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Sample records for haploid lines derived

  1. Generation of doubled haploid transgenic wheat lines by microspore transformation.

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    Rhoda A T Brew-Appiah

    Full Text Available Microspores can be induced to develop homozygous doubled haploid plants in a single generation. In the present experiments androgenic microspores of wheat have been genetically transformed and developed into mature homozygous transgenic plants. Two different transformation techniques were investigated, one employing electroporation and the other co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Different tissue culture and transfection conditions were tested on nine different wheat cultivars using four different constructs. A total of 19 fertile transformants in five genotypes from four market classes of common wheat were recovered by the two procedures. PCR followed by DNA sequencing of the products, Southern blot analyses and bio/histo-chemical and histological assays of the recombinant enzymes confirmed the presence of the transgenes in the T0 transformants and their stable inheritance in homozygous T1∶2 doubled haploid progenies. Several decisive factors determining the transformation and regeneration efficiency with the two procedures were determined: (i pretreatment of immature spikes with CuSO4 solution (500 mg/L at 4°C for 10 days; (ii electroporation of plasmid DNA in enlarged microspores by a single pulse of ∼375 V; (iii induction of microspores after transfection at 28°C in NPB-99 medium and regeneration at 26°C in MMS5 medium; (iv co-cultivation with Agrobacterium AGL-1 cells for transfer of plasmid T-DNA into microspores at day 0 for <24 hours; and (v elimination of AGL-1 cells after co-cultivation with timentin (200-400 mg/L.

  2. Haploids in Conifer Species: Characterization and Chromosomal Integrity of a Maritime Pine Cell Line

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    José Antonio Cabezas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Haploids are a valuable tool for genomic studies in higher plants, especially those with huge genome size and long juvenile periods, such as conifers. In these species, megagametophyte cultures have been widely used to obtain haploid callus and somatic embryogenic lines. One of the main problems associated with tissue culture is the potential genetic instability of the regenerants. Because of this, chromosomal stability of the callus and/or somatic embryos should also be assessed. To this end, chromosome counting, flow cytometry and genotyping using microsatellites have been reported. Here, we present an overview of the work done in conifers, with special emphasis on the production of a haploid cell line in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L. and the use of a set of molecular markers, which includes Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs, to validate chromosomal integrity confirming the presence of all chromosomic arms.

  3. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes

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    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  4. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

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    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  5. Doubled haploid production in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

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    Obert, Bohus; Zácková, Zuzana; Samaj, Jozef; Pretová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There is a requirement of haploid and double haploid material and homozygous lines for cell culture studies and breeding in flax. Anther culture is currently the most successful method producing doubled haploid lines in flax. Recently, ovary culture was also described as a good source of doubled haploids. In this review we focus on tissue and plants regeneration using anther culture, and cultivation of ovaries containing unfertilized ovules. The effect of genotype, physiological status of donor plants, donor material pre-treatment and cultivation conditions for flax anthers and ovaries is discussed here. The process of plant regeneration from anther and ovary derived calli is also in the focus of this review. Attention is paid to the ploidy level of regenerated tissue and to the use of molecular markers for determining of gametic origin of flax plants derived from anther and ovary cultures. Finally, some future prospects on the use of doubled haploids in flax biotechnology are outlined here.

  6. Transformation of haploid, microspore-derived cell suspension protoplasts of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

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    Chaïr, H; Legavre, T; Guiderdoni, E

    1996-06-01

    We compared the transient activity of three cereal gene-derived promoter-gus fusions and the efficiency of selection mediated by three different selectable genes in a polyethylene glycol transformation system with haploid cell suspension protoplasts of rice. The maize ubiquitin promoter was found to be the most active in transformed protoplasts, and selection on ammonium glufosinate mediated by the bar gene was the most efficient for producing resistant calluses. Cotransformation of protoplasts with two separate plasmids carrying the gus and the bar genes, at either a 2∶1 or 1∶1 ratio, led to 0.8 × 10(-5) and 1.6 × 10(-5) resistant callus recovery frequencies and 59.7 and 37.9 cotransformation efficiencies respectively. No escapes were detected in dot blot analyses of 100 resistant calluses with a probe consisting of the bar coding region. Cotransformation efficiency, based on resistance to basta and β-glucuronidase staining of the leaf tissue of 115 regenerated plants, was 47%. Resistance tests and Southern analysis of seed progenies of three diploid transgenic plants demonstrated homozygous integration of multiple copies of the transgene at one locus at least in the first plant, heterozygous integration at one locus in the second plant and heterozygous integration at two loci in the third plant.

  7. Haploid rice plants in mutation studies

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    Tanaka, S [Institute of Radiation Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ohmiya, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1970-03-01

    Studies were made on chlorophyll-deficient sectors and diploid-like sectors in haploid rice plants exposed to chronic gamma irradiation, and on germinal mutations in diploid strains derived from the haploid plants. The induction and elimination of somatic mutations in haploid plants and the occurrence of drastic germinal mutations in diploid strains from haploid plants are discussed. (author)

  8. Response of Barley Double Haploid Lines to the Grain Yield and Morphological Traits under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

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    Maroof Khalily

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationships of grain yield and some of agro-morphological traits in 40 doubled haploid (DH lines along with parental and three check genotypes in a randomized complete block design with two replications under two water regimes (normal and stress were evaluated during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons. Combined analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits in terms of the year, water regimes, lines, and and line × year. Comparison of group means, between non-stress and stress conditions, showed that DH lines had the lowest reduction percentage for the number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield as opposed to check genotypes. The correlation between grain yield with biological yield, harvest index, thousand grain weight, and hectoliter of kernel weight in both conditions, were highly significant and positive. Based on stepwise regression the peduncle length, number of seeds per spike, thousand seed weight, and hectoliter of kernel weight had important effect on increasing seed yield. The result of path analysis showed that these traits had the highest direct effect on grain yield. Based on mean comparisons of morphological characters as well as STI and GMP indices it can be concluded that lines No.11, 13, 14, 24, 29, 30, 35 and 39 were distinguished to be desirable lines for grain yield and their related traits and also tolerant lines in terms of response to drought stress conditions.

  9. Plant regeneration from haploid cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Mediterranean rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Miara).

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    Guiderdoni, E; Chaïr, H

    1992-11-01

    More than 750 plants were regenerated from protoplasts isolated from microspore callus-derived cell suspensions of the Mediterranean japonica rice Miara, using a nurse-feeder technique and N6-based culture medium. The mean plating efficiency and the mean regeneration ability of the protocalluses were 0.5% and 49% respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation of the DNA contents of 7 month old-cell and protoplast suspensions showed that they were still haploid. Contrastingly, the DNA contents of leaf cell nuclei of the regenerated protoclones ranged from 1C to 5C including 60% 2C plants. This was consistent with the morphological type and the fertility of the mature plants. These results and the absence of chimeric plants suggest that polyploidization occurred during the early phase of protoplast culture.

  10. Evaluating the Production of Doubled Haploid Wheat Lines Using Various Methods of Wheat and Maize Crossing to Develop Heat-Tolerant Wheat Varieties

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    Tayebeh BAKHSHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, chromosome elimination method was used to develop doubled haploid wheat lines via crosses with maize. The plant materials used included 11, F1 wheat genotypes and maize genotype BC572. In these crosses, the maize plant was used as the male parent.Three methods of haploid production in wheat comprising conventional (A, detached-tiller culture (B and intermediate (C techniques were used and compared. The traits such as the number of seeds set, the number of embryos obtained and the number of haploid seedlings produced were studied. Comparisons showed that among various methods of storing wheat spikes, method (C was better than other techniques in terms of the percentage of seed production, embryo formation and haploid seedling production. Also, in all three methods, the percentage of seed production, the percentage of embryo formation and the percentage of haploid seedling production were respectively equal to 76.84, 25.22 and 51.89. Among the wheat genotypes in all three methods, genotype DH-133 with 87.28 percent seed set and genotype DH-132 with 32.71 percent embryo formation and 65.08 percent haploid seedling production were the best genotypes. A total of 92 doubled haploid lines were produced. In the field evaluations of 86 doubled haploid lines, traits such as growing season, plant height, lodging, kernel yield and 1000 kernel weight were examined. Finally, 3 lines were selected for adaptation and stability testing under heat stress conditions.Keywords: Wheat, Doubled haploid, Chromosome elimination, Detached-tiller culture Özet. Bu çalışmada, mısır ile çaprazlarla çift katlı haploid buğday hatlarının geliştirilmesi için kromozom eliminasyon yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Kullanılan bitki materyalleri 11, F1 buğday genotipleri ve BC572 mısır genotipini içermektedir. Bu çaprazlarda, mısır bitkisi erkek ebeveyn olarak kullanılmıştır. Geleneksel (A, ayrık-yeke kültürü (B ve ara (C

  11. Genome Sequences of Industrially Relevant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain M3707, Isolated from a Sample of Distillers Yeast and Four Haploid Derivatives

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    Brown, Steven D.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Courtney M.; Clum, Alicia; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Sharma, Aditi; Zane, Matthew; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Davison, Brian H.; Lynd, Lee R.; Gilna, Paul; Hau, Heidi; Hogsett, David A.; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2013-04-19

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain M3707 was isolated from a sample of commercial distillers yeast, and its genome sequence together with the genome sequences for the four derived haploid strains M3836, M3837, M3838, and M3839 has been determined. Yeasts have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) for biofuel production, and access to these genome sequences will facilitate their development.

  12. Genetic variation of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of double haploid wheat lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Milkova, V.; Ivanov, P.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study considers the genotype peculiarities in the dynamics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in plant parts during the different stages of 10 DH wheat lines characterized as initial breeding material of high quality. These were obtained from 2 crosses - 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-4 and 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-24. Considerable genotype variations were established both between the lines and the parental forms, and in comparison to the standard quality variety Slavyanka-196. Lines 41-191 and 41-344 are of special interest because of their high grain yield and high intensity of biomass accumulation (kg/dka/day) and high intensity of nitrogen uptake (g/dka/day) mainly in the second half of the grain filling period. These fines stand out among the new DH fines with their high protein yields. In line 41-181 the ratio NHI/GHI changes positively with a high degree of certainty in both phases of grain maturity. This line is characterized with the highest value of nitrogen (mg) in vegetation mass per unit mature grain. A positive correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio and protein content in grain. Line 41-344 is the most economic one with regard to nitrogen formation per 100 kg grain with the lowest expense for formation of the respective quantity of straw. Refs. 5 (author)

  13. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

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    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Host Plant Resistance in Two Populations of Doubled Haploid Lines in Maize (Zea mays L.).

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    Bohn, Martin O; Marroquin, Juan J; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Dashiell, Kenton; Willmot, David B; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2018-02-09

    Over the last 70 yr, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Selected genotypes were mostly characterized by large root systems and superior root regrowth after root damage caused by western corn rootworm larvae. However, no hybrids claiming native (i.e., host plant) resistance to western corn rootworm larval feeding are currently commercially available. We investigated the genetic basis of western corn rootworm resistance in maize materials with improved levels of resistance using linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. Two populations of topcrossed doubled haploid maize lines (DHLs) derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible maize lines were evaluated for their level of resistance in three to four different environments. For each DHL topcross an average root damage score was estimated and used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We found genomic regions contributing to western corn rootworm resistance on all maize chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. Models fitting all QTL simultaneously explained about 30 to 50% of the genotypic variance for root damage scores in both mapping populations. Our findings confirm the complex genetic structure of host plant resistance against western corn rootworm larval feeding in maize. Interestingly, three of these QTL regions also carry genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, a key compound we hypothesize is involved in the expression of western corn rootworm resistance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Breeding of a xylose-fermenting hybrid strain by mating genetically engineered haploid strains derived from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Seitaro; Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 is a promising host strain to genetically engineer xylose-utilizing yeasts for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Two IR-2-based haploid strains were selected based upon the rate of xylulose fermentation, and hybrids were obtained by mating recombinant haploid strains harboring heterogeneous xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) (wild-type NAD(+)-dependent XDH or engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH, ARSdR), xylose reductase (XR) and xylulose kinase (XK) genes. ARSdR in the hybrids selected for growth rates on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) agar and YP-xylose agar plates typically had a higher activity than NAD(+)-dependent XDH. Furthermore, the xylose-fermenting performance of the hybrid strain SE12 with the same level of heterogeneous XDH activity was similar to that of a recombinant strain of IR-2 harboring a single set of genes, XR/ARSdR/XK. These results suggest not only that the recombinant haploid strains retain the appropriate genetic background of IR-2 for ethanol production from xylose but also that ARSdR is preferable for xylose fermentation.

  16. Discrimination of haploid and diploid maize kernels via multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Adsetts Edberg Hansen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    sorting of haploids would increase the efficiency of DH line development. In this study, six inbred lines were crossed with the maternal haploid inducer ‘RWS/RWK-76’ and a sample of seed was sorted manually for each line. Using the VideometerLab 3 system, spectral imaging techniques were applied...

  17. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

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    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

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    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  19. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

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    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  20. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells, March 1968-April 1981. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1982-03-01

    An account is given of the development and application to cell-culture genetics of unique haploid cell lines from frog embryo developed in this laboratory. Since 1968, the main aim of this project has been to develop the haploid cell system for studies of mutagenesis in culture, particularly by ultraviolet radiation. In the course of this work we isolated chromosomally stable cell lines, derived and characterized a number of variants, and adapted cell hybridization and other methods to this material. Particular emphasis was placed on ultraviolet photobiology, including studies of cell survival, mutagenesis, and pathways of repair of uv-damaged DNA. Although at present less widely used for genetic experiments than mammalian cell lines, the frog cells offer the advantages of authentic haploidy and a favorable repertory of DNA repair pathways for study of uv mutagenesis

  1. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Tadeusz Adamski

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.

  2. Verification and characterization of chromosome duplication in haploid maize.

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    de Oliveira Couto, E G; Resende Von Pinho, E V; Von Pinho, R G; Veiga, A D; de Carvalho, M R; de Oliveira Bustamante, F; Nascimento, M S

    2015-06-26

    Doubled haploid technology has been used by various private companies. However, information regarding chromosome duplication methodologies, particularly those concerning techniques used to identify duplication in cells, is limited. Thus, we analyzed and characterized artificially doubled haploids using microsatellites molecular markers, pollen viability, and flow cytometry techniques. Evaluated material was obtained using two different chromosome duplication protocols in maize seeds considered haploids, resulting from the cross between the haploid inducer line KEMS and 4 hybrids (GNS 3225, GNS 3032, GNS 3264, and DKB 393). Fourteen days after duplication, plant samples were collected and assessed by flow cytometry. Further, the plants were transplanted to a field, and samples were collected for DNA analyses using microsatellite markers. The tassels were collected during anthesis for pollen viability analyses. Haploid, diploid, and mixoploid individuals were detected using flow cytometry, demonstrating that this technique was efficient for identifying doubled haploids. The microsatellites markers were also efficient for confirming the ploidies preselected by flow cytometry and for identifying homozygous individuals. Pollen viability showed a significant difference between the evaluated ploidies when the Alexander and propionic-carmin stains were used. The viability rates between the plodies analyzed show potential for fertilization.

  3. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

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    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  4. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

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    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  5. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells

  6. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias; Herzog, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners.

  7. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners. PMID:29200436

  8. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adamski,Tadeusz; Krystkowiak,Karolina; Kuczynska,Anetta; Mikolajczak,Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz,Piotr; Ponitka,Aleksandra; Surma,Maria; Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina,Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the proportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable G...

  9. Deriving the Regression Line with Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration with spreadsheets and reliance on previous skills can lead students to determine the line of best fit. To perform linear regression on a set of data, students in Algebra 2 (or, in principle, Algebra 1) do not have to settle for using the mysterious "black box" of their graphing calculators (or other classroom technologies).…

  10. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  11. A One Line Derivation of EGARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McAleer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular univariate asymmetric conditional volatility models is the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH specification. In addition to asymmetry, which captures the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, EGARCH can also accommodate leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. However, the statistical properties of the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimator of the EGARCH parameters are not available under general conditions, but rather only for special cases under highly restrictive and unverifiable conditions. It is often argued heuristically that the reason for the lack of general statistical properties arises from the presence in the model of an absolute value of a function of the parameters, which does not permit analytical derivatives, and hence does not permit (quasi- maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown in this paper for the non-leverage case that: (1 the EGARCH model can be derived from a random coefficient complex nonlinear moving average (RCCNMA process; and (2 the reason for the lack of statistical properties of the estimators of EGARCH under general conditions is that the stationarity and invertibility conditions for the RCCNMA process are not known.

  12. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  13. Maximization of Markers Linked in Coupling for Tetraploid Potatoes via Monoparental Haploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M. Bartkiewicz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Haploid potato populations derived from a single tetraploid donor constitute an efficient strategy to analyze markers segregating from a single donor genotype. Analysis of marker segregation in populations derived from crosses between polysomic tetraploids is complicated by a maximum of eight segregating alleles, multiple dosages of the markers and problems related to linkage analysis of marker segregation in repulsion. Here, we present data on two monoparental haploid populations generated by prickle pollination of two tetraploid cultivars with Solanum phureja and genotyped with the 12.8 k SolCAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. We show that in a population of monoparental haploids, the number of biallelic SNP markers segregating in linkage to loci from the tetraploid donor genotype is much larger than in putative crosses of this genotype to a diverse selection of 125 tetraploid cultivars. Although this strategy is more laborious than conventional breeding, the generation of haploid progeny for efficient marker analysis is straightforward if morphological markers and flow cytometry are utilized to select true haploid progeny. The level of introgressed fragments from S. phureja, the haploid inducer, is very low, supporting its suitability for genetic analysis. Mapping with single-dose markers allowed the analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL for four phenotypic traits.

  14. Resolving traceability issues of product derivation for software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Saad bin

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Dealing with traceability management issues during model based product derivation in large complex industrial SPL is error prone due to the lack of tool support. As a result traceability management between connected models emerges as an important research topic. In this position paper, we discuss research challenges as scenarios from developed example product line and give recommendations on resolving traceability issues during product derivation. We also discuss initial idea...

  15. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. PMID:25478566

  16. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding.

  17. Nestin expression in the cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselska, Renata; Kuglik, Petr; Cejpek, Pavel; Svachova, Hana; Neradil, Jakub; Loja, Tomas; Relichova, Jirina

    2006-01-01

    Nestin is a protein belonging to class VI of intermediate filaments that is produced in stem/progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development and is consecutively replaced by other intermediate filament proteins (neurofilaments, GFAP). Down-regulated nestin may be re-expressed in the adult organism under certain pathological conditions (brain injury, ischemia, inflammation, neoplastic transformation). Our work focused on a detailed study of the nestin cytoskeleton in cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme, because re-expression of nestin together with down-regulation of GFAP has been previously reported in this type of brain tumor. Two cell lines were derived from the tumor tissue of patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme. Nestin and other cytoskeletal proteins were visualized using imunocytochemical methods: indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling. Using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, we described the morphology of nestin-positive intermediate filaments in glioblastoma cells of both primary cultures and the derived cell lines, as well as the reorganization of nestin during mitosis. Our most important result came through transmission electron microscopy and provided clear evidence that nestin is present in the cell nucleus. Detailed information concerning the pattern of the nestin cytoskeleton in glioblastoma cell lines and especially the demonstration of nestin in the nucleus represent an important background for further studies of nestin re-expression in relationship to tumor malignancy and invasive potential

  18. Derivation of novel genetically diverse human embryonic stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Valentina T; Grifo, James A; Hansis, Christoph

    2012-06-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to revolutionize many biomedical fields ranging from basic research to disease modeling, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. A multitude of hESC lines have been derived worldwide since the first 5 lines by Thomson et al. 13 years ago, but many of these are poorly characterized, unavailable, or do not represent desired traits, thus making them unsuitable for application purposes. In order to provide the scientific community with better options, we have derived 12 new hESC lines at New York University from discarded genetically normal and abnormal embryos using the latest techniques. We examined the genetic status of the NYUES lines in detail as well as their molecular and cellular features and DNA fingerprinting profile. Furthermore, we differentiated our hESCs into the tissues most affected by a specific condition or into clinically desired cell types. To our knowledge, a number of characteristics of our hESCs have not been previously reported, for example, mutation for alpha thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome, linkage to conditions with a genetic component such as asthma or poor sperm morphology, and novel combinations of ethnic backgrounds. Importantly, all of our undifferentiated euploid female lines tested to date did not show X chromosome inactivation, believed to result in superior potency. We continue to derive new hESC lines and add them to the NIH registry and other registries. This should facilitate the use of our hESCs and lead to advancements for patient-benefitting applications.

  19. Systematic Derivation of Static Analyses for Software Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    A recent line of work lifts particular verification and analysis methods to Software Product Lines (SPL). In an effort to generalize such case-by-case approaches, we develop a systematic methodology for lifting program analyses to SPLs using abstract interpretation. Abstract interpretation...... for lifting analyses and Galois connections. We prove that for analyses developed using our method, the soundness of lifting follows by construction. Finally, we discuss approximating variability in an analysis and we derive variational data-flow equations for an example analysis, a constant propagation...

  20. Plants Regeneration Derived From Various on Peanut on Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Kumala; Masrizal; Mugiono

    1998-01-01

    The study of calli, greenspot formation and shoot regeneration on peanut mutant lines has ben conducted by MS media. Three explants derived from shoot tips, embryo and seeding root of two mutant lines a/20/3 and D/25/3/2 were used in this experiment. the explants were cultured on modified MS media enriched by vitamins, growth regulation, amino acids for fourth teen calli were transferred on regeneration media. The ability of calli formation and plant regeneration of each explant and genotypes of plants was varied. Greenspot and shoot formation were observed seventh days after the calli transferred on regeneration media. It is shown that the ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation of each explants and genotypes was varied. the high ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation were found in explant derived from shoot tip and embryo. Seedling root explant has lower ability in calli formation, while greenspot and shoot was formatted. The ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation on A/20/3 mutant line was better than D/25/3/2 mutant line. (author)

  1. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarcia, C.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Sorenson, D.S.; Frederickson, R.H.; Delanoy, A.D.; Malone, R.M.; Tunnel, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set

  2. Use of intergeneric cross for production of doubled haploid wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Shaukat, S.; Kashif, M.; Khan, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of conventional breeding or hybridisation is to bring about homozygosity, for which 6 to 7 years may be required. Wheat and maize crosses have proved to be more efficient in DH lines production than anther culture methods, because of its lower genetic specificity. Doubled haploid technique facilitates the development of homozygous plants within one generation. The system is developed through haploid production, followed by chromosome doubling, to produce homozygous plants in a single generation. For doubled haploid production method wheat and maize crossing system is better than anther culture and ovule culture because maize pollens are highly responsive and produce stable progeny population. Wheat is being used as female parent and maize as a male parent for the production of doubled haploid. Moreover, Silver Nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) in tiller culture media can improve the frequency of haploid embryo production in this crossing system. Our result showed that DH production through wheat and maize crossing system was proved to be time saving (2 years) as compared to other conventional breeding methods (6 years). (author)

  3. Meiosis and haploid gametes in the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Lori; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy

    2014-01-20

    In eukaryote pathogens, sex is an important driving force in spreading genes for drug resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence. For the parasitic trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness, mating occurs during transmission by the tsetse vector and involves meiosis, but haploid gametes have not yet been identified. Here, we show that meiosis is a normal part of development in the insect salivary glands for all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, including the human pathogens. By observing insect-derived trypanosomes during the window of peak expression of meiosis-specific genes, we identified promastigote-like (PL) cells that interacted with each other via their flagella and underwent fusion, as visualized by the mixing of cytoplasmic red and green fluorescent proteins. PL cells had a short, wide body, a very long anterior flagellum, and either one or two kinetoplasts, but only the anterior kinetoplast was associated with the flagellum. Measurement of nuclear DNA contents showed that PL cells were haploid relative to diploid metacyclics. Trypanosomes are among the earliest diverging eukaryotes, and our results support the hypothesis that meiosis and sexual reproduction are ubiquitous in eukaryotes and likely to have been early innovations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetical Studies On Haploid Production In Some Ornamental Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOSTAFA, M.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Haploid are plants with a gametophytic chromosome number and doubled haploid are dihaploids that have undergone chromosome duplication. The production of haploid and doubled haploid (DHs) through gametic embryogenesis allows a single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, shortening the time required to produce homozygous plants in comparison with the conventional breeding methods that employ several generations of selfing. The production of haploid and DHs provides a particularly attractive biotechnological tool, and the development of haploidy technology and protocols to produce homozygous plants has had a significant impact on agricultural systems. Nowadays, these bio technologies represent an integral part of the breeding programmes of many agronomically important crops. There are several available methods to obtain haploid and DHs, of which in vitro anther or isolated microspore culture are the most effective and widely used (Germana Maria 2011). Tissue culture techniques, particularly short-term culture procedures such as shoot-tip culture and regeneration from primary explants, have been proposed as methods for obtaining large numbers of plants identical to the plant used as an explant source( Evans et al., 1984). Nicotiana spp. are one of the most important commercial crops in the world ( Liu and Zhang, 2008). Nicotiana alata is member from family solanacea, it is ornamental plant and the diploid cells contains 18 chromosomes. Nitsch (1969) reported the first production of haploid plants through anther culture and regeneration of plants of Nicotiana alata, For these reasons they have been considered to suitable candidates for model species in somatic cell genetics research( Bourgin et al., 1979). Radiobiological studies on plant tissues in culture may provide information on the cell growth behavior, radiosensitivity and the induction of mutations. The radiosensitivity of plants and calli can be manifested mostly in three

  5. LINE DERIVED INFRARED EXTINCTION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T. K.; Gillessen, S.; Dodds-Eden, K.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Raab, W.; Ott, T.; Pfuhl, O.; Eisenhauer, F.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the extinction curve toward the Galactic center (GC) from 1 to 19 μm. We use hydrogen emission lines of the minispiral observed by ISO-SWS and SINFONI. The extinction-free flux reference is the 2 cm continuum emission observed by the Very Large Array. Toward the inner 14'' x 20'', we find an extinction of A 2.166μm = 2.62 ± 0.11, with a power-law slope of α = -2.11 ± 0.06 shortward of 2.8 μm, consistent with the average near-infrared slope from the recent literature. At longer wavelengths, however, we find that the extinction is grayer than shortward of 2.8 μm. We find that it is not possible to fit the observed extinction curve with a dust model consisting of pure carbonaceous and silicate grains only, and the addition of composite particles, including ices, is needed to explain the observations. Combining a distance-dependent extinction with our distance-independent extinction, we derive the distance to the GC to be R 0 = 7.94 ± 0.65 kpc. Toward Sgr A* (r H = 4.21 ± 0.10, A Ks = 2.42 ± 0.10, and A L' = 1.09 ± 0.13.

  6. Generation of Mouse Haploid Somatic Cells by Small Molecules for Genome-wide Genetic Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Quan He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of derivation of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs has provided a powerful tool for large-scale functional analysis of the mammalian genome. However, haESCs rapidly become diploidized after differentiation, posing challenges for genetic analysis. Here, we show that the spontaneous diploidization of haESCs happens in metaphase due to mitotic slippage. Diploidization can be suppressed by small-molecule-mediated inhibition of CDK1 and ROCK. Through ROCK inhibition, we can generate haploid somatic cells of all three germ layers from haESCs, including terminally differentiated neurons. Using piggyBac transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, we generated a haploid neural cell library harboring genome-wide mutations for genetic screening. As a proof of concept, we screened for Mn2+-mediated toxicity and identified the Park2 gene. Our findings expand the applications of mouse haploid cell technology to somatic cell types and may also shed light on the mechanisms of ploidy maintenance.

  7. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  8. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M V; Ahmad, I; Ingram, D S [Botany School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  9. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, M.V.; Ahmad, I.; Ingram, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M 1 and M 2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  10. Survival and DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated haploid and diploid cultured frog cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.; Hoess, R.H.; Angelosanto, F.A.; Massey, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Survival and repair of DNA following ultraviolet (254-nm) radiation have been investigated in ICR 2A, a cultured cell line from haploid embryos of the grassfrog, Rana pipiens. Survival curves from cells recovering in the dark gave mean lethal dose value (D 0 ) in the range 1.5-1.7 Jm -2 for both haploid and diploid cell stocks. The only significant difference observed between haploids and diploids was in the extent of the shoulder at low fluence (Dsub(q)), the value for exponentially multiplying diploid cells (3.0 Jm -2 ) being higher than that found for haploids (1.2 Jm -2 ). Irradiation of cultures reversibly blocked in the G1 phase of the cell cycle gave survival-curve coefficients indistinguishable between haploids and diploids. Post-irradiation exposure to visible light restored colony-forming capacity and removed chromatographically estimated pyrimidine dimers from DNA at the same rates. After fluences killing 90% of the cells, complete restoration of survival was obtained after 60-min exposure to 500 foot-candles, indicating that in this range lethality is entirely photoreversible and therefore attributable to pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Dimer removal required illumination following ultraviolet exposure, intact cells and physiological temperature, implying that the photoreversal involved DNA photolyase activity. Excision-repair capacity was slight, since no loss of dimers could be detected chromoatographically during up to 48 h incubation in the dark and since autoradiographically detected 'unscheduled DNA synthesis' was limited to a 2-fold increase saturated at 10 Jm -2 . These properties make ICR 2A frog cells useful to explore how DNA-repair pathways influence mutant yield. (Auth.)

  11. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  12. Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William J.

    2009-01-01

    In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)

  13. Lodging resistant pea line derived after mutagenic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Line 1/502 is a new lodging resistant pea ( Pisum sativum L.) developed for the Bulgarian field pea industry. This line is a direct chlorophyll mutant, which originates after treatment of the initial line, cultivar Auralia, with 150 Gy 60 Co γ - radiation. In regional evaluation trials conducted in Sofia over seven successive seasons 1/502 has revealed improved standing ability that most probably is a result from modification of the architecture of the plants appearing in reduction of plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the mutant line were reported. The upright plant habit and resistance to lodging is especially beneficial for production of high quality peas because pods are held above the soil surface during crop development and during maturity which aids in keeping the peas clean and free of pathogens that can cause discoloration and rotting. (authors)

  14. Application of Doubled Haploid (DH) Technique in Mutation and Conventional Wheat Breeding in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.

    2002-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important staple cereal in Kenya after maize.over the last six years wheat improvement for various stresses and agronomic characteristics have been undertaken through various biotechnological approaches which have been used as complements to the traditional breeding methods. The prime objective in any breeding program is the prevention of the debilitating effects of breeding. In self-pollinated crops such as wheat selection is more efficient homozygous lines than in segregating population. During repeated selfing, to develop homozygousity the vigour of the F1 of M1 plats is lost. Application of biotechnology in crop movement has been suggested as the useful tool in a faster variety development. The double haploid (DH) technique does not only shorten the time of developing homozygous lines but also maintains the heterosis of the F 1 , increase the selection of the efficiency of selection in mutants and increase the effectiveness of selection. in this study DHs were developed from F1 and M4 generation developed from drought tolerance.This was accomplished through the following step: (i)F 1 crosses were produced by crossing three drought tolerant varieties namely Kenya Mbweha, Duma and Ngamia with two highly yielding commercial varieties namely Kenya Chiriku and Kwale in 1998 while mutants were developed through gamma ray irradiation in 1995. (ii) The haploids were produced through chromosome elimination by crossing the F 1 s and the M 4 with maize pollen and (iii) the Double Haploid (DH) were produced by treating the haploid with colchicine. Twenty DH lines were produced from F 1 haploid and 5 from M 4 ones. The DH technique tend to increase uniformity, stability and distinctiveness of the mutants and the segregating populations. Most of the DHs showed wide variation indicating high potential of selection for various agronomic characteristics. Heterosis was realized on a number of characteristics in the DH lines. Through this technique the

  15. Rigorous theoretical derivation of lumped models to transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of the negative electric parameter concept, i.e. negative lumped resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance (N-RLGC), the lumped equivalent models of transmission line systems, including the circuit model, two-port π-network and T-network, are given. We start from the N-segment-ladder-like equivalent networks composed distributed parameters, and achieve the input impedance in the form of a continued fraction. Utilizing the continued fraction theory, the expressions of input impedance are obtained under three kinds of extreme cases, i.e. the load impedances are equal to zero, infinity and characteristic impedance, respectively. When the number of segment N is limited to infinity, they are transformed to lumped elements. Comparison between the distributed model and lumped model of transmission lines, the expression of tanh γd, which is the key term in the transmission line equations, are obtained by RLGC, furthermore, according to input admittance, admittance matrix and ABCD matrix of transmission lines, the lumped equivalent circuit models, π-networks and T-networks have been given. The models are verified in the frequency and time domain, respectively, showing that the models are accurate and efficient. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Influence of time of auxin application on wheat haploid embrio formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Slaven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid interspecies zygote appears after crosses between wheat and maize Zygote derived after usual self-fertilization in wheat is dividing by mitotic divisions into embryo. However, interspecies zygote aborts soon. Auxin treatment is widely used to promote its development. Growth hormones auxins have stimulative ortoxic effects on plant tissue sin relation to its concentration and the time of application. In this paper the effect of time of auxin dicamba application on embryo in wheat x maize crosses was investigated. Chromosomes of pollen donor parent are eliminated quickly in cells of such embryos and they become haploid. It was concluded that for the production of haploid embryos the best time for auxin application is one day after pollination with maize.

  17. Near-haploid and low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi, Setareh; Paulsson, Kajsa

    2017-01-01

    Hypodiploidy leukemia (ALL) in both children and adults. It has long been clear by cytogenetic analyses, and recently confirmed by mutational profiling, that these cases may be further subdivided into 2 subtypes: near-haploid ALL...

  18. Derivation and characterization of the NIH registry human stem cell line NYSCF100 line under defined feeder-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sevilla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe001-A was derived from a day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe001-A line, registered as NYSCF100 on the NIH registry, presents normal karyotype, is mycoplasma free, expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro.

