted 12…

  4. Choosing adolescent smokers as friends : The role of parenting and parental smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2

  5. Reaching Parents Through Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    The parent involvement program evolved from the needs of parents. Basic to the program is the concept of parenting, which implies taking positive action to facilitate and meet the needs of the children ahe family. Parents participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of their child's program. (Author)

  6. A Chance to Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  7. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  8. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  9. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  10. Parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents

    OpenAIRE

    Babita Mahato; Arif Ali; Masroor Jahan; Verma, A. N.; Singh, Amool R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978) were administered to the children. Results: In a child′s perception of fat...

  11. A parental perspective on apps for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, F.L.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Beentjes, H.W.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen applications (apps) for young children have seen increasingly high rates of growth with more than a hundred thousand now available apps. As with other media, parents play a key role in young children’s app selection and use. However, to date, we know very little about how parents select

  12. Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

  13. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  14. 基于双单倍体牙鲆挖掘与生长性状连锁的微卫星标记%Development of microsatellite markers correlation to growth traits based on double haploids of Japanese flounder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永新; 王桂兴; 王玉芬; 司飞; 孙朝徽; 张晓彦; 刘海金

    2011-01-01

    利用中国水产科学研究院北戴河中心实验站2007年制备的双单倍体牙鲆为材料,根据生长性状表型值分成快速生长组(Fast growth group,FGG)和慢速生长组(Slow growth group,SGG),进行微卫星标记与生长性状的连锁分析.从牙鲆遗传连锁图谱选择40个高多态性的微卫星标记,覆盖了24个连锁群中的22个.结果表明,FGG和SGG每组各30尾个体进行40个微卫星位点的PCR扩增,在两组内共计检出8个差异性片段.FGG内,差异性片段的出现率为66.67%~86.67%;SGG内,差异性片段的出现率为40.00%~80.00%.同一位点,比较FGG和SGG组内具有差异性片段的个体,在体重、全长、体高三个性状上表现出显著差异.总计,有Poli19TUF、Poli24MHFS、Poli150TUF、Poli190TUF等4个位点与牙鲆生长性状显著相关,能够作为牙鲆良种选育研究过程中的辅助标记.%The double haploids of Japanese flounder produced by Beidaihe Central Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences were divided into fast growth group (FGG) and slow growth group (SGG) according to phenotype value of growth traits, which materials were used to carry out linkage analysis between microsatellite markers and growth traits. Twenty-two out of 24 linkage groups were covered by 40 polymorphic microsatellite loci selected from the linkage map. PCR amplification on 30 individuals from FGG and SGG were finished at 40 microsatellite loci, a total of 8 unique alleles were found in two groups. The occurrence rates of differential bands were from 66.67% to 86.67% and 40.00% to 80.00% in FGG and SGG, respectively. The individuals with differential bands in FGG and SGG at the same locus were compared. The results showed there was significant difference on body weight, total length and body depth. In total, 4 loci correlated with growth traits significantly, which could be used as assisted marker during the course of selected and breeding for Japanese flounder.

  15. An exploration of parents' food purchasing behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubach, Ninya; Hoek, Janet; McCreanor, Tim

    2009-12-01

    A qualitative study explored factors that influence parents' food purchasing behaviours in supermarkets and away-from-home settings, particularly the role played by nutrition information. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 parents of young children in a provincial city in New Zealand. A semi-structured protocol was used to elicit factors influencing food purchases and explore the understanding and influence of existing nutrition labels. Thematic analysis revealed that while parents wish to select good food for their families, practical factors dominate their decisions. Nutrition labels had little reported influence on food choice, largely because parents face competing demands when selecting food for their families. These factors militate against use of detailed nutrition information, especially formats that require considerable effort to comprehend.

  16. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  17. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a Concept of Parental Authority in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Kuhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of authority is common in the literature on parent-child relationships. However, the notion of ‘parental authority’ remains largely unspecified. The present article first critically reviews conceptualisations of parental authority in selected developmental-psychological approaches. We find the absence of an explicit and integrated theoretical and empirical conceptualisation of parental authority, as well as a certain lack of consistency in the application of the concept. Against the background of this review, we suggest initial steps towards a concept of parental authority as relational, dynamic and co-constituted in the sense of a joint product and outcome of family relationships.

  19. Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring on Sexual Risk Behaviour of ... authoritative parenting style [t(192)=4.99, p<.001]; authoritarian parenting style has no significant effect on adolescents' risky sexual behavior ...

  20. Parents' Reactions to Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joyce L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the findings of a survey of parents' experiences with different kinds of parent involvement. Views school and family relations from the parents' perspective and suggests that parents favor programs that stress cooperation between school and home. (DR)

  1. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ...