  19. Quantifying rooting at depth in a wheat doubled haploid population with introgression from wild emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina K; Gregory, Peter J; Lukac, Martin; Burridge, Amanda J; Allen, Alexandra M; Edwards, Keith J; Gooding, Mike J

    2017-09-01

    The genetic basis of increased rooting below the plough layer, post-anthesis in the field, of an elite wheat line (Triticum aestivum 'Shamrock') with recent introgression from wild emmer (T. dicoccoides), is investigated. Shamrock has a non-glaucous canopy phenotype mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2B (2BS), derived from the wild emmer. A secondary aim was to determine whether genetic effects found in the field could have been predicted by other assessment methods. Roots of doubled haploid (DH) lines from a winter wheat ('Shamrock' × 'Shango') population were assessed using a seedling screen in moist paper rolls, in rhizotrons to the end of tillering, and in the field post-anthesis. A linkage map was produced using single nucleotide polymorphism markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rooting traits. Shamrock had greater root length density (RLD) at depth than Shango, in the field and within the rhizotrons. The DH population exhibited diversity for rooting traits within the three environments studied. QTLs were identified on chromosomes 5D, 6B and 7B, explaining variation in RLD post-anthesis in the field. Effects associated with the non-glaucous trait on RLD interacted significantly with depth in the field, and some of this interaction mapped to 2BS. The effect of genotype was strongly influenced by the method of root assessment, e.g. glaucousness expressed in the field was negatively associated with root length in the rhizotrons, but positively associated with length in the seedling screen. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify QTLs for rooting at depth in field-grown wheat at mature growth stages. Within the population studied here, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that some of the variation in rooting is associated with recent introgression from wild emmer. The expression of genetic effects differed between the methods of root assessment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  20. Chromosome length scaling in haploid, asexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P M C de

    2007-01-01

    We study the genetic behaviour of a population formed by haploid individuals which reproduce asexually. The genetic information for each individual is stored along a bit-string (or chromosome) with L bits, where 0-bits represent the wild allele and 1-bits correspond to harmful mutations. Each newborn inherits this chromosome from its parent with a few random mutations: on average a fixed number m of bits are flipped. Selection is implemented according to the number N of 1-bits counted along the individual's chromosome: the smaller N the higher the probability an individual has to survive a new time step. Such a population evolves, with births and deaths, and its genetic distribution becomes stabilized after sufficiently many generations have passed. The question we pose concerns the procedure of increasing L. The aim is to get the same distribution of genetic loads N/L among the equilibrated population, in spite of a larger L. Should we keep the same mutation rate m/L for different values of L? The answer is yes, which intuitively seems to be plausible. However, this conclusion is not trivial, according to our simulation results: the question also involves the population size

  1. Qtl mapping of wheat doubled haploids for chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics under drought stress imposed at anthesis stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, M.; Ilyas, N.; Arshad, M.; Kazi, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major environmental constraints to crop plants including wheat worldwide. Synthetic hexaploid can act as a vehicle for improving crop tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Doubled haploid population consisting of one hundred and forty individuals derived from cross of Opata and SH223 was used in the present study to identify genomic regions associated with various quantitative attributes of physiological nature. Doubled haploid mapping population was phenotyped for chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics under control and drought stress imposed at anthesis stage. Genotyping of population was accomplished by utilizing two hundred and sixty one polymorphic Gaterslaben wheat microsatellites and Beltsville agriculture research center simple sequence repeats. Linkage map of doubled haploid population comprising of 19 linkage groups and covering map length of two thousands six hundred and twenty six (2626) cM was constructed using map maker software. Major and minor QTLs associated with quantitative traits were identified using QGene software. Major QTL for chlorophyll content (QTc.wwc-1B-S11) of doubled haploid mapping population under anthesis drought stress was mapped on chromosome 1B and explained 10.09 percent of phenotypic variation at LOD score of 5.5. Seven major and minor QTLs for PCFK of doubled haploids were identified on chromosome 1B, 7A and 7D under control and drought stress at anthesis stage. The identified QTLs are of prime importance for high resolution mapping in synthetic hexaploid wheat. Genomic synteny of doubled haploids was observed with rice chromosome 2, 4, 7 and maize chromosome 7 owing to occurrence of orthologous QTLs for chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence respectively. (author)

  2. Preparing for Automated Derivation of Products in a Software Product Line

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGregor, John D

    2005-01-01

    ... to bring a product to market, or through other production improvements. Business goals such as these make automated product derivation an appealing strategy to a software product line organization...

  3. Derivation and characterization of the NYSCFe003-A human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sevilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe003-A was derived from a day 5 to day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe003-A line expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. The line presents normal karyotype and is mycoplasma free.

  4. Derivation and characterisation of hESC lines from supernumerary embryos, experience from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rasmussen, Iben Anne; Erb, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting. Analy...

  5. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Selection on Optimal Haploid Value Increases Genetic Gain and Preserves More Genetic Diversity Relative to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Hayden, Matthew J; Spangenberg, German C; Hayes, Ben J

    2015-08-01

    Doubled haploids are routinely created and phenotypically selected in plant breeding programs to accelerate the breeding cycle. Genomic selection, which makes use of both phenotypes and genotypes, has been shown to further improve genetic gain through prediction of performance before or without phenotypic characterization of novel germplasm. Additional opportunities exist to combine genomic prediction methods with the creation of doubled haploids. Here we propose an extension to genomic selection, optimal haploid value (OHV) selection, which predicts the best doubled haploid that can be produced from a segregating plant. This method focuses selection on the haplotype and optimizes the breeding program toward its end goal of generating an elite fixed line. We rigorously tested OHV selection breeding programs, using computer simulation, and show that it results in up to 0.6 standard deviations more genetic gain than genomic selection. At the same time, OHV selection preserved a substantially greater amount of genetic diversity in the population than genomic selection, which is important to achieve long-term genetic gain in breeding populations. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Susanne; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Holm, Frida; Bergström, Rosita; Eklund, Linda; Strömberg, Anne-Marie; Hovatta, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Background The large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo quality is important as regards the likelihood of pregnancy, but there is little information regarding likelihood of stem cell derivation. Methods We evaluated the relationship of pronuclear zygote stage, the score based on embryo morphology and developmental rate at cleavage state, and the morphology of the blastocyst at the time of donation to stem cell research, to see how they correlated to successful establishment of new hESC lines. Results Derivation of hESC lines succeeded from poor quality and good quality embryos in the same extent. In several blastocysts, no real inner cell mass (ICM) was seen, but permanent well growing hESC lines could be established. One tripronuclear (3PN) zygote, which developed to blastocyst stage, gave origin to a karyotypically normal hESC line. Conclusion Even very poor quality embryos with few cells in the ICM can give origin to hESC lines. PMID:21217828

  8. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2-3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis

  10. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreto eFayos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their

  11. Derivation and Osmotolerance Characterization of Three Immortalized Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M.; Qin, Qin; Rice, Robert H.; Li, Johnathan; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cell lines from brain (OmB) and lip epithelium (OmL), and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB) cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (≥ passage 5), we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL) using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg) was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg) on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish. PMID:24797371

  12. An analysis of radiation-induced damage in the spider mite. Relationship between mortality of haploid and diploid eggs in two successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Unfertilized females of the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) produce only haploid eggs which develop into a haploid male. Fertilized females produce both haploid eggs (unfertilized), which develop into males, and diploid eggs (fertilized), which develop into females. Radiobiological experiments performed by A.M. Feldmann (Association Euratom-ITAL) made data available on the radiation-induced mortality of haploid and diploid eggs in the F 1 and F 2 generation following irradiation of either males or females with X rays or fast neutrons. The data have been analysed using the molecular theory of cell survival where it is assumed that DNA double strand breaks, induced randomly in the cell, are the critical radiation-induced lesions, which lead to cell death. Theoretical relationships are derived for the dose dependence of hatchability in haploid and diploid eggs in the first and second generations expressed as a function of the radiation damage in the parental genome. These theoretical relationships can be used to derive the inter-relationship between the different hatchabilities, and the results from the spider mite have been analysed using these considerations. It is concluded that the radiation-induced genetic damage arises from one type of initial lesion. The eventual radiobiological implications of this analysis are discussed, expecially with respect to the transmittance of radiation-induced genetic damage after low-level radiation. (author)

  13. Pancreatic cancer cell lines as patient-derived avatars: genetic characterisation and functional utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Erik S; Balaji, Uthra; Mannakee, Brian; Vail, Paris; Eslinger, Cody; Moxom, Christopher; Mansour, John; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2018-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a therapy recalcitrant disease with the worst survival rate of common solid tumours. Preclinical models that accurately reflect the genetic and biological diversity of PDAC will be important for delineating features of tumour biology and therapeutic vulnerabilities. 27 primary PDAC tumours were employed for genetic analysis and development of tumour models. Tumour tissue was used for derivation of xenografts and cell lines. Exome sequencing was performed on the originating tumour and developed models. RNA sequencing, histological and functional analyses were employed to determine the relationship of the patient-derived models to clinical presentation of PDAC. The cohort employed captured the genetic diversity of PDAC. From most cases, both cell lines and xenograft models were developed. Exome sequencing confirmed preservation of the primary tumour mutations in developed cell lines, which remained stable with extended passaging. The level of genetic conservation in the cell lines was comparable to that observed with patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Unlike historically established PDAC cancer cell lines, patient-derived models recapitulated the histological architecture of the primary tumour and exhibited metastatic spread similar to that observed clinically. Detailed genetic analyses of tumours and derived models revealed features of ex vivo evolution and the clonal architecture of PDAC. Functional analysis was used to elucidate therapeutic vulnerabilities of relevance to treatment of PDAC. These data illustrate that with the appropriate methods it is possible to develop cell lines that maintain genetic features of PDAC. Such models serve as important substrates for analysing the significance of genetic variants and create a unique biorepository of annotated cell lines and xenografts that were established simultaneously from same primary tumour. These models can be used to infer genetic and empirically determined

  14. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...... both to immortalize a rare cell type and to provide a selection for the maintenance of its differentiated phenotype....

  15. Establishment of cell lines derived from ataxia telangiectasia and xeroderma pigmentosum patients with high radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Yoshiro; Owada, M. Koji; Kakunaga, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Four human fibroblast cell lines, three of which were derived from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia and the other from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, were established after transfection with cloned SV40 DNA. These 4 cell lines showed some phenotypes characteristic of neoplastically transformed cells, and had a human karyotype with heteromorphisms identical to those of the parental fibroblasts. Their sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of γ-rays or ultraviolet irradiation was as high as those of their parental fibroblasts. (Auth.)

  16. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulations, EU Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to good manufacturing practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a cryopreserved blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe016-A (RC-12 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro. Karyology revealed a mixed male karyotype at early passage (P15, which resolved as normal 46XY by passage 33. Microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  17. Establishment and characterization of 7 novel hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines from patient-derived tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xin

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903 by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3 was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening.

  18. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1–60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  19. Axon Guidance of Sympathetic Neurons to Cardiomyocytes by Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal

  20. Uniform boundedness of derivatives of meromorphic inner functions on the real line

    OpenAIRE

    Rupam, Rishika

    2013-01-01

    Inner functions are an important and popular object of study in the field of complex function theory. We look at meromorphic inner functions with a given spectrum and provide sufficient conditions for them to have uniformly bounded derivatives on the real line. This question was first studied by Louis de Brange in 1968 and was later revived by Anton Baranov in 2011.

  1. Identification of two distinct chromosome 12-derived amplification units in neuroblastoma cell line NGP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Forus, A.; Myklebost, O.; Cheng, N. C.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1995-01-01

    The neuroblastoma cell line NGP contains two homogeneously staining regions (hsr). One of these hsrs contains MYCN sequences. Reverse painting experiments demonstrated that the second HSR consisted of two chromosome 12-derived amplification units, located at 12q14-15 and 12q24. Southern blot and

  2. Macrophage Activation Mechanisms in Human Monocytic Cell Line-derived Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Yu; Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2015-08-01

    Although the mechanisms of macrophage activation are important for cancer immunotherapy, they are poorly understood. Recently, easy and robust assay systems for assessing the macrophage-activating factor (MAF) using monocytic cell line-derived macrophages were established. Gene-expression profiles of U937- and THP-1-derived macrophages were compared using gene expression microarray analysis and their responses against several MAFs were examined by in vitro experiments. Activated states of these macrophages could not be assigned to a specific sub-type but showed, however, different unique characteristics. The unique of monocytic cell line-derived macrophages could provide clues to understand the activation mechanism of macrophages and, therefore, help to develop effective cancer immunotherapy with MAFs. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Feeder-cell-independent culture of the pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line, PICM-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation to feeder-independent growth of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line is described. The parental PICM-31 cell line, previously characterized as an exocrine pancreas cell line, was colony-cloned two times in succession resulting in the subclonal cell line, PICM-31A1. P...

  4. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  5. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10

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    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10 was derived from a fresh oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a mixed 46XY and 47XY +12 male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  6. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2

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    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line exhibits expression of expected pluripotency markers and in vitro differentiation potential to three germinal lineage representative cell populations. It has a male trisomy 12 karyotype (47XY, +12. Microsatellite DNA marker identity and HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  7. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6

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    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XY male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  8. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8

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    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8 was derived from a frozen and thawed day 5 embryo cultivated to the blastocyst stage. The embryo was voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  9. Oxygen abundance in metal-poor dwarfs, derived from the forbidden line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.

    1991-12-01

    The oxygen abundance is redetermined in a few metal-poor dwarfs, using the oxygen forbidden line at 630 nm rather than the oxygen triplet at 777 nm previously used by Abia and Rebolo (1989). The ratios form O/Fe are clearly lower than the previous ones and are in agreement with the ratios found in the metal-poor red giants, suggesting that no real difference exists between dwarfs and giants. Finally, it can be argued that, pending the acquisition of additional information, the oxygen abundances derived from the forbidden line are more reliable than the abundances found from the triplet.

  10. Meiosis and Haploid Gametes in the Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Lori; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Summary In eukaryote pathogens, sex is an important driving force in spreading genes for drug resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence [1]. For the parasitic trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness, mating occurs during transmission by the tsetse vector [2, 3] and involves meiosis [4], but haploid gametes have not yet been identified. Here, we show that meiosis is a normal part of development in the insect salivary glands for all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, including the human...

  11. Development of a Indica rice restorer line Fuhui838 and its derivative lines with strong restoring ability and their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dasheng; Chen Hao; Deng Wenmin; Feng Lei; Yang Xuefeng; Ma Anlu; Liu Minghai

    2009-01-01

    Fuhui 838 and its derivative restorer lines (Fuhui 718, Fuhui 305, Zhongfu 218, Mianhui 3728, Nuoyou 1...) have the ability of strong restoring, high combining, and good resisting, which were bred and released by combined techniques of radiation-induced mutation, polymerization hybridization, and temperature tolerance screening. At present, about 43 combinations were registered and released to commercial production, the series of combinations present high seed setting rate, good tolerance to chilling and heat stress, wide adaptability, high and stable yield, the accumulated area added up to 40 million hm 2 . II you 838, which is famous one of these combinations, proved to be the best in long term and wide planting after Sanyou 63, and it is also one of the main hybrid rice for exporting in China. (authors)

  12. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line derived from human colorectal laterally spreading tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ying; Lai, Zhou-Sheng; Yeung, Chung-Man; Wang, Ji-De; Deng, Wen; Li, Hoi Yee; Han, Yu-Jing; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Jiang, Bo; Lin, Marie Chia-mi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the molecular mechanism of laterally spreading tumor (LST), a cell line [Laterally Spreading Tumor-Rectum 1 (LST-R1)] was derived and the characteristics of this cell line were investigated. METHODS: A new cell line (LST-R1) originated from laterally spreading tumor was established. Properties of the cell line were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry method, cytogenetic analysis and nude mice xenograft experiments. In vitro invasion assay, cDNA microarray and Western blotting were used to compare the difference between the LST-R1 and other colorectal cancer cell lines derived from prudent colon cancer. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that both epithelial special antigen (ESA) and cytokeratin-20 (CK20) were expressed in LST-R1. The cells presented microvilli and tight junction with large nuclei. The karyotypic analysis showed hyperdiploid features with structural chromosome aberrations. The in vivo tumorigenicity was also demonstrated in nude mice xenograft experiments. The invasion assay suggested this cell line has a higher invasive ability. cDNA microarray and Western blotting show the loss of the expression of E-cadherin in LST-R1 cells. CONCLUSION: We established and characterized a colorectal cancer cell line, LST-R1 and LST-R1 has an obvious malignant tendency, which maybe partially attributed to the changes of the expression of some adhesion molecules, such as E-cadherin. It is also a versatile tool for exploring the original and progressive mechanisms of laterally spreading tumor and the early colon cancer genesis. PMID:18300345

  13. Toward precise potential energy curves for diatomic molecules, derived from experimental line positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.

    1984-01-01

    An inverted, first-order perturbation approach is used to derive potential energy curves for diatomic molecules from experimental line positions of molecular bands. The concept adopted here is based on the inverted perturbation analysis (IPA) proposed by Kozman and Hinze, but uses radial eigenfunctions of the trial potential energy curves as basis sets for the perturbation correction. Using molecular linepositions rather than molecular energy levels we circumvent the necessity of defining molecular constants for the molecule prior to the derivation of the potential energy curves. (Author)

  14. Comprehensive characterization of genomic instability in pluripotent stem cells and their derived neuroprogenitor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Luis Lopez Corrales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genomic integrity of two human pluripotent stem cells and their derived neuroprogenitor cell lines was studied, applying a combination of high-resolution genetic methodologies. The usefulness of combining array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH techniques should be delineated to exclude/detect a maximum of possible genomic structural aberrations. Interestingly, in parts different genomic imbalances at chromosomal and subchromosomal levels were detected in pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives. Some of the copy number variations were inherited from the original cell line, whereas other modifications were presumably acquired during the differentiation and manipulation procedures. These results underline the necessity to study both pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated progeny by as many approaches as possible in order to assess their genomic stability before using them in clinical therapies.

  15. Stability Test For Sorghum Mutant Lines Derived From Induced Mutations with Gamma-Ray Irradiation

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    S. Human

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum breeding program had been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN. Plant genetic variability was increased through induced mutations using gamma-ray irradiation. Through selection process in successive generations, some promising mutant lines had been identified to have good agronomic characteristics with high grain yield. These breeding lines were tested in multi location trials and information of the genotypic stability was obtained to meet the requirements for officially varietal release by the Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 11 sorghum lines and varieties consisting of 8 mutant lines derived from induced mutations (B-100, B-95, B-92, B-83, B-76, B-75, B-69 and Zh-30 and 3 control varieties (Durra, UPCA-S1 and Mandau were included in the experiment. All materials were grown in 10 agro-ecologically different locations namely Gunungkidul, Bantul, Citayam, Garut, Lampung, Bogor, Anyer, Karawaci, Cianjur and Subang. In each location, the local adaptability test was conducted by randomized block design with 3 replications. Data of grain yield was used for evaluating genotypic stability using AMMI approach. Results revealed that sorghum mutation breeding had generated 3 mutant lines (B-100, B-76 and Zh-30 exhibiting grain yield significantly higher than the control varieties. These mutant lines were genetically stable in all locations so that they would be recommended for official release as new sorghum varieties to the Ministry of Agriculture

  16. Yield Potential of Ten Peanut Introgression Lines derived from Crosses between Arachis cardenassii and A. hypogaea

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    AHMAD RIDUAN

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diploid species of peanut (Arachis cardenasii showed no symptoms of PStV infection when mechanically inoculated with PStV. Some introgression lines derived from A. cardenasii and A. hypogaea hybridization have been introduced to Indonesia. Evaluation of their adaptability and yield potential were necessary before pursuing further utilization of these introgression lines. The objectives of this research were to determine yield potential of the introgression lines of peanut in green house and field conditions and to evaluate incidence of PStV infection in the field. Peanut plants were grown in the green house and in the field according to standard procedures for raising peanut. Results of the experiments showed that growth and developmental characters of the tested lines were similar between field and green house grown plants. The introgression lines generally exhibited higher secondary branches and longer to flower and harvest as compared to peanut cv. Gajah and Kelinci. The NC-CS30 line was identfied as having higher yield and bigger seed size as compared to standard peanut cultivars (Gajah and Kelinci. Therefore, NC-CS30 germplasm may be further developed as commercial peanut cultivar or be used as donor for peanut breeding in Indonesia.

  17. Derivation of NEM2 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea079

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    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea079 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying compound heterozygous mutations in the NEB gene, exon 55 deletion & c.15110dupA, indicative of Nemaline Myopathy Type 2 (NEM2. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XY and STR analysis demonstrated a male Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 86% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 54% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.25, Novelty of 1.21. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishment and cryopreservation of a giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang-Jian; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Xiong, Tie-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, He-Min

    2015-06-01

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an endangered species and is a symbol for wildlife conservation. Although efforts have been made to protect this rare and endangered species through breeding and conservative biology, the long-term preservation of giant panda genome resources (gametes, tissues, organs, genomic libraries, etc.) is still a practical option. In this study, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line was successfully established via primary explants culture and cryopreservation techniques. The population doubling time of giant panda skeletal cells was approximately 33.8 h, and this population maintained a high cell viability before and after cryopreservation (95.6% and 90.7%, respectively). The two skeletal muscle-specific genes SMYD1 and MYF6 were expressed and detected by RT-PCR in the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line. Karyotyping analysis revealed that the frequencies of giant panda skeletal muscle cells showing a chromosome number of 2n=42 ranged from 90.6∼94.2%. Thus, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line provides a vital resource and material platform for further studies and is likely to be useful for the protection of this rare and endangered species.

  20. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  1. Genetic and Genomic Characterization of 462 Melanoma Patient-Derived Xenografts, Tumor Biopsies, and Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Garman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Tumor-sequencing studies have revealed the widespread genetic diversity of melanoma. Sequencing of 108 genes previously implicated in melanomagenesis was performed on 462 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs, cell lines, and tumors to identify mutational and copy number aberrations. Samples came from 371 unique individuals: 263 were naive to treatment, and 108 were previously treated with targeted therapy (34, immunotherapy (54, or both (20. Models of all previously reported major melanoma subtypes (BRAF, NRAS, NF1, KIT, and WT/WT/WT were identified. Multiple minor melanoma subtypes were also recapitulated, including melanomas with multiple activating mutations in the MAPK-signaling pathway and chromatin-remodeling gene mutations. These well-characterized melanoma PDXs and cell lines can be used not only as reagents for a large array of biological studies but also as pre-clinical models to facilitate drug development. : Garman et al. have characterized melanoma PDXs and cell lines described in Krepler et al. (see the related paper in this issue of Cell Reports, identifying major and minor subtypes, some of which were previously not well defined, targeted and immunotherapy resistance, and tumor heterogeneity, creating a set of reagents for future drug discovery and biological studies. Keywords: melanoma, patient-derived xenografts, massively parallel sequencing, cell lines

  2. Cytotoxic effects of new synthesis heterocyclic derivatives of Amoxicillin on some cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, M. S.; Hussei, D. F.; Al-Taie, A. F.; Al-Halbosiy, M. M.; Hameed, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    A new Schiff base [I] was prepared by refluxing Amoxicillin trihydrate and 4-Hydroxy- 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in aqueous methanol solution using glacial acetic acid as a catalyst. The new 1,3-oxazepine derivative [II] was obtained by Diels- Alder reaction of Schiff base [I] with phthalic anhydride in dry benzene. The reaction of Schiff base [I] with thioglycolic acid in dry benzene led to the formation of thiazolidin-4-one derivative [III]. While the imidazolidin-4-one [IV] derivative was produced by reacting the mentioned Schiff base [I] with glycine and triethylamine in ethanol for 9 hrs. Tetrazole derivative [V] was synthesized by refluxing Schiff base [I] with sodium azide in dimethylformamid DMF. The structure of synthesized compounds[I-V] was characterized by their melting points, elemental analysis CHN-S and by their spectral data; FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Two cancer cell lines include: (RD) human pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma and (L20B) the mice intestines carcinoma cell line (which expresses the genes for human cellular receptor for Polio viruses) were used in this study. The cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of all the synthesized compounds for 48 hrs was examined. All compounds except [IV] and [V] showed less than 50% inhibition for (L20B), while these compounds exhibit inhibition more than 50% inhibition for (RD).

  3. Continuous Lymphoid Cell Lines with Characteristics of B Cells (Bone-Marrow-Derived), Lacking the Epstein-Barr Virus Genome and Derived from Three Human Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, George; Lindahl, Tomas; Jondal, Mikael; Leibold, Wolfgang; Menézes, José; Nilsson, Kenneth; Sundström, Christer

    1974-01-01

    Three exceptional cell lines have been tested for the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus genome by nucleic acid hybridization (complementary RNA·DNA) and Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen tests. Two lines were derived from Swedish lymphoma cases and one from an African Burkitt-like lymphoma biopsy that was negative for Epstein-Barr virus DNA and the virus-determined nuclear antigen. All three lines apparently lacked the viral genome. Two of the three lines clearly had characteristics of B-cells (bone-marrow-derived). PMID:4369887

  4. Derivation of Two New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines from Nonviable Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gavrilov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the derivation and characterization of two new human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines (CU1 and CU2 from embryos with an irreversible loss of integrated organismic function. In addition, we analyzed retrospective data of morphological progression from embryonic day (ED 5 to ED6 for 2480 embryos not suitable for clinical use to assess grading criteria indicative of loss of viability on ED5. Our analysis indicated that a large proportion of in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos not suitable for clinical use could be used for hESC derivation. Based on these combined findings, we propose that criteria commonly used in IVF clinics to determine optimal embryos for uterine transfer can be employed to predict the potential for hESC derivation from poor quality embryos without the destruction of vital human embryos.

  5. Production of haploid plant of 'Banpeiyu' pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] by pollination with soft X-ray-irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Masaki; Yasuda, Kiichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Nagasawa, Kohji; Harusaki, Seiichi; Komatsu, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    To induce haploid plants in Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. 'Banpeiyu', we evaluated the effect of pollination with soft X-ray-irradiated pollen on fruit set and seed development, and carried out ovule culture. When 'Banpeiyu' pummelo pistils were pollinated with X-ray-irradiated pollen of 'Fukuhara' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck], the exposure doses affected the fruit set. The number of seeds per fruit was also affected by the exposure dose, and tended to decrease as the dose increased; however, all developed seeds obtained from these crosses were diploid. In the ovule culture of 'Banpeiyu' pummelo, six embryoids shown haploidy were obtained in all treatments. One haploid plantlet with 9 chromosomes was regenerated from an embryoid in a culture of ovules established 40 days after pollination with 400 Gray (Gy)-irradiated pollen of 'Tosa-buntan' pummelo (C. maxima). This haploid was suggested to be derived from 'Banpeiyu' pummelo by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. (author)

  6. Characterisation of the cell line HC-AFW1 derived from a pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Armeanu-Ebinger

    Full Text Available Current treatment of paediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is often inefficient due to advanced disease at diagnosis and resistance to common drugs. The aim of this study was to generate a cell line derived from a paediatric HCC in order to expand research in this field. We established the HC-AFW1 cell line from a liver neoplasm of a 4-year-old boy through culturing of primary tumor specimens. The cell line has been stable for over one year of culturing and has a doubling time of 40 h. The tumour cells have an epithelial histology and express HCC-associated proteins such as Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, Glypican 3, E-cadherin, CD10, CD326, HepPar1 and Vimentin. Forty-nine amino acids in exon 3 of β-Catenin that involve the phosphorylation sites of GSK3 were absent and β-Catenin is detectable in the cell nuclei. Cytogenetic analysis revealed large anomalies in the chromosomal map. Several alterations of gene copy numbers were detected by genome-wide SNP array. Among the different drugs tested, cisplatin and irinotecan showed effective inhibition of tumour cell growth in a proliferation assay at concentrations below 5 µg/ml. Subcutaneous xenotransplantation of HC-AFW1 cells into NOD/SCID mice resulted in fast growing dedifferentiated tumours with high levels of serum AFP. Histological analyses of the primary tumour and xenografts included national and international expert pathological review. Consensus reading characterised the primary tumour and the HC-AFW1-derived tumours as HCC. HC-AFW1 is the first cell line derived from a paediatric HCC without a background of viral hepatitis or cirrhosis and represents a valuable tool for investigating the biology of and therapeutic strategies for childhood HCC.

  7. Characteristics of bovine inner cell mass-derived cell lines and their fate in chimeric conceptuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Tadashi; Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Koji; Matsuyama, Shuichi; Akagi, Satoshi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Ikeda, Mitsumi; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki

    2013-08-01

    Bovine embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to provide significant benefits in a range of agricultural and biomedical applications. Here, we employed a combination of conventional methods using glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors to establish ES cell lines from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) bovine embryos. Five male cell lines were established from IVF embryos, and two female and three male cell lines from SCNT blastocysts; we named these lines bovine ES cell-like cells (bESLCs). The lines exhibited dome-shaped colonies, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent stem cell markers such as POU5F1, SOX2, and SSEA-1. The expression levels of these markers, especially for NANOG, varied among the cell lines. A DNA methylation assay showed the POU5F1 promoter region was hypomethylated compared to fibroblast cells. An in vitro differentiation assay showed that endoderm and ectoderm marker genes, but not mesoderm markers, were upregulated in differentiating bESLCs. To examine bESLCs in later embryonic stages, we created 22 chimeric blastocysts with a male bESLC line carrying a GFP marker gene and transferred these to a recipient cow. Four chimeric embryos were subsequently retrieved on Day 13 and retransferred to two recipient cows. One living fetus was obtained at Day 62. GFP signals were not identified in fetal cells by fluorescence microscopy; however, genomic PCR analysis detected the GFP gene in major organs. Clusters of GFP-positive cells were observed in amniotic membranes, suggesting that bESLCs can be categorized as a novel type of ICM-derived cells that can potentially differentiate into epiblast and hypoblast lineages.

  8. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Monroy, Alberto; Arana, Rosa Ma; Taja, Lucía; Vázquez, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma

  9. Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing seven haploid human genome equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsen, H.M.; Abderrahim, H.; Cann, H.M.; Dausset, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Cohen, D.

    1990-01-01

    Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable size variations. A protocol was developed for preparative electrophoretic enrichment of high molecular mass human DNA fragments from partial restriction digests and ligation with the YAC vector in agarose. A YAC library has been constructed from large fragments of DNA from an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. The library presently contains 50,000 clones, 95% of which are greater than 250 kilobase pairs in size. The mean YAC size of the library, calculated from 132 randomly isolated clones, is 430 kilobase pairs. The library thus contains the equivalent of approximately seven haploid human genomes

  10. Derivation and characterisation of the human embryonic stem cell lines, NOTT1 and NOTT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddle, Helen; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Burridge, Paul; Munoz, Maria; Smith, Nigel M; Devlin, Lyndsey; Sjoblom, Cecilia; Chamberlain, Sarah; Watson, Sue; Young, Lorraine E; Denning, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The ability to maintain human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during long-term culture and yet induce differentiation to multiple lineages potentially provides a novel approach to address various biomedical problems. Here, we describe derivation of hESC lines, NOTT1 and NOTT2, from human blastocysts graded as 3BC and 3CB, respectively. Both lines were successfully maintained as colonies by mechanical passaging on mouse embryonic feeder cells or as monolayers by trypsin-passaging in feeder-free conditions on Matrigel. Undifferentiated cells retained expression of pluripotency markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), a stable karyotype during long-term culture and could be transfected efficiently with plasmid DNA and short interfering RNA. Differentiation via formation of embryoid bodies resulted in expression of genes associated with early germ layers and terminal lineage specification. The electrophysiology of spontaneously beating NOTT1-derived cardiomyocytes was recorded and these cells were shown to be pharmacologically responsive. Histological examination of teratomas formed by in vivo differentiation of both lines in severe immunocompromised mice showed complex structures including cartilage or smooth muscle (mesoderm), luminal epithelium (endoderm) and neuroectoderm (ectoderm). These observations show that NOTT1 and NOTT2 display the accepted characteristics of hESC pluripotency.

  11. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature

  12. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature.

  13. Dramatic improvement in genome assembly achieved using doubled-haploid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Tan, Engkong; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hirose, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Okano, Hideyuki; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2014-10-27

    Improvement in de novo assembly of large genomes is still to be desired. Here, we improved draft genome sequence quality by employing doubled-haploid individuals. We sequenced wildtype and doubled-haploid Takifugu rubripes genomes, under the same conditions, using the Illumina platform and assembled contigs with SOAPdenovo2. We observed 5.4-fold and 2.6-fold improvement in the sizes of the N50 contig and scaffold of doubled-haploid individuals, respectively, compared to the wildtype, indicating that the use of a doubled-haploid genome aids in accurate genome analysis.

  14. Evaluasi keseragaaman, keragaman, dan kestabilan karakter agronomi galur-galur padi haploid ganda hasil kultur antera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIATNA SASMITA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sasmita P. 2011. Evaluasi keseragaman, keragaman, dan kestabilan karakter agronomi galur-galur padi haploid ganda hasil kultur antera. Bioteknologi 8: 10-17. Pembentukan galur haploid ganda dalam kultur antera bertujuan untuk mempercepat perolehan galur murni. Seleksi karakter yang diinginkan dapat dilakukan langsung terhadap progeni hasil kultur antera pada generasi awal. Percobaan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik agronomi, keseragaman, dan kestabilan galur haploid ganda, serta mendapatkan putatif galur-gallur haploid ganda sebagai bahan evaluasi lebih lanjut untuk mendapatkan galur harapan. Percobaan pertama menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap diulang lima kali. Perlakuannya aadalah 111 galur haploid ganda hasil kultur antera generasi pertama (DH1. Percobaan kedua menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah dengan perlakuan petak utama adalah galur haploid ganda hasil kultur antera dan perlakuan anak petaknya generasi galur haploid ganda kedua (DH2 hingga kelima (DDH5. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa setiap tanaman dalam galur yang sama memiliki karakter agronnomi seragam, sedangkan tanaman antar galur berbeda memiliki karakter agronomi beragam. Hasil evaluasi lebih lanjut terhadap tiga dari 111 galur haploid ganda yang berasal dari generasi kedua hingga kelima menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan karakter antar generasi untuk setiap p galur yang sama. Hasil penelitian tersebut menunjukkan pula bahwa karakteristik agronomi galur haploid ganda stabil dari generasi ke generasi.

  15. Development of a doubled haploid system for wheat through wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La variété de maïs Kelvedon glory, avait la meilleure réponse parmi les variétés des maïs. Des considérables différences variétales dans le rendement de production d'haploides étaient évidentes à la fois dans les variétés de blé et de maïs. Mots Clés: Plantes homozygènes, protocole de rendement, Tritium aestivum, Zea ...

  16. New assignment of 14N NQR spectral lines for tetrazoles derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadazizov, Sultonazar; Shelyapina, Marina G.; Kupriyanova, Galina S.; Mozzhukhin, George V.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been shown in the study of tetrazole derivatives, which attract attention as highly nitrogenous compounds for use as an isosteric substitutes for various functional groups that leads to creation of novel biologically active substances. NQR techniques, being sensitive to the local environment of 14N nuclei, provide great opportunities to study these new substances. To make investigation of complex compounds containing tetrazoles derivatives easier and more reliable a correctly assigned 14N NQR spectra of tetrazoles are required. Here we report on the results of our DFT B3LYP calculations of 14N NQR spectral parameters (quadrupole coupling constant Qcc and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient η) for tetrazole, 5-aminotetrazole and 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate. It has been found that the commonly accepted assignment of the 14N NQR spectral lines for these molecules is incorrect. A new assignment for these molecules is proposed.

  17. Dataset of curcumin derivatives for QSAR modeling of anti cancer against P388 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yum Eryanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dataset of curcumin derivatives consists of 45 compounds (Table 1 with their anti cancer biological activity (IC50 against P388 cell line. 45 curcumin derivatives were used in the model development where 30 of these compounds were in the training set and the remaining 15 compounds were in the test set. The development of the QSAR model involved the use of the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA method. Based on the method, r2 value, r2 (CV value of 0.81, 0.67 were obtained. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the biological activity of compounds in the test set. Predictive correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.88 were obtained for the test set.

  18. Trustworthy Variant Derivation with Translation Validation for Safety Critical Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Software product line (SPL) engineering facilitates development of entire families of software products with systematic reuse. Model driven SPLs use models in the design and development process. In the safety critical domain, validation of models and testing of code increases the quality...... of the products altogether. However, to maintain this trustworthiness it is necessary to know that the SPL tools, which manipulate models and code to derive concrete product variants, do not introduce errors in the process. We propose a general technique of checking correctness of product derivation tools through...... translation validation. We demonstrate it using Featherweight VML—a core language for separate variability modeling relying on a single kind of variation point to define transformations of artifacts seen as object models. We use Featherweight VML with its semantics as a correctness specification...