  2. Who Needs Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1978-01-01

    The author proposes that those most in need of parent education are non-parents; the basis for this contradictory conclusion is in the changes that have been taking place in the structure and position of the American family. (MM)

  3. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  4. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to avoid the stress of being a single parent? Single parenthood can bring added pressure and stress ... share day-to-day responsibilities or decision-making, single parents must provide greater support for their children while ...

  5. Parenting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  7. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Night Terrors KidsHealth > For Parents > Night Terrors Print A A A en español Terrores nocturnos What Are Night Terrors? Most parents have comforted their child after the ...

  8. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  9. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  10. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your parenting and improve your childrearing skills. Everyone wins with responsible parenting. Protect Your Children from Health ... or peer aggression, is more common than you think. It consists of any behavior – verbal or physical – ...

  11. Helping Parents Say No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  12. Does Parents' Money Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This paper asks whether parental income per se has a positive impact on children's human capital accumulation. Previous research has established that income is positively correlated across generations. This does not prove that parents' money matters, however, since income is presumably correlated with unobserved abilities transmitted across generations. This paper estimates the impact of parental income by focusing on variation due to parental factors -- union, industry, and job loss experien...

  13. Emotional distress and parenting among community and clinic parents

    OpenAIRE

    Rimehaug, Tormod

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the distribution of and the change in parental emotional distress and parenting dimensions by combining samples of community parents, non-parents and clinic parents. Clinic parents were involved in intensive inpatient family treatment related to their children’s psychiatric problems. Research questions: The focal themes of the three research questions were as follows: 1) Anxiety and depression among community parent and non-parent subg...

  14. The Agreement between Parent-Reported and Directly Measured Child Language and Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Shannon K; Mensah, Fiona K; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Hackworth, Naomi J; Reilly, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    observation compared to the parent questionnaire. Variation in patterns of agreement across the distribution of scores highlighted the importance of assessing agreement comprehensively, providing strong evidence that simple correlations are grossly insufficient for method comparisons. We discuss implications for researchers and clinicians, including guidance for measurement selection, and the potential to reduce financial and time-related expenses and improve data quality. Further research is required to determine whether findings described here are reflected in more representative populations.

  15. Parental Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence

    2010-01-01

    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  16. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  17. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  18. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  19. Parenting by Lying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

  20. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  1. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  2. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  3. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  4. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  5. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  6. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  7. Assessing Dimensions of Single Parenting: The Single Parenting Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Arnold L.; Ullman, Ann J.

    1984-01-01

    Developed and validated an instrument that assesses five dimensions of single parenting: problem solving skills, parental warmth, discipline procedures, parent rules, enthusiasm for parenting and parent support systems. Results gave statistical support for the Single Parenting Questionnaire, suggesting it may be useful in both clinical and…

  8. Emotional And Behavioral Problems of Single Parent Vs. Two Parent Children: Imam Khomeini Charity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajebi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.

  9. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  10. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  11. Parental Conflict and its Effects on Youth Self Esteem (A Study At University of Punjab)

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Nazir; Sidra Saeed; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Falak Sher; Zarqa Azhar; Muhammad Rizwan Safdar

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to probe the effects of parental conflict on youth self esteem. Objective of study was to explore reasons behind parental conflict, to measure the level of parental conflict on behavior of children, to find out change in the behavior of children, to identify the role of parents in the self esteem of children, to know how parent conflict and self esteem of children are related. Some 200 students from different departments of university of Punjab were selected by usi...

  12. Comparing the Parenting Role Tasks in Parents of Children with Mental/Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of parents during childhood is very important. Imbalances in parenting roles may cause severe emotional and physical injuries in children. The current study aimed at comparing parenting role tasks in parents of children who affected to mental/physical disabilities. Materials and Methods In the current cross sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 230 married couples with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. The parenting role tasks were compared between mothers and fathers. Independent t-test, chi square and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between fathers and mothers based on studied variables including demographic variables, types of child disabilities and history of trauma and seizure. Results Among enrolled children, 49 (21.3% had mental and 99 (43% affecting to physical disabilities. A significant difference regarding the parenting role tasks between mothers and fathers; therefore, the mean score of mothers for parenting role tasks was significantly higher than that of fathers regarding different variables such as demographic data, seizure, trauma, and the type of disabilities in the child (P

  13. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (Mage  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Parent to Parent: Insider's Guide for High School Parents = De Padre a Padre: Guia para Padres con Alumnos en la Escuela Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Parents Association of New York City, Inc., NY.

    This Spanish/English guide was written by parents for high school parents. The guide's first section deals with how to select the right high school. This is followed by a lengthy section on the high school years, which covers the following topics: how to keep up with what the student is doing; how to connect with the school; requirements for…

  15. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    ' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance......Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...

  16. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  17. The agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bennetts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  18. Children with ostomies: parents helping parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A

    1992-01-01

    Thousands of ostomies are performed on children every year to treat a variety of acquired conditions and congenital anomalies. The parents of children with ostomies are faced with the challenge of successfully living with and managing their child's ostomy. These families need practical information and support, both from the professional community and from parents who have shared the responsibility of a child with an ostomy. A parental support network has been developed throughout the country to address some of the needs of these families. This article provides current information about the status of these networks: what they have to offer and how they can be accessed. These groups, which continue to evolve, demonstrate a trend within this unique population. The parents of a child with an ostomy no longer need to feel alone in their experience.

  19. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  20. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie; Deković, Maja; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2007-09-01

    The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Participants were 91 parents of children with epilepsy (mean age of children=8 years, 5 months). Parental perceptions of stressors, resources, parental coping behaviors, parenting stress, and parenting were assessed by means of questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to analyze the unique and combined power of the predictors to predict parenting stress and parenting. Sobel tests were used to identify the mediational role of parenting stress. Evidence was found for direct effects of stressors, resources, and coping behaviors on parenting stress and parenting, with relatively large effects for stressors. The mediational role of parenting stress was largest in the domain of parental behavioral control. In the context of pediatric epilepsy, parenting stress mediates both disruptive and resilient family factors for their effects on parenting. Parents of children with epilepsy may benefit from parent training programs that, to reduce parenting stress, address epilepsy education, the management of difficult child temperament, building social support networks, and the modification of inadequate parental coping behaviors.

  1. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Metho

  2. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. METHO

  3. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  4. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  5. Parent-Teen Communication about Sex in Urban Thai Families

    OpenAIRE

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Roseti, Michael J.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Atwood, Katharine; CHOOKHARE, WARUNEE

    2011-01-01

    This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13 – 14 were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results s...

  6. Parenting in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    The study of parenting in animals has allowed us to come to a better understanding of the neural and physiological mechanisms that underlie mammalian parental behavior. The long-term effects of parenting (and parental abuse or neglect) on offspring, and the neurobiological changes that underlie those changes, have also been best studied in animal models. Our greater experimental control and ability to directly manipulate neural and hormonal systems, as well as the environment of the subjects, will ensure that animal models remain important in the study of parenting; while in the future, the great variety of parental caregiving systems displayed by animals should be more thoroughly explored. Most importantly, cross-talk between animal and human subjects research should be promoted.

  7. Late adolescent perceptions of parent religiosity and parenting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, J Blake; Clements, Andrea; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2004-12-01

    The current investigation examined the relations between adolescent reports of parent religiosity and parenting processes, using both a dimensional and a typological conceptualization of parenting. Self-report data were collected from 357 late adolescents. Partial correlations indicated that parent religiosity was associated with both parenting dimensions and parenting styles in conceptually expected directions. Regression analyses provided evidence that the dimensional conceptualization of parenting explained additional variability in perceived parental religiosity above and beyond parenting style effects. Findings suggest that a dimensional conceptualization of parenting processes extends the literature on parent religiosity because it yields more nuanced information about how parental religiosity may be related to differentiated parenting behaviors. Potential therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  9. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  10. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  11. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  12. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of the following 14 chapters: (1)…

  13. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  14. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parentin

  15. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived

  16. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parentin

  17. Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a test of how personality may shape social behaviors in a long-lasting dyad: the parent-adolescent relationship. In a large Belgian community sample, it was examined which parent Big Five characteristics were related to parenting and whether adolescent Big Five characteristics elicited certain parenting behaviors. Further, the proposition that individual differences are amplified under stress was examined by exploring whether parent personality was differentially related to parenting for parents of "easy" versus "difficult" adolescents. Moreover, possible differences in associations across parental and adolescent gender were explored. Mothers (N = 467) and fathers (N = 428) reported on their personality using the Five-Factor Personality Inventory; adolescents (N = 475) assessed their personality with the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. Two types of parenting behaviors, overreactive discipline and warmth, were assessed 2 years later by parent self-reports, partner reports, and adolescent reports, from which multi-informant latent factors were created. Results indicate that parental personality was more relevant than adolescent personality for explaining overreactivity, but parent and adolescent personality were similarly relevant in explaining warmth. Especially parental and adolescent Agreeableness and adolescent Extraversion were important predictors of both types of parenting. Associations between parental personality and parenting were similarly related to parents of easy versus difficult adolescents, and for mothers and fathers parenting daughters or sons. Together, results show that parent characteristics as well as adolescent characteristics importantly affect dysfunctional and adaptive parenting.

  18. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  19. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  20. Are parents of children with cochlear implants coping?: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are parents of children with cochlear implants coping?: research ... There were only a small number of parents who were aware of the importance of selection ... effort of including school personnel in the education and training of factors related to ... of their implanted children's auditory, language and communication skills.