  19. Generation and characterization of human smooth muscle cell lines derived from atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, L R; Madden, K; Shera, K; Ihle, J; Matthews, C; Aziz, S; Perez-Reyes, N; McDougall, J K; Conroy, S C

    1999-03-01

    The study of atherogenesis in humans has been restricted by the limited availability and brief in vitro life span of plaque smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We describe plaque SMC lines with extended life spans generated by the expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7 genes, which has been shown to extend the life span of normal adult human aortic SMCs. Resulting cell lines (pdSMC1A and 2) demonstrated at least 10-fold increases in life span; pdSMC1A became immortal. The SMC identity of both pdSMC lines was confirmed by SM22 mRNA expression. pdSMC2 were generally diploid but with various structural and numerical alterations; pdSMC1A demonstrated several chromosomal abnormalities, most commonly -Y, +7, -13, anomalies previously reported in both primary pdSMCs and atherosclerotic tissue. Confluent pdSMC2 appeared grossly similar to HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing normal adult aortic SMCs (AASMCs), exhibiting typical SMC morphology/growth patterns; pdSMC1A displayed irregular cell shape/organization with numerous mitotic figures. Dedifferentiation to a synthetic/proliferative phenotype has been hypothesized as a critical step in atherogenesis, because rat neonatal SMCs and adult intimal SMCs exhibit similar gene expression patterns. To confirm that our pdSMC lines likewise express this apparent plaque phenotype, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor B, and elastin mRNA levels were determined in pdSMC1A, pdSMC2, and AASMCs. However, no significant increases in osteopontin or platelet-derived growth factor B expression levels were observed in either pdSMC compared with AASMCs. pdSMC2 alone expressed high levels of elastin mRNA. Lower levels of SM22 mRNA in pdSMC1A suggested greater dedifferentiation and/or additional population doublings in pdSMC1A relative to pdSMC2. Both pdSMC lines (particularly 1A) demonstrated high message levels for matrix Gla protein, previously reported to be highly expressed by human neointimal SMCs in vitro. These results describe 2

  20. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of N13-Substituted Evodiamine Derivatives against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senchuan Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve the anticancer activity and solubility of evodiamine in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF solutions, thirty-eight N13-substituted evodiamine derivatives were designed, synthesized and tested for antitumor activities against six kinds of human cancer cell lines, namely prostate cancer (DU-145 and PC-3, lung cancer (H460, breast cancer (MCF-7, colon cancer (HCT-5 and glioblastoma (SF-268. The solubility of these compounds in SGF and SIF solutions was evaluated, and apoptosis induced by 2-2, 2-3, 2-16 and 3-2 was determined. The results showed: (1 among all compounds examined, 2-16 showed the highest antitumor activity and a broader spectrum of activity, with IC50 values ranging from 1–2 µM; (2 their solubility was obviously improved; (3 2-3, 2-16 and 3-2 had a significant impact inducing apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. The preliminary structure-activity relationships of these derivatives were discussed.

  1. Prevention of Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Derivation of Mutant Stem Cell Lines by Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarescu, Gheona; Beeri, Rachel; Eiges, Rachel; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Margalioth, Ehud J.; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Renbaum, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows birth of unaffected children for couples at risk for a genetic disorder. We present the strategy and outcome of PGD for four lysosomal storage disorders (LSD): Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), Gaucher disease (GD), Fabry disease (FD), and Hunter syndrome (HS), and subsequent development of stem cell lines. For each disease, we developed a family-specific fluorescent multiplex single-cell PCR protocol that included the familial mutation and informative markers surrounding the mutation. Embryo biopsy and PGD analysis were performed on either oocytes (polar bodies one and two) or on single blastomeres from a six-cell embryo. We treated twenty families carrying mutations in these lysosomal storage disorders, including 3 couples requiring simultaneous analysis for two disorders (TSD/GD, TSD/balanced Robertsonian translocation 45XYder(21;14), and HS/oculocutaneus albinism). These analyses led to an overall pregnancy rate/embryo transfer of 38% and the birth of 20 unaffected children from 17 families. We have found that PGD for lysosomal disorders is a safe and effective method to prevent birth of affected children. In addition, by using mutant embryos for the derivation of stem cell lines, we have successfully established GD and HS hESC lines for use as valuable models in LSD research. PMID:23320174

  2. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on retinal function after experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  3. Differences between the genomes of lymphoblastoid cell lines and blood-derived samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joesch-Cohen LM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lena M Joesch-Cohen, Gustavo Glusman Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs represent a convenient research tool for expanding the amount of biologic material available from an individual. LCLs are commonly used as reference materials, most notably from the Genome in a Bottle Consortium. However, the question remains how faithfully LCL-derived genome assemblies represent the germline genome of the donor individual as compared to the genome assemblies derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We present an in-depth comparison of a large collection of LCL- and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived genomes in terms of distributions of coverage and copy number alterations. We found significant differences in the depth of coverage and copy number calls, which may be driven by differential replication timing. Importantly, these copy number changes preferentially affect regions closer to genes and with higher GC content. This suggests that genomic studies based on LCLs may display locus-specific biases, and that conclusions based on analysis of depth of coverage and copy number variation may require further scrutiny. Keywords: genomics, whole-genome sequencing, viral transformation, copy number changes, bioinformatics

  4. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Li

    Full Text Available Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored.To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05. Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk.S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  5. Exposure to cobalt causes transcriptomic and proteomic changes in two rat liver derived cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Permenter

    Full Text Available Cobalt is a transition group metal present in trace amounts in the human diet, but in larger doses it can be acutely toxic or cause adverse health effects in chronic exposures. Its use in many industrial processes and alloys worldwide presents opportunities for occupational exposures, including military personnel. While the toxic effects of cobalt have been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify potential biomarkers of exposure or effect, we exposed two rat liver-derived cell lines, H4-II-E-C3 and MH1C1, to two concentrations of cobalt chloride. We examined changes in gene expression using DNA microarrays in both cell lines and examined changes in cytoplasmic protein abundance in MH1C1 cells using mass spectrometry. We chose to closely examine differentially expressed genes and proteins changing in abundance in both cell lines in order to remove cell line specific effects. We identified enriched pathways, networks, and biological functions using commercial bioinformatic tools and manual annotation. Many of the genes, proteins, and pathways modulated by exposure to cobalt appear to be due to an induction of a hypoxic-like response and oxidative stress. Genes that may be differentially expressed due to a hypoxic-like response are involved in Hif-1α signaling, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and other energy metabolism related processes. Gene expression changes linked to oxidative stress are also known to be involved in the NRF2-mediated response, protein degradation, and glutathione production. Using microarray and mass spectrometry analysis, we were able to identify modulated genes and proteins, further elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity of cobalt, and identify biomarkers of exposure and effect in vitro, thus providing targets for focused in vivo studies.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF CHALCONE DERIVATIVES ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraini Harmastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalcone, an α,β-unsaturated ketone, has been shown have many biological activities such as anticancer and antifungi. This research was conducted to synthesize the chalcone derivatives and to obtain their cytotoxic activity on human cervix cancer cell lines. Synthesis of chalcone and its derivatives, 4II-methylchalcone, 4II-methoxychalcone, and 3II,4II-dichlorochalcone was carried out using starting materials of benzaldehide and acetofenon, p-methylacetophenone, p-methoxyacetophenone, as well as m,p-dichloroacetophenone through Claisen Schmidt condensation catalized by NaOH in ethanol at 15 °C. The purity of synthesized compounds were analyzed by thin layer chromatography, melting range, and gas chromatography. Structure elucidations were conducted by UV spectrophotometer, IR spectrometer, 1H-NMR spectrometer, as well as mass spectrometer. Cytotoxic activities were determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT microculture tetrazolium viability assay. The results showed that chalcone and derivatives compounds have been able to be synthesized and purified and had the same structure as a predicted structure. Chalcone had highest cytotoxic activity compared to that of its derivatives, with the IC50 values of chalcone, 4II-methylchalcone, 4II-methoxychalcone, and 3II,4II-dichlorochalcone were 9.49, 14.79, 11.48, and 24.26 µg/mL respectively. It was concluded that methyl, methoxy as well as chlorine substitution at 3 II and 4II position decrease the cytotoxic activity of chalcone.

  7. Cabergoline decreases alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors via glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit

    2009-07-15

    Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.

  8. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  9. Exact Markov chains versus diffusion theory for haploid random mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyvand, Peder A; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2010-05-01

    Exact discrete Markov chains are applied to the Wright-Fisher model and the Moran model of haploid random mating. Selection and mutations are neglected. At each discrete value of time t there is a given number n of diploid monoecious organisms. The evolution of the population distribution is given in diffusion variables, to compare the two models of random mating with their common diffusion limit. Only the Moran model converges uniformly to the diffusion limit near the boundary. The Wright-Fisher model allows the population size to change with the generations. Diffusion theory tends to under-predict the loss of genetic information when a population enters a bottleneck. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement of ethanol-tolerance of haploid Saccharomyces diastaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.H.; Kim, K.; Lee, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Several mutation procedures have been compared to obtain an ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces diastaticus strain secreting glucoamylase. These procedures include spontaneous mutation, EMS treatment, UV irradiation, and combination of EMS treatment and UV irradiation. All these methods were followed by adaptation of the yeast cells to gradually higher ethanol concentration. Among these procedures, the combined method of EMS treatment and UV irradiation gave the promising result, i.e. the ethanol tolerance of the yeast increased from 11.5%(v/v) to 14.0%(v/v). Respiratory deficient petite mutants of industrial and ethanol-tolerant yeast strains have been isolated and hybridized with haploid S. diastaticus strains. The resulting hybrids showed increased ethanol tolerance and starch-fermentability

  11. Techniques of radiation induced haploid breeding of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Pu; Xu Liyuan; Qu Shihong; Yu Guirong; Yin Chunrong; Yue Chunfang

    2000-01-01

    With the treatment of different doses of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation to F 1 hybrid seeds and donor plants from M 1 F 1 or M 2 F 2 , wheat anther culture was made based on the media of MW 14 and modified MS. A series of studies on the applied doses of radiation induction, low temperature treatment on donor spikes and calli, variable temperature induced incubation and yield of pollen callus and calli giving green plant lets, pollen plant lets control over summertime and pollen plant let transplantation were carried out in order to increase the efficiency of obtaining double haploid-pure diploid plant lets of wheat with stable heredity and propagation. Theses plant lets could be used directly in rapid breeding

  12. Characterization of HGF/Met Signaling in Cell Lines Derived From Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young H. [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Apolo, Andrea B. [Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Agarwal, Piyush K.; Bottaro, Donald P., E-mail: dbottaro@helix.nih.gov [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-11-25

    There is mounting evidence of oncogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. The effects of three kinase inhibitors, cabozantinib, crizotinib and EMD1214063, on HGF-driven signaling and cell growth, invasion and tumorigenicity were analyzed in cultured UC cell lines. SW780 xenograft growth in SCID and human HGF knock-in SCID (hHGF/SCID) mice treated with cabozantinib or vehicle, as well as tumor levels of Met and pMet, were also determined. Met content was robust in most UC-derived cell lines. Basal pMet content and effector activation state in quiescent cells were low, but significantly enhanced by added HGF, as were cell invasion, proliferation and anchorage independent growth. These HGF-driven effects were reversed by Met inhibitor treatment. Tumor xenograft growth was significantly higher in hHGF/SCID mice vs. SCID mice and significantly inhibited by cabozantinib, as was tumor phospho-Met content. These studies indicate the prevalence and functionality of the HGF/Met signaling pathway in UC cells, suggest that paracrine HGF may contribute to UC tumor growth and progression, and that support further preclinical investigation of Met inhibitors for the treatment of UC is warranted.

  13. New Sorafenib Derivatives: Synthesis, Antiproliferative Activity Against Tumour Cell Lines and Antimetabolic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Zorc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorafenib is a relatively new cytostatic drug approved for the treatment of renal cell and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this report we describe the synthesis of sorafenib derivatives 4a–e which differ from sorafenib in their amide part. A 4-step synthetic pathway includes preparation of 4-chloropyridine-2-carbonyl chloride hydrochloride (1, 4-chloro-pyridine-2-carboxamides 2a–e, 4-(4-aminophenoxy-pyridine-2-carboxamides 3a–e and the target compounds 4-[4-[[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethylphenyl]carbamoylamino]-phenoxy]-pyridine-2-carboxamides 4a–e. All compounds were fully chemically characterized and evaluated for their cytostatic activity against a panel of carcinoma, lymphoma and leukemia tumour cell lines. In addition, their antimetabolic potential was investigated as well. The most prominent antiproliferative activity was obtained for compounds 4a–e (IC50 = 1-4.3 μmol·L−1. Their potency was comparable to the potency of sorafenib, or even better. The compounds inhibited DNA, RNA and protein synthesis to a similar extent and did not discriminate between tumour cell lines and primary fibroblasts in terms of their anti-proliferative activity.

  14. Establishment and long-term culture of the cell lines derived from gonad tissues of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyung Ryu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To culture germline stem cells in vitro, establishment of the cell lines that can be used as the feeder cells is a prerequisite. In this study, we tried to establish gonad-derived cell lines in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii. Five 1-year-old A. baerii were used as a donor of gonad tissues, and gonad-dissociated cells were cultured in vitro. Subsequently, determination of growth conditions, long-term culture, characterization, and cryopreservation of the cell lines were also conducted. Five gonad-derived cell lines were stably established and cultured continuously over at least the 73th passage and 402 culture days under the media containing 20 % fetal bovine serum at 28 °C. All cell lines consisted of two main cell types based on morphology even if the ratio of the two cell types was different depending on cell lines. Despite long-term culture, all cell lines maintained diploid DNA contents and expression of several genes that are known to express in the A. baerii gonad. After freezing and thawing of the cell lines, post-thaw cell viabilities between 57.6 and 92.9 % depending on cell lines were indentified, suggesting that stable cryopreservation is possible. The results and the cell lines established in this study will contribute to the development of an in vitro system for A. baerii germline stem cell culture.

  15. Novel near-diploid ovarian cancer cell line derived from a highly aneuploid metastatic ovarian tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Rozenblum

    Full Text Available A new ovarian near-diploid cell line, OVDM1, was derived from a highly aneuploid serous ovarian metastatic adenocarcinoma. A metastatic tumor was obtained from a 47-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish patient three years after the first surgery removed the primary tumor, both ovaries, and the remaining reproductive organs. OVDM1 was characterized by cell morphology, genotyping, tumorigenic assay, mycoplasma testing, spectral karyotyping (SKY, and molecular profiling of the whole genome by aCGH and gene expression microarray. Targeted sequencing of a panel of cancer-related genes was also performed. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data clearly confirmed the ovarian origin of the cell line. OVDM1 has a near-diploid karyotype with a low-level aneuploidy, but samples of the original metastatic tumor were grossly aneuploid. A number of single nucleotide variations (SNVs/mutations were detected in OVDM1 and the metastatic tumor samples. Some of them were cancer-related according to COSMIC and HGMD databases (no founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been found. A large number of focal copy number alterations (FCNAs were detected, including homozygous deletions (HDs targeting WWOX and GATA4. Progression of OVDM1 from early to late passages was accompanied by preservation of the near-diploid status, acquisition of only few additional large chromosomal rearrangements and more than 100 new small FCNAs. Most of newly acquired FCNAs seem to be related to localized but massive DNA fragmentation (chromothripsis-like rearrangements. Newly developed near-diploid OVDM1 cell line offers an opportunity to evaluate tumorigenesis pathways/events in a minor clone of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma as well as mechanisms of chromothripsis.

  16. In vitro wheat haploid embryo production by wheat x maize cross system under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Ahmad, J.

    2011-01-01

    Haploids are helpful in studies for inter genomic relationship, identifying molecular markers, reducing time period of varietal development and increasing efficiency of breeding program. In case of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wheat x maize cross system is the most successful system due to its higher efficiency, more haploid embryo production and low genetic specificity. The haploid embryo production is affected by many factors i.e. light, temperature, relative humidity and tiller culture media. A study was carried out comprising 25 genotypes of bread wheat for haploid embryo production using 100 mgL/sup -1/ 2,4-D, 40Gl/sup -1/ Sucrose and 8mlL/sup -1/ Sulphurous acid. Haploid embryo production was observed at various levels of environmental factors i.e. maize pollen collection temperature, time of pollination after tiller emasculation, light intensity and relative humidity during haploid seed formation. Maximum haploid embryo formation recorded was 9.52%. Best temperature observed for pollination was 21-26 degree C, optimum time duration for pollination was 24 hours after emasculation, light intensity was 10,000 Lux and relative humidity was 60-65% at 20-22 degree C. (author)

  17. A review of methods for the production of haploids in seed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkener, L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methods which have been tried to produce haploids in seed plants. Because of their unique genetic constitution the haploids provide useful material for the study of various fundamental cytological and genetic problems. Thus the diploidization of haploids in conifers and subsequent intercrossing might allow the use of the same breeding technique as those which have been used with great success in maize breeding. Induced parthenogenesis in angiosperms has led to the formation of haploids in at least 25 genera but the number of plants obtained is generally too low for a practical utilization. The most promising method in angiosperms is in vitro cultivation of anthers which has hitherto yielded haploids in relatively large numbers in at least l5 genera but certainly can be applied with success in many more. Isolation of protoplasts or whole cells of diploid and haploid tissues and regeneration of entire plants from these protoplasts or cells have been accomplished in a few angiosperm genera. In gymnosperms all attempts to produce complete haploid plants have up to now failed. In this group there is possibly a relationship between polyembryonic seeds and the presence of small, haploid embryos. Therefore, the in vitro cultivation of small embryos of such seeds may result in the formation of independent haploid plants. In vitro cultivation of whole microsporangia or pollen has led to the production of calli in a few gymnosperm genera and in one case roots have even been induced. In some gymnosperms female gametophytes cultured on nutrient medium have yielded calli and in a few genera even root-like organs or small seedlings have arisen. (author)

  18. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restores erectile function after cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Florian; Buchner, Alexander; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Arndt, Christian; Stief, Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the time-course of functional recovery after cavernous nerve injury using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes. Sections of the cavernous nerves were excised bilaterally (5 mm), followed by immediate bilateral surgical repair. A total of 20 study nerves per group were reconstructed by interposition of empty silicon tubes and silicon tubes seeded with either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein-expressing Schwann cells. Control groups were either sham-operated or received bilateral nerve transection without nerve reconstruction. Erectile function was evaluated by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The animals underwent re-exploration only once, and were killed afterwards. The nerve grafts were investigated for the maturation state of regenerating nerve fibers and the fascular composition. Recovery of erectile function took at least 4 weeks in the current model. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than green fluorescent protein-transduced controls and unseeded conduits. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts promoted an intact erectile response (4/4) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks that was overall significantly superior to negative controls (P cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts compared with negative controls (P = 0.018) and unseeded tubes (P = 0.034). Return of function was associated with the electron microscopic evidence of preganglionic myelinated nerve fibers and postganglionic unmyelinated axons. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor presents a viable approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  20. Photodynamic effects of a novel pterin derivative on a pancreatic cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroko; Arai, Toshiyuki; Endo, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Kouhei; Nonogawa, Mitsuru; Makino, Keisuke; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sasada, Masataka; Uchiyama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    6-Formylpterin (6FP) has the potential to produce singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) under UV-A radiation. In order to apply this potential to anti-cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we prepared a novel variant of 6FP, 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyleneamino)-6-formyl-3-pivaloylpteridine-4-one (6FP-tBu-DMF), and examined its photodynamic effects on a pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1 cells. The study using laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that the drug uptake, the 1 O 2 generation, and cell death were observed in the 6FP-tBu-DMF-treated cells, while these phenomena were not observed in the 6FP-treated cells. The MTT assay also showed the decrease in cell viability only in the 6FP-tBu-DMF-treated cells. Since 6FP and 6FP-tBu-DMF generate 1 O 2 to the same extent under UV-A radiation in aqueous solutions, these results indicated that the differences in the photodynamic effects between 6FP and 6FP-tBu-DMF were entirely attributed to the differences in the cell permeability between them. The development of cell permeable pterin derivatives has the potential for application in PDT

  1. X-radiation-induced transformation in a C3H mouse embryo-derived cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzaghi, M.; Little, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reproducible x-ray-induced oncogenic transformation has been demonstrated in an established cell line of mouse embryo fibroblasts. Cells derived from transformed foci formed malignant tumors when injected into syngeneic hosts. An exponential increase in the number of transformants per viable cell occurred with doses of up to 400 rads of x-radiation. The transformation frequency in exponentially growing cultures remained constant at 2.3 x 10 -3 following doses of 400 to 1500 rads. There was little change in survival following x-ray doses up to 300 rads. Doses greater than 300 rads were associated with an exponential decline in survival; the D 0 for the survival curve was 175 rads. Transformation frequency varied with changes in the number of viable cells seeded per dish. There was about a 10-fold decline in the transformation frequency when the number of cells was increased from 400 to 1000 viable cells/100-mm Petri dish. Below this density range there was little change in transformation frequency. The presence of lethally preirradiated cells was not associated with an enhancement of transformation in irradiated cells or with the induction of transformation in unirradiated cell cultures. Amphotericin B (Fungizone) inhibited the appearance of transformants when added to the culture medium within 2 to 3 weeks after initiation of the experiment

  2. Natural bizbenzoquinoline derivatives protect zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eKruger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20-30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment.

  3. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...

  4. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Nogala-Kałucka, Małgorzata; Szala, Laurencja; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%). The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114) was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg) than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg). The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ) and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH). Significantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p phytosterol content were not noted. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may be good parents for further breeding programs focused on increasing the amount and improving the quality of oilseed rapeseed oil. However, further studies will also be made to determine the influence of the

  5. Comparison of radiosensitivity between human hematopoietic cell lines derived from patients with Down's syndrome and from normal persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.; Banerjee, A.; Tan, J.C.; Hou, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Seven hematopoietic cell lines, four derived from the peripheral blood of patients with Down's syndrome (DS) and three from normal persons, were irradiated with 100, 150, 300, and 500 rads from a 60 Co source and harvested for cell count and chromosome aberration studies every 12 hours for 72 hours post irradiation. Cell growth inhibition and an increase in chromosome aberration were observed in all the cell lines at each dose level and time interval. No significant difference was observed in the effects between DS and normal cell lines. The most common types of aberrations in the 12-hour samples were chromosome and/or chromatid breaks. In the later samples, chromatid exchanges were predominant. The results of the variance analyses on the induced chromosome aberrations in six lines (three DS and three normal lines) showed radiation dosage to be the largest component of total variance, following postirradiation duration and cell lines. The samples harvested 24 and 36 hours post irradiation generally showed greater effects than the samples of other harvest durations. The cell line variance could only be attributed to the differences among and between individual cell lines rather than the difference between DS and normal cell lines

  6. Promotion of seminomatous tumors by targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in mouse testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.; de rooij, D. G.; Westerdahl, K.; Saarma, M.; Sariola, H.

    2001-01-01

    We show with transgenic mice that targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in undifferentiated spermatogonia promotes malignant testicular tumors, which express germ-cell markers. The tumors are invasive and contain aneuploid cells, but no distant metastases have

  7. Incorporation study of 18FDG through its uptake into tumour-derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Flavia M.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C.; Santos, Raquel G.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro tests of radiopharmaceuticals are an important instrument to study their mechanisms of action, binding and incorporation. 18 FDG is the most used radiopharmaceutical for diagnostics positron emission tomography (PET) on oncology, on the basis of accelerated rates of absorption of glucose in cell malignancies. This radiotracer has been routinely produced at CDTN; and therefore, it was selected for preliminary assays due to its availability. Nowadays, UPPR at CDTN produces routinely 18 FDG for the local PET Centers but others PET radiopharmaceuticals are in development such as 18 F-Fluorocholine and 18 F-Fluorothymidine. According to the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) it is necessary to validate and register these new radiopharmaceuticals in order to get the approval for their commercialization. Targeting efficacy is one of the important issues to be evaluated during radiopharmaceutical validation. The aim of this study was to develop a standard protocol to determine tumor targeting efficacy of PET radiopharmaceuticals in vitro. Therefore it was developed a protocol based on the incorporation og 18 FDG through the uptake in different tumor-derived cell lines. Three variables were investigated for the standardization of the test: the number of cells to be seeded in 96-well plates, the time of incubation with the radiopharmaceutical and the radiotracer concentration. The standardized protocol was considered suitable for 18 FDG incorporation assay and showed reproductive results. The protocol developed in this work will pave the way for the in vitro studies of incorporation of the new PET radiopharmaceuticals to be produced at UPPR-CDTN, such as: 18 F-Fluorocholine and 18 F-Fluorothymidine. (author)

  8. Synthesis and secretion of platelet-derived growth factor by human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzert, D.A.; Pantazis, P.; Antoniades, H.N.; Kasid, A.; Davidson, N.; Dickson, R.B.; Lippman, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report that human breast cancer cells secrete a growth factor that is biologically and immunologically similar to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Serum-free medium conditioned by estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 or estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells contains a mitogenic or competence activity that is capable of inducing incorporation of [ 3 H] thymidine into quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Like authentic PDGF, the PDGF-like activity produced by breast cancer cells is stable after acid and heat treatment (95 0 C) and inhibited by reducing agents. The mitogenic activity comigrates with a material of ≅30 kDa on NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with PDGF antiserum of proteins from metabolically labeled cell lysates and conditioned medium followed by analysis on nonreducing NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels identified proteins of 30 and 34 kDa. Upon reduction, the 30- and 34-kDa bands were converted to 15- and 16-kDa bands suggesting that the immunoprecipitated proteins were made up of two disulfide-linked polypeptides similar to PDGF. Hybridization studies with cDNA probes for the A chain PDGF and the B chain of PDGF/SIS identified transcripts for both PDGF chains in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The data summarized above provide conclusive evidence for the synthesis and hormonally regulated secretion of a PDGF-like mitogen by breast carcinoma cells. Production of a PDGF-like growth factor by breast cancer cell lines may be important in mediating paracrine stimulation of tumor growth

  9. Human DAZL, DAZ and BOULE genes modulate primordial germ cell and haploid gamete formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Kehkooi; Angeles, Vanessa T; Flores, Martha; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Pera, Renee A Reijo

    2009-01-01

    The leading cause of infertility in men and women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ cell (oocyte and sperm) development. Yet, it has not been possible to examine the unique developmental genetics of human germ cell formation and differentiation due to inaccessibility of germ cells during fetal development. Although several studies have shown that germ cells can be differentiated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells, human germ cells differentiated in these studies generally did not develop beyond the earliest stages1-8. Here we used a germ cell reporter to quantitate and isolate primordial germ cells derived from both male and female hESCs. Then, by silencing and overexpressing genes that encode germ cell-specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins (not transcription factors), we modulated human germ cell formation and developmental progression. We observed that human DAZL (Deleted in AZoospermia-Like) functions in primordial germ cell formation, whereas closely-related genes, DAZ and BOULE, promote later stages of meiosis and development of haploid gametes. These results are significant to the generation of gametes for future basic science and potential clinical applications. PMID:19865085

  10. Mapping of Novel QTL Regulating Grain Shattering Using Doubled Haploid Population in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical evolutionary step during domestication of major cereals was elimination of seed shattering because the easy-to-shatter trait in wild relatives results in a severe reduction in yield. In this study, we analyzed the QTLs associated with shattering employing a high-density genetic map in doubled haploid (DH population of rice (Oryza sativa L.. A genetic linkage map was generated with 217 microsatellite markers spanning 2082.4 cM and covering 12 rice chromosomes with an average interval of 9.6 cM between markers based on 120 DHLs derived from a cross between Cheongcheong indica type cultivar and Nagdong japonica type cultivar. In the QTL analysis, five QTLs pertaining to the breaking tensile strength (BTS were detected in 2013 and 2015. Two regions of the QTLs related to BTS on chromosome 1 and chromosome 6 were detected. Several important genes are distributed in 1 Mbp region of the QTL on chromosome 6 and they are related to the formation of abscission layer. We decide to name this QTL qSh6 and the candidate genes in the qSh6 region can be employed usefully in further research for cloning.

  11. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  12. In vitro activities of novel 4-HPR derivatives on a panel of rhabdoid and other tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Bhaskar C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhabdoid tumors (RTs are aggressive pediatric malignancies with poor prognosis. N-(4-hydroxy phenyl retinamide (4-HPR or fenretinide is a potential chemotherapeutic for RTs with activity correlated to its ability to down-modulate Cyclin D1. Previously, we synthesized novel halogen-substituted and peptidomimetic-derivatives of 4-HPR that retained activity in MON RT cells. Here we analyzed the effect of 4-HPR in inhibiting the growth of several RT, glioma, and breast cancer cell lines and tested their effect on cell cycle, apoptosis and Cyclin D1 expression. Methods Effect of compounds on RT cell cycle profiles, and cell death were assessed by MTS cell survival assays and FACS analysis. The effects of treatment on Cyclin D1 expression were determined by immunoblotting. The efficacy of these compounds on glioma and breast cancer cell lines was also determined using MTS assays. Results Low micromolar concentrations of 4-HPR derivatives inhibited cell survival of all RT cells tested. The 4-HPR derivatives altered RT cell cycle profiles and induced high levels of cell death that was correlated with their potency. ATRA exhibited high IC50 values in all cell lines tested and did not cause cell death. In MON RT cells, the iodo-substituted compounds were more active than 4-HPR in inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, the activity of the compounds correlated with their ability to down-modulate Cyclin D1: while active compounds reduced Cyclin D1 levels, inactive ATRA did not. In glioma and breast cancer cell lines, 4-HPR and 4-HPR derivatives showed variable efficacy. Conclusions Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that the inhibitory activities of novel halogen-substituted and peptidomimetic derivatives of 4-HPR are correlated to their ability to induce cell death and down-modulate Cyclin D1. These 4-HPR derivatives showed varied potencies in breast cancer and glioma cell lines. These data indicate that further

  13. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, Anasa tristis (Coreidae: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Li, Yao-Fa; Lincoln, Tamra Reall; Stanley, David

    2017-05-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, including virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development programs. We initiated 15 cell cultures, using nine media or combinations of media. The media yielding the best results were a modification of Kimura's medium and a combination of two commercially available cell culture media (EX-CELL 420 and L15). We designated the two cell lines as BCIRL-AtE-CLG11 and BCIRL-AtE-CLG15. From the AtE-CLG15 line, we isolated two sub-lines, A and B. Of these, the most consistently replicating line was AtE-CLG15A. We determined the doubling time of this line (190 h) and its mean cell diameter (14.5 ± 0.7 μm). We characterized the AtE-CLG15A line using DAF-PCR. The BCIRL-AtE-CLG15A cell line is now available for researchers world-wide.

  14. Geometry of VY Canis Majoris derived from SiO maser lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Blerkom, D.; Auer, L.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation reveals transfer calculation reveals that the SiO maser lines observed in the spectrum of VY CMa are formed in a rotating equatorial disk seen nearly edge-on. Other geometries are considered and eliminated. It is suggested that the SiO lines of NML Cyg also show evidence that they are formed in a disk

  15. Longitudinal Claudin Gene Expression Analyses in Canine Mammary Tissues and Thereof Derived Primary Cultures and Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne C. Hammer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and canine mammary tumours show partial claudin expression deregulations. Further, claudins have been used for directed therapeutic approaches. However, the development of claudin targeting approaches requires stable claudin expressing cell lines. This study reports the establishment and characterisation of canine mammary tissue derived cell lines, analysing longitudinally the claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7 expressions in original tissue samples, primary cultures and developed cell lines. Primary cultures were derived from 17 canine mammary tissues: healthy, lobular hyperplasia, simple adenoma, complex adenoma, simple tubular carcinoma, complex carcinoma, carcinoma arising in a benign mixed tumour and benign mixed tissue. Cultivation was performed, if possible, until passage 30. Claudin mRNA and protein expressions were analysed by PCR, QuantiGene Plex Assay, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Further, cytokeratin expression was analysed immunocytochemically. Cultivation resulted in 11 established cell lines, eight showing epithelial character. In five of the early passages the claudin expressions decreased compared to the original tissues. In general, claudin expressions were diminished during cultivation. Three cell lines kept longitudinally claudin, as well as epithelial marker expressions, representing valuable tools for the development of claudin targeted anti-tumour therapies.

  16. Buttressing staples with cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) reinforces staple lines in an ex vivo peristaltic inflation model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2008-11-01

    Staple line leakage and bleeding are the most common problems associated with the use of surgical staplers for gastrointestinal resection and anastomotic procedures. These complications can be reduced by reinforcing the staple lines with buttressing materials. The current study reports the potential use of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) in non-crosslinked (NCEM) and crosslinked (XCEM) forms, and compares their mechanical performance with clinically available buttress materials [small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (BP)] in an ex vivo small intestine model.

  17. Generation and characterization of human iPSC line generated from mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Linares, Natalia; Rodriguez, Saray; Mazo, Manuel; Abizanda, Gloria; Andreu, Enrique J; Barajas, Miguel; Prosper, Felipe; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSCs) were used for the generation of the human-induced pluripotent stem cell line G15.AO. Cell reprogramming was performed using retroviral vectors containing the Yamanaka factors, and the generated G15.AO hiPSC line showed normal karyotype, silencing of the exogenous reprogramming factors, induction of the typical pluripotency-associated markers, alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, and in vivo and in vitro differentiation ability to the three germ layers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of the second mutation of BADH2 gene derived from rice mutant lines induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The BADH2 gene acts as suppressor of 2-acetyl-1-pyrolline (2AP) biosynthesis in plants. 2AP is the volatile compound which provides fragrance in rice. Biosynthesis of 2AP occurs when BADH2 loses its function as suppressor gene. Aromatic rice cultivars naturally incur mutation of BADH2 gene at 8 bp. In this experiment, aromatic mutant rice lines derived from irradiation of Sintanur cultivar by gamma rays with dose of 100 Gy were studied in molecular level. These mutant lines were characterized at the M10 plantgeneration under the assumption that genetically these aromatic mutant rice lines were homozygotic. Several primers related to aroma in rice have been used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a thermal cycler instrument. Gel electrophoreses were carried out using 1.5% agarose in TAE buffer. DNA fragments at 254 bp and 355 bp (base pair) were taken and amplified by primer for nucleotide sequencing of these fragments. Molecular identification and characterization after electrophoresis showed that the mutant line from AR1020 can be differentiated from AR.1080 at 254 bp. Nucleotide sequence data from of these DNA fragments showed that point mutations (deletions and substitutions) occurred at the BADH2 gene in exon 7; those are called second mutation and were caused by gamma rays effects. The Sintanur variety was used as check cultivar and its DNA sequence was compared to that of the AR.1020 mutant line. The results from both DNA sequences (from cv. Sintanur and AR.1020) derived from fragments at 254 bp show that point mutations occurred within exon 7 and earlier stop codon occurred in the AR.1020 mutant rice line. Further, the use of EA primer in PCR resulted in detection of deletion and substitution of nucleotides in the AR.1020 mutant line. (author)

  19. Derivation and characterization of novel nonhuman primate embryonic stem cell lines from in vitro-fertilized baboon preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Guang; Eddy, Carlton A; Jacoby, Ethan S; Binkley, Peter A; Brzyski, Robert G; Schenken, Robert S

    2011-06-01

    The development of nonhuman primate (NHP) embryonic stem cell (ESC) models holds great promise for cell-mediated treatment of debilitating diseases and to address numerous unanswered questions regarding the therapeutic efficacy of ESCs while supplanting ethical considerations involved with human studies. Here we report successful establishment and characterization of 3 novel baboon (Papio cynocephalus) ESC lines from the inner cell mass of intracytoplasmic sperm injection-derived blastocysts. Embryos were cultured in an improved baboon embryo in vitro culture protocol. The inner cell mass of blastocyst was laser-dissected and plated on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cell monolayer in the NHP ESC culture medium. Three cell lines with characteristic ESC morphology have been cultured through an extended period (>14 months), with 2 male cell lines (UT-1 and -2) and 1 female cell line (UT-3) displaying normal baboon karyotypes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that all 3 lines express primate ESC pluripotency markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, TERT, TDGF, LEFTYA, and REX-1. All 3 lines demonstrated positive immunocytochemical staining for OCT-4, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3, stage-specific embryonic antigen-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. Baboon ESCs injected into NOD/SCID mice formed teratomas with all 3 germ layers. In addition, embryoid body-like spherical structures were derived and initial outgrowth was observed when embedded into extracellular matrix Matrigel. The ESC lines established in this NHP model have the potential to extend our knowledge in the fields of developmental biology, regenerative medicine, and future applications, including preclinical safety assessment of in vivo stem cell therapy.

  20. Upper and lower solutions for BVPs on the half-line with variable coefficient and derivative depending nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Djebali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem with a derivative depending nonlinearity and posed on the positive half-line. The derivative operator is time dependent. Upon a priori estimates and under a Nagumo growth condition, the Schauder's fixed point theorem combined with the method of upper and lower solutions on unbounded domains are used to prove existence of solutions. A uniqueness theorem is also obtained and some examples of application illustrate the obtained results.

  1. A One Line Derivation of DCC: Application of a Vector Random Coefficient Moving Average Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Hafner (Christian); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the most widely-used multivariate conditional volatility models is the dynamic conditional correlation (or DCC) specification. However, the underlying stochastic process to derive DCC has not yet been established, which has made problematic the derivation of

  2. The niche-derived glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF induces migration of mouse spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Dovere

    Full Text Available In mammals, the biological activity of the stem/progenitor compartment sustains production of mature gametes through spermatogenesis. Spermatogonial stem cells and their progeny belong to the class of undifferentiated spermatogonia, a germ cell population found on the basal membrane of the seminiferous tubules. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a Sertoli-derived factor, is essential for in vivo and in vitro stem cell self-renewal. However, the mechanisms underlying this activity are not completely understood. In this study, we show that GDNF induces dose-dependent directional migration of freshly selected undifferentiated spermatogonia, as well as germline stem cells in culture, using a Boyden chamber assay. GDNF-induced migration is dependent on the expression of the GDNF co-receptor GFRA1, as shown by migration assays performed on parental and GFRA1-transduced GC-1 spermatogonial cell lines. We found that the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP is specifically expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. VASP belongs to the ENA/VASP family of proteins implicated in actin-dependent processes, such as fibroblast migration, axon guidance, and cell adhesion. In intact seminiferous tubules and germline stem cell cultures, GDNF treatment up-regulates VASP in a dose-dependent fashion. These data identify a novel role for the niche-derived factor GDNF, and they suggest that GDNF may impinge on the stem/progenitor compartment, affecting the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration.

  3. Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-12-01

    Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.

  4. The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes...

  5. [Establishment and characterization of a cell line derived from human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q; Xu, D; Li, Z

    2001-07-01

    To establish a cell line of human ovarian cancer, and study its characterization. The cell line was established by the cultivation of subsides walls, and kept by freezing. The morphology was observed by microscope and electromicroscope. The authors studied its growth and propagation, the agglutination test of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the chromosome analysis, heterotransplanting, immuno-histochemistry staining, the analysis of hormone, the pollution examination and the test of sensitivity to virus etc. A new human ovarian carcinoma cell line, designated ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 685 (OMC685), was established from mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This cell line had subcultured to 91 generations, and some had been frozen for 8 years and revived, still grew well. This cell line possessed the feature of glandular epithelium cancer cell. The cells grew exuberantly, and the agglutinating test of PHA was positive. Karyotype was subtriploid with distortion. Heterotransplantations, alcian blue periobic acid-schiff (AbPAS), mucicarmine, alcian blue stainings, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were all positive. Without being polluted, it was sensitive to polivirus-I, adenovirus 7 and measles virus. OMC685 is a distinct human ovarian tumous cell line.

  6. Chemo-radioresistance of small cell lung cancer cell lines derived from untreated primary tumors obtained by diagnostic bronchofiberscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tamotsu

    1990-01-01

    New cell lines of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were established from specimens of untreated primary tumors biopsied by diagnostic bronchofiberscopy. The advantage of this method was ease of obtaining specimens from lung tumors. Establishment of cell lines was successful with 4 of 13 specimens (30%). Clinical responses of the tumors showed considerable variation, but were well correlated with the in vitro sensitivity of the respective cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs and irradiation. One of the cell lines was resistant to all drugs tested and irradiation, while another was sensitive to all of them. Although the acquired resistance of SCLC is the biggest problem in treatment, the natural resistance to therapy is another significant problem. Either acquired or natural, resistance mechanisms of SCLC may be elucidated by the use of such cell lines derived from untreated tumors. This method and these SCLC cell lines are expected to be useful for the serial study of biologic and genetic changes of untreated and pre-treated tumors, or primary and secondary tumors. (author)

  7. The evolution of sex chromosomes in organisms with separate haploid sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Otto, Sarah Perin

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes is driven largely by the evolution of reduced recombination and the subsequent accumulation of deleterious mutations. Although these processes are increasingly well understood in diploid organisms, the evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes in haploid organisms (U/V) has been virtually unstudied theoretically. We analyze a model to investigate the evolution of linkage between fitness loci and the sex-determining region in U/V species. In a second step, we test how prone nonrecombining regions are to degeneration due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. Our modeling predicts that the decay of recombination on the sex chromosomes and the addition of strata via fusions will be just as much a part of the evolution of haploid sex chromosomes as in diploid sex chromosome systems. Reduced recombination is broadly favored, as long as there is some fitness difference between haploid males and females. The degeneration of the sex-determining region due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations is expected to be slower in haploid organisms because of the absence of masking. Nevertheless, balancing selection often drives greater differentiation between the U/V sex chromosomes than in X/Y and Z/W systems. We summarize empirical evidence for haploid sex chromosome evolution and discuss our predictions in light of these findings. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. A set of haploid strains available for genetic studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, Anna Lisa; Legras, Jean-Luc; Zara, Giacomo; Dequin, Sylvie; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-09-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied for biofilm formation, however the lack of specific haploid model strains has limited the application of genetic approaches such as gene knockout, allelic replacement and Quantitative Trait Locus mapping for the deciphering of the molecular basis of velum formation under biological ageing. The aim of this work was to construct a set of flor isogenic haploid strains easy to manipulate genetically. The analysis of the allelic variations at 12 minisatellite loci of 174 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains allowed identifying three flor parental strains with different phylogenic positions. These strains were characterized for sporulation efficiency, growth on galactose, adherence to polystyrene, agar invasion, growth on wine and ability to develop a biofilm. Interestingly, the inability to grow on galactose was found associated with a frameshift in GAL4 gene that seems peculiar of flor strains. From these wild flor strains, isogenic haploid strains were constructed by deleting HO gene with a loxP-KanMX-loxP cassette followed by the removal of the kanamycin cassette. Haploid strains obtained were characterized for their phenotypic and genetic properties and compared with the parental strains. Preliminary results showed that the haploid strains represent new tools for genetic studies and breeding programs on biofilm formation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  10. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S., E-mail: ccelso@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (LSCB/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares. Lab. de Sintese de Compostos Bioativos; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Ceara (LOE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia. Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2013-09-15

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  11. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 μm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Behnan Sahin, M.; Cressman, Erik N.K.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 μm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  12. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 {mu}m diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: arava001@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Behnan Sahin, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cressman, Erik N.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 {mu}m in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  13. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun; Kim, Kee-Hong; Furusato, Bungo; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Chu, Wei-Sing; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv; Ewing, Charles M.; Isaacs, William B.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2006-01-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferative capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents

  14. Selection and evaluation of soybean lines derived from gamma irradiation for rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    In 1979, seeds of 11 soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with 15 and 30 krad. Treated and control seeds of each cultivar were planted in the rainy season. In the rainy season of 1980, M 3 populations were screened for rust resistance in Nong Hoi Valley and Mae Joe Experiment Station, both in Chiang Main province. The IWGSR rust rating system was used. Based upon the slow growth of rust on soybean plants, 6 and 115 plants were selected from 2,802 control plants and from 28,824 treated plants, respectively. Selected lines were evaluated in Nong Hoi Valley in the rainy season of 1981. Sixteen selections with average good seed yield per plant and low percentage of shrivelled seeds were obtained. Among them, two lines, namely G8586/Line number 81-1-072 and S.J. 4/Line number 81-1-037 gave the higher average seed yield per plant than other lines. They are at present in a preliminary yield trial in Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai. (author)

  15. Generation of six multiple sclerosis patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel-Serra, L; Duarri, A; Muñoz, Y; Kuebler, B; Aran, B; Costa, C; Martí, M; Comabella, M; Malhotra, S; Montalban, X; Veiga, A; Raya, A

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to gliosis, demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal death. The MS disease aetiology is unknown, though a polymorphism of the TNFRSF1A gene, rs1800693, is known to confer an increased risk for MS. Using retroviral delivery of reprogramming transgenes, we generated six MS patient-specific iPSC lines with two distinct genotypes, CC or TT, of the polymorphism rs1800693. iPSC lines had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency genes and differentiated into the three germ layers. These lines offer a good tool to study MS pathomechanisms and for drug testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficiency of anther culture technique in the production of wheat double haploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Špika Ankica Đ.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate efficiency of anther culture in the production of spontaneous double haploids from randomly selected heterozygous genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Anthers of 20 F1 wheat combinations were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 medium. All of the examined genotypes have shown the ability to produce pollen calluses as well as to regenerate green plants. On average for the whole experiment material, 47.2 calluses were produced per 100 cultured anthers. The green plant regeneration ranged from 0.8 to 13.4 green plants per spike, with an overall mean of 5.8. From the total of 582 regenerated green plants, 47.9% (279 were spontaneous double haploids. The final average yield from the study was 2.8 double haploids per spike.

  17. Critical mutation rate has an exponential dependence on population size in haploid and diploid populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aston

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of population size on the key parameters of evolution is particularly important for populations nearing extinction. There are evolutionary pressures to evolve sequences that are both fit and robust. At high mutation rates, individuals with greater mutational robustness can outcompete those with higher fitness. This is survival-of-the-flattest, and has been observed in digital organisms, theoretically, in simulated RNA evolution, and in RNA viruses. We introduce an algorithmic method capable of determining the relationship between population size, the critical mutation rate at which individuals with greater robustness to mutation are favoured over individuals with greater fitness, and the error threshold. Verification for this method is provided against analytical models for the error threshold. We show that the critical mutation rate for increasing haploid population sizes can be approximated by an exponential function, with much lower mutation rates tolerated by small populations. This is in contrast to previous studies which identified that critical mutation rate was independent of population size. The algorithm is extended to diploid populations in a system modelled on the biological process of meiosis. The results confirm that the relationship remains exponential, but show that both the critical mutation rate and error threshold are lower for diploids, rather than higher as might have been expected. Analyzing the transition from critical mutation rate to error threshold provides an improved definition of critical mutation rate. Natural populations with their numbers in decline can be expected to lose genetic material in line with the exponential model, accelerating and potentially irreversibly advancing their decline, and this could potentially affect extinction, recovery and population management strategy. The effect of population size is particularly strong in small populations with 100 individuals or less; the

  18. Differential responses to radiation and hyperthermia of cloned cell lines derived from a single human melanoma xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Brustad, T.

    1984-01-01

    One uncloned and five cloned cell lines were derived from a single human melanoma xenograft. Cells from passages 7-12 were exposed to either radiation or hyperthermia (42.5 0 C, pH = 7.4) under aerobic conditions and the colony forming ability of the cells was assayed in soft agar. The five cloned lines showed individual and characteristic responses to radiation as well as to hyperthermia. The variation in the response to radiation was mainly reflected in the size of the shoulders of the survival curves rather than in the D 0 -values. The variation in the response to hyperthermia was mainly reflected in the terminal slopes of the survival curves. The survival curve of cells from the uncloned line, both when exposed to radiation and hyperthermia, was positioned in the midst of those of the cloned lines. The response of the cloned lines to radiation did not correlate with the response to hyperthermia, indicating that tumor cell subpopulations which are resistant to radiation may respond well to hyperthermia

  19. Experimental infection of Leishmania (L. chagasi in a cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felio J Bello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the in vitro infection of a cell line Lulo, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis embryonic tissue, by Leishmania chagasi promastigotes. This infection process is compared with a parallel one developed using the J774 cell line. The L. chagasi MH/CO/84/CI-044B strain was used for experimental infection in two cell lines. The cells were seeded on glass coverslips in 24-well plates to reach a final number of 2 x 10(5 cells/well. Parasites were added to the adhered Lulo and J774 cells in a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 28 and 37ºC respectively. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-infection, the cells were extensively washed with PBS, fixed with methanol, and stained with Giemsa. The number of internalized parasites was determined by counting at least 400 cultured cells on each coverslip. The results showed continuous interaction between L. chagasi promastigotes with the cell lines. Some ultrastructural characteristics of the amastigote forms were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The highest percentage of infection in Lulo cells was registered on day 6 post-infection (29.6% and on day 4 in the J774 cells (51%. This work shows similarities and differences in the L. chagasi experimental infection process in the two cell lines. However, Lulo cells emerge as a new model to study the life-cycle of this parasite.

  20. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek

    2016-01-01

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste

  1. Dysfunctional p53 deletion mutants in cell lines derived from Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerborn, Alexander; Moritz, Constanze; von Bonin, Frederike

    2006-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a distinct malignancy of the immune system. Despite the progress made in the understanding of the pathology of cHL, the transforming events remain to be elucidated. It has been proposed that mutations in the TP53 gene in biopsy material as well as cell lines ...

  2. Variations in Humanized and Defined Culture Conditions Supporting Derivation of New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Judy M; Ferrier, Patricia M; Gardner, John O

    2006-01-01

    matrix substrate of purified human laminin (Ln) with transitional reliance on mitotically inactivated human fibroblast (HDF) feeder cells. With this integrated system hESC lines were isolated using either HDF conditioned medium supplemented with a bovine-sourced serum replacement (bSRM), or a defined...

  3. Development and characterization of a bovine monocyte-derived macrophage cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocytes circulate in the blood, and later differentiate into macrophages in the tissues. They are components of the innate arm of the immune response and are one of the first lines of defense again invading pathogens. However, they also serve as host cells for intracellular pathogens such as Mycob...

  4. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  5. Genetic control of the development of the haploid generation in Oenothera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Harte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The haploid generation of higher plants has to be considered in its own individuality. Special experimental designs are needed to investigate the developmental processes of the male and female gametophytes between meiosis and fertilization. Experiments on Oenothera demonstrate the existence of genes, which action can be described as influencing the competition between meiospores or between gametophytes, or as interaction between different individuals, the gametophytic-gametophytic and gametophytic-sporophytic incompatibility. The development of the haploid generation is regulated by genes. Some of these genes are active only in this phase of the life cycle.

  6. Derivation of hybrid ES cell lines from two different strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Tak Lau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental origin-dependent expression of the imprinted genes is essential for mammalian development. Zfp57 maintains genomic imprinting in mouse embryos and ES cells. To examine the allelic expression patterns of the imprinted genes in ES cells, we obtained multiple hybrid ES clones that were directly derived from the blastocysts generated from the cross between mice on two different genetic backgrounds. The blastocyst-derived ES clones displayed largely intact DNA methylation imprint at the tested imprinted regions. These hybrid ES clones will be useful for future studies to examine the allelic expression of the imprinted genes in ES cells and their differentiated progeny.

  7. A novel PCR-based marker for identifying Ns chromosomes in wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng derivative lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng is an endangered species that is endemic to China, which provides an important gene pool for wheat improvement. We developed a quick and reliable PCR-based diagnostic assay to accurately and efficiently detect P. huashanica DNA sequences from introgression lines, which was based on a species-specific marker derived from genomic DNA. The 900-bp PCR-amplified band used as a P. huashanica-specific RAPD marker was tested with 21 different plant species and was converted into a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR marker by cloning and sequencing the selected fragments (pHs11. This SCAR marker, which was designated as RHS23, could clearly distinguish the presence of P. huashanica DNA repetitive sequences in wheat-P. huashanica derivative lines. The specificity of the marker was validated using 21 different plant species and a complete set of wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition lines (1Ns–7Ns, 2n=44=22II. This specific sequence targeted the Ns genome of P. huashanica and it was present in all the seven P. huashanica chromosomes. Therefore, this SCAR marker is specific for P. huashanica chromosomes and may be used in the identification of alien repetitive sequences in large gene pools. This diagnostic PCR assay for screening the target genetic material may play a key role in marker-assisted selective breeding programs.

  8. Derivation of Color Confusion Lines for Pseudo-Dichromat Observers from Color Discrimination Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahiro Matsudaira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a method of defining color confusion lines in the display RGB color space through color discrimination tasks. In the experiment, reference and test square patches were presented side by side on a CRT display. The subject's task is to set the test color where the color difference from the reference is just noticeable to him/her. In a single trial, the test color was only adjustable along one of 26 directions around the reference. Thus 26 colors with just noticeable difference (JND were obtained and made up a tube-like or an ellipsoidal shape around each reference. With color-anomalous subjects, the major axes of these shapes should be parallel to color confusion lines that have a common orientation vector corresponding to one of the cone excitation axes L, M, or S. In our method, the orientation vector was determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of the distances from JND colors to each confusion line. To assess the performance the method, the orientation vectors obtained by pseudo-dichromats (color normal observers with a dichromat simulator were compared to those theoretically calculated from the color vision model used in the simulator.

  9. The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ∼9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ∼59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

  10. Isolation and characterization of a neoplastic epithelial cell line derived from irradiated human submaxillary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Sato, Mitsunobu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Yanagawa, Tetuo; Kubo, Kazuko

    1979-01-01

    Submaxillary tissues taken from a patient whose oral base was irradiated for squamous cell carcinoma were cultured in order to isolate transformed epithelial cells in vitro. The cells showed a fine structure similar to an intermediate duct cell. When they were transplanted in nude mice, salivary tumors developed. It is epidemiologically known that irradiation induces salivary tumors. In this study, the risk of inducement was revealed and a salivary epithelial cell line was used as a model for the analysis of salivary tumors. (Ichikawa, K.)

  11. Cytokeratin characterization of human prostatic carcinoma and its derived cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, R B; Ahmann, F R; McDaniel, K M; Paquin, M L; Clark, V A; Celniker, A

    1987-01-01

    Two murine monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies with defined specificity were shown to distinguish between basal cells and luminal cells in human prostate tissue. Forty-one biopsies or transurethral resection specimens were characterized using these two antibodies. In cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, focal loss of the basal cell layer was noted in areas of glandular proliferation. Ten cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, varying in Gleason's histological grade from 2 to 4, were also studied. In each case the carcinoma was shown to represent the luminal cell phenotype with no evidence of involvement of the basal cell phenotype. An analysis of three established metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) using two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the cytokeratin complement of each cell line was slightly different but retained the phenotype of the luminal cell. It was concluded that during both hyperplasia and neoplastic transformation of the prostate, the luminal cell phenotype is primarily involved and that the basal cell phenotype does not appear to contribute to either intraluminal proliferation or invasive cell populations.

  12. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifei; Huang Jianhua; Lu Ruiju; Sun Yuefang; Zhou Runmei; Zhou Zhijiang; Xie Zhujie; Liu Chenghong

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  13. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1 C YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+) s evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.

  14. Derivation of transplantable 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced chicken fibrosarcoma lines: differences in metastasizing properties and organ specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galton, J.E.; Xue, B.; Hochwald, G.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Transplantable 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced SC chicken fibrosarcoma (CHCT-NYU) lines were studied for their ability to grow in internal organs after iv injection (artificial metastases) into 1- to 3-week-old chickens. Some tumor lines were recently derived, whereas others were studied after many serial subcutaneous transplantations. Artificial metastases were seen in the stomach, pancreas, lungs, heart, and muscle, and occasionally in the kidneys and liver. Agammaglobulinemic recipients showed more extensive organ involvement than normal recipients of the same age. Whole-body ν-irradiation enhanced the incidence of artificial metastases, particularly in lungs. Antibody from the serum of a primary tumor-bearing host reduced the growth of the corresponding tumor in many organs. The metastatic pattern of line CHCT-NYU4 was a relatively stable property. However, intravenous transplantation of tumor cells from line CHCT-NYU4 taken from the liver, lungs, and pancreas of a single recipient established sublines with changes in organ specificity. After a few such serial transplants of liver-derived tumor, a line was derived that grew virtually in the liver alone. A subline with preference for growth in lungs was also obtained, but its ability to grow in the pancreas persisted. A pancreas-derived tumor line also grew in the liver and lungs. Subcutaneous transplants of tissue fragments of the lung-derived tumor line caused the appearance of spontaneous metastases in lungs. The incidence of spontaneous metastases with the lung-derived line was much greater than that with the liver-derived line or with the original CHCT-NYU4 line

  15. Segregation distortion in F2 and doubled haploid populations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan. 3Institute of the Society .... population of 212 DH lines was developed through anther culture of the F1 ... 2001), and 10-base random primers (Operon Technolo- ... tific researches (public data in the Rice Genome Project,.

  16. Inward rectifier potassium channels in the HL-1 cardiomyocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Dana; Zhao, YouYou; Green, Brian D; McDermott, Barbara J; Collins, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    HL-1 is a line of immortalized cells of cardiomyocyte origin that are a useful complement to native cardiomyocytes in studies of cardiac gene regulation. Several types of ion channel have been identified in these cells, but not the physiologically important inward rectifier K(+) channels. Our aim was to identify and characterize inward rectifier K(+) channels in HL-1 cells. External Ba(2+) (100 µM) inhibited 44 ± 0.05% (mean ± s.e.m., n = 11) of inward current in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The reversal potential of the Ba(2+)-sensitive current shifted with external [K(+)] as expected for K(+)-selective channels. The slope conductance of the inward Ba(2+)-sensitive current increased with external [K(+)]. The apparent Kd for Ba(2+) was voltage dependent, ranging from 15 µM at -150  mV to 148 µM at -75  mV in 120  mM external K(+). This current was insensitive to 10 µM glybenclamide. A component of whole-cell current was sensitive to 150 µM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), although it did not correspond to the Ba(2+)-sensitive component. The effect of external 1 mM Cs(+) was similar to that of Ba(2+). Polymerase chain reaction using HL-1 cDNA as template and primers specific for the cardiac inward rectifier K(ir)2.1 produced a fragment of the expected size that was confirmed to be K(ir)2.1 by DNA sequencing. In conclusion, HL-1 cells express a current that is characteristic of cardiac inward rectifier K(+) channels, and express K(ir)2.1 mRNA. This cell line may have use as a system for studying inward rectifier gene regulation in a cardiomyocyte phenotype. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A. Solarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20–254, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90% in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC.

  18. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarte, Víctor A; Rosas, Jaiver E; Rivera, Zuly J; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; García, Javier E; Vernot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20-25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC.

  19. Influence of Spray-dried Hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil Granules on Cell Lines Derived from Tissues of Mesenchymal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scharnweber

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work we described the preparation and characterization of spray dried hydroxyapatite micro granules loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. These loaded particles are used as a model drug delivery system (DDS. In this study we examined the in vitro response of two cell lines derived from different tissues to 5-FU loaded granules (LG. Both cell lines, either L929 cells of a mouse fibroblast lineage or cells originating from a rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8 showed a dose dependent decrease in cell proliferation in response to 5-FU-, either dissolved in the culture medium or loaded onto particles. The response of the two cell lines to loaded and nonloaded particles was different. The effect of LG and of a corresponding concentration of free 5-FU was practically the same for the ROS 17/2.8 cells indicating that ROS 17/2.8 cells were not affected by the carrier material. In contrast, L929 cells showed a slight decrease in cell proliferation also in the presence of granules not loaded with 5-FU. This is thought to be attributed to the inhibition of mitogenesis by phosphocitrates, already demonstrated in fibroblasts. In summary, we found that the loaded 5-FU kept its effectivity after the spray drying process and that the response towards the granules varied with cell type. This is the first step towards a tissue specific DDS.

  20. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions. PMID:25806790

  1. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  2. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha- (α- particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific.

  3. Derivative load voltage and particle swarm optimization to determine optimum sizing and placement of shunt capacitor in improving line losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Milad Baiek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study optimal size and placement of shunt capacitor in order to minimize line loss. Derivative load bus voltage was calculated to determine the sensitive load buses which further being optimum with the placement of shunt capacitor. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was demonstrated on the IEEE 14 bus power system to find optimum size of shunt capacitor in reducing line loss. The objective function was applied to determine the proper placement of capacitor and get satisfied solutions towards constraints. The simulation was run over Matlab under two scenarios namely base case and increasing 100% load. Derivative load bus voltage was simulated to determine the most sensitive load bus. PSO was carried out to determine the optimum sizing of shunt capacitor at the most sensitive bus. The results have been determined that the most sensitive bus was bus number 14 for the base case and increasing 100% load. The optimum sizing was 8.17 Mvar for the base case and 23.98 Mvar for increasing load about 100%. Line losses were able to reduce approximately 0.98% for the base case and increasing 100% load reduced about 3.16%. The proposed method was also proven as a better result compared with harmony search algorithm (HSA method. HSA method recorded loss reduction ratio about 0.44% for the base case and 2.67% when the load was increased by 100% while PSO calculated loss reduction ratio about 1.12% and 4.02% for the base case and increasing 100% load respectively. The result of this study will support the previous study and it is concluded that PSO was successfully able to solve some engineering problems as well as to find a solution in determining shunt capacitor sizing on the power system simply and accurately compared with other evolutionary optimization methods.

  4. Establishment and characterization of novel epithelial-like cell lines derived from human periodontal ligament tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansriratanawong, Kallapat; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Toyomura, Junko; Sato, Soh

    2017-10-01

    In this study, novel human-derived epithelial-like cells (hEPLCs) lines were established from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues, which were composed of a variety of cell types and exhibited complex cellular activities. To elucidate the putative features distinguishing these from epithelial rest of Malassez (ERM), we characterized hEPLCs based on cell lineage markers and tight junction protein expression. The aim of this study was, therefore, to establish and characterize hEPLCs lines from PDL tissues. The hEPLCs were isolated from PDL of third molar teeth. Cellular morphology and cell organelles were observed thoroughly. The characteristics of epithelial-endothelial-mesenchymal-like cells were compared in several markers by gene expression and immunofluorescence, to ERM and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The resistance between cellular junctions was assessed by transepithelial electron resistance, and inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA after infecting hEPLCs with periodontopathic bacteria. The hEPLCs developed into small epithelial-like cells in pavement appearance similar to ERM. However, gene expression patterns and immunofluorescence results were different from ERM and HUVECs, especially in tight junction markers (Claudin, ZO-1, and Occludins), and endothelial markers (vWF, CD34). The transepithelial electron resistance indicated higher resistance in hEPLCs, as compared to ERM. Periodontopathic bacteria were phagocytosed with upregulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion within 24 h. In conclusion, hEPLCs that were derived using the single cell isolation method formed tight multilayers colonies, as well as strongly expressed tight junction markers in gene expression and immunofluorescence. Novel hEPLCs lines exhibited differently from ERM, which might provide some specific functions such as metabolic exchange and defense mechanism against bacterial invasion in periodontal tissue.

  5. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of [methyl- 3 H]methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the [ 3 H]PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine

  6. Radiosensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from Shwachman-Diamond syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, J.; Babini, G.; Mariotti, L.; Baiocco, G.; Ottolenghi, A.; Nacci, L.; Minelli, A.; Danesino, C.; Maccario, C.; Roessler, U.; Savio, M.; Gomolka, M.; Kulka, U.

    2015-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterised by bone marrow failure and a cumulative risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene, the only gene known to be causative of the pathology, is involved in ribosomal biogenesis, stress responses and DNA repair, and the lack of SBDS sensitises cells to many stressors and leads to mitotic spindle destabilisation. The effect of ionising radiation on SBDS-deficient cells was investigated using immortalised lymphocytes from SDS patients in comparison with positive and negative controls in order to test whether, in response to ionising radiation exposure, any impairment in the DNA repair machinery could be observed. After irradiating cells with different doses of X-rays or gamma-rays, DNA repair kinetics and the residual damages using the alkaline COMET assay and the γ-H2AX assay were assessed, respectively. In this work, preliminary data about the comparison between ionising radiation effects in different patients-derived cells and healthy control cells are presented. (authors)

  7. Human Cell Line-Derived Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IgA antibodies have great potential to improve the functional diversity of current IgG antibody-based cancer immunotherapy options. However, IgA production and purification is not well established, which can at least in part be attributed to the more complex glycosylation as compared to IgG antibodies. IgA antibodies possess up to five N-glycosylation sites within their constant region of the heavy chain as compared to one site for IgG antibodies. The human GlycoExpress expression system was developed to produce biotherapeutics with optimized glycosylation and used here to generate a panel of IgA isotype antibodies directed against targets for solid (TA-mucin 1, Her2, EGFR, Thomsen–Friedenreich and hematological (CD20 cancer indications. The feasibility of good manufacturing practice was shown by the production of 11 g IgA within 35 days in a one liter perfusion bioreactor, and IgA antibodies in high purity were obtained after purification. The monoclonal IgA antibodies possessed a high sialylation degree, and no non-human glycan structures were detected. Kinetic analysis revealed increased avidity antigen binding for IgA dimers as compared to monomeric antibodies. The IgA antibodies exhibited potent Fab- and Fc-mediated functionalities against cancer cell lines, whereby especially granulocytes are recruited. Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In conclusion, a panel of novel biofunctional IgA antibodies with human glycosylation was successfully generated.

  8. GENE ACTION AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS AMONG LINES DERIVED FROM VARIETAL CROSSES OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of genetic action, heritability and genetic variability is useful and permits plant breeder to design efficient breeding strategies in soybean.  The objectives of this study were to determine gene action, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of quantitative characters that could be realized through selection of segregation progenies. The F1 population and F2 progenies of six crosses among five soybean varieties were evaluated at Muneng Experimental Station, East Java during the dry season of 2014.  The lines were planted in a randomized block design with four replications.  The seeds of each F1 and F2 progenies and parents were planted in four rows of 3 m long, 40 cm x 20 cm plant spacing, one plant per hill. The result showed that pod number per plant, seed yield, plant yield and harvest index were found to be predominantly controlled by additive gene effects.  Seed size was also controlled by additive gene effects, with small seed dominant to large seed size.  Plant height was found to be controlled by both additive and nonadditive gene effects.  Similarly, days to maturity was due mainly to additive and nonadditive gene effects, with earliness dominant to lateness.  Days to maturity had the highest heritability estimates of 49.3%, followed by seed size (47.0%, harvest index (45.8%, and pod number per plant (45.5%.  Therefore, they could be used in the selection of a high yielding soybean genotype in the F3 generation. 

  9. Transcriptome analysis of functional differentiation between haploid and diploid cells of Emiliania huxleyi, a globally significant photosynthetic calcifying cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotes are classified as either haplontic, diplontic, or haplo-diplontic, depending on which ploidy levels undergo mitotic cell division in the life cycle. Emiliania huxleyi is one of the most abundant phytoplankton species in the ocean, playing an important role in global carbon fluxes, and represents haptophytes, an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms that diverged early in eukaryotic evolution. This species is haplo-diplontic. Little is known about the haploid cells, but they have been hypothesized to allow persistence of the species between the yearly blooms of diploid cells. We sequenced over 38,000 expressed sequence tags from haploid and diploid E. huxleyi normalized cDNA libraries to identify genes involved in important processes specific to each life phase (2N calcification or 1N motility), and to better understand the haploid phase of this prominent haplo-diplontic organism. Results The haploid and diploid transcriptomes showed a dramatic differentiation, with approximately 20% greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells than in haploid cells and only ≤ 50% of transcripts estimated to be common between the two phases. The major functional category of transcripts differentiating haploids included signal transduction and motility genes. Diploid-specific transcripts included Ca2+, H+, and HCO3- pumps. Potential factors differentiating the transcriptomes included haploid-specific Myb transcription factor homologs and an unusual diploid-specific histone H4 homolog. Conclusions This study permitted the identification of genes likely involved in diploid-specific biomineralization, haploid-specific motility, and transcriptional control. Greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells suggests they may be more versatile for exploiting a diversity of rich environments whereas haploid cells are intrinsically more streamlined. PMID:19832986

  10. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajão Daniela S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi, by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.

  11. On-line preconcentration of fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines in cerebrospinal fluid using flow-gated capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Gong, Maojun

    2016-06-10

    Flow-gated capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with microdialysis has become an important tool for in vivo bioanalytical measurements because it is capable of performing rapid and efficient separations of complex biological mixtures thus enabling high temporal resolution in chemical monitoring. However, the limit of detection (LOD) is often limited to a micro- or nano-molar range while many important target analytes have picomolar or sub-nanomolar levels in brain and other tissues. To enhance the capability of flow-gated CE for catecholamine detection, a novel and simple on-line sample preconcentration method was developed exclusively for fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines that were fluorogenically derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide. The effective preconcentration coupled with the sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection lowered the LOD down to 20pM for norepinephrine (NE) and 50pM for dopamine (DA) at 3-fold of S/N ratio, and the signal enhancement was estimated to be over 100-fold relative to normal injection when standard analytes were dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). The basic focusing principle is novel since the sample plug contains borate while the background electrolyte (BGE) is void of borate. This strategy took advantage of the complexation between diols and borate, through which one negative charge was added to the complex entity. The sample derivatization mixture was electrokinetically injected into a capillary via the flow-gated injection, and then NE and DA derivatives were selectively focused to a narrow zone by the reversible complexation. Separation of NE and DA derivatives was executed by incoming surfactants of cholate and deoxycholate mixed in the front BGE plug. This on-line preconcentration method was finally applied to the detection of DA in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via microdialysis and on-line derivatization. It is anticipated that the method would

  12. Cancer-initiating cells derived from established cervical cell lines exhibit stem-cell markers and increased radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Jacqueline; Poitevin, Adela; Mendoza-Martínez, Veverly; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are proposed to be responsible for the generation of metastasis and resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences indicates CICs are found among different human cancers and cell lines derived from them. Few studies address the characteristics of CICs in cervical cancer. We identify biological features of CICs from four of the best-know human cell lines from uterine cervix tumors. (HeLa, SiHa, Ca Ski, C-4 I). Cells were cultured as spheres under stem-cell conditions. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34, CD49f and CD133 antigens and Hoechst 33342 staining to identify side population (SP). Magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting was applied to enrich and purify populations used to evaluate tumorigenicity in nude mice. cDNA microarray analysis and in vitro radioresistance assay were carried out under standard conditions. CICs, enriched as spheroids, were capable to generate reproducible tumor phenotypes in nu-nu mice and serial propagation. Injection of 1 × 10 3 dissociated spheroid cells induced tumors in the majority of animals, whereas injection of 1 × 10 5 monolayer cells remained nontumorigenic. Sphere-derived CICs expressed CD49f surface marker. Gene profiling analysis of HeLa and SiHa spheroid cells showed up-regulation of CICs markers characteristic of the female reproductive system. Importantly, epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) transition-associated markers were found highly expressed in spheroid cells. More importantly, gene expression analysis indicated that genes required for radioresistance were also up-regulated, including components of the double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair machinery and the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dose-dependent radiation assay indicated indeed that CICs-enriched populations exhibit an increased resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). We characterized a self-renewing subpopulation of CICs found among four well known human cancer-derived cell lines (HeLa, Si

  13. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P cells, remaining undifferentiated over 25 passages, had alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES specific markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex01. Moreover, these ntES cells successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) that expressed specific genes of all three germ layers after being cultured in LIF-free medium. In conclusion, we have successfully derived putative porcine ntES cells with high efficiency from quality cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in undifferentiated state.