  1. Modeling Rater Disagreement for ADHD: Are Parents or Teachers Biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A.; Rhee, Soo H.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first to utilize twin modeling to examine whether parent-teacher disagreement for ADHD ratings is due to parent or teacher bias, or due to raters observing different but valid ADHD behaviors. A joint analysis was conducted with 106 twin pairs, including twins selected for ADHD and control twin pairs. Total ADHD scores were…

  2. Not All Parents Make the Grade in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Erin McNamara; Baugh, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations for parent involvement in their children's education have risen dramatically over the last 20 years. The demands now placed on parents to evaluate and select educational options for their children, to act as advocates for their children, and to support increasingly demanding academic standards have never been greater. Strong…

  3. Gay and lesbian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B; Turner, P H

    An anonymous survey of 23 gay and lesbian parents and 16 heterosexual single parents was conducted in order to see whether the parents' homosexuality created special problems or benefits or both, for their children. Both sets of parents reported relatively few serious problems and generally positive relationships with their children, with only a minority encouraging sex-typed toys, activities, and playmates. Heterosexual parents made a greater effort to provide an opposite-sex role model for their children, but no other differences in their parenting behaviors were found. Gay and lesbian parents saw a number of benefits and relatively few problems for their children as a result of their homosexuality, with lesbians perceiving greater benefits than gay men. Conversely, the gay males reported greater satisfaction with their first child, fewer disagreements with their partners over discipline, and a greater tendency to encourage play with sex-typed toys than did the lesbians. The findings suggest that being homosexual is clearly compatible with effective parenting and is not a major issue in parents' relationships with their children.

  4. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  5. 网纹甜瓜单倍体植株生产及倍数性鉴定%HAPLOID PLANT PRODUCTION AND PLOIDY LEVEL DETERMINATION IN NETTED MELON (Cucumis melo L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查丁石

    2002-01-01

    Gynogenetic haploid embryos in situ were induced through pollinating female flowers oflen from C. melo var. momordica plants. Twelve of 1967 seeds from four young fruits collected threeweeks after pollination were germinated on the solid medium 1/2 MS+ sucrose 30g/L+ gellan gum 3g/L,four of which could grow into plantlets on medium MS + glucose 20g/L + gellan gum 3g/L. The fourplantlets were identified to be haploids by use of ploidy analyser made in Gemany. The inductivities ofembryos and haploid plants were 0.6% and 0.2% respectively. Fifty four rooting regenerative plantletswere gained approximately ten weeks after propagation by cutting stem.%以软X-射线(总辐射剂量650Gy)照射过Cucumis melo var.momordica植株上的雄花花粉与网纹甜瓜杂种一代‘Rubia-Red'(Cucumis melo var.reticulatus Naud.)已于上一日去雄的雌花授粉,经‘雌核发育'诱导形成单倍体胚.3周后从采收的4个幼果中获得种子1967粒,种子经灭菌后接种于l/2MS+蔗糖30g/L+gellan gum 3g/L固体培养基上,3周后将萌发的12个幼胚移植到MS+葡萄糖20g/L+gellan gum 3g/L培养基上培养.由假授精胚珠诱导成的4株幼苗经倍数性分析仪(PA型,德国Partec公司制造)鉴定为单倍体植株.幼胚和单倍体植株的诱导率为0.6%和0.2%.通过茎节切段进行增殖培养,10周后获得54株生根再生植株.

  6. Development of flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GYK-10 for the selective fermentation of glucose/fructose in sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taku; Ohara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Akira; Masuda, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamagishi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Advances in glucose/fructose-selective ethanol production have successfully enhanced raw sugar extraction from sugarcane juice by converting inhibitory substances (i.e., glucose/fructose) into ethanol, which is removed by subsequent operations in cane sugar mills. However, the commercial implementation of this breakthrough process in existing cane sugar mills requires a yeast strain that (i) can be used in food production processes, (ii) exhibits stable saccharometabolic selectivity, and (iii) can be easily separated from the saccharide solution. In this study, we developed a suitable saccharometabolism-selective and flocculent strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GYK-10. We obtained a suitable yeast strain for selective fermentation in cane sugar mills using a yeast mating system. First, we crossed a haploid strain defective in sucrose utilization with a flocculent haploid strain. Next, we performed tetrad dissection of the resultant hybrid diploid strain and selected GYK-10 from various segregants by investigating the sucrose assimilation and flocculation capacity phenotypes. Ten consecutive fermentation tests of the GYK-10 strain using a bench-scale fermentor confirmed its suitability for the implementation of practical selective fermentation in a commercial sugar mill. The strain exhibited complete saccharometabolic selectivity and sustained flocculation, where it maintained a high ethanol yield and conversion rate throughout the test.