  14. Alterations in BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in bipolar disorder: The role of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Zeliha; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Ceylan, Deniz; Yalçın, Yaprak; Can, Güneş; Resmi, Halil; Akan, Pınar; Ergör, Gül; Aydemir, Omer; Cengisiz, Cengiz; Kerim, Doyuran

    2014-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been consistently reported to be decreased in mania or depression in bipolar disorders. Evidence suggests that Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Whether GDNF and BDNF act in the same way across different episodes in bipolar disorders is unclear. BDNF and GDNF serum levels were measured simultaneously by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 96 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV (37 euthymic, 33 manic, 26 depressed) in comparison to 61 healthy volunteers. SCID- I and SCID-non patient version were used for clinical evaluation of the patients and healthy volunteers respectively. Correlations between the two trophic factor levels, and medication dose, duration and serum levels of lithium or valproate were studied across different episodes of illness. Patients had significantly lower BDNF levels during mania and depression compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. GDNF levels were not distinctive. However GDNF/BDNF ratio was higher in manic state compared to euthymia and healthy controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between BDNF and GDNF levels in euthymic patients. While BDNF levels correlated positively, GDNF levels correlated negatively with lithium levels. Regression analysis confirmed that lithium levels predicted only GDNF levels positively in mania, and negatively in euthymia. Small sample size in different episodes and drug-free patients was the limitation of thestudy. Current data suggests that lithium exerts its therapeutic action by an inverse effect on BDNF and GDNF levels, possibly by up-regulating BDNF and down-regulating GDNF to achieve euthymia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of STAT4 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients and patient-derived cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Cordeiro, Brendan; Fredholm, Simon Mayland

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of STAT signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis for a variety of cancers, including CTCL. Recent reports indicate that loss of STAT4 expression is an important prognostic marker for CTCL progression and is associated with the acquisition of T helper 2 cell phenotype......R-155 leads to upregulation in STAT4 expression in MyLa cells. In summary, our results suggest that loss of STAT4 expression and associated switch to Th2 phenotype during Mycosis Fungoides progression may be driven via aberrant histone acetylation and/or upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 microRNA....... by malignant cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of STAT4 in this cancer. In the current work we test the expression of STAT4 and STAT6 via RT-PCR and/or Western Blot in CTCL lesional skin samples and in immortalized patient-derived cell lines...

  16. Plasma glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressive disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-02-01

    Some clinical studies have reported reduced peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) level in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We verified whether a reduction in plasma GDNF level was associated with MDD. Plasma GDNF level was measured in 23 healthy control subjects and 23 MDD patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma GDNF level in MDD patients at baseline did not differ from that in healthy controls. Plasma GDNF in MDD patients did not differ significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. GDNF level was significantly lower in recurrent-episode MDD patients than in first-episode patients before and after treatment. Our findings revealed significantly lower plasma GDNF level in recurrent-episode MDD patients, although plasma GDNF levels in MDD patients and healthy controls did not differ significantly. The discrepancy between our study and previous studies might arise from differences in the recurrence of depression or the ages of the MDD patients.

  17. Treatment Paradigms for Retinal and Macular Diseases Using 3-D Retina Cultures Derived From Human Reporter Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhaw, Rossukon; Swaroop, Manju; Homma, Kohei; Nakamura, Jutaro; Brooks, Matthew; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Chaitankar, Vijender; Michael, Sam; Tawa, Gregory; Zou, Jizhong; Rao, Mahendra; Zheng, Wei; Cogliati, Tiziana; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell lines carrying fluorescent reporters driven by retinal promoters to derive three-dimensional (3-D) retina in culture and how this system can be exploited for elucidating human retinal biology, creating disease models in a dish, and designing targeted drug screens for retinal and macular degeneration. Furthermore, we realize that stem cell investigations are labor-intensive and require extensive resources. To expedite scientific discovery by sharing of resources and to avoid duplication of efforts, we propose the formation of a Retinal Stem Cell Consortium. In the field of vision, such collaborative approaches have been enormously successful in elucidating genetic susceptibility associated with age-related macular degeneration.

  18. Irradiation With Carbon Ion Beams Induces Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Cellular Senescence in a Human Glioma-Derived Cell Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Mori, Takahisa; Saha, Manujendra N.; Hoque, Ariful S.; Islam, Salequl; Kogure, Kimitaka; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined biological responses of human glioma cells to irradiation with carbon ion beams (C-ions). Methods and Materials: A human glioma-derived cell line, NP-2, was irradiated with C-ions. Apoptotic cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342. Induction of autophagy was examined either by staining cells with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or by Western blotting to detect conversion of microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP-LC3) (LC3-I) to the membrane-bound form (LC3-II). Cellular senescence markers including induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) were examined. The mean telomere length of irradiated cells was determined by Southern blot hybridization. Expression of tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1 in the irradiated cells was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: When NP-2 cells were irradiated with C-ions at 6 Gy, the major population of the cells died of apoptosis and autophagy. The residual fraction of attached cells ( WAF1/CIP1 was induced in NP-2 cells after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that irradiation with C-ions induced cellular senescence in a human glioma cell line lacking functional p53. Conclusions: Irradiation with C-ions induced apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular senescence in human glioma cells.

  19. Generation of Xeroderma Pigmentosum-A Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line for Use As Future Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiroe; Kawasaki, Takashi; Deguchi, Tomonori; Yuba, Shunsuke

    2015-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) is a genetic disorder in which there is an abnormality in nucleotide excision repair that causes hypersensitivity to sunlight and multiple skin cancers. The development of central and peripheral neurological disorders not correlated to ultraviolet light exposure is associated with XP-A. The genes responsible for XP-A have been identified and a XPA knockout mouse has been generated. These knockout mice exhibit cutaneous symptoms, but they do not show neurological disorders. The mechanism of pathogenesis of neurological disorders is still unclear and therapeutic methods have not been established. Therefore, we generated XP-A patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (XPA-iPSCs) to produce in vitro models of neurological disorders. We obtained iPSC lines from fibroblasts of two patients carrying different mutations. Drugs screened using XPA-iPSC lines can be helpful for treating XP-A patients in Japan. Additionally, we revealed that these iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into neural lineage cells, including dopaminergic neurons, which decrease in XP-A patients. Our results indicate that expression of the normal XPA gene without mutations is not required for generation of iPSCs and differentiation of iPSCs into neural lineage cells. XPA-iPSCs may become useful models that clarify our understanding of neurological pathogenesis and help to establish therapeutic methods.

  20. Genotype × environment interactions of yield traits in backcross introgression lines derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna /Oryza nivara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Balakrishnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI, Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S and G6 (166S showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions.

  1. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  2. Genetic relationships between interspecific lines derived from Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa crosses using microsatellites and agro-morphological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukoumbi, Y.D.; Kolade, O.; Drame, K.N.; Sie, M.; Ndjiondjo, M.N.

    2015-07-01

    New Rice(s) for Africa (NERICA) are high yielding rice varieties mostly cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa and developed by the Africa Rice Center. This study is aimed at investigating the proportion of introgression of parental genomic contribution of 60 lowland NERICA varieties and establishment of molecular profiling. Agro-morphological data from 17 characteristics was recorded and significant (p<0.05) to high significant (p<0.0001) differences were obtained with leaf length and width, plant height at maturity, days to heading, maturity, primary and secondary branching of panicles, and grain width and grain thickness. A total of 114 microsatellite polymorphic markers covering 2183.13 cM of the rice genome showed the proportions of alleles introgressed from the donor parent (Oryza glaberrima) into 52 lowland NERICA lines (TOG5681 and IR64) as follows: 11% for BC2, 6.07% for BC3, and 7.55% for BC4. The introgression proportions for the eight remaining lowland NERICA lines derived from other crosses ranged from 5.5 to 11.3%. The proportion recorded with the recurrent parent was 83.99%. The highest introgression proportions of the O. glaberrima allele for all 60 lowland NERICA lines were found on chromosomes 2, 6 and 12 (TOG5681/IR64) and on chromosome 3 with NERIC-L-29 (TOG5681/IR1529-680-3-2). Multivariate analyses performed using an association of agro-morphological and molecular data revealed two major groups according to the distribution of the lowland NERICAs including the lowland NERICAs released were found in cluster 1 of the dendrogram. Genetic and genomic studies, QTL identification and analysis using agro-morphologically significant traits revealed should be used to develop mega-varieties adapted in rice growth conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Author)

  3. Genetic dissection of mammalian ERAD through comparative haploid and CRISPR forward genetic screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timms, Richard T.; Menzies, Sam A.; Tchasovnikarova, Iva A.

    2016-01-01

    The application of forward genetic screens to cultured human cells represents a powerful method to study gene function. The repurposing of the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system provides an effective method to disrupt gene function in mammalian cells, and has been applied to genome-wide screens. Here, we...... compare the efficacy of genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated forward genetic screens versus gene-trap mutagenesis screens in haploid human cells, which represent the existing ‘gold standard’ method. This head-to-head comparison aimed to identify genes required for the endoplasmic reticulum....../3-associated disulphide reductase. Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated screens together with haploid genetic screens provide a powerful addition to the forward genetic toolbox....

  4. On the effect of certain mutations on the radiosensitivity of haploid and diploid yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurova, E.N.; Korogodin, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Mutation ade 1-6 in haploid cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases half as much against radioresistance of cells. Diploid cells lacking in adenine, homozygous by ade 1-6 mutation, are nearly twice as radiosensitive as prototrophic cells. Hence ade 1-6 mutation increases radioresistance of haploid cells and decreases that of diplois. These changes in radioresistance are not connected with variations in the extrapolation number of survival curve, the ability of cells to recover from radiation damages upon cultivation in an innutrient medium, and with the inactivation form ratio. Lack of adenine influences the radioresistance of diploid yeast irrespective of whether it is or it is not affected by homo- or heterozygosity by the locus of mating type

  5. Frontal dermoid cyst coexisting with suprasellar craniopharyngioma: a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Zaidi, Hasan A; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Laws, Edward R; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2016-12-01

    There is a wide group of lesions that may exist in the sellar and suprasellar regions. Embryologically, there is varying evidence that many of these entities may in fact represent a continuum of pathology deriving from a common ectodermal origin. The authors report a case of a concomitant suprasellar craniopharyngioma invading the third ventricle with a concurrent frontal lobe cystic dermoid tumor. A 21-year-old man presented to the authors' service with a 3-day history of worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurry vision. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted a right frontal lobe lesion associated with a separate suprasellar cystic lesion invading the third ventricle. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy for resection of both lesions. Gross-total resection of the right frontal lesion was achieved, and subtotal resection of the suprasellar lesion was accomplished with some residual tumor adherent to the walls of the third ventricle. Histopathological examination of the resected right frontal lesion documented a diagnosis of dermoid cyst and, for the suprasellar lesion, a diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The occurrence of craniopharyngioma with dermoid cyst has not been reported in the literature before. Such an association might indeed suggest the previously reported hypothesis that these lesions represent a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions.

  6. High content screening of defined chemical libraries using normal and glioma-derived neural stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovi, Davide; Folarin, Amos A; Baranowski, Bart; Pollard, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with potent biological effects on the fate of normal and cancer-derived stem cells represent both useful research tools and new drug leads for regenerative medicine and oncology. Long-term expansion of mouse and human neural stem cells is possible using adherent monolayer culture. These cultures represent a useful cellular resource to carry out image-based high content screening of small chemical libraries. Improvements in automated microscopy, desktop computational power, and freely available image processing tools, now means that such chemical screens are realistic to undertake in individual academic laboratories. Here we outline a cost effective and versatile time lapse imaging strategy suitable for chemical screening. Protocols are described for the handling and screening of human fetal Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and their malignant counterparts, Glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells (GNS). We focus on identification of cytostatic and cytotoxic "hits" and discuss future possibilities and challenges for extending this approach to assay lineage commitment and differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photophysical Properties of Pheophorbide-a Derivatives and Their Photodynamic Therapeutic Effects on a Tumor Cell Line In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheophorbide-a derivatives have been reported to be potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT. In this study, photophysics of pheophorbide-a derivatives (PaDs were investigated along with their photodynamic tumoricidal effect in vitro. PaDs were modified by changing the coil length and/or making the hydroxyl group (–OH substitutions. Their photophysical properties were studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The photodynamic tumoricidal effect was evaluated in the mouse breast cancer cell line (EMT6. Lifetime and quantum yield of fluorescence and quantum yields of triplet state and singlet oxygen were studied to determine the dynamic energy flow. The coil length of the substituted alkyl group did not significantly affect the spectroscopic properties. However, the substitution with the hydroxyl group increased the quantum yields of the triplet state and the singlet oxygen due to the enhanced intersystem crossing. In order to check the application possibility as a photodynamic therapy agent, the PaDs with hydroxyl group were studied for the cellular affinity and the photodynamic tumoricidal effect of EMT6. The results showed that the cellular affinity and the photodynamic tumoricidal effect of PaDs with the hydroxyl group depended on the coil-length of the substituted alkyl group.

  8. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation-exposure. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, K.; Zoelzer, F.; Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Mutation induction was investigated in wild-type haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after split-dose UV-irradiation. Cells were exposed to fractionated 254 nm-UV-doses separated by intervals from 0 to 6 h with incubation either on non-nutrient or nutrient agar between. The test parameter was resistance to canavanine. If modifications of sensitivity due to incubation are appropriately taken into account there is no change of mutation frequency. (orig.)

  9. Cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on human-derived oral epithelium cell line: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Abassi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a more surface contact and solubility than conventional hydroxyapatite. Hydroxynanoparticles enhances the biological and mechanical properties of new regenerated tissues. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have received attention as a new and effective osseous graft for using as scaffolds in bone regeneration. The reports on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles biocompatibility are controversial. It has been shown that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles induces inflammatory reaction and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on the human epithelial cells. Methods: The study was experimental and completed in vitro. The study was carried out in department of Immonulogy, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in November 2014. The human-derived oral epithelium cell line (KB obtained from Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran were exposed to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml concentrations in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Rod-shaped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with 99% purity and maximum 100 nm sized particles were used. Methylthiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT method was employed for cell vitality evaluation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for assessing the viability of cells. Distilled water and fetal bovine serum (FBS were positive and negative controls. ANOVA and Duncan tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cytotoxicity of different concentrations of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on human-derived oral epithelium cell line in 24 (P< 0.001, 48 (P< 0.001 and 72 hours (P< 0.001 was significantly different. The nano-hydroxyapatite particles at 0.5 to 1 mg/ml had the highest cytotoxicity effect on human-derived oral epithelium cells in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Lower concentrations than 0.05 mg/ml had the best biocompatibility properties in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion

  10. Stimulating effect of gamma radiation on haploid wheat production through microscope over co-culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, M.; Rahimi, M.; Faramarz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Haploid production focuses on low plant regeneration in some wheat genotypes. Haploid application gamma ray as an electromagnetic ray has ionizing properties which can produce ions when passing through biological matter. It can produce genetic variation therefore, is applied in crop and ornamental improvement to enhance agronomic traits. The most important changes caused by gamma radiation is in DNA structure existing in the nucleus of cell. The desirable agronomic changes then will be passed on through generations. Another property of gamma ray can be it's stimulating effect which is the aim in this investigation. Microspore-overy co-culture of wheat along with application of low doses of gamma radiation 2,3 and 4 Gy as absorbing doses were implemented with the aim to evaluate wheat haploid production. Modified Morashig and Skoog medium was used as induction medium and 190-2 medium for regeneration. Two winter and two spring wheat cultivars were used as genetic material. Low doses of gamma radiation simulated microspore cell division and produced more calli relative to non-irradiated microspores only in winter type wheats. In microspore overy co-culture, filtered microspores were centrifuged and then plated in Petri dishes containing MMS+500 mg/I glutamine with 25 overies

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation of pollen on parthenogenetic haploid production in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, F.; Grotte, M.; Dumas de Vaulx, R.; Rieu, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of increasing gamma ray exposures on muskmelon pollen of the Védrantais genotype were evaluated after autofertilization and hybridization with the F1.G1 genotype. Regardless of doses of between 0.15 and 1.6 kGy, fruit set and number of seeds per fruit were comparable to those of the control. The pollen tube from pollen irradiated with up to 2.5 kGy grew in styles and reached the ovules. When pollen was cultivated in vitro, relatively high doses of irradiation (1.6 kGy) were needed to reduce the level of germination. Radiation-induced changes in the generative nucleus led to the formation of two chromosomally unbalanced sperm cells (as indicated by the appearance of morphological dimorphism) which induced parthenogenetic development of the egg to form a haploid embryo. Haploid embryo production by gamma-irradiated pollen was genotype dependent. For exposures of between 0.15 and 2.5 kGy, the production of embryos was the same, about 3.4%; a maximum of 70% of these embryos placed in a specific culture medium produced haploid plants. The ploidy of the plantlets in vitro was determined by flow cytometry. No aneuploidy was detected. All resulting plants exhibited normal phenotypes. (author) [fr

  12. Characters that differ between diploid and haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Trenzcek, Tina; Fahrenhorst, Hartmut; Engels, Wolf

    2005-12-30

    Diploid males have long been considered a curiosity contradictory to the haplo-diploid mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera. In Apis mellifera, 'false' diploid male larvae are eliminated by worker cannibalism immediately after hatching. A 'cannibalism substance' produced by diploid drone larvae to induce worker-assisted suicide has been hypothesized, but it has never been detected. Diploid drones are only removed some hours after hatching. Older larvae are evidently not regarded as 'false males' and instead are regularly nursed by the brood-attending worker bees. As the pheromonal cues presumably are located on the surface of newly hatched bee larvae, we extracted the cuticular secretions and analyzed their chemical composition by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Larvae were sexed and then reared in vitro for up to three days. The GC-MS pattern that was obtained, with alkanes as the major compounds, was compared between diploid and haploid drone larvae. We also examined some physical parameters of adult drones. There was no difference between diploid and haploid males in their weight at the day of emergence. The diploid adult drones had fewer wing hooks and smaller testes. The sperm DNA content was 0.30 and 0.15 pg per nucleus, giving an exact 2:1 ratio for the gametocytes of diploid and haploid drones, respectively. Vitellogenin was found in the hemolymph of both types of imaginal drones at 5 to 6 days, with a significantly lower titer in the diploids.

  13. Selection on Optimal Haploid Value Increases Genetic Gain and Preserves More Genetic Diversity Relative to Genomic Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Daetwyler, Hans D.; Hayden, Matthew J.; Spangenberg, German C.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Doubled haploids are routinely created and phenotypically selected in plant breeding programs to accelerate the breeding cycle. Genomic selection, which makes use of both phenotypes and genotypes, has been shown to further improve genetic gain through prediction of performance before or without phenotypic characterization of novel germplasm. Additional opportunities exist to combine genomic prediction methods with the creation of doubled haploids. Here we propose an extension to genomic selec...

  14. Study on the in vitro culture of cut plants in wheat haploid embryo induction by a wheat × maize cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian GU; Kun LIU; Shaoxiang LI; Yuxian TIAN; Hexian YANG; Mujun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The wheat × maize system is one of the most effective ways to produce haploids in wheat. Whether and how it could be successfully applied in practical breeding mostly depends upon the efficiency of haploid embryo pro-duction. To perfect the protocols of haploid embryo induc-tion, the efficiency of haploid embryo production between in vitro culture of cut plant and intact plant growth for hybrid spikes with two F1 wheat hybrids and two maize varieties was compared. Effects of different cutting plant times and formulas of nutrient solutions for cut plant cul-ture on haploid embryo formation were also studied. Results indicated that the embryo rate of in vitro culture was 3.29 times that of intact plant growth, with the figures of 31.6% vs 9.6%, respectively. The optimal time for cut plant culture was 24 h after pollination. Formulas of nutri-ent solutions significantly affected the efficiency of haploid embryo induction. With an embryo rate of 0-35.5%, add-could raise the caryopsis and embryo rates. According to this study, the best medium for cut plant culture was: phate, with which a caryopsis rate of 95% and an embryo rate of about 30% could be obtained.

  15. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon J. Mordecai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV; a double stranded DNA (dsDNA virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  16. Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon J; Verret, Frederic; Highfield, Andrea; Schroeder, Declan C

    2017-03-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae . E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the "Cheshire Cat" escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger's cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  17. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon J.; Verret, Frederic; Highfield, Andrea; Schroeder, Declan C.

    2017-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive. PMID:28335465

  18. Beating the odds: The poisson distribution of all input cells during limiting dilution grossly underestimates whether a cell line is clonally-derived or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhou; Shaw, David; Lam, Cynthia; Tsukuda, Joni; Yim, Mandy; Tang, Danming; Louie, Salina; Laird, Michael W; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2017-09-23

    Establishing that a cell line was derived from a single cell progenitor and defined as clonally-derived for the production of clinical and commercial therapeutic protein drugs has been the subject of increased emphasis in cell line development (CLD). Several regulatory agencies have expressed that the prospective probability of clonality for CHO cell lines is assumed to follow the Poisson distribution based on the input cell count. The probability of obtaining monoclonal progenitors based on the Poisson distribution of all cells suggests that one round of limiting dilution may not be sufficient to assure the resulting cell lines are clonally-derived. We experimentally analyzed clonal derivatives originating from single cell cloning (SCC) via one round of limiting dilution, following our standard legacy cell line development practice. Two cell populations with stably integrated DNA spacers were mixed and subjected to SCC via limiting dilution. Cells were cultured in the presence of selection agent, screened, and ranked based on product titer. Post-SCC, the growing cell lines were screened by PCR analysis for the presence of identifying spacers. We observed that the percentage of nonclonal populations was below 9%, which is considerably lower than the determined probability based on the Poisson distribution of all cells. These results were further confirmed using fluorescence imaging of clonal derivatives originating from SCC via limiting dilution of mixed cell populations expressing GFP or RFP. Our results demonstrate that in the presence of selection agent, the Poisson distribution of all cells clearly underestimates the probability of obtaining clonally-derived cell lines. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

  20. A continuous culture system of direct somatic embryogenesis in microspore-derived embryos of Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudesai, V; Bhaskaran, S

    1993-03-01

    An efficient culture system has been developed for repeated cycles of somatic embryogenesis in microspore-derived embryos of Brassica juncea without a callus phase. Haploid embryos produced through anther culture showed a high propensity for direct production of somatic embryos in response to 2 mgL(-1) BA and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA. The embryogenic cultures which comprised the elongated embryonal axis of microspore-derived embryos when explanted and grown on the medium of same composition produced a large number of secondary embryos. These somatic embryos in turn underwent axis elongation and produced more somatic embryos when explanted and cultured. This cycle of repetitive somatic embryogenesis continued with undiminished vigour passage after passage and was monitored for more than a year. Somatic embryos from any passage when isolated at cotyledonary stage and grown on auxin-free medium for 5 days and then on a medium containing NAA (0.1 mgL(-1)), developed into complete plants with a profuse root system and were easily established in the soil. The cytology of the root tips of these plants confirmed their haploid nature. The total absence of callus phase makes the system ideal for continuous cloning of androgenic lines, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and mutation induction studies.

  1. The effects of ultraviolet light on aspects of DNA metabolism in cell lines derived from plodia interpunctella and Trichoplusia ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Insect cells are significantly more resistant to the lethal effects of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV) than mammalian cells. The predominant photoproduct produced by UV is the (5-6) cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. There is controversy whether this lesion, or another, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone, is responsible for the biological effects of UV. Insect cells contain a photolyase which selectively removes the (5-6), but not the (6-4) lesion, so that the relative roles of these lesions can be studied. Insect cell lines derived from the cabbage looper and the Indian meal moth were exposed to UV and analyzed for their ability to incorporate 3 H-thymidine. After exposure, cells from the Indian meal moth exhibited a rapid and prolonged depression in the rate of thymidine incorporation, whereas cells from the cabbage looper showed only a slight drop in incorporation and a rapid recovery. The extent of depression in thymidine incorporation was not correlated to the amount of cell killing by UV in these cell lines. Blockage of fork progression was correlated to the depression in thymidine incorporation. Photoreactivation did not entirely relieve blockage, depression in thymidine incorporation or cell killing, indicating that although the (5-6) dimer appears to be the major lesion responsible for these effects, other lesions, such as the (6-4) photoproduct, may play a role. In addition, activation of alternative sites of replicon initiation appeared to correlate with the depression in thymidine incorporation and the excision capabilities in these cells. The resistance to UV in these insect cells compared to mammalian cells may be due to their ability to rapidly remove the (5-6) lesion, which is the critical lesion in these insect cells

  2. High cleavage efficiency of a 2A peptide derived from porcine teschovirus-1 in human cell lines, zebrafish and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Kim

    Full Text Available When expression of more than one gene is required in cells, bicistronic or multicistronic expression vectors have been used. Among various strategies employed to construct bicistronic or multicistronic vectors, an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES has been widely used. Due to the large size and difference in expression levels between genes before and after IRES, however, a new strategy was required to replace IRES. A self-cleaving 2A peptide could be a good candidate to replace IRES because of its small size and high cleavage efficiency between genes upstream and downstream of the 2A peptide. Despite the advantages of the 2A peptides, its use is not widespread because (i there are no publicly available cloning vectors harboring a 2A peptide gene and (ii comprehensive comparison of cleavage efficiency among various 2A peptides reported to date has not been performed in different contexts. Here, we generated four expression plasmids each harboring different 2A peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine rhinitis A virus, Thosea asigna virus and porcine teschovirus-1, respectively, and evaluated their cleavage efficiency in three commonly used human cell lines, zebrafish embryos and adult mice. Western blotting and confocal microscopic analyses revealed that among the four 2As, the one derived from porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A has the highest cleavage efficiency in all the contexts examined. We anticipate that the 2A-harboring cloning vectors we generated and the highest efficiency of the P2A peptide we demonstrated would help biomedical researchers easily adopt the 2A technology when bicistronic or multicistronic expression is required.

  3. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  4. Garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) is active against anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line 8305C (HPACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuexin; Yan, Jinyin; Han, Xiaochen; Hu, Wanning

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental carcinogenesis studies provide evidence that components of garlic have anticancer activity. In this study, the apoptotic effects of Garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) were investigated in 8305C human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. The cell line 8305C (HPACC) were treated with SAMC and the MTT assay, flow cytometry (FCM), electron microscope method were used to test cell cycle, inhibitory rate and morphologic changes respectively. HPACC-8305C cells were suppressed after exposure to SAMC of 0.02 mg/ml, 0.06 mg/ml, and 0.1 mg/ml for 48 h. Compared with the control, the difference was significant (P< 0.05). SAMC could induce apoptosis of the cells in a dose-dependent and non-linear manner and increase the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase. Compared with the control, the difference was significant in terms of the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase (P< 0.05). After exposure to SAMC at 0.02 mg/ml for 24 hours, HPACC-8305C cells showed typical morphologic change. SAMC inhibits the growth of HPACC-8305C cells by induction of apoptotic cell death and inhibit telomerase activity, which appears to account for its anti-cancer activity.

  5. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-03-27

    Whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a 24h intermittent exposure (5 min on and 10 min off) of a mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1 W/kg, 2 W/kg or 4 W/kg. Subsequently, through the use of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in a modified comet assay, we determined that the extent of DNA migration was significantly increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that levels of the DNA adduct 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were also increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. These increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); these phenomena were mitigated by co-treatment with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. However, no detectable DNA strand breakage was observed by the alkaline comet assay. Taking together, these findings may imply the novel possibility that RF-EMR with insufficient energy for the direct induction of DNA strand breaks may produce genotoxicity through oxidative DNA base damage in male germ cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of line damping, magneto-optics and parasitic light on the derivation of sunspot vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skumanich, A.; Lites, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    The least square fitting of Stokes observations of sunspots using a Milne-Eddington-Unno model appears to lead, in many circumstances, to various inconsistencies such as anomalously large doppler widths and, hence, small magnetic fields which are significantly below those inferred solely from the Zeeman splitting in the intensity profile. It is found that the introduction of additional physics into the model such as the inclusion of damping wings and magneto-optic birefrigence significantly improves the fit to Stokes parameters. Model fits excluding the intensity profile, i.e., of both magnitude as well as spectral shape of the polarization parameters alone, suggest that parasitic light in the intensity profile may also be a source of inconsistencies. The consequences of the physical changes on the vector properties of the field derived from the Fe I lambda 6173 line for the 17 November 1975 spot as well as on the thermodynamic state are discussed. A Doppler width delta lambda (D) - 25mA is bound to be consistent with a low spot temperature and microturbulence, and a damping constant of a = 0.2.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Fibroblasts and an L-929 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus about the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs has not been reached, even though extensive attention has been paid to this issue. This confusion may be due to physicochemical factors of Ag-NPs and the cell model used for biological safety evaluation. In the present study, human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts (EBFs, which have been considered a closer representative of the in vivo response, were used as a novel cell model to assess the cytotoxicity of Ag-NPs (~20 nm and ~100 nm in comparison with L-929 fibroblast cell line. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, p53 expression, and cellular uptake were examined. Results showed that Ag-NPs presented higher cytotoxicity to EBF than to L-929. EBF demonstrated a stronger capacity to ingest Ag-NPs, a higher G2/M arrest, and more upgraduated p53 expression after exposed to Ag-NPs for 48 h when compared with L-929. It could be concluded that EBF exhibited a more sensitive response to Ag-NPs compared with L-929 cells, indicating that EBF may be a valid candidate for cytotoxicity screening assays of nanoparticles.

  8. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  9. NANOS2 acts downstream of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling to suppress differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Aiko; Hasegawa, Kazuteru; Pin, Pui Han; Saga, Yumiko

    2012-02-01

    Stem cells are maintained by both stem cell-extrinsic niche signals and stem cell-intrinsic factors. During murine spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signal emanated from Sertoli cells and germ cell-intrinsic factor NANOS2 represent key regulators for the maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. However, it remains unclear how these factors intersect in stem cells to control their cellular state. Here, we show that GDNF signaling is essential to maintain NANOS2 expression, and overexpression of Nanos2 can alleviate the stem cell loss phenotype caused by the depletion of Gfra1, a receptor for GDNF. By using an inducible Cre-loxP system, we show that NANOS2 expression is downregulated upon the conditional knockout (cKO) of Gfra1, while ectopic expression of Nanos2 in GFRA1-negative spermatogonia does not induce de novo GFRA1 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Nanos2 in the Gfra1-cKO testes prevents precocious differentiation of the Gfra1-knockout stem cells and partially rescues the stem cell loss phenotypes of Gfra1-deficient mice, indicating that the stem cell differentiation can be suppressed by NANOS2 even in the absence of GDNF signaling. Taken together, we suggest that NANOS2 acts downstream of GDNF signaling to maintain undifferentiated state of spermatogonial stem cells. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Proliferative and antiproliferative effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell lines derived from cervical and ovarian malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutch, D.G.; Massad, L.S.; Kao, M.S.; Collins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Four human cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas (ME-180, SiHa, HT-3, and MS751) and three human cell lines derived from ovarian carcinomas (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, and NIH:OVCAR-3) were analyzed in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant interferon-gamma and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth and survival. The effects of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth were measured after 24 and 72 hours of incubation by the incorporation of chromium 51. The results of this analysis showed that all seven cell lines were resistant to the antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that the growth of most cell lines was inhibited by interferon-gamma by 72 hours of incubation, and that after 72 hours of incubation all cell lines demonstrated a synergistic antiproliferative response to the combination of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the effects of these cytokines on cell growth were found to differ among cell lines and varied with the concentration and the duration of incubation. The growth of one cell line (Caov-3) was stimulated by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that the clinical effects of these cytokines on the growth of gynecologic cancers may be more complex than previously supposed

  11. Dicer is required for haploid male germ cell differentiation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M Korhonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RNase III endonuclease Dicer is an important regulator of gene expression that processes microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. The best-characterized function of miRNAs is gene repression at the post-transcriptional level through the pairing with mRNAs of protein-encoding genes. Small RNAs can also act at the transcriptional level by controlling the epigenetic status of chromatin. Dicer and other mediators of small RNA pathways are present in mouse male germ cells, and several miRNAs and endogenous siRNAs are expressed in the testis, suggesting that Dicer-dependent small RNAs are involved in the control of the precisely timed and highly organised process of spermatogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Being interested in the Dicer-mediated functions during spermatogenesis, we have analysed here a male germ cell-specific Dicer1 knockout mouse model, in which the deletion of Dicer1 takes place during early postnatal development in spermatogonia. We found that Dicer1 knockout testes were reduced in size and spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules was disrupted. Dicer1 knockout epididymides contained very low number of mature sperm with pronounced morphological abnormalities. Spermatogonial differentiation appeared unaffected. However, the number of haploid cells was decreased in knockout testes, and an increased number of apoptotic spermatocytes was observed. The most prominent defects were found during late haploid differentiation, and Dicer was demonstrated to be critical for the normal organization of chromatin and nuclear shaping of elongating spermatids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that Dicer and Dicer-dependent small RNAs are imperative regulators of haploid spermatid differentiation and essential for male fertility.