  7. Parenting provided by adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D

    1993-01-01

    Studies assessing the quality of parenting provided by adults with mental retardation present conflicting conclusions. Some consider the majority to be doing reasonably well, whilst others report frequently unsatisfactory caretaking. There are a number of reasons for such different views. First, inconsistent selection criteria make it hard to compare across studies. In particular, sample composition will be influenced by the recruitment source. For example, if parents have been chosen from voluntary educational programmes a rather different picture is likely to be found than if they have been selected from individuals known to, or referred by, statutory agencies. On the whole, authors working with subjects from the former source have been rather more optimistic than those working with parents referred because there were already serious concerns about parenting difficulties or about delayed child development. Secondly, the majority of studies have used poorly defined global measures of parenting, with variable criteria of what constitutes adequate care. Some have concentrated on physical care and hygiene, whilst others have looked for the presence of affection and warmth. A child's reception into care as the sole measure of the quality of parenting is an unsatisfactory criterion because parental retardation has itself occasionally been used as the basis for removal of a child into care, even in the absence of other evidence of neglect or abuse. Thirdly, methodological flaws are found in studies that have used observational assessments of parenting. Such studies have suggested mothers with mental retardation tend to lack interactive skills (such as high levels of praise and imitation, and low restrictiveness) which are known to be associated with optimal child development. Control groups have often not been matched on social and other variables which might be expected to exert a significant influence upon parenting practices. In addition, the generalisability of

  8. Temporally isolated lineages of Pink salmon reveal unique signatures of selection on distinct pools of standing genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Waples, R.K.; Seeb, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    A species’ genetic diversity bears the marks of evolutionary processes that have occurred throughout its history. However, robust detection of selection in wild populations is difficult and often impeded by lack of replicate tests. Here, we investigate selection in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus...... gorbuscha) using genome scans coupled with inference from a haploid-assisted linkage map. Pink salmon have a strict 2-year semelparous life history which has resulted in temporally isolated (allochronic) lineages that remain sympatric through sharing of spawning habitats in alternate years. The lineages...

  9. Authoritarian Parenting, Power Distance, and Bullying Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Fousiani, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the existing relation among parenting, cultural value orientation, and bullying propensity at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. The results showed that a statistically significant relation exists between parental…

  10. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  11. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  12. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  13. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  14. Parental migration and Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti, Venla; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Parental immigration has been suggested as a possible risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but findings have been inconsistent. Very few studies have focused specifically on Asperger's syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal and paternal immigration and the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome in offspring. The study was a nested case-control study based on a national birth cohort in Finland. Children born in 1987-2005 and diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome by the year 2007 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (N = 1,783). Four matched controls for each case were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (N = 7,106). Information on maternal and paternal country of birth and mother tongue was collected from the Finnish Central Population Register. The study showed that children whose parents are both immigrants have a significantly lower likelihood of being diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome than those with two Finnish parents [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.4]. No significant associations were found between having only one immigrant parent and the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome. A regional analysis showed a significantly decreased likelihood of the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome in children whose mother (aOR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.01-0.5) or father (aOR 0.2, 95 % CI 0.05-0.5) was born in Sub-Saharan Africa. The findings may help in identifying risk factors for different ASD subtypes. On the other hand, they might reflect service use of immigrant families in Finland.

  15. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  16. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  17. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  18. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  19. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other ...

  20. Hemophilia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Hemophilia KidsHealth > For Parents > Hemophilia Print A A A ... bike or a stray kick in a soccer game means a temporary bruise or a cut that ... with hemophilia, these everyday mishaps are cause for concern. What ...

  1. Parent News Offline, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 5 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduced those without Internet Access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2003 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Summer Academic…

  2. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should coop

  3. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Cope With Divorce? How Can I Help My Child Deal With My Dating After Divorce? ... With a Single Parent Living With Stepparents What Kids Who Are Moving ...

  4. Profile: parents help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G E

    1981-01-01

    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  6. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  7. Adolescent to Parent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

  8. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  9. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ... to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's Story ( ...

  10. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ... to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's Story ( ...

  11. Approaches to Building Teacher-Parent Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the areas of cooperation inwhich parent and teacher expectations were the same and where they differed. Data were obtained from a sample of 55 randomly selected primary schools. We analyzed school-to home communications, parentalinfluence on school decisions, and parent involvement in different school activities. At the same time, we also explored building cooperation among the teachers, students, and their parents, within the framework of the program ‘Reading and Conversation’. The findings indicated that the third- and ninth- grade lead teachers were mostly in agreement about the importance of parent involvement and as such represented a fairly homogenous group. The third-grade lead teachers were more open about actual involvement of parents in instruction than their ninth-grade colleagues, who were more cautious and restrained. In contrast to the lead teachers who represented a relatively narrow professional group, parents’ views were much more diverse. Parental education was the best predictor of their readiness to become involved in the life and work of their children’s school. Whether the area in which the families lived was urban or suburban did not make any difference. The evaluation of the one-year ‘Reading and Conversation’ programme revealed increases in parents’motivation to collaborate with the school as a consequence of the program’s approach to work, as well as improvement in mutual relationships and dialogue.

  12. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  13. Foster Parents' Involvement in Authoritative Parenting and Interest in Future Parenting Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…

  14. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  15. Parental Relationships in Fragile Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara McLanahan; Audrey N. Beck

    2010-01-01

    ...: the quality of parents' intimate relationship, the stability of that relationship, the quality of the co-parenting relationship among parents who live apart, and nonresident fathers' involvement with their child...

  16. Canadian Parents' Knowledge and Satisfaction Regarding Their Child's Day-Care Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen; Vukelich, Goranka; Recchia, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental selection criteria and satisfaction with day care, knowledge about centre philosophy, teacher education and quality of the day-care environment. Parents ("n" = 261) and educators ("n" = 94) in 44 non-profit centres in three Canadian cities participated. Parent knowledge was…

  17. Parents' Expectations, Values and Choice of Child Care: Connections to Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Effects of differences between home and child care were studied, focusing on expectations and values of caregivers and of parents of toddlers in Australia from Vietnamese, Somali, and Anglo-Australian backgrounds. Preliminary data show that parents from minority ethnic groups selected child care paralleling child's home experiences. Parents using…

  18. Making Success in Education: What Black Parents Believe about Participation in Their Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Linwood; Mickelson, Roslyn A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of parent involvement--its meaning and effects--among a determined group of African American parents. We focus on some of the characteristics of involvement of a subset of African American parents in a larger program designed to enhance the math and science course selection of middle and high school students. As one…

  19. Parental Attachment and Eating Behaviors in Late Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Leigh Rush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Females demonstrating unhealthy eating behaviors in early adolescence may continue to exhibit them in later years, yet there is little empirical research including late adolescents. Attachment theories suggest that adolescents with eating disorders demonstrate insecure attachments to parents. This non-experimental descriptive study in 249 late adolescent females examined the relationship between eating behaviors and parental attachment, and explored the relationship between selected demographic variables and parental attachment. Participants responded to an electronically collected survey of demographic variables, self-reported eating behaviors, and completed the Parent Attachment Questionnaire. Participants reporting healthy eating behaviors had higher scores on two of the three maternal scales, indicating a greater level of attachment. Significantly higher scores were found for two maternal and two paternal attachment scales for selected sociodemographic variables. Quantifying parental attachment in late adolescent females enhances understanding of eating disorders in this population and may help to identify issues important to address in therapy.

  20. Target behaviors in educational social skills programs for parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarette Matesco Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of Educational Social Skills (THSE training programs offered to parents, highlighting the behaviors that were the focus of intervention. The research was performed in electronic databases (Scielo, Pepsic and Lilacs and the bank of thesis and dissertations of Federal University of São Carlos(UFSCar. Five studies were selected and the results discussed considering the importance of the trained skills for parent-children interaction. It was considered that although there are different models of programs, there are recurence in the selection of some educational social skills, showing that they may be relevant for the parent-children interaction

  1. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Sefc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay.

  2. Parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Babita; Ali, Arif; Jahan, Masroor; Verma, A. N.; Singh, Amool R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978) were administered to the children. Results: In a child’s perception of father in various domains of parent-child relationship, significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward in loving and neglecting, and in child’s perception of the mother. Significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, indifferent and in neglecting. Conclusion: The result showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward loving and in neglecting than children of non alcoholic parents. PMID:21234159

  3. Parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978 were administered to the children. Results: In a child′s perception of father in various domains of parent-child relationship, significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward in loving and neglecting, and in child′s perception of the mother. Significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, indifferent and in neglecting. Conclusion: The result showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward loving and in neglecting than children of non alcoholic parents.

  4. Representations of Parenting and Gender Roles in the Shōshika Era: Comparisons of Japanese and English-Language Parenting Magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIMODA, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Japanese parenting magazines portray parenting and gender roles in the shōshika era, an era of sustained decline in the Japanese birth-rate. Recent surveys indicate that Japanese society remains ambivalent about the need for fathers to be involved in child rearing. This article examines why these attitudes and ideas persist and how the Japanese media, specifically Japanese parenting magazines, may contribute to perpetuating traditional attitudes towards parenting roles. The article explores how parenting is represented in text and visual elements of contemporary popular parenting magazines, with comparisons made between the distinct approaches of selected Japanese and English-language parenting magazines. The findings indicate that narrow and stereotypical representations of mothers and fathers remain common in the Japanese parenting magazines. The findings also highlight the lack of visibility of the social context within which parenting occurs, with parenting represented as a largely individual-level experience. In contrast, the English-language parenting magazines depict a more diverse range of social issues of relevance to parenting, a more diverse range of family structures, and greater involvement of fathers in parenting compared to Japanese parenting magazines.