  12. Response of haploid and diploid protoplasts from Datura innoxia Mill. and Petunia hybrida L. to treatment with X-rays and a chemical mutagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Haploid and diploid protoplasts of the two Solanaceous species Datura innoxia Mill. and Petunia Hybridia L., were exposed to two different mutagens, increased doses of X-rays and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). With both species the survival rates of haploid protoplasts decreased exponentially with increased doses of X-rays and increased concentrations of MNNG. Diploid protoplasts showed a higher resistance than haploids only at higher mutagen doses or concentrations. After the MNNG-treatment of haploid protoplasts from Datura innoxia, four mutants with altered pigment patterns were isolated. (author)

  13. Polyamine patterns in haploid and diploid tobacco tissues and in vitro cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bicudo Carone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine PAs levels in pith tissues and callus cultures from haploid and diploid tobacco plants, explanted from the apical and basal regions of the stem. These explants were cultured in an RM-64 medium supplied with IAA and kinetin, under light or in the dark, during successive subcultures. PAs levels followed a basipetal decrease in diploid and an increase in haploid, pith tissues. A similar pattern of total PAs (free + conjugated was observed for the callus of diploid and haploid plants maintained in the light, and for the haploid callus in the dark, whereas the diploid callus in the dark showed a constant increase in total PAs levels until the end of culture. The PA increase in the diploid callus in the dark was related to free Put levels increase. The ploidy status of the plants could express different PA gradients together with the plant pith and in vitro callus cultures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os níveis de PAs em tecidos de medula e cultura de calos de plantas haplóides e diplóides de tabaco, obtidas da região apical e basal do caule. Estes explantes foram cultivados em meio RM-64 suplementado com AIA e cinetina, na luz e no escuro, durante vários subcultivos. Nos tecidos medulares, os níveis de PAs apresentam um decréscimo basípeto em diplóides e um aumento em haplóides.Um padrão similar nos níveis de PAs totais (livres+ conjugadas foi observado em calos haplóides e diplóides mantidos na luz, e haplóides no escuro, enquanto os diplóides cultivados no escuro mostraram um aumento constante até o final do cultivo. O aumento no conteúdo de PAs nos calos diplóides no escuro, foi devido ao aumento do conteúdo de Put livre. Foi observado que a ploidia da planta pode expressar diferentes gradientes de PA ao longo do tecido medular e nas culturas de calos in vitro.

  14. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fang JIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches.

  15. Transplantation of germ cells from glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing mice to host testes depleted of endogenous spermatogenesis by fractionated irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, L. B.; Meng, X.; den Ouden, K.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Izadyar, F.; Santoro, M.; Sariola, H.; de rooij, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    With a novel method of eliminating spermatogenesis in host animals, male germ cells isolated from mice with targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted to evaluate their ability to reproduce the phenotype previously found in the transgenic animals.

  16. The effect of the two epipodophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide (VM-26) on cell lines established from patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, H; Vindeløv, Lars; Christensen, I J

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether there is any difference between the two epipodophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide and teniposide in their therapeutic effect in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL), they were compared against five human SCCL cell lines in vitro. When the two were compared at equimolar...

  17. Acidosis-Induced Changes in Proteome Patterns of the Prostate Cancer-Derived Tumor Cell Line AT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihling, Angelika; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea; Gekle, Michael

    2015-09-04

    Under various pathological conditions, such as inflammation, ischemia and in solid tumors, physiological parameters (local oxygen tension or extracellular pH) show distinct tissue abnormalities (hypoxia and acidosis). For tumors, the prevailing microenvironment exerts a strong influence on the phenotype with respect to proliferation, invasion, and metastasis formation and therefore influences prognosis. In this study, we investigate the impact of extracellular metabolic acidosis (pH 7.4 versus 6.6) on the proteome patterns of a prostate cancer-derived tumor cell type (AT-1) using isobaric labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, 2710 proteins were identified and quantified across four biological replicates, of which seven were significantly affected with changes >50% and used for validation. Glucose transporter 1 and farnesyl pyrophosphatase were found to be down-regulated after 48 h of acidic treatment, and metallothionein 2A was reduced after 24 h and returned to control values after 48 h. After 24 and 48 h at pH 6.6, glutathione S transferase A3 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase 1, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2, and Na-bicarbonate transporter 3 levels were found to be increased. The changes in protein levels were confirmed by transcriptome and functional analyses. In addition to the experimental in-depth investigation of proteins with changes >50%, functional profiling (statistical enrichment analysis) including proteins with changes >20% revealed that acidosis upregulates GSH metabolic processes, citric acid cycle, and respiratory electron transport. Metabolism of lipids and cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated. Our data comprise the first comprehensive report on acidosis-induced changes in proteome patterns of a tumor cell line.

  18. Local delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor improves facial nerve regeneration after late repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, Florian M; Kuntzer, Thierry; Zurn, Anne D; Pasche, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Facial nerve regeneration is limited in some clinical situations: in long grafts, by aged patients, and when the delay between nerve lesion and repair is prolonged. This deficient regeneration is due to the limited number of regenerating nerve fibers, their immaturity and the unresponsiveness of Schwann cells after a long period of denervation. This study proposes to apply glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on facial nerve grafts via nerve guidance channels to improve the regeneration. Two situations were evaluated: immediate and delayed grafts (repair 7 months after the lesion). Each group contained three subgroups: a) graft without channel, b) graft with a channel without neurotrophic factor; and c) graft with a GDNF-releasing channel. A functional analysis was performed with clinical observation of facial nerve function, and nerve conduction study at 6 weeks. Histological analysis was performed with the count of number of myelinated fibers within the graft, and distally to the graft. Central evaluation was assessed with Fluoro-Ruby retrograde labeling and Nissl staining. This study showed that GDNF allowed an increase in the number and the maturation of nerve fibers, as well as the number of retrogradely labeled neurons in delayed anastomoses. On the contrary, after immediate repair, the regenerated nerves in the presence of GDNF showed inferior results compared to the other groups. GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor to improve facial nerve regeneration in grafts performed several months after the nerve lesion. However, GDNF should not be used for immediate repair, as it possibly inhibits the nerve regeneration.

  19. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mice crossed with a human SNCA transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Chumarina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC lines were derived by crossing heterozygous transgenic (tg mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH promoter, with homozygous alpha-synuclein (aSYN mice expressing human mutant SNCAA53T under the control of the mouse Prion promoter (MoPrP, or wildtype (WT mice. The expression of GFP and human aSYN was validated by immunocytochemistry in midbrain neuron cultures upon differentiation of mESC lines using stromal cell-derived inducing activity. These mESC lines can help to study the impact of human aSYN expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and also trace GFP-expressing midbrain neurons.

  20. Characterization of Camptothecin-induced Genomic Changes in the Camptothecin-resistant T-ALL-derived Cell Line CPT-K5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Eigil; Nielsen, Christine J F; Roy, Amit

    2018-01-01

    -K5 and its parental cell line. We identified copy number alterations affecting genes important for maintaining genome integrity and reducing CPT-induced DNA damage. We show for the first time that short tandem repeats are targets for TOP1 cleavage, that can be differentially stimulated by CPT.......Acquisition of resistance to topoisomerase I (TOP1)-targeting camptothecin (CPT) derivatives is a major clinical problem. Little is known about the underlying chromosomal and genomic mechanisms. We characterized the CPT-K5 cell line expressing mutant CPT-resistant TOP1 and its parental T......-cell derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia CPT-sensitive RPMI-8402 cell line by karyotyping and molecular genetic methods, including subtractive oligo-based array comparative genomic hybridization (soaCGH) analysis. Karyotyping revealed that CPT-K5 cells had acquired additional structural aberrations...

  1. Apomixis and the problem of obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids in pear (Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. О. Долматов

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights results of research over simulative apomixes in pear and its utilization for obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids. It has been established that over 50% pear varieties with failed remote hybridization are capable of generating seeds of apomictic origin producing diploid plants. Genotypes displaying maximal inclination to apomixes have been singled out. Apomictic pear seedlings obtained from foreign pollination within the limits of the same combination are inherent in profound morphological diversity. Fruit-bearing apomicts originated from one and the same maternal plant differ to the same extent as hybrid seedlings of the same family. Genetic markers have enabled to establish that these are embryo sacs in which meiosis has completed that give rise to apomictic seeds. In vitro method as used for the purpose of increasing apomictic plants output has been illustrated. The greatest induction of apomictic shoots in vitro has been reached by alternation of BAP cytokinin at concentration of 1mg/l and 2 mg/l on the background of GA3 amounting to 1,5 mg/l. Grafting with shoots in vitro on non-sterile rootstocks of pear (Pyrus communis has increased the output of plants up to 80%. A cytological assessment of 9 apomictic samples is provided. The cytological analysis of samples of apomictic forms has certified the presence of simulative haploid parthenogenesis in pear.

  2. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Easley, IV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs but not into spermatogonia, haploid spermatocytes, or spermatids. Here, we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages, including postmeiotic, spermatid-like cells, in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating PSCs into UTF1-, PLZF-, and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells; HIWI- and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells; and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1, and protamine 1 (proteins that are uniquely found in spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to those of human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male PSCs have the ability to differentiate directly into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro.

  3. A Trichosporonales genome tree based on 27 haploid and three evolutionarily conserved 'natural' hybrid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Masako; Sriswasdi, Sira; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly Trichosporon mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of ~55%, and its closest haploid relative was Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis. After constructing the C. mucoides subgenomes, we generated a phylogenetic tree using genome data from the 27 haploid species and the subgenome data from the three hybrid genome species. It was a high-quality tree with 100% bootstrap support for all of the branches. The genome-based tree provided superior resolution compared with previous multi-gene analyses. Although our backbone tree does not include all Trichosporonales genera (e.g. Cryptotrichosporon), it will be valuable for future analyses of genome data. Interest in interspecies hybrid fungal genomes has recently increased because they may provide a basis for new technologies. The three Trichosporonales hybrid genomes described in this study are different from well-characterized hybrid genomes (e.g. those of Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces bayanus) because these hybridization events probably occurred in the distant evolutionary past. Hence, they will be useful for studying genome stability following hybridization and speciation events. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Brewing characteristics of haploid strains isolated from sake yeast Kyokai No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2008-11-01

    Sake yeast exhibit various characteristics that make them more suitable for sake brewing compared to other yeast strains. Since sake yeast strains are Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterothallic diploid strains, it is likely that they have heterozygous alleles on homologous chromosomes (heterozygosity) due to spontaneous mutations. If this is the case, segregation of phenotypic traits in haploid strains after sporulation and concomitant meiosis of sake yeast strains would be expected to occur. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 100 haploid strains from Kyokai No. 7 (K7), a typical sake yeast strain in Japan, and compared their brewing characteristics in small-scale sake-brewing tests. Analyses of the resultant sake samples showed a smooth and continuous distribution of analytical values for brewing characteristics, suggesting that K7 has multiple heterozygosities that affect brewing characteristics and that these heterozygous alleles do segregate after sporulation. Correlation and principal component analyses suggested that the analytical parameters could be classified into two groups, indicating fermentation ability and sake flavour. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...

  6. A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Blomen, Vincent A; Bisteau, Xavier; Degener, Fabian; Matsushita, Felipe Yu; Kaldis, Philipp; Foijer, Floris; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2015-12-08

    The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability.

  7. A Sclerostin super-producer cell line derived from the human cell line SaOS-2: a new tool for the study of the molecular mechanisms driving Sclerostin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Campo, Flor M; Sañudo, Carolina; Delgado-Calle, Jesús; Arozamena, Jana; Zarrabeitia, María T; Riancho, José A

    2014-08-01

    Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, is a key regulator of bone homeostasis. Sclerostin interferes with the Wnt signalling pathway and, therefore, has a negative effect on bone formation. Although the importance of sclerostin in bone homeostasis is well established, many aspects of its biology are still unknown. Due to its restricted pattern of expression, in vitro studies of SOST gene regulation are technically challenging. Furthermore, a more profound investigation of the molecular mechanism controlling sclerostin expression has been hampered by the lack of a good human in vitro model. Here, we describe two cell lines derived from the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2 that produce elevated levels of sclerostin. Analysis of the super-producer cell lines showed that sclerostin levels were still reduced in response to parathyroid hormone treatment or in response to mechanical loading, indicating that these regulatory mechanisms were not affected in the presented cell lines. In addition, we did not find differences between the promoter or ECR5 sequences of our clones and the SaOS-2 parental line. However, the methylation of the proximal CpG island located at the SOST promoter was lower in the super-producer clones, in agreement with a higher level of SOST transcription. Although the underlying biological causes of the elevated levels of sclerostin production in this cell line are not yet clear, we believe that it could be an extremely useful tool to study the molecular mechanisms driving sclerostin expression in humans.

  8. Derivation of HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 human embryonic stem cell lines from IVF embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for monogenic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Hmadcha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From 106 human blastocyts donate for research after in vitro fertilization (IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for monogenetic disorder, 3 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 were successfully derived. HVR1 was assumed to be genetically normal, HVR2 carrying Becker muscular dystrophy and HVR3 Hemophilia B. Despite the translocation t(9;15(q34.3;q14 detected in HVR2, all the 3 cell lines were characterised in vitro and in vivo as normal hESCs lines and were registered in the Spanish Stem Cell Bank.

  9. Lymphoblast-derived integration-free ISRM-CON9 iPS cell line from a 75 year old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Martins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphoblast cells were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs employing episomal-based plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and L-MYC. The derived iPSCs were defined as pluripotent based on (i expression of pluripotency-associated markers, (ii embryoid body-based differentiation into cell types representative of the three germ layers and (iii the similarity between the transcriptomes of the iPSC line and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 with a Pearson correlation of 0.95.

  10. Derivation of HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 human embryonic stem cell lines from IVF embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkrim Hmadcha; Yolanda Aguilera; Maria Dolores Lozano-Arana; Nuria Mellado; Javier Sánchez; Cristina Moya; Luis Sánchez-Palazón; Jose Palacios; Guillermo Antiñolo; Bernat Soria

    2016-01-01

    From 106 human blastocyts donate for research after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenetic disorder, 3 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 were successfully derived. HVR1 was assumed to be genetically normal, HVR2 carrying Becker muscular dystrophy and HVR3 Hemophilia B. Despite the translocation t(9;15)(q34.3;q14) detected in HVR2, all the 3 cell lines were characterised in vitro and in vivo as normal hESCs lines and were r...

  11. Genetic mapping of centromeres in the nine Citrus clementina chromosomes using half-tetrad analysis and recombination patterns in unreduced and haploid gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Cuenca, José; Hernández, María; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-03-08

    Mapping centromere locations in plant species provides essential information for the analysis of genetic structures and population dynamics. The centromere's position affects the distribution of crossovers along a chromosome and the parental heterozygosity restitution by 2n gametes is a direct function of the genetic distance to the centromere. Sexual polyploidisation is relatively frequent in Citrus species and is widely used to develop new seedless triploid cultivars. The study's objectives were to (i) map the positions of the centromeres of the nine Citrus clementina chromosomes; (ii) analyse the crossover interference in unreduced gametes; and (iii) establish the pattern of genetic recombination in haploid clementine gametes along each chromosome and its relationship with the centromere location and distribution of genic sequences. Triploid progenies were derived from unreduced megagametophytes produced by second-division restitution. Centromere positions were mapped genetically for all linkage groups using half-tetrad analysis. Inference of the physical locations of centromeres revealed one acrocentric, four metacentric and four submetacentric chromosomes. Crossover interference was observed in unreduced gametes, with variation seen between chromosome arms. For haploid gametes, a strong decrease in the recombination rate occurred in centromeric and pericentromeric regions, which contained a low density of genic sequences. In chromosomes VIII and IX, these low recombination rates extended beyond the pericentromeric regions. The genomic region corresponding to a genetic distance recombination pattern along each chromosome. However, regions with low recombination rates extended beyond the pericentromeric regions of some chromosomes into areas richer in genic sequences. The persistence of strong linkage disequilibrium between large numbers of genes promotes the stability of epistatic interactions and multilocus-controlled traits over successive generations but

  12. Broad in vitro efficacy of plant-derived betulinic acid against cell lines derived from the most prevalent human cancer types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Jan H.; Mullauer, Franziska B.; de Roo, Guido M.; Medema, Jan Paul

    2007-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a widely available plant-derived triterpene with reported activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukaemias. Treatment with BA was shown to protect mice against transplanted human melanoma and led to tumor regression. In contrast, cells from healthy

  13. Relationships among the slopes of lines derived from various data analysis techniques and the associated correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for fitting a straight line to a collection of data points is given. The relationships between the slopes and correlation coefficients, and between the corresponding standard deviations and correlation coefficient are given.

  14. Without derivatives or limits: from visual and geometrical points of view to algebraic methods for identifying tangent lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivier, L.

    2013-07-01

    Usually, the tangent line is considered to be a calculus notion. However, it is also a graphical and an algebraic notion. The graphical frame, where our primary conceptions are conceived, could give rise to algebraic methods to obtain the tangent line to a curve. In this pre-calculus perspective, two methods are described and discussed according to their potential for secondary students and teacher training.

  15. The Gregoriev Ice Cap length changes derived by 2-D ice flow line model for harmonic climate histories

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Y. V.; Nagornov, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Different ice thickness distributions along the flow line and the flow line length changes of the Gregoriev Ice Cap, Terskey Ala-Tau, Central Asia, were obtained for some surface mass balance histories which can be considered as possible surface mass balances in the future. The ice cap modeling was performed by solving of steady state hydrodynamic equations in the case of low Reynolds number in the form of the mechanical equilibrium equation in terms of stress deviator components coupled with...

  16. A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang Taek; Seo, Jung Seon; Moon, Uk Yeol; Kang, Kyeong Hee; Shin, Dong-Jik; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Gahb; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2004-01-01

    In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

  17. Combination effects of epidermal growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on the in vitro developmental potential of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    of improving this issue, the single and combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on oocyte developmental competence were investigated. Porcine cumulus–oocyte cell complexes (COCs) were matured in serum-free medium supplemented with EGF (0, 10...... with the combination of EGF and GDNF was shown to significantly improve oocyte competence in terms of blastocyst formation, blastocyst cell number and blastocyst hatching rate (P

  18. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inheritance patterns of the response to in vitro doubled haploid induction in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begheyn, R. F.; Roulund, N.; Vangsgaard, K.; Kopecký, David; Studer, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 3 (2017), s. 667-679 ISSN 0167-6857 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Androgenesis * Androgenic capacity * Anther culture * Doubled haploid (DH) * Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  20. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli is a cool weather vegetable crop with a vernalization requirement to initiate and maintain floral development. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has the potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season. A doubled haploid (DH) population of broccoli (Bras...

  1. Cytomorphological studies in X-ray induced glandless haploids in Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehetre, S.S.; Thombre, M.V. (Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (India))

    1981-08-01

    Six haploid plants were obtained in M/sub 2/ generation of the 25 kr. X-ray irradiated Gossypium hirsutum L. cotton variety H.G. 108. The cytomorphological studies on these plants indicated highly irregular meiosis, giving on an average six bivalents, the range being 0-9. Unequal separation of chromosomes and chromatids at anaphase-1 and II respectively led to formation of abnormal tetrads and pollens with high size variations leading to high pollen sterility. These plants were characterized by miniature stature, shorter stem and internodes, smaller leaves, flowers and stomata with fewer chloroplasts, male and female sterility and halving of chromosomes. The reduction in morphological characters was nearly in the proportion of 1:2 as compared to their diploid counterparts. 31 refs.; 5 tables; 12 figures.

  2. Simple Meets Single: The Application of CRISPR/Cas9 in Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixi Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a powerful method for the genetic manipulation of the mammalian genome, allowing knockout of individual genes as well as the generation of genome-wide knockout cell libraries for genetic screening. However, the diploid status of most mammalian cells restricts the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in genetic screening. Mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs have only one set of chromosomes per cell, avoiding the issue of heterozygous recessive mutations in diploid cells. Thus, the combination of haESCs and CRISPR/Cas9 facilitates the generation of genome-wide knockout cell libraries for genetic screening. Here, we review recent progress in CRISPR/Cas9 and haPSCs and discuss their applications in genetic screening.

  3. Effect of gamma-radiations on haploid cultured cells of Datura innoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Maherchandani, N.; Sharma, D.R.; Chowdhury, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of gamma-radiations were studied in haploid cultured cells of Datura innoxia. Growth of callus cultures and shoot differentiation were stimulated at low doses (0.2 and 1.0 kR), while the higher dose (5.0 kR) was inhibitory. Root differentiation was observed only in cultures exposed to 1.0 kR dose. Enzyme activities of alpha-amylase, peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphatases, and the amounts of buffer extractable proteins were stimulated at 0.2 and 1.0 kR and inhibited at 5.0 kR. Mitotic index too decreased at 5.0 kR. Mean nuclear volume increased with increase in radiation dose, probably due to increased ploidy. (author)

  4. Potential of on-line visible and near infrared spectroscopy for measurement of pH for deriving variable rate lime recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Yücel; Kuang, Boyan; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2013-08-08

    This paper aims at exploring the potential of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy for on-line measurement of soil pH, with the intention to produce variable rate lime recommendation maps. An on-line vis-NIR soil sensor set up to a frame was used in this study. Lime application maps, based on pH predicted by vis-NIR techniques, were compared with maps based on traditional lab-measured pH. The validation of the calibration model using off-line spectra provided excellent prediction accuracy of pH (R2 = 0.85, RMSEP = 0.18 and RPD = 2.52), as compared to very good accuracy obtained with the on-line measured spectra (R2 = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.20 and RPD = 2.14). On-line predicted pH of all points (e.g., 2,160) resulted in the largest overall field virtual lime requirement (1.404 t), as compared to those obtained with 16 validation points off-line prediction (0.28 t), on-line prediction (0.14 t) and laboratory reference measurement (0.48 t). The conclusion is that the vis-NIR spectroscopy can be successfully used for the prediction of soil pH and for deriving lime recommendations. The advantage of the on-line sensor over sampling with limited number of samples is that more detailed information about pH can be obtained, which is the reason for a higher but precise calculated lime recommendation rate.

  5. Novel CMS lines in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh] derived from cytoplasmic substitutions, and their effective restoration and deployment in hybrid breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bohra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of stable cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS or A lines coupled with a robust restoration system (R lines is an essential prerequisite for efficient hybrid breeding. CMS-enabled hybrid technology holds immense potential to enhance the long-stagnant productivity of pigeonpea. In the present investigation, cytoplasmic substitutions were made in the nuclear backgrounds of early-maturing pigeonpea varieties or lines. Three new CMS lines (ICPL 88039A, Pusa 992A, and DPP 3-2A resulted from genetic crosses involving cytoplasmic donors from A2 (GT 288A and A4 (ICPA 2089 categories. In addition to visual inspection of anthers, pollen-staining techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis were used to confirm pollen sterility. Further, given the relevance of the plant mitochondrial genome to CMS manifestation, 25 mitochondrion-specific DNA markers were assayed on these newly developed A lines and isogenic maintainer (B lines. DNA polymorphism between Pusa 992A and Pusa 992B as revealed by the nad7a_del marker confirmed the successful combination of sterilizing cytoplasm (A4 and nonrestoring nuclear background (Pusa 992. Such cytoplasm-specific DNA markers are required for A2-CMS as well. Further, to assess restoration ability, potential restorers were crossed with these CMS lines, and as a consequence, promising A × R combinations exhibiting 100% pollen fertility could be identified. In parallel, we also analyzed the inheritance patterns underlying fertility restoration using ICPL 88039A-derived F2 and BC1F1 populations, and established a monogenic dominant model to explain the phenomenon of A2-CMS restoration. In summary, we report the successful development of new CMS lines and describe their effective deployment in hybrid breeding of pigeonpea.

  6. Potential of On-Line Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Measurement of pH for Deriving Variable Rate Lime Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Tekin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the potential of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR spectroscopy for on-line measurement of soil pH, with the intention to produce variable rate lime recommendation maps. An on-line vis-NIR soil sensor set up to a frame was used in this study. Lime application maps, based on pH predicted by vis-NIR techniques, were compared with maps based on traditional lab-measured pH. The validation of the calibration model using off-line spectra provided excellent prediction accuracy of pH (R2 = 0.85, RMSEP = 0.18 and RPD = 2.52, as compared to very good accuracy obtained with the on-line measured spectra (R2 = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.20 and RPD = 2.14. On-line predicted pH of all points (e.g., 2,160 resulted in the largest overall field virtual lime requirement (1.404 t, as compared to those obtained with 16 validation points off-line prediction (0.28 t, on-line prediction (0.14 t and laboratory reference measurement (0.48 t. The conclusion is that the vis-NIR spectroscopy can be successfully used for the prediction of soil pH and for deriving lime recommendations. The advantage of the on-line sensor over sampling with limited number of samples is that more detailed information about pH can be obtained, which is the reason for a higher but precise calculated lime recommendation rate.

  7. SET-NUP214 fusion in acute myeloid leukemia- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborski Margarete

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SET-NUP214 fusion resulting from a recurrent cryptic deletion, del(9(q34.11q34.13 has recently been described in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and in one case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. The fusion protein appears to promote elevated expression of HOXA cluster genes in T-ALL and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. We screened a panel of ALL and AML cell lines for SET-NUP214 expression to find model systems that might help to elucidate the cellular function of this fusion gene. Results Of 141 human leukemia/lymphoma cell lines tested, only the T-ALL cell line LOUCY and the AML cell line MEGAL expressed the SET(TAF-Iβ-NUP214 fusion gene transcript. RT-PCR analysis specifically recognizing the alternative first exons of the two TAF-I isoforms revealed that the cell lines also expressed TAF-Iα-NUP214 mRNA. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and array-based copy number analysis were both consistent with del(9(q34.11q34.13 as described. Quantitative genomic PCR also confirmed loss of genomic material between SET and NUP214 in both cell lines. Genomic sequencing localized the breakpoints of the SET gene to regions downstream of the stop codon and to NUP214 intron 17/18 in both LOUCY and MEGAL cells. Both cell lines expressed the 140 kDa SET-NUP214 fusion protein. Conclusion Cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL express the recently described SET-NUP214 fusion gene. Of special note is that the formation of the SET exon 7/NUP214 exon 18 gene transcript requires alternative splicing as the SET breakpoint is located downstream of the stop codon in exon 8. The cell lines are promising model systems for SET-NUP214 studies and should facilitate investigating cellular functions of the the SET-NUP214 protein.

  8. Establishment, characterization, chemosensitivity, and radiosensitivity of two different cell lines derived from a human breast cancer biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioanni, J.; Courdi, A.; Lalanne, C.M.; Fischel, J.L.; Zanghellini, E.; Lambert, J.C.; Ettore, F.; Namer, M.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro culture of a human breast cancer biopsy fragment gave rise to two permanent cell lines, CAL 18 A and CAL 18 B, which were differentiated by both morphological and ultrastructural analysis. The karyotypic and growth properties of these two cell lines also differed, providing further evidence of cell heterogeneity within a given tumor. Both cell lines lost their hormone receptors in vitro. CAL 18 A cells grew in agar and were tumorigenic after inoculation into nude mice; neither of these properties was observed in CAL 18 B cells. The chemosensitivity of 12 antineoplastic drugs was assessed by a short-term assay, using inhibition of tritiated thymidine incorporation by the cells after contact with the drugs as the end point. Only a few drugs were active at moderate concentrations. The overall responses of both cell lines were similar. The cell survival curves, established by the colony method following a single dose of radiation, were also very similar, despite the greater heterogeneity of CAL 18 B cells. The two cell lines appear to be interrelated, since CAL 18 B cells were occasionally observed to emerge from CAL 18 A clones, suggesting that malignant cell redifferentiation may occur spontaneously in vitro

  9. Derivation of the human induced pluripotent stem cell line MUi017-A from a patient with homozygous Hemoglobin Constant Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasinee Wongkummool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS, HBA2: c.427T>C is a common nondeletional α-thalassemia resulting from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the HBA2 gene. Homozygosity for HbCS is characterized with mild anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. In this study, the human induced pluripotent stem cell line MUi017-A was successfully generated from peripheral blood CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors of a 52 year old female with homozygous HbCS. The MUi017-A cell line exhibited embryonic stem cell characteristics with consistent expression of specific pluripotency markers and the capability of differentiating into the three germ layers. The cell line may be used for the disease modeling.

  10. Extensive characterization of a lentiviral-derived stable cell line expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus VPg protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Miao, Qiuhong; Tan, Yonggui; Guo, Huimin; Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-11-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is an important member of the caliciviridae family. Currently, no suitable tissue culture system is available for proliferating RHDV, which limits the study of its pathogenesis. To bypass this obstacle, we established a cell line, RK13-VPg, stably expressing the VPg gene with a lentivirus packaging system in this study. In addition, the recently constructed RHDV replicon in our laboratory provided an appropriate model for studying the pathogenesis of RHDV without in vitro RHDV propagation and culture. Using this RHDV replicon and RK13-VPg cell line, we further demonstrated that the presence of VPg protein is essential for efficient translation of an RHDV replicon. Therefore, the RK13-VPg cell line is a powerful tool for studying the replication and translation mechanisms of RHDV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenetic status of H19/IGF2 and SNRPN imprinted genes in aborted and successfully derived embryonic stem cell lines in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Wianny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The imprinted genes of primate embryonic stem cells (ESCs often show altered DNA methylation. It is unknown whether these alterations emerge while deriving the ESCs. Here we studied the methylation patterns of two differentially methylated regions (DMRs, SNRPN and H19/IGF2 DMRs, during the derivation of monkey ESCs. We show that the SNRPN DMR is characteristically methylated at maternal alleles, whereas the H19/IGF2 DMR is globally highly methylated, with unusual methylation on the maternal alleles. These methylation patterns remain stable from the early stages of ESC derivation to late passages of monkey ESCs and following differentiation. Importantly, the methylation status of H19/IGF2 DMR and the expression levels of IGF2, H19, and DNMT3B mRNAs in early embryo-derived cells were correlated with their capacity to generate genuine ESC lines. Thus, we propose that these markers could be useful to predict the outcomes of establishing an ESC line in primates.

  12. Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells show varying degrees of diversity in buffalo-derived infected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Pelle, Roger; Chepkwony, Maurine; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2018-05-06

    The extent of sequence diversity among the genes encoding 10 antigens (Tp1-10) known to be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes from cattle immune to Theileria parva was analysed. The sequences were derived from parasites in 23 buffalo-derived cell lines, three cattle-derived isolates and one cloned cell line obtained from a buffalo-derived stabilate. The results revealed substantial variation among the antigens through sequence diversity. The greatest nucleotide and amino acid diversity were observed in Tp1, Tp2 and Tp9. Tp5 and Tp7 showed the least amount of allelic diversity, and Tp5, Tp6 and Tp7 had the lowest levels of protein diversity. Tp6 was the most conserved protein; only a single non-synonymous substitution was found in all obtained sequences. The ratio of non-synonymous: synonymous substitutions varied from 0.84 (Tp1) to 0.04 (Tp6). Apart from Tp2 and Tp9, we observed no variation in the other defined CD8+ T cell epitopes (Tp4, 5, 7 and 8), indicating that epitope variation is not a universal feature of T. parva antigens. In addition to providing markers that can be used to examine the diversity in T. parva populations, the results highlight the potential for using conserved antigens to develop vaccines that provide broad protection against T. parva.

  13. Characterization of four clones derived from human adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, and analysis of their response to sodium butyrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štokrová, Jitka; Šloncová, Eva; Sovová, Vlasta; Kučerová, Dana; Žíla, Vojtěch; Turečková, Jolana; Vojtěchová, Martina; Korb, Jan; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2006), s. 559-565 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5052302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : adenocarcinoma * HT29 cell line * ultrastructure analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  14. Combined 5-FU and ChoKα inhibitors as a new alternative therapy of colorectal cancer: evidence in human tumor-derived cell lines and mouse xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de la Cueva

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third major cause of cancer related deaths in the world. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer but as a single-agent renders low response rates. Choline kinase alpha (ChoKα, an enzyme that plays a role in cell proliferation and transformation, has been reported overexpressed in many different tumors, including colorectal tumors. ChoKα inhibitors have recently entered clinical trials as a novel antitumor strategy.ChoKα specific inhibitors, MN58b and TCD-717, have demonstrated a potent antitumoral activity both in vitro and in vivo against several tumor-derived cell line xenografts including CRC-derived cell lines. The effect of ChoKα inhibitors in combination with 5-FU as a new alternative for the treatment of colon tumors has been investigated both in vitro in CRC-tumour derived cell lines, and in vivo in mouse xenografts models. The effects on thymidilate synthase (TS and thymidine kinase (TK1 levels, two enzymes known to play an essential role in the mechanism of action of 5-FU, were analyzed by western blotting and quantitative PCR analysis. The combination of 5-FU with ChoKα inhibitors resulted in a synergistic effect in vitro in three different human colon cancer cell lines, and in vivo against human colon xenografts in nude mice. ChoKα inhibitors modulate the expression levels of TS and TK1 through inhibition of E2F production, providing a rational for its mechanism of action.Our data suggest that both drugs in combination display a synergistic antitumoral effect due to ChoKα inhibitors-driven modulation of the metabolization of 5-FU. The clinical relevance of these findings is strongly supported since TCD-717 has recently entered Phase I clinical trials against solid tumors.

  15. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson-Miller Connie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Methods Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. Results MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43% and malignant (3-17% breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and

  16. Vitamin D fails to prevent serum starvation- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis in human and rat osteosarcoma-derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witasp, Erika; Gustafsson, Ann-Catrin; Cotgreave, Ian; Lind, Monica; Fadeel, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , the active form of vitamin D 3 , may increase the survival of bone-forming osteoblasts through an inhibition of apoptosis. On the other hand, vitamin D 3 has also been shown to trigger apoptosis in human cancer cells, including osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. In the present study, we show that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 induces a time- and dose-dependent loss of cell viability in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR-106, and the human osteosarcoma cell line, TE-85. We were unable, however, to detect nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, or other typical signs of apoptosis in this model. Moreover, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 failed to protect against apoptosis induced by serum starvation or incubation with the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine. These in vitro findings are thus at variance with several previous reports in the literature and suggest that induction of or protection against apoptosis of bone-derived cells may not be a primary function of vitamin D 3

  17. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer stem-like cells derived from carcinoma cell lines of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaying; Liu, Xishi; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm is one possible way to understand the genesis of cancer, and cervical cancer in particular. We quantified and enriched ALDH1(+) cells within cervical cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized their phenotypical and functional properties like invasion capacity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ALDH1 expression in spheroid-derived cells (SDC) and the parental monolayer-derived cell (MDC) line was compared by flow-cytometry. Invasion capability was evaluated by Matrigel assay and expression of EMT-related genes Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2, Vimentin and E-cadherin by real-time PCR. ALDH1 expression was significantly higher in SDC. ALDH1(+) cells showed increased colony-formation. SDC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin and elevated levels of Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2 and Vimentin compared to MDC. Cervical cancer cell lines harbor potential CSC, characterized by ALDH1 expression as well as properties like invasiveness, colony-forming ability, and EMT. CSC can be enriched by anchorage-independent culture techniques, which may be important for the investigation of their contribution to therapy resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  18. Conditioned Media from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Induced the Apoptosis and Differentiation in Human Glioma Cell Lines In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs. We found (1 MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2 MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3 real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4 furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy.

  19. Generation and Characterization of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lines Derived from a Patient with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Lazar-Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic dilation is the most common malformation of the proximal aorta and is responsible for 1%–2% of all deaths in industrialized countries. In approximately 50% of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV, dilation of any or all segments of the aorta occurs. BAV patients with aortic dilation show an increased incidence of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC loss. In this study, VSMC, isolated from the ascending aorta of BAV, was treated with Simian virus 40 to generate a BAV-originated VSMC cell line. To exclude any genomic DNA or cross-contamination, highly polymorphic short tandem repeats of the cells were profiled. The cells were then characterized using flow cytometry and karyotyping. The WG-59 cell line created is the first reported VSMC cell line isolated from a BAV patient. Using an RT2 Profiler PCR Array, genes within the TGFβ/BMP family that are dependent on losartan treatment were identified. Endoglin was found to be among the regulated genes and was downregulated in WG-59 cells following treatment with different losartan concentrations, when compared to untreated WG-59 cells.