  5. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups...

  6. Real Parents, Real Children: Parenting the Adopted Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.

    Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…

  7. Educational Groups for Single Parents: The Parenting after Divorce Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nancy J.; Amara, Ingrid A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a group that teaches parenting skills to divorced parents. Presents various elements of the group experience, including a focus on the child's needs and developmental stages, role-playing, and co-parenting issues. Response to the group suggests that parents with greater postdivorce stress benefit the most. (BH)

  8. Perceptions of Parent School Collaboration within Single Parent Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josafat, Jason Marc

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the involvement levels of single parents in their child's education or what schools can do to support the collaborative involvement with single parents. This is important, because parent involvement is crucial for student success, and schools play an important part in garnering this role towards parent involvement; single…

  9. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  10. Parents Want Their Children's Data: DQC's 2015 Parent Poll Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) believes that when parents and educators have the right information to make decisions, students excel. Parents agree, according to a recent survey. DQC's Parent Poll, conducted online by Harris Poll in November 2015, surveyed 1,093 US parents with children ages 5-17 about their attitudes toward data collection and…

  11. Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting, alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol use over time. A total of 428 families, c

  12. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  13. Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual and child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, posit

  14. Parental advocacy styles for special education students during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Roberta S; Fisher, Lucille T; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Chesla, Catherine A

    2013-10-01

    In an ethnographic study of planning for the transition to adulthood, we explored parental advocacy styles in special education settings for youth and young adults with chronic health conditions and developmental disabilities. Of 61 parents, 43 were satisfied with outcomes in negotiations for school services for their children. We identified three parental advocacy styles for these parents: (a) high-profile parents, who insisted on specific, wide-ranging services for their children that often resulted in conflict with educators; (b) strategic parents, who negotiated for selected goals and were willing to compromise, and (c) grateful-gratifier parents, who formed close relationships with educators and trusted them to make appropriate decisions. Eighteen parents were overwhelmed, burned out, or unfocused, and generally dissatisfied with outcomes of educational planning meetings. Professional efforts to enhance parental advocacy can target development of skills and strategies that have worked for successful negotiators.

  15. Parent's knowledge and management of their children's ailments in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Omar T; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M; Palaian, Subish

    2010-04-01

    Minor ailments like sore throat, fever, cough and diarrhea can be relieved with over-the-counter (OTC) medications such as paracetamol or other traditional remedies, without seeking for consultation from general practitioners. Parents usually take the responsibility to come up with some kind of treatment for their children. (1) to evaluate the parents' medical knowledge about OTC medicines which are usually used by the parents to treat their children and (2) to evaluate the parents' management in dealing with their children's ailments, and (3) to evaluate the association between medical knowledge and the management of children's ailments related to medicine use among the parents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to measure the parents' knowledge about their children's ailments. Subjects were selected and information was obtained in September 2008. Non-probability convenient sampling method was used. Parents were recruited from the general public to answer the questionnaires. 197 parents filled in the questionnaires. From the total respondents, 48.2% of them were male. This study showed that most respondents have medium knowledge (6.11 SD=3.6) and a moderate management (4.39 SD=2.7). The results showed that there is a significant difference between the knowledge and the management level of ailments (P=0.033). Regarding the education level of the parents and the socioeconomic status, the p-value showed there was a significant difference between parents' knowledge and their education level (P=0.012). This study showed that parents have inadequate knowledge and some misconception about how to go about treating their children when they are unwell. It is hoped that by identifying weak areas in parents' management to their children's ailments, better planned educational and behavioral modification efforts can be made to elevate the knowledge level among the parents when they medically treat their children.