  20. Synergistic Cytotoxicity Effect by Combination Treatment of Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves and Doxorubicin as Potential Anticancer Material on Raji Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Fisma, R.; Prihapsara, F.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharynx cancer is one of the most deadly cancer. The main priority of nasopharynx cancer treatment is the use of chemotherapeutic agents, especially doxorubicin. However, doxorubicin might also lead to diverse side effect. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of doxorubicin is to used of combined chemotherapeutic agent. One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on nasopharynx cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on raji cell line. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (14,4 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on raji cell line with CI value from 0.13 – 0.65.

  1. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AT 0.7 < z < 1.6 DERIVED FROM ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, H. [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yoshii, Y.; Kawara, K., E-mail: sameshima@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    We present an analysis of Mg ii λ 2798 and Fe ii UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore the diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of 0.72 <  z  < 1.63. A strong anticorrelation between the Mg ii equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between the Fe ii EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines, we perform photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (1) Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (2) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indicate that the Mg ii/Fe ii flux ratio, which has been used as a first-order proxy for the Mg/Fe abundance ratio in chemical evolution studies with quasar emission lines, depends largely on the cloud gas density. By correcting this density dependence, we propose new diagnostics of the Mg/Fe abundance ratio for a broad-line region cloud. In comparing the derived Mg/Fe abundance ratios with chemical evolution models, we suggest that α -enrichment by mass loss from metal-poor intermediate-mass stars occurred at z  ∼ 2 or earlier.

  2. Newly-derived neuroblastoma cell lines propagated in serum-free media recapitulate the genotype and phenotype of primary neuroblastoma tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; den Hartog, Ilona J M; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; Schild, Linda; van der Ploeg, Ida; Dolman, M Emmy M; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Molenaar, Jan J

    2014-02-01

    Recently protocols have been devised for the culturing of cell lines from fresh tumours under serum-free conditions in defined neural stem cell medium. These cells, frequently called tumour initiating cells (TICs) closely retained characteristics of the tumours of origin. We report the isolation of eight newly-derived neuroblastoma TICs from six primary neuroblastoma tumours and two bone marrow metastases. The primary tumours from which these TICs were generated have previously been fully typed by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis showed that TIC lines retained essential characteristics of the primary tumours and exhibited typical neuroblastoma chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, gain of chromosome 17q and deletion of 1p36. Protein analysis showed expression for neuroblastoma markers MYCN, NCAM, CHGA, DBH and TH while haematopoietic markers CD19 and CD11b were absent. We analysed the growth characteristics and confirmed tumour-forming potential using sphere-forming assays, subcutaneous and orthotopic injection of these cells into immune-compromised mice. Affymetrix mRNA expression profiling of TIC line xenografts showed an expression pattern more closely mimicking primary tumours compared to xenografts from classical cell lines. This establishes that these neuroblastoma TICs cultured under serum-free conditions are relevant and useful neuroblastoma tumour models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decellularized extracellular matrices produced from immortal cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta support primary mesenchymal stem cell expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina D Kusuma

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs exhibit undesired phenotypic changes during ex vivo expansion, limiting production of the large quantities of high quality primary MSCs needed for both basic research and cell therapies. Primary MSCs retain many desired MSC properties including proliferative capacity and differentiation potential when expanded on decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM prepared from primary MSCs. However, the need to use low passage number primary MSCs (passage 3 or lower to produce the dECM drastically limits the utility and impact of this technology. Here, we report that primary MSCs expanded on dECM prepared from high passage number (passage 25 human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT transduced immortal MSC cell lines also exhibit increased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Two hTERT-transduced placenta-derived MSC cell lines, CMSC29 and DMSC23 [derived from placental chorionic villi (CMSCs and decidua basalis (DMSCs, respectively], were used to prepare dECM-coated substrates. These dECM substrates showed structural and biochemical differences. Primary DMSCs cultured on dECM-DMSC23 showed a three-fold increase in cell number after 14 days expansion in culture and increased osteogenic differentiation compared with controls. Primary CMSCs cultured on the dECM-DMSC23 exhibited a two-fold increase in cell number and increased osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that immortal MSC cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta produce dECM with varying abilities for supporting increased primary MSC expansion while maintaining important primary MSC properties. Additionally, this is the first demonstration of using high passage number cells to produce dECM that can promote primary MSC expansion, and this advancement greatly increases the feasibility and applicability of dECM-based technologies.

  4. Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppock Donald L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

  5. The effects of 6-mercaptopurine nucleotide derivatives on the growth and survival of 6-mercaptopurine-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, H. P.; Hawley, P.; White, S. E.; Gibson, I.; Tidd, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (MP)-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines were used to further characterize the apparent ability of MP nucleotide derivatives to overcome resistance to the parent drug. 6-Mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphate [MPRP], bis(6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(MPR)P], bis(O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(dibut.MPR)P], and O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribo...

  6. Establishing clonal cell lines with endothelial-like potential from CD9(hi, SSEA-1(- cells in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies.

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    Qizhou Lian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs into specific cell types with minimal risk of teratoma formation could be efficiently directed by first reducing the differentiation potential of ESCs through the generation of clonal, self-renewing lineage-restricted stem cell lines. Efforts to isolate these stem cells are, however, mired in an impasse where the lack of purified lineage-restricted stem cells has hindered the identification of defining markers for these rare stem cells and, in turn, their isolation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe here a method for the isolation of clonal lineage-restricted cell lines with endothelial potential from ESCs through a combination of empirical and rational evidence-based methods. Using an empirical protocol that we have previously developed to generate embryo-derived RoSH lines with endothelial potential, we first generated E-RoSH lines from mouse ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs. Despite originating from different mouse strains, RoSH and E- RoSH lines have similar gene expression profiles (r(2 = 0.93 while that between E-RoSH and ESCs was 0.83. In silico gene expression analysis predicted that like RoSH cells, E-RoSH cells have an increased propensity to differentiate into vasculature. Unlike their parental ESCs, E-RoSH cells did not form teratomas and differentiate efficiently into endothelial-like cells in vivo and in vitro. Gene expression and FACS analysis revealed that RoSH and E-RoSH cells are CD9(hi, SSEA-1(- while ESCs are CD9(lo, SSEA-1(+. Isolation of CD9(hi, SSEA-1(- cells that constituted 1%-10% of EB-derived cultures generated an E-RoSH-like culture with an identical E-RoSH-like gene expression profile (r(2 = 0.95 and a propensity to differentiate into endothelial-like cells. CONCLUSIONS: By combining empirical and rational evidence-based methods, we identified definitive selectable surface antigens for the isolation and propagation of lineage-restricted stem cells

  7. Homozygous deletion of the α- and β1-interferon genes in human leukemia and derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.O.; Ziemin, S.; Le Beau, M.M.; Pitha, P.; Smith, S.D.; Chilcote, R.R.; Rowley, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The loss of bands p21-22 from one chromosome 9 homologue as a consequence of a deletion of the short arm [del(9p)], unbalanced translocation, or monosomy 9 is frequently observed in the malignant cells of patients with lymphoid neoplasias, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The α- and β 1 -interferon genes have been assigned to this chromosome region (9p21-22). The authors now present evidence of the homozygous deletion of the interferon genes in neoplastic hematopoietic cell lines and primary leukemia cells in the presence or absence of chromosomal deletions that are detectable at the level of the light microscope. In these cell lines, the deletion of the interferon genes is accompanied by a deficiency of 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, an enzyme of purine metabolism. These homozygous deletions may be associated with the loss of a tumor-suppressor gene that is involved in the development of these neoplasias. The relevant genes may be either the interferon genes themselves or a gene that has a tumor-suppressor function and is closely linked to them

  8. Activated platelet-derived growth factor autocrine pathway drives the transformed phenotype of a human glioblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Ostman, A; Langeland, N; Holmsen, H; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H; Nistér, M

    1994-02-01

    Human glioblastoma cells (A172) were found to concomitantly express PDGF-BB and PDGF beta-receptors. The receptors were constitutively autophosphorylated in the absence of exogenous ligand, suggesting the presence of an autocrine PDGF pathway. Neutralizing PDGF antibodies as well as suramin inhibited the autonomous PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity and resulted in up-regulation of receptor protein. The interruption of the autocrine loop by the PDGF antibodies reversed the transformed phenotype of the glioblastoma cell, as determined by (1) diminished DNA synthesis, (2) inhibition of tumor colony growth, and (3) reversion of the transformed morphology of the tumor cells. The PDGF antibodies showed no effect on the DNA synthesis of another glioblastoma cells line (U-343MGa 31L) or on Ki-ras-transformed fibroblasts. The present study demonstrates an endogenously activated PDGF pathway in a spontaneous human glioblastoma cell line. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the autocrine PDGF pathway drives the transformed phenotype of the tumor cells, a process that can be blocked by extracellular antagonists.

  9. GISH and AFLP analyses of novel Brassica napus lines derived from one hybrid between B. napus and Orychophragmus violaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Li, Zai-Yun; Cartagena, J A; Fukui, K

    2006-10-01

    New Brassica napus inbred lines with different petal colors and with canola quality and increased levels of oleic (approximately 70%, 10% higher than that of B. napus parent) and linoleic (28%) acids have been developed in the progenies of one B. napus cv. Oro x Orychophragmus violaceus F5 hybrid plant (2n = 31). Their genetic constituents were analyzed by using the methods of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP). No intact chromosomes of O. violaceus origin were detected by GISH in their somatic cells of ovaries and root tips (2n = 38) and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with normal chromosome pairing (19 bivalents) and segregation (19:19), though signals of variable sizes and intensities were located mainly at terminal and centromeric parts of some mitotic chromosomes and meiotic bivalents at diakinesis or chromosomes in anaphase I groups and one large patch of chromatin was intensively labeled and separated spatially in some telophase I nuclei and metaphase II PMCs. AFLP analysis revealed that substantial genomic changes have occurred in these lines and O. violaceus-specific bands, deleted bands in 'Oro' and novel bands for two parents were detected. The possible mechanisms for these results were discussed.

  10. Stress proteins and oxidative damage in a renal derived cell line exposed to inorganic mercury and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Morandini, Fausta; Bettoni, Francesca; Schena, Ilaria; Lavazza, Antonio; Grigolato, Pier Giovanni; Apostoli, Pietro; Rezzani, Rita; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2009-01-01

    A close link between stress protein up-regulation and oxidative damage may provide a novel therapeutic tool to counteract nephrotoxicity induced by toxic metals in the human population, mainly in children, of industrialized countries. Here we analysed the time course of the expression of several heat shock proteins, glucose-regulated proteins and metallothioneins in a rat proximal tubular cell line (NRK-52E) exposed to subcytotoxic doses of inorganic mercury and lead. Concomitantly, we used morphological and biochemical methods to evaluate metal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage. In particular, as biochemical indicators of oxidative stress we detected reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. Our results clearly demonstrated that mercury increases ROS and RNS levels and the expressions of Hsp25 and inducible Hsp72. These findings are corroborated by evident mitochondrial damage, apoptosis or necrosis. By contrast, lead is unable to up-regulate Hsp72 but enhances Grp78 and activates nuclear Hsp25 translocation. Furthermore, lead causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, vacuolation and nucleolar segregation. Lastly, both metals stimulate the over-expression of MTs, but with a different time course. In conclusion, in NRK-52E cell line the stress response is an early and metal-induced event that correlates well with the direct oxidative damage induced by mercury. Indeed, different chaperones are involved in the specific nephrotoxic mechanism of these environmental pollutants and work together for cell survival.

  11. A recurrent human papillomavirus integration site at chromosome region 12q14-q15 in SW756 and SK-v cell lines derived from genital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Garau, X.; Couturier, J.; Favre, M.; Orth, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SW756 cell line, derived from an invasive cancer of the uterine cervix, harbours integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 DNA sequences which have been located in chromosome band 12q13. By in situ hybridization experiments with tritiated and digoxigenin-labelled HPV18 probes on R-banded chromosomes, we now localize the integrated viral sequences in 12q14-q15. Interestingly, we have previously localized integrated HPV16 sequences in the same chromosomal region in SK-v cells, derived from a pre-invasive vulvar neoplasia. The chromosomal region 12q14-q15 could thus correspond to a preferential site for the integration of HPV DNA in genital tumors. (authors). 29 refs., 2 figs

  12. A Unique Model System for Tumor Progression in GBM Comprising Two Developed Human Neuro-Epithelial Cell Lines with Differential Transforming Potential and Coexpressing Neuronal and Glial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Shiras

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor progression from a low-grade astrocytoma to the most malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have been hampered due to lack of suitable experimental models. We have established a model of tumor progression comprising of two cell lines derived from the same astrocytoma tumor with a set of features corresponding to low-grade glioma (as in HNGC-1 and high-grade GBM (as in HNGC-2. The HNGC-1 cell line is slowgrowing, contact-inhibited, nontumorigenic, and noninvasive, whereas HNGC-2 is a rapidly proliferating, anchorage-independent, highly tumorigenic, and invasive cell line. The proliferation of cell lines is independent of the addition of exogenous growth factors. Interestingly, the HNGC-2 cell line displays a near-haploid karyotype except for a disomy of chromosome 2. The two cell lines express the neuronal precursor and progenitor markers vimentin, nestin, MAP-2, and NFP160, as well as glial differentiation protein S100μ. The HNGC-1 cell line also expresses markers of mature neurons like Tuj1 and GFAP, an astrocytic differentiation marker, hence contributing toward a more morphologically differentiated phenotype with a propensity for neural differentiation in vitro. Additionally, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB2, and loss of fibronectin were observed only in the HNGC-2 cell line, implicating the significance of these pathways in tumor progression. This in vitro model system assumes importance in unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms in differentiation, transformation, and gliomagenesis.

  13. Cell Line Derived 5-FU and Irinotecan Drug-Sensitivity Profiles Evaluated in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Trial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Ida Kappel; Gerster, Sarah; Delorenzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    patients who benefitted from the addition of irinotecan to 5-FU, we used gene expression profiles based on cell lines and clinical tumor material. These profiles were applied to expression data obtained from pretreatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue from 636 stage III colon cancer...... patients enrolled in the PETACC-3 prospective randomized clinical trial. A 5-FU profile developed similarly was assessed by comparing the PETACC-3 cohort with a cohort of 359 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent surgery but received no adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: There was no statistically...... to identify colon cancer patients who may benefit from 5-FU, however, any biomarker predicting benefit for adjuvant 5-FU must be rigorously evaluated in independent cohorts. Given differences between the two study cohorts, the present results should be further validated....

  14. Diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes activate cell death in human cancer cell lines but not normal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Sansone

    Full Text Available Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs that induce abortions or malformations in the offspring of invertebrates exposed to them during gestation. Here we compare the effects of the PUAs 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal (DD, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal (OD and 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal (HD on the adenocarcinoma cell lines lung A549 and colon COLO 205, and the normal lung/brunch epithelial BEAS-2B cell line. Using the viability MTT/Trypan blue assays, we show that PUAs have a toxic effect on both A549 and COLO 205 tumor cells but not BEAS-2B normal cells. DD was the strongest of the three PUAs tested, at all time-intervals considered, but HD was as strong as DD after 48 h. OD was the least active of the three PUAs. The effect of the three PUAs was somewhat stronger for A549 cells. We therefore studied the death signaling pathway activated in A549 showing that cells treated with DD activated Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1 and Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD leading to necroptosis via caspase-3 without activating the survival pathway Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP. The TNFR1/FADD/caspase pathway was also observed with OD, but only after 48 h. This was the only PUA that activated RIP, consistent with the finding that OD causes less damage to the cell compared to DD and HD. In contrast, cells treated with HD activated the Fas/FADD/caspase pathway. This is the first report that PUAs activate an extrinsic apoptotic machinery in contrast to other anticancer drugs that promote an intrinsic death pathway, without affecting the viability of normal cells from the same tissue type. These findings have interesting implications also from the ecological viewpoint considering that HD is one of the most common PUAs produced by diatoms.

  15. Cell lines derived from a Medaka radiation-sensitive mutant have defects in DNA double-strand break responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masayuki; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    It was reported that the radiation-sensitive Medaka mutant 'ric1' has a defect in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by γ-rays during early embryogenesis. To study the cellular response of a ric1 mutant to ionizing radiation (IR), we established the mutant embryonic cell lines RIC1-e9, RIC1-e42, RIC1-e43. Following exposure to γ-irradiation, the DSBs in wild-type cells were repaired within 1 h, while those in RIC1 cells were not rejoined even after 2 h. Cell death was induced in the wild-type cells with cell fragmentation, but only a small proportion of the RIC1 cells underwent cell death, and without cell fragmentation. Although both wild-type and RIC1 cells showed mitotic inhibition immediately after γ-irradiation, cell division was much slower to resume in the wild-type cells (20 h versus 12 h). In both wild-type and RIC1 cells, Ser139 phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci were formed after γ-irradiation, however, the γH2AX foci disappeared more quickly in the RIC1 cell lines. These results suggest that the instability of γH2AX foci in RIC1 cells cause an aberration of the DNA damage response. As RIC1 cultured cells showed similar defective DNA repair as ric1 embryos and RIC1 cells revealed defective cell death and cell cycle checkpoint, they are useful for investigating DNA damage responses in vitro. (author)

  16. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1 derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1. Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG. Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  17. PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin (acrogranin/PC-cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) protein expression in human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cueto, Laura; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Diaz-Arizaga, Adriana; Dominguez-Lopez, Pablo; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2012-07-01

    Overexpression of progranulin (also named acrogranin, PC-cell-derived growth factor, or granulin-epithelin precursor) is associated with ovarian cancer, specifically with cell proliferation, malignancy, chemoresistance, and shortened overall survival. The objective of the current study is to identify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of progranulin expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. We studied the relation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways on the modulation of progranulin expression levels in NIH-OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The different pathways were examined using pharmacological inhibitors (calphostin C, LY294002, H89, SB203580, PD98059, and Akt Inhibitor), and mRNA and protein progranulin expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques, respectively. Inhibition of PKC signal transduction pathway by calphostin C decreased in a dose-dependent manner protein but not mRNA levels of progranulin in both ovarian cancer cell lines. LY294002 but not wortmannin, which are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, also diminished the expression of progranulin in both cell lines. In addition, LY294002 treatment produced a significant reduction in cell viability. Inhibition of protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt did not affect progranulin protein expression. These results suggest that the PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin protein expression in 2 different ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibiting these intracellular signal transduction pathways may provide a future therapeutic target for hindering the cellular proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer produced by progranulin.

  18. Murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector has differential integration patterns in human cell lines used to produce recombinant factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Correa de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK. Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K.METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones.RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins.

  19. Synthesis of an anthraquinone derivative (DHAQC) and its effect on induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, SweeKeong; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lim, Kian Lam; Abu, Nadiah; Ho, Wan Yong; Zareen, Seema; Roohani, Kiarash; Ky, Huynh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Lajis, Nordin; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2- carboxylic acid (DHAQC) (2) was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel-Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DHAQC (2) exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2) showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability) value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2) was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal). The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2) for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2) arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an inhibited expression of PLK1 genes. Western blot analysis also indicated that the DHAQC (2) increased BAX, p53, and cytochrome c levels in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently activated apoptosis as observed in annexin V/propidium iodide and cell cycle analyses. These results indicate that DHAQC (2) is a synthetic, cytotoxic, and selective anthraquinone, which is less toxic than the natural product damnacanthal, and which demonstrates potential in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.

  20. Spontaneous and UV-induced variations in the activity of biomass synthesis in Candida utilis haploid and diploid strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, T.F.; Lin'kova, M.A.; Lobacheva, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Candida utilis diploid strains have greater variations induced by UV irradiation in the activity of biomass synthesis as compared with the parent haploid culture. Clones with an activity of the synthesis greater that the mean population one appear more frequently in the diploid strains. Mathematical analysis has confirmed the significance of the results and the hypothesis according to which the frequency of variants more active in biomass synthesis rises after the action of UV

  1. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation-exposure. I. Fractionated UV-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, K; Zölzer, F; Kiefer, J

    1989-01-01

    Mutation induction was investigated in wild-type haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after split-dose UV-irradiation. Cells were exposed to fractionated 254 nm-UV-doses separated by intervals from 0 to 6 h with incubation either on non-nutrient or nutrient agar between. The test parameter was resistance to canavanine. If modifications of sensitivity due to incubation are appropriately taken into account there is no change of mutation frequency.

  2. Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2007-02-01

    This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

  3. Exact Markov chain and approximate diffusion solution for haploid genetic drift with one-way mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A; Miloh, Touvia

    2016-02-01

    The classical Kimura solution of the diffusion equation is investigated for a haploid random mating (Wright-Fisher) model, with one-way mutations and initial-value specified by the founder population. The validity of the transient diffusion solution is checked by exact Markov chain computations, using a Jordan decomposition of the transition matrix. The conclusion is that the one-way diffusion model mostly works well, although the rate of convergence depends on the initial allele frequency and the mutation rate. The diffusion approximation is poor for mutation rates so low that the non-fixation boundary is regular. When this happens we perturb the diffusion solution around the non-fixation boundary and obtain a more accurate approximation that takes quasi-fixation of the mutant allele into account. The main application is to quantify how fast a specific genetic variant of the infinite alleles model is lost. We also discuss extensions of the quasi-fixation approach to other models with small mutation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of mutagenic damage by monofunctional alkylating agents and gamma radiation in haploid and diploid frogs, Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Armstrong, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Adult male South African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, were mutagenized by 3-day immersion in aqueous solutions of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), diethyl nitrosamine (DEN), or ethyl nitrosourea (ENU), or by acute exposure to gamma radiation. They were then spawned repeatedly at 2-week intervals with untreated females, and embryonic survival of the progeny was used to assess genetic damage. Recessive lethal effects were assessed from reduced survival of androgenetic haploid progeny. Neither recessive nor dominant lethal effects were obtained after exposure to 100 mg/liter EMS or 2 g/liter DEN. At 250 mg/liter EMS, peak dominant lethality occurred 3-5 weeks after treatment. Most embryos hatched, but many were abnormal and died shortly after hatching. Haploid survival was significantly reduced over a broader period, from 1 to 13 weeks after mutagenesis. Treatment with 75 mg/liter ENU produced effects similar to the 250-mg/liter EMS mutagenesis. At 400 mg/liter EMS, the frequency and severity of the effects on both diploid and haploid embryos were increased over the lower dose. Gamma irradiation at 1500 R produced effects similar to the 400-mg/liter mutagenesis, except that peak dominant lethality extended from 1 to 7 weeks

  5. Lipid-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer to cultured porcine ventral mesencephalic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Matthias; Meyer, Morten; Brevig, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Transplantation of dopaminergic ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue into the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) shows at best moderate symptomatic relief in some of the treated cases. Experimental animal studies and clinical trials with allogenic and xenogenic pig-derived VM...... tissue grafts to PD patients indicate that one reason for the poor outcome of neural transplantation is the low survival and differentiation of grafted dopaminergic neurons. To improve dopaminergic cell survival through a gene-therapeutic approach we have established and report here results of lipid-mediated...... numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the cultured VM tissue. We conclude that lipid-mediated gene transfer employed on embryonic pig VM explant cultures is a safe and effective method to improve survival of dopaminergic neurons and may become a valuable tool to improve allo...

  6. Influence of vitamin D on cisplatin sensitivity in testicular germ cell cancer-derived cell lines and in a NTera2 xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and pro-differentiating effects in somatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also augments the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutic agents, including...... cisplatin, which may have clinical relevance. Given the pro-differentiation effect of vitamin D recently demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), we hypothesized that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could be a beneficial adjunctive to existing chemotherapy regime used to treat these tumors. In this study, cell...... survival effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), another pro-differentiation compound, retinoic acid and cisplatin were investigated in TGCT-derived cell lines in vitro. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) augmented the effect of cisplatin in an embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line (NTera2), possibly through downregulation...

  7. The cytoskeleton of Drosophila-derived Schneider line-1 and Kc23 cells undergoes significant changes during long-term culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Hedrick, J.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    Insect cell cultures derived from Drosophila melanogaster are increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures, as they are amenable to genetic manipulation. Although Drosophila cells are an excellent tool for the study of genes and expression of proteins, culture conditions have to be considered in the interpretation of biochemical results. Our studies indicate that significant differences occur in cytoskeletal structure during the long-term culture of the Drosophila-derived cell lines Schneider Line-1 (S1) and Kc23. Scanning, transmission-electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy studies reveal that microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes become increasingly different during the culture of these cells from 24 h to 7-14 days. Significant cytoskeletal changes are observed at the cell surface where actin polymerizes into microfilaments, during the elongation of long microvilli. Additionally, long protrusions develop from the cell surface; these protrusions are microtubule-based and establish contact with neighboring cells. In contrast, the microtubule network in the interior of the cells becomes disrupted after four days of culture, resulting in altered transport of mitochondria. Microtubules and centrosomes are also affected in a small percent of cells during cell division, indicating an instability of centrosomes. Thus, the cytoskeletal network of microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes is affected in Drosophila cells during long-term culture. This implies that gene regulation and post-translational modifications are probably different under different culture conditions.

  8. Constitutive mRNA expression and protein activity levels of nine ABC efflux transporters in seven permanent cell lines derived from different tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stephan; Loncar, Jovica; Zaja, Roko; Schnell, Sabine; Schirmer, Kristin; Smital, Tvrtko; Luckenbach, Till

    2011-01-25

    Permanent fish cell lines have become common model systems for determining ecotoxicological effects of pollutants. For these cell lines little is known on the cellular active transport mechanisms that control the amount of a compound entering the cell, such as the MXR (multixenobiotic resistance) system mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins. Therefore, for toxic evaluation of chemicals with those cells information on MXR is important. We here present data on constitutive mRNA expression and protein activity levels of a series of ABC efflux transporters in seven permanent cell lines derived from liver (RTL-W1; R1) and liver hepatoma (RTH-149), gill (RTgill-W1), gonad (RTG-2), gut (RTgutGC) and brain (RTbrain) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition to known transporters abcb1 (designated here abcb1a), abcb11, abcc1-3, abcc5 and abcg2, we quantified expression levels of a newly identified abcb1 isoform (abcb1b) and abcc4, previously unknown in trout. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) indicated that mRNA of the examined ABC transporters was constitutively expressed in all cell lines. Transporter mRNA expression patterns were similar in all cell lines, with expression levels of abcc transporters being 80 to over 1000 fold higher than for abcg2, abcb1a/b and abcb11 (abcc1-5>abcg2>abcb1a/b, 11). Transporter activity in the cell lines was determined by measuring uptake of transporter type specific fluorescent substrates in the presence of activity inhibitors. The combination of the ABCB1 and ABCC transporter substrate calcein-AM with inhibitors cyclosporine A, PSC833 and MK571 resulted in a concentration-dependent fluorescence increase of up to 3-fold, whereas reversin 205 caused a slight, but not concentration-dependent fluorescence increase. Accumulation of the dyes Hoechst 33342 and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate was basically unchanged in the presence of Ko134 and taurocholate, respectively, indicating low Abcg2 and Abcb11

  9. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Meng-Yu; Nestvold, Janne; Rekdal, Øystein; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Fodstad, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  10. Ecdysteroid-stimulated synthesis and secretion of an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-rich glycopeptide in a lepidopteran cell line derived from imaginal discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheron, P; Morinière, M; Coudouel, N; Oberlander, H

    1991-01-01

    Hormone-regulated processing of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine was studied in an insect cell line derived from imaginal wing discs of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The cell line, IAL-PID2, responded to treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone with increased incorporation of GlcNAc into glycoproteins. Cycloheximide and tunicamycin counteracted the action of the hormone. In particular, treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone resulted in the secretion of a 5,000 dalton N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-rich glycopeptide by the IAL-PID2 cells. Accumulation of this peptide was prevented by the use of teflubenzuron, a potent chitin synthesis inhibitor. A glycopeptide of similar molecular weight was observed in imaginal discs of P. interpunctella treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone in vitro, under conditions that induce chitin synthesis. Although the function of the 5,000 dalton glycopeptide is not known, we believe that the PID2 cell line is a promising model for molecular analysis of ecdysteroid-regulated processing of aminosugars by epidermal cells during insect development.

  11. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng-Yu [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Nestvold, Janne, E-mail: j.m.nestvold@medisin.uio.no [Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Rekdal, Øystein [Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Kvalheim, Gunnar [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Fodstad, Øystein [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  12. Cancer stemness and metastatic potential of the novel tumor cell line K3: an inner mutated cell of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiao; Mao, Fei; Sun, Zixuan; Jia, Haoyuan; Yin, Lei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2017-06-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been used for therapeutic applications in various diseases. Here we report MSCs can malignantly transform in vivo. The novel neoplasm was found on the tail of female rat after injection with male rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rBM-MSCs) and the new tumor cell line, K3, was isolated from the neoplasm. The K3 cells expressed surface antigens and pluripotent genes similar to those of rBM-MSCs and presented tumor cell features. Moreover, the K3 cells contained side population cells (SP) like cancer stem cells (CSCs), which might contribute to K3 heterogeneity and tumorigenic capacity. To investigate the metastatic potential of K3 cells, we established the nude mouse models of liver and lung metastases and isolated the corresponding metastatic cell lines K3-F4 and K3-B6. Both K3-F4 and K3-B6 cell lines with higher metastatic potential acquired more mesenchymal and stemness-related features. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a potential mechanism of K3-F4 and K3-B6 formation.

  13. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SSP-9) derived from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that expresses type I ifn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Saint-Jean, S; González, C; Monrás, M; Romero, A; Ballesteros, N; Enríquez, R; Perez-Prieto, S

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, the establishment and biological characterization of a new cell line, SSP-9, derived from the pronephros of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, are reported. These cells grew well in Leibovitz's (L15) medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum at temperatures from 15 to 25° C, and they have been sub-cultured over 100 passages to produce a continuous cell line with an epithelial-like morphology. The SSP-9 cells attached and spread efficiently at different plating densities, retaining 80% of cell viability after storage in liquid nitrogen. When karyotyped, the cells had 40-52 chromosomes, with a modal number of 48. Viral susceptibility tests showed that SSP-9 cells were susceptible to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, producing infectious virus and regular cytopathic effects. Moreover, these cells could be stimulated by poly I:C, showing significant up-regulation in the expression of the genes that regulate immune responses, such as ifn and mx-1. SSP-9 cells constitutively express genes characteristic of macrophages, such as major histocompatibility complex (mhc-II) and interleukin 12b (il-12b), and flow cytometry assays confirmed that SSP-9 cells can be permanently transfected with plasmids expressing a reporter gene. Accordingly, this new cell line is apparently suitable for transgenic manipulation, and to study host cell-virus interactions and immune processes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential.

  15. Fully-Automated High-Throughput NMR System for Screening of Haploid Kernels of Maize (Corn by Measurement of Oil Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Wang

    Full Text Available One of the modern crop breeding techniques uses doubled haploid plants that contain an identical pair of chromosomes in order to accelerate the breeding process. Rapid haploid identification method is critical for large-scale selections of double haploids. The conventional methods based on the color of the endosperm and embryo seeds are slow, manual and prone to error. On the other hand, there exists a significant difference between diploid and haploid seeds generated by high oil inducer, which makes it possible to use oil content to identify the haploid. This paper describes a fully-automated high-throughput NMR screening system for maize haploid kernel identification. The system is comprised of a sampler unit to select a single kernel to feed for measurement of NMR and weight, and a kernel sorter to distribute the kernel according to the measurement result. Tests of the system show a consistent accuracy of 94% with an average screening time of 4 seconds per kernel. Field test result is described and the directions for future improvement are discussed.

  16. Fully-Automated High-Throughput NMR System for Screening of Haploid Kernels of Maize (Corn) by Measurement of Oil Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Huang, Qingming; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Peiqiang; Chen, Shaojiang; Song, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    One of the modern crop breeding techniques uses doubled haploid plants that contain an identical pair of chromosomes in order to accelerate the breeding process. Rapid haploid identification method is critical for large-scale selections of double haploids. The conventional methods based on the color of the endosperm and embryo seeds are slow, manual and prone to error. On the other hand, there exists a significant difference between diploid and haploid seeds generated by high oil inducer, which makes it possible to use oil content to identify the haploid. This paper describes a fully-automated high-throughput NMR screening system for maize haploid kernel identification. The system is comprised of a sampler unit to select a single kernel to feed for measurement of NMR and weight, and a kernel sorter to distribute the kernel according to the measurement result. Tests of the system show a consistent accuracy of 94% with an average screening time of 4 seconds per kernel. Field test result is described and the directions for future improvement are discussed. PMID:27454427

  17. Inhibition spectrum studies of microthecin and other anhydrofructose derivatives using selected strains of Gram-positive and –negative bacteria, yeast and moulds, and investigation of the cytotoxicity of microthecin to malignant blood cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiskesund, R.; Thomas, L.V.; Schobert, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To prepare 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (AF) derivatives, test their microbial inhibition spectrum, and to further examine the most effective AF derivative against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and malignant blood cell lines. Methods and Results: Microthecin and nine other AF derivatives were synthesized...... both GP and GN bacteria, including Ps. aeruginosa. Further tests with three malignant blood cell lines (Mutu, Ramos, Raji) and one normal cell line indicated that microthecin was a cell toxin, with a cell mortality >85% at 50 ppm. The other nine AF derivatives demonstrated low or no antimicrobial...... activity. Conclusions: Microthecin was active 100–2000 ppm against GP and GN bacteria including Ps. aeruginosa, but was inactive against yeasts and moulds. Microthecin was also a cytotoxin to some mammalian cell lines. Significance and Impact of the Study: Microthecin might have potential for development...

  18. Signaling via class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human, breast-derived cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Juvin

    Full Text Available We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5P3 that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB, and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K, basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/- cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/- MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely

  19. Genotoxic and chemopreventive assessment of Cynara scolymus L. aqueous extract in a human-derived liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Regiane Pereira; Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; de Carli, Raíne Fogliati; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; Lehmann, Mauricio; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, is consumed as food and used as tea infusions for pharmacological purposes to treat liver dysfunctions and other conditions. Scientific data on the safety and protective effect of artichoke in human-derived liver cells is missing. This study investigated the genotoxic and modulatory effect of a liophilized extract suspended in water of C. scolymus L. leaves. Four extract concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using the comet assay on human hepatocyte cultures, HepG2 cells. Genotoxicity was assessed after two treatment periods, 1 and 24 h. Antigenotoxicity was evaluated against oxidative lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide in pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols. Artichoke leaves aqueous extract induced genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells after 1- and 24-h treatments. In turn, extract concentrations of 0.62, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL, exhibited a protective effect in pretreatment, compared to hydrogen peroxide alone. However, in simultaneous and post-treatment protocols, only the lowest concentration reduced the frequency of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, in the simultaneous treatment protocol, the highest artichoke extract concentration increased hydrogen peroxide genotoxicity. It can be concluded that artichoke is genotoxic, in vitro, to HepG2 cells, but can also modulate hydrogen peroxide DNA damage.