  16. Parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chloe; Reilly, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to systematically review studies that have focused on symptoms of anxiety reported by parents of children (0-18 years) with epilepsy. PubMed was used to identify relevant studies. Selected studies were reviewed with respect to prevalence of above threshold scores and comparisons with controls on standardized measures of anxiety. Studies are also reported with respect to factors associated with parental anxiety, impact on child outcomes, and comparisons with studies that have included equivalent measures of symptoms of depression. Fifteen studies that met inclusion criteria were identified. None of the studies were population based. The percentage of parents scoring above cutoffs on standardized measures of anxiety was 9-58%. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with epilepsy had higher mean scores in two of three studies where this was measured. Possible correlates of parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy that were considered varied widely across studies. Factors such as seizure frequency and use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been associated with parental anxiety in some but not all studies. With respect to child outcome, increased parental anxiety has been associated with lower quality of life and lower scores on adaptive behavior domains. Symptoms of anxiety are common among parents of children with epilepsy. There is a need for more systematic, representative studies to identify the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and track the course of symptoms. Such studies will help to identify more clearly factors associated with parental anxiety and impact of symptoms on child and parent outcomes. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate approaches that target a reduction in symptoms and the potential impact on parental and child functioning. Furthermore, there is a need to evaluate the impact of antiepileptic therapies and interventions that focus on child neurobehavioral comorbidities on parental anxiety.

  17. Malaria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Malaria KidsHealth > For Parents > Malaria A A A What's ... Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment en español Malaria About Malaria Malaria is a common infection in hot, tropical ...

  18. Tetanus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Dealing With Cuts Osteomyelitis Bites and Scratches Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations ... Scratches, and Abrasions Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Osteomyelitis Wound Healing and Care Why Did I Feel ...

  19. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rh Incompatibility KidsHealth > For Parents > Rh Incompatibility Print A ... this information early in your pregnancy. About the Rh Factor People with different blood types have proteins ...

  20. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  1. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  2. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child After Immunization Your child might have a fever, soreness, and ...

  3. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections Print A A ... your risk of getting this infection. continue Treating Listeriosis Listeriosis is usually treated with antibiotics in the ...

  4. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia A A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  5. Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Asperger Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Asperger Syndrome Print A ... the medical community still use the term. About Asperger Syndrome The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, ...

  6. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reconcile their teen's sexual orientation with their religious or personal beliefs. Sadly, some react with anger, hostility, or rejection. But many parents find that they just need time to adjust ...

  7. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Amblyopia KidsHealth > For Parents > Amblyopia Print A A A ... could lead to permanent vision loss later. About Amblyopia From birth until about age 8, a child's ...

  8. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  9. Strokes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... test that uses magnets, radio waves, and computer technology to produce very good pictures of internal body ...

  10. Cochlear Implants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... understand their new bionic ear and the cool technology behind it that allows them to hear better. ...

  11. Turner Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... become pregnant) as adults. However, advances in medical technology, including hormonal therapy and in vitro fertilization, can ...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  13. CPR (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help CPR KidsHealth > For Parents > CPR Print A A A ... can be given by health care providers. About CPR CPR (or cardiopulmonary resuscitation ) is a combination of ...

  14. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  15. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A ... Media Use Affects Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes ...

  16. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents Help Kids Handle Teasing? Talking to Your Child About Puberty Helping Kids Deal With Bullies How Media Use Affects Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie ...

  17. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  18. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  19. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, but the condition is usually not severe. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is also known as the "bubble boy ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: Autoimmunity Immunotherapy Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Living With Lupus Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ...

  20. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  1. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  2. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  3. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fight with each other? When Parents Disagree All couples argue from time to time. They might disagree ... happen and that's OK — it's all part of learning how to live with each other and get ...

  4. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  5. Diphtheria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diphtheria KidsHealth > For Parents > Diphtheria Print A A A ... Contagiousness Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Diphtheria Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that spreads easily ...

  6. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Gun Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Gun Safety Print A ... unloaded, and the ammunition should be stored separately. Guns and Pretend Play Allowing kids to play with ...

  7. Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affects Your Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Warts KidsHealth > For Parents > Warts Print A A A ...

  8. Sepsis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Sepsis KidsHealth > For Parents > Sepsis Print A A A ... Infections When to Call the Doctor What Is Sepsis? Sepsis is when the immune system responds to ...

  9. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Amebiasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Amebiasis Print A A A ... Prevention Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Amebiasis Amebiasis is an intestinal illness that's typically transmitted ...

  10. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  11. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bleeding disorder , such as sickle cell disease , thalassemia, or anemia caused by kidney disease , hemophilia , or ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Beta Thalassemia Sickle Cell Disease Alpha Thalassemia von Willebrand Disease ...

  12. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Alpha Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  13. Psoriasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Psoriasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Psoriasis A A A What's ... treatment doesn't work, another probably will. About Psoriasis Psoriasis (suh-RYE-uh-sus) is a non- ...

  14. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  15. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  16. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  17. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  18. Hernias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Hernias KidsHealth > For Parents > Hernias Print A A A ... get your child the appropriate medical care. About Hernias When part of an organ or tissue in ...

  19. Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Scoliosis Print A A A en español Escoliosis What Is Scoliosis? Scoliosis affects the spine. Although the spine is ...

  20. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Thyroid Disease Print A ... many other parts of the body. What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease is when the thyroid gland ...