  20. Bufalin inhibits the differentiation and proliferation of human osteosarcoma cell line hMG63-derived cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuewen; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhan, Hongsheng; Wei, Xiaoen; Liu, Tianjin; Zheng, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in drug resistance of tumor and are responsible for high recurrence rates. Agents that can suppress the proliferation and differentiation of CSCs would provide new opportunity to fight against tumor recurrence. In this study, we developed a new strategy to enrich CSCs in human osteosarcoma cell line hMG63. Using these CSCs as model, we tested the effect of bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, on the proliferation and differentiation of CSCs. hMG63 cells were cultured in poly-HEMA-treated dish and cancer stem cell-specific medium. In this nonadhesive culture system, hMG63 formed spheres, which were then collected and injected into the immunodeficient mice. Cisplatin was administered every 3 days for five times. The enriched xenograft tumors were cultured in cancer stem cell-specific medium again to form tumor spheres. Expression of cancer stem cell markers of these cells was measured by flow cytometry. These cells were then treated with bufalin, and the proliferation and differentiation ability were indicated by the expression level of molecular markers and the formation of sphere again in vitro. We obtained a low CD133+/CD44 cell population with high-level stem cell marker. When treated with bufalin, the sphere could not get attached to the flask and failed to differentiate, which was indicated by the stable expression of stem cell marker CD133 and OCT-4 in the condition permissive to differentiation. Treatment of bufalin also suppressed the single cells isolated from the sphere to form sphere again in the nonadhesive culture system, and a decreased expression of proliferation marker Ki67 was also detected in these cells. Sphere-formed and chemoresistant colon xenograft tumors in immunodeficient mice could enrich cancer stem cell population. Bufalin could inhibit proliferation and differentiation of CSCs.

  1. Lulo cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae): a novel model to assay Leishmania spp. and vector interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Luzia Mc; Silva, Roger Mm; Pereira, Bernardo As; Guerra, Camila; Zapata, Angela C; Bello, Felio J; Finkelstein, Léa C; Madeira, Maria F; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Alves, Carlos R

    2011-11-14

    Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi are important parasites in the scenario of leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the life cycle of these parasites, the promastigote forms adhere to the midgut epithelial microvillii of phlebotomine insects to avoid being secreted along with digestive products. Lulo cells are a potential model that will help to understand the features of this adhesion phenomenon. Here, we analyze the interaction between Leishmania spp. promastigotes and Lulo cells in vitro, specifically focusing on adhesion events occurring between three Leishmania species and this cell line. Confluent monolayers of Lulo cells were incubated with promastigotes and adhesion was assessed using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that species from the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia have great potential to adhere to Lulo cells. The highest adherence rate was observed for L. (L.) chagasi after 24 h of incubation with Lulo cells (27.3 ± 1.8% of cells with adhered promastigotes), followed by L. (L.) amazonensis (16.0 ± 0.7%) and L. (V.) braziliensis (3.0 ± 0.7%), both after 48 h. In the ultrastructural analysis, promastigote adherence was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy, showing that, for parasites from both subgenera, adhesion occurs by both the body and the flagellum. The interaction of Lulo cells with Leishmania (L.) chagasi showed the participation of cytoplasmic projections from the former closely associating the parasites with the cells. We present evidence that Lulo cells can be useful in studies of insect-parasite interactions for Leishmania species.

  2. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. The gaps may represent single-strand breaks. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or beta-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

  3. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G 2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or #betta#-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G 2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, which destroys H 2 O 2 , or mannitol, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G 2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

  4. Whole-exome sequencing of fibroblast and its iPS cell lines derived from a patient diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum

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    Kohji Okamura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells from a patient with a DNA repair-deficiency disorder are anticipated to bear a large number of somatic mutations. Because such mutations occur independently in each cell, there is a high degree of mosaicism in patients' tissues. While major mutations that have been expanded in many cognate cells are readily detected by sequencing, minor ones are overlaid with a large depth of non-mutated alleles and are not detected. However, cell cloning enables us to observe such cryptic mutations as well as major mutations. In the present study, we focused on a fibroblastic cell line that is derived from a patient diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP, which is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. By making a list of somatic mutations, we can expect to see a characteristic pattern of mutations caused by the hereditary disorder. We cloned a cell by generating an iPS cell line and performed a whole-exome sequencing analysis of the progenitor and its iPS cell lines. Unexpectedly, we failed to find causal mutations in the XP-related genes, but we identified many other mutations including homozygous deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1. In addition, we found that the long arm of chromosome 9 formed uniparental disomy in the iPS cell line, which was also confirmed by a structural mutation analysis using a SNP array. Type and number of somatic mutations were different from those observed in XP patients. Taken together, we conclude that the patient might be affected by a different type of the disorder and that some of the mutations that we identified here may be responsible for exhibiting the phenotype. Sequencing and SNP-array data have been submitted to SRA and GEO under accession numbers SRP059858 and GSE55520, respectively.

  5. Flavokawain derivative FLS induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali NM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Norlaily Mohd Ali,1 M Nadeem Akhtar,2 Huynh Ky,3 Kian Lam Lim,1 Nadiah Abu,4 Seema Zareen,2 Wan Yong Ho,5 Han Kiat Alan-Ong,1 Sheau Wei Tan,6 Noorjahan Banu Alitheen,4 Jamil bin Ismail,2 Swee Keong Yeap,6 Tunku Kamarul7 1Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Selangor, 2Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia; 3Department of Agriculture Genetics and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Cantho University, CanTho City, Vietnam; 4Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 5School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, 6Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 7Tissue Engineering Group, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Known as naturally occurring biologically active compounds, flavokawain A and B are the leading chalcones that possess anticancer properties. Another flavokawain derivative, (E-1-(2'-Hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxyphenyl-3-(4-methylthiophenylprop-2-ene-1-one (FLS was characterized with 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron-impact mas spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet (1H NMR, EI-MS, IR, and UV spectroscopic techniques. FLS cytotoxic efficacy against human cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A resulted in the reduction of IC50 values in a time- and dose-dependent mode with high specificity on MCF-7 (IC50 of 36 µM at 48 hours against normal breast cell MCF-10A (no IC50 detected up to 180 µM at 72 hours. Light, scanning electron, and fluorescent microscopic analysis of MCF-7 cell treated with 36 µM of FLS displayed cell shrinkage, apoptotic body, and DNA fragmentation. Additionally, induction of G2/M cell

  6. Differential expression of IGFBPs in Laron syndrome-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines: Potential correlation with reduced cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somri, Lina; Sarfstein, Rive; Lapkina-Gendler, Lena; Nagaraj, Karthik; Laron, Zvi; Bach, Leon A; Werner, Haim

    2018-04-01

    Laron syndrome (LS), or primary growth hormone (GH) insensitivity, is a growth disorder that results from mutation of the GH-receptor (GHR) gene leading to congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that LS patients are protected from cancer development. Genome-wide profiling identified genes and signaling pathways that are differentially represented in LS patients, and that may contribute to cancer protection. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hypothesis that IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are differentially expressed in LS, most probably as a result of low circulating levels of IGF-1. Furthermore, we postulated that IGFBPs might be differentially regulated by oxidative stress in this condition and, therefore, may contribute to cancer evasion. Our results show that IGFBP-3, which is predominantly protective, was highly expressed in LS-derived lymphoblastoid cells in comparison to control cells from the same ethnic group. On the other hand, levels of IGFBP-2, -4, -5, and -6 were diminished in LS patients, as demonstrated by RQ-PCR, Western immunoblots and confocal immunofluorescence. In addition, our data provide evidence for a pattern of IGFBP response to H 2 O 2 treatment that might be associated with distinct expression of apoptosis markers (BCL2, pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-3) in LS. In summary, differential expression of specific IGFBPs in LS might be correlated with cellular mechanisms underlying cancer protection and, probably, additional phenotypes due to congenital IGF-1 deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum depletion induces changes in protein expression in the trophoblast-derived cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Herran, Susana; Umaña-Perez, Adriana; Canals, Francesc; Sanchez-Gomez, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    How nutrition and growth factor restriction due to serum depletion affect trophoblast function remains poorly understood. We performed a proteomic differential study of the effects of serum depletion on a first trimester human immortalized trophoblast cell line. The viability of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells in culture with 0, 0.5 and 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) were assayed via MTT at 24, 48 and 64 h. A comparative proteomic analysis of the cells grown with those FBS levels for 24 h was performed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), followed by mass spectrometry for protein spot identification, and a database search and bioinformatics analysis of the expressed proteins. Differential spots were identified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ( n  = 3, significance level 0.10, D > 0.642) and/or ANOVA ( n  = 3, p  depletion differentially affect cell growth and protein expression. Differential expression was seen in 25 % of the protein spots grown with 0.5 % FBS and in 84 % of those grown with 0 % FBS, using 10 % serum as the physiological control. In 0.5 % FBS, this difference was related with biological processes typically affected by the serum, such as cell cycle, regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. In addition to these changes, in the serum-depleted proteome we observed downregulation of keratin 8, and upregulation of vimentin, the glycolytic enzymes enolase and pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and tumor progression-related inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) enzyme. The proteins regulated by total serum depletion, but not affected by growth in 0.5 % serum, are members of the glycolytic and nucleotide metabolic pathways and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), suggesting an adaptive switch characteristic of malignant cells. This comparative proteomic analysis and the identified proteins are the first evidence of a protein expression response to serum depletion in a trophoblast cell model. Our results show that

  8. Parallel Solid-Phase Synthesis Using a New Diethylsilylacetylenic Linker and Leading to Mestranol Derivatives with Potent Antiproliferative Activities on Multiple Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutour, Raphael; Maltais, Rene; Perreault, Martin; Roy, Jenny; Poirier, Donald

    2018-03-07

    RM-133 belongs to a new family of aminosteroid derivatives demonstrating interesting anticancer properties, as confirmed in vivo in four mouse cancer xenograft models. However, the metabolic stability of RM-133 needs to be improved. After investigation, the replacement of its androstane scaffold by a more stable estrane scaffold led to the development of the mestranol derivative RM-581. Using solid-phase strategy involving five steps, we quickly synthesized a series of RM-581 analogs using the recently-developed diethylsilyl acetylenic linker. To establish structure-activity relationships, we then investigated their antiproliferative potency on a panel of cancer cell lines from various cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian and pancreatic). Some of the mestranol derivatives have shown in vitro anticancer activities that are close to, or better than those observed for RM-581. Compound 23, a mestranol derivative having a ((3,5-dimethylbenzoyl)-L-prolyl)piperazine side chain at position C2, was found to be active as an antiproliferative agent (IC50 = 0.38 ± 0.34 to 3.17 ± 0.10 µM) and to be twice as active as RM-581 on LNCaP, PC-3, MCF-7, PANC-1 and OVCAR-3 cancer cells (IC50 = 0.56 ± 0.30, 0.89 ± 0.63, 1.36 ± 0.31, 2.47 ± 0.91 and 3.17 ± 0.10 µM, respectively). Easily synthesized in good yields by both solid-phase organic synthesis and classic solution-phase chemistry, this promising candidate could be used as an antiproliferative agent on a variety of cancers, notably pancreatic and ovarian cancers, both having very bad prognoses. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) does not acutely change acetylcholine release in developing and adult neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Priego, Merche; Tomàs, Josep

    2010-08-16

    We use immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic molecule glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1) are present in both neonatal (P6) and adult (P45) rodent neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) colocalized with several synaptic markers. However, incubation with exogenous GDNF (10-200ng/ml, 1-3h), does not affect spontaneous ACh release. Moreover, GDNF does not change the size of the evoked ACh release from the weak and the strong axonal inputs on dually innervated postnatal endplates nor in the most developed singly-innervated synapses at P6 and P45. Our findings indicate that GDNF (unlike neurotrophins) does not acutely modulate transmitter release during the developmental process of synapse elimination nor as the NMJ matures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphorylation of intracellular proteins related to the multihormonal regulation of prolactin: comparison of normal anterior pituitary cells in culture with the tumor-derived GH cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, L.; Boutterin, M.C.; Sobel, A.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified a group of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins (proteins 1-11) whose phosphorylation could be related, on a pharmacological basis, to the multihormonal regulation of PRL synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary tumor-derived GH cell lines. Phosphoproteins with identical migration properties on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were also detectable in normal rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. We designed appropriate culture and [ 32 P] phosphate-labeling conditions allowing to analyze the regulation of the phosphorylation of these proteins in normal pituitary cells. TRH, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced the same qualitative changes in phosphorylation of proteins 1-11 in normal as in GH cells. Quantitative differences observed are most likely due to the heterogeneity of primary pituitary cultures. Phosphorylation changes affecting proteins 14-16, not previously detected in GH cells, were also observed with normal anterior pituitary cells. GH cell lines have lost the sensitivity of pituitary lactotrophs for dopamine, an important physiological inhibitor of PRL synthesis and release. In normal anterior pituitary cells in culture, dopamine inhibited also the TRH-stimulated phosphorylation of proteins 1-10, thus strengthening the correlation between phosphorylation of these proteins and multihormonal regulation of pituitary cell functions. Our results indicate: 1) that the same phosphoproteins as in GH cells are related to the multihormonal regulation of nontumoral, normal anterior pituitary cells in culture; 2) that dopamine acts by interfering with the phosphorylation of these proteins

  11. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerly Vargas Casanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922 and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  12. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Rodríguez Guerra, Jorge Antonio; Umaña Pérez, Yadi Adriana; Leal Castro, Aura Lucía; Almanzar Reina, Giovanni; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny

    2017-09-29

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922) and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  13. Cadmium-109 uptake by tumors derived from Balb C/3T3 cell lines with varying degrees of the transformed phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, K.; Alazraki, N.; Winge, D.; Lynch, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if tumors are rich in metallothionein, the authors measured the vivo uptake of subcutaneously-injected carrier-free cadmium-109 in tumors and in normal tissues of Balb/C mice. The tumors were grown in the mice from cultured Balb/3T3 cells transformed by the Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Uptake of cadmium-109 per gram of tissue was greatest for liver, kidney, and spleen. However, tumor uptake of cadmium-109 was markedly greater than that in blood, skeletal muscle, bones, intestine or adipose tissue. B Sephadex G-75 chromatography, the radioactivity in tumor and in liver lysates eluted with cytochrome-C, a molecule similar in molecular weight to metal-lothionein. To determine if metallothionein levels are related to the degree of malignancy of tumors, cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors from the virally-transformed cells was compared to that in tumors from non-transformed Balb/3T3 cells and two derivative chemically transformed cell lines. There was strong correlation between the substrate-independent growth in soft agarose of the four cell lines, the rate of growth of the corresponding tumors, and the amount of cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors. The authors conclude that metallothionein levels may be elevated in tumors as a function of the degree of expression of the transformed phenotype

  14. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 (Mrp3/Abcc3/Moat-D) Is Expressed in the SAE Squalus acanthias Shark Embryo–Derived Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Durkin, Christopher; Kong, Chi-Chon; Barnes, David

    2008-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3/Mrp3) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family of membrane transporters and related proteins that act on a variety of xenobiotic and anionic molecules to transfer these substrates in an ATP-dependent manner. In recent years, useful comparative information regarding evolutionarily conserved structure and transport functions of these proteins has accrued through the use of primitive marine animals such as cartilaginous fish. Until recently, one missing tool in comparative studies with cartilaginous fish was cell culture. We have derived from the embryo of Squalus acanthias, the spiny dogfish shark, the S. acanthias embryo (SAE) mesenchymal stem cell line. This is the first continuously proliferating cell line from a cartilaginous fish. We identified expression of Mrp3 in this cell line, cloned the molecule, and examined molecular and cellular physiological aspects of the protein. Shark Mrp3 is characterized by three membrane-spanning domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. Multiple alignments with other species showed that the shark Mrp3 amino acid sequence was well conserved. The shark sequence was overall 64% identical to human MRP3, 72% identical to chicken Mrp3, and 71% identical to frog and stickleback Mrp3. Highest identity between shark and human amino acid sequence (82%) was seen in the carboxyl-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the proteins. Cell culture experiments showed that mRNA for the protein was induced as much as 25-fold by peptide growth factors, fetal bovine serum, and lipid nutritional components, with the largest effect mediated by a combination of lipids including unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamin E. PMID:18284333

  15. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3/Abcc3/Moat-D) is expressed in the SAE Squalus acanthias shark embryo-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Durkin, Christopher; Kong, Chi-Chon; Barnes, David

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3/Mrp3) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family of membrane transporters and related proteins that act on a variety of xenobiotic and anionic molecules to transfer these substrates in an ATP-dependent manner. In recent years, useful comparative information regarding evolutionarily conserved structure and transport functions of these proteins has accrued through the use of primitive marine animals such as cartilaginous fish. Until recently, one missing tool in comparative studies with cartilaginous fish was cell culture. We have derived from the embryo of Squalus acanthias, the spiny dogfish shark, the S. acanthias embryo (SAE) mesenchymal stem cell line. This is the first continuously proliferating cell line from a cartilaginous fish. We identified expression of Mrp3 in this cell line, cloned the molecule, and examined molecular and cellular physiological aspects of the protein. Shark Mrp3 is characterized by three membrane-spanning domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. Multiple alignments with other species showed that the shark Mrp3 amino acid sequence was well conserved. The shark sequence was overall 64% identical to human MRP3, 72% identical to chicken Mrp3, and 71% identical to frog and stickleback Mrp3. Highest identity between shark and human amino acid sequence (82%) was seen in the carboxyl-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the proteins. Cell culture experiments showed that mRNA for the protein was induced as much as 25-fold by peptide growth factors, fetal bovine serum, and lipid nutritional components, with the largest effect mediated by a combination of lipids including unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamin E.

  16. Cells for bioartificial liver devices: the human hepatoma-derived cell line C3A produces urea but does not detoxify ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Damelin, Leonard H; Eaton, Simon; Rees, Myrddin; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey J F

    2008-02-15

    Extrahepatic bioartificial liver devices should provide an intact urea cycle to detoxify ammonia. The C3A cell line, a subclone of the hepatoma-derived HepG2 cell line, is currently used in this context as it produces urea, and this has been assumed to be reflective of ammonia detoxification via a functional urea cycle. However, based on our previous findings of perturbed urea-cycle function in the non-urea producing HepG2 cell line, we hypothesized that the urea produced by C3A cells was via a urea cycle-independent mechanism, namely, due to arginase II activity, and therefore would not detoxify ammonia. Urea was quantified using (15)N-ammonium chloride metabolic labelling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, protein expression by western blotting, and functional activities with radiolabelling enzyme assays. Arginase inhibition studies used N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine. Urea was detected in C3A conditioned medium; however, (15)N-ammonium chloride-labelling indicated that (15)N-ammonia was not incorporated into (15)N-labelled urea. Further, gene expression of two urea cycle genes, ornithine transcarbamylase and arginase I, were completely absent. In contrast, arginase II mRNA and protein was expressed at high levels in C3A cells and was inhibited by N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, which prevented urea production, thereby indicating a urea cycle-independent pathway. The urea cycle is non-functional in C3A cells, and their urea production is solely due to the presence of arginase II, which therefore cannot provide ammonia detoxification in a bioartificial liver system. This emphasizes the continued requirement for developing a component capable of a full repertoire of liver function. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Permenter

    Full Text Available Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and chromium (Cr are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells.

  18. Derivative spectrum chromatographic method for the determination of trimethoprim in honey samples using an on-line solid-phase extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Kondo, Mari; Yokochi, Rika; Takeuchi, Yuri; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2011-07-01

    A simple, selective and rapid analytical method for determination of trimethoprim (TMP) in honey samples was developed and validated. This method is based on a SPE technique followed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. After dilution and filtration, aliquots of 500 μL honey samples were directly injected to an on-line SPE HPLC system. TMP was extracted on an RP SPE column, and separated on a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column during HPLC analysis. At the first detection step, the noise level of the photodiode array data was reduced with two-dimensional equalizer filtering, and then the smoothed data were subjected to derivative spectrum chromatography. On the second-derivative chromatogram at 254 nm, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of TMP in a honey sample were 5 and 10 ng/g, respectively. The proposed method showed high accuracy (60-103%) with adequate sensitivity for TMP monitoring in honey samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and endothelial cells promote self-renewal of rabbit germ cells with spermatogonial stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Wu, Xin; Goodyear, Shaun M; Avarbock, Mary R; Brinster, Ralph L

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that exogenous factors crucial for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal are conserved among several mammalian species. Since glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are critical for rodent SSC self-renewal, we hypothesized that they might promote self-renewal of nonrodent SSCs. Therefore, we cultured testicular germ cells from prepubertal rabbits in the presence of GDNF and FGF2 and found they proliferated indefinitely as cellular clumps that displayed characteristics previously identified for rodent SSCs. The rabbit germ cells could not be maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (STO) feeders that support rodent SSC self-renewal in vitro but were rather supported on mouse yolk sac-derived endothelial cell (C166) feeder layers. Proliferation of rabbit germ cells was dependent on GDNF. Of critical importance was that clump-forming rabbit germ cells colonized seminiferous tubules of immunodeficient mice, proliferated for at least 6 mo, while retaining an SSC phenotype in the testes of recipient mice, indicating that they were rabbit SSCs. This study demonstrates that GDNF is a mitogenic factor promoting self-renewal that is conserved between rodent and rabbit SSCs; with an evolutionary separation of ∼ 60 million years. These findings provide a foundation to study the mechanisms governing SSC self-renewal in nonrodent species.

  20. Competition between the sperm of a single male can increase the evolutionary rate of haploid expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, Kiyoshi; Innan, Hideki

    2013-07-01

    The population genetic behavior of mutations in sperm genes is theoretically investigated. We modeled the processes at two levels. One is the standard population genetic process, in which the population allele frequencies change generation by generation, depending on the difference in selective advantages. The other is the sperm competition during each genetic transmission from one generation to the next generation. For the sperm competition process, we formulate the situation where a huge number of sperm with alleles A and B, produced by a single heterozygous male, compete to fertilize a single egg. This "minimal model" demonstrates that a very slight difference in sperm performance amounts to quite a large difference between the alleles' winning probabilities. By incorporating this effect of paternity-sharing sperm competition into the standard population genetic process, we show that fierce sperm competition can enhance the fixation probability of a mutation with a very small phenotypic effect at the single-sperm level, suggesting a contribution of sperm competition to rapid amino acid substitutions in haploid-expressed sperm genes. Considering recent genome-wide demonstrations that a substantial fraction of the mammalian sperm genes are haploid expressed, our model could provide a potential explanation of rapid evolution of sperm genes with a wide variety of functions (as long as they are expressed in the haploid phase). Another advantage of our model is that it is applicable to a wide range of species, irrespective of whether the species is externally fertilizing, polygamous, or monogamous. The theoretical result was applied to mammalian data to estimate the selection intensity on nonsynonymous mutations in sperm genes.

  1. The role of epistatic interactions underpinning resistance to parasitic Varroa mites in haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Benjamin H; Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter; Locke, Barbara; Moritz, Robin F A; Routtu, Jarkko

    2018-06-01

    The Red Queen hypothesis predicts that host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics can select for host resistance through increased genetic diversity, recombination and evolutionary rates. However, in haplodiploid organisms such as the honeybee (Apis mellifera), models suggest the selective pressure is weaker than in diploids. Haplodiploid sex determination, found in A. mellifera, can allow deleterious recessive alleles to persist in the population through the diploid sex with negative effects predominantly expressed in the haploid sex. To overcome these negative effects in haploid genomes, epistatic interactions have been hypothesized to play an important role. Here, we use the interaction between A. mellifera and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor to test epistasis in the expression of resistance, through the inhibition of parasite reproduction, in haploid drones. We find novel loci on three chromosomes which explain over 45% of the resistance phenotype. Two of these loci interact only additively, suggesting their expression is independent of each other, but both loci interact epistatically with the third locus. With drone offspring inheriting only one copy of the queen's chromosomes, the drones will only possess one of two queen alleles throughout the years-long lifetime of the honeybee colony. Varroa, in comparison, completes its highly inbred reproductive cycle in a matter of weeks, allowing it to rapidly evolve resistance. Faced with the rapidly evolving Varroa, a diversity of pathways and epistatic interactions for the inhibition of Varroa reproduction could therefore provide a selective advantage to the high levels of recombination seen in A. mellifera. This allows for the remixing of phenotypes despite a fixed queen genotype. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducing activity of the synthesized 4-aryl-4H-chromenes derivatives against human cancer cell lines

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    Mohagheghi MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: 4-Aryl-4H-chromenes are novel anticancer agents which induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These compounds were found to induce apoptosis by targeting the tubulin/microtubule system in cell proliferation process. The aim of this study was to report cyototoxic and apoptosis inducing activities of a new series of synthesized 4-aryl-4H-chromenes compounds."n"n Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthesized 4-aryl-4H-chromenes was investigated against a paned of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (breast carcinoma, A549 (lung carcinoma, HEPG-2 (liver carcinoma, SW-480 (colon adenocarcinoma, U87-MG (glioblastoma, 1321N1 (astrocytoma, and DAOY (medulloblastoma. The percentage of growth inhibitory activity was evaluated using MTT colorimetric assay versus controls not treated with test derivatives. The data for etoposide, a well known anticancer drug, was included for comparison. For each compound, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 were determined. Apoptosis inducing activity were assessed by DAPI staining."n"n Results: Preliminary screening showed that those chromenes analogs bearing phenyl-isoxazole-3-yl substitution or the derivatives containing methoxyphenyl in chromene ring exhibited

  3. Cloning of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus into a baculovirus derived bacmid shuttle vector, in order to express it in insect cell line

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    Hashemzadeh MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Newcastle disease virus (NDV is one of the major pathogens in poultry and vaccination is intended to control the disease, as an effective solution, yet. Fusion protein (F on surface of NDV, has a fundamental role in virus pathogenicity and can induce protective immunity, alone. With this background, here our aim was to construct a baculovirus derived recombinant bacmid shuttle vector (encoding F-protein in order to express it in insect cell line. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, at first complete F gene from avirulent strain La Sota of NDV was amplified by RT-PCR to produce F cDNA. The amplicon was cloned into T/A cloning vector and afterwards into pFastBac Dual donor plasmid. After the verification of cloning process by two methods, PCR and enzymatic digestion analysis, the accuracy of F gene sequence was confirmed by sequencing. Finally, F-containing recombinant bacmid was subsequently generated in DH10Bac cell and the construct production was confirmed by a special PCR panel, using F specific primers and M13 universal primers. Results: Analysis of confirmatory tests showed that the recombinant bacmid, expressing of F-protein gene in correct sequence and framework, has been constructed successfully. Conclusion: The product of this F-containing recombinant bacmid, in addition to its independent application in the induction of protective immunity, can be used with the other individual recombinant baculoviruses, expressing HN and NP genes to produce NDV-VLPs in insect cell line.

  4. Inhibition of Mevalonate Pathway and Synthesis of the Storage Lipids in Human Liver-Derived and Non-liver Cell Lines by Lippia alba Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Villegas, Sandra; Polo, Mónica; Galle, Marianela; Rodenak-Kladniew, Boris; Castro, María; Ves-Losada, Ana; Crespo, Rosana; García de Bravo, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP). [ 14 C]Acetate was used as radioactive precursor for assays. Lipid analyses were performed by thin-layer and capillary gas chromatography, lipid droplets analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, and HMGCR levels determined by Western blot. In both cell lines, all four chemotypes exerted hypocholesterogenic effects within a concentration range of 3.2-32 µg/mL. Nonsaponifiable lipids manifested a decrease in incorporation of [ 14 C]acetate into squalene, lanosterol, lathosterol, and cholesterol, but not into ubiquinone, thus suggesting an inhibition of enzymes in the MP downstream from farnesyl pyrophosphate. The tagetenone chemotype, the most efficacious hypocholesterogenic L. alba EO, lowered HMGCR protein levels; inhibited triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids synthesis; and diminished lipid droplets in size and volume. These results revealed that L. alba EOs inhibited different lipogenic pathways and such lipid-lowering effects could prove essential to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  5. An in vitro, short-term culture method for mammalian haploid round spermatids amenable for molecular manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnugara, Tushna; Dhar, Surbhi; Rao, M R Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive chromatin remodeling is a characteristic feature of mammalian spermiogenesis. To date, methods for the molecular manipulation of haploid spermatids are not available as there is a lack of a well-established culture system. Biochemical experiments and knockout studies reveal only the final outcome; studying the incremental details of the intricate mechanisms involved is still a challenge. We have established an in vitro culture system for pure haploid round spermatids isolated from rat testes that can be maintained with good viability for up to 72 hr. Changes in cell morphology and flagellar growth were also studied in the cultured spermatids. Further, we have demonstrated that upon treatment of cells with specific histone deacetylase inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, there is an increase in the hyperacetylation status of histone H4, mimicking an important event characteristic of histone replacement process that occurs during later stages of spermiogenesis. We have also tried various methods for introducing DNA and protein into these round spermatids in culture, and report that while DNA transfection is still a challenging task, protein transfection could be achieved using Chariot™ peptide as a transfection reagent. Thus, the method described here sets a stage to study the molecular roles of spermatid-specific proteins and chromatin remodelers in the cellular context. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:25148043

  7. Standing at the gateway to Europe--the genetic structure of Western balkan populations based on autosomal and haploid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula.

  8. Organotypic culture of normal, dysplastic and squamous cell carcinoma-derived oral cell lines reveals loss of spatial regulation of CD44 and p75 NTR in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Andrew J; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Upton, Zee; Farah, Camile S

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) often arise from dysplastic lesions. The role of cancer stem cells in tumour initiation is widely accepted, yet the potential existence of pre-cancerous stem cells in dysplastic tissue has received little attention. Cell lines from oral diseases ranging in severity from dysplasia to malignancy provide opportunity to investigate the involvement of stem cells in malignant progression from dysplasia. Stem cells are functionally defined by their ability to generate hierarchical tissue structures in consortium with spatial regulation. Organotypic cultures readily display tissue hierarchy in vitro; hence, in this study, we compared hierarchical expression of stem cell-associated markers in dermis-based organotypic cultures of oral epithelial cells from normal tissue (OKF6-TERT2), mild dysplasia (DOK), severe dysplasia (POE-9n) and OSCC (PE/CA P J15). Expression of CD44, p75(NTR), CD24 and ALDH was studied in monolayers by flow cytometry and in organotypic cultures by immunohistochemistry. Spatial regulation of CD44 and p75(NTR) was evident for organotypic cultures of normal (OKF6-TERT2) and dysplasia (DOK and POE-9n) but was lacking for OSCC (PE/CA PJ15)-derived cells. Spatial regulation of CD24 was not evident. All monolayer cultures exhibited CD44, p75(NTR), CD24 antigens and ALDH activity (ALDEFLUOR(®) assay), with a trend towards loss of population heterogeneity that mirrored disease severity. In monolayer, increased FOXA1 and decreased FOXA2 expression correlated with disease severity, but OCT3/4, Sox2 and NANOG did not. We conclude that dermis-based organotypic cultures give opportunity to investigate the mechanisms that underlie loss of spatial regulation of stem cell markers seen with OSCC-derived cells. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The Effects of Low-Dose Bisphenol A and Bisphenol F on Neural Differentiation of a Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuki; Miyazaki, Wataru; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Katoh, Takahiko

    2018-01-01

    Environmental chemicals are known to disrupt the endocrine system in humans and to have adverse effects on several organs including the developing brain. Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental chemicals during gestation can interfere with neuronal differentiation, subsequently affecting normal brain development in newborns. Xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used in plastic products, is one such chemical. Adverse effects of exposure to BPA during pre- and postnatal periods include the disruption of brain function. However, the effect of BPA on neural differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of BPA or bisphenol F (BPF), an alternative compound for BPA, on neural differentiation using ReNcell, a human fetus-derived neural progenitor cell line. Maintenance in growth factor-free medium initiated the differentiation of ReNcell to neuronal cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We exposed the cells to BPA or BPF for 3 days from the period of initiation and performed real-time PCR for neural markers such as β III-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Olig2. The β III-tubulin mRNA level decreased in response to BPA, but not BPF, exposure. We also observed that the number of β III-tubulin-positive cells in the BPA-exposed group was less than that of the control group. On the other hand, there were no changes in the MAP2 mRNA level. These results indicate that BPA disrupts neural differentiation in human-derived neural progenitor cells, potentially disrupting brain development.

  10. Tetraethylammonium block of water flux in Aquaporin-1 channels expressed in kidney thin limbs of Henle's loop and a kidney-derived cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannabecker Thomas L

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 channels are constitutively active water channels that allow rapid transmembrane osmotic water flux, and also serve as cyclic-GMP-gated ion channels. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 0.05 to 10 mM was shown previously to inhibit the osmotic water permeability of human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The purpose of the present study was to determine if TEA blocks osmotic water flux of native AQP1 channels in kidney, and recombinant AQP1 channels expressed in a kidney derived MDCK cell line. We also demonstrate that TEA does not inhibit the cGMP-dependent ionic conductance of AQP1 expressed in oocytes, supporting the idea that water and ion fluxes involve pharmacologically distinct pathways in the AQP1 tetrameric complex. Results TEA blocked water permeability of AQP1 channels in kidney and kidney-derived cells, demonstrating this effect is not limited to the oocyte expression system. Equivalent inhibition is seen in MDCK cells with viral-mediated AQP1 expression, and in rat renal descending thin limbs of Henle's loops which abundantly express native AQP1, but not in ascending thin limbs which do not express AQP1. External TEA (10 mM does not block the cGMP-dependent AQP1 ionic conductance, measured by two-electrode voltage clamp after pre-incubation of oocytes in 8Br-cGMP (10–50 mM or during application of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (2–4 mM. Conclusions TEA selectively inhibits osmotic water permeability through native and heterologously expressed AQP1 channels. The pathways for water and ions in AQP1 differ in pharmacological sensitivity to TEA, and are consistent with the idea of independent solute pathways within the channel structure. The results confirm the usefulness of TEA as a pharmacological tool for the analysis of AQP1 function.

  11. The Effects of Low-Dose Bisphenol A and Bisphenol F on Neural Differentiation of a Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujiwara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals are known to disrupt the endocrine system in humans and to have adverse effects on several organs including the developing brain. Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental chemicals during gestation can interfere with neuronal differentiation, subsequently affecting normal brain development in newborns. Xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA, which is widely used in plastic products, is one such chemical. Adverse effects of exposure to BPA during pre- and postnatal periods include the disruption of brain function. However, the effect of BPA on neural differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of BPA or bisphenol F (BPF, an alternative compound for BPA, on neural differentiation using ReNcell, a human fetus-derived neural progenitor cell line. Maintenance in growth factor-free medium initiated the differentiation of ReNcell to neuronal cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We exposed the cells to BPA or BPF for 3 days from the period of initiation and performed real-time PCR for neural markers such as β III-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and Olig2. The β III-tubulin mRNA level decreased in response to BPA, but not BPF, exposure. We also observed that the number of β III-tubulin-positive cells in the BPA-exposed group was less than that of the control group. On the other hand, there were no changes in the MAP2 mRNA level. These results indicate that BPA disrupts neural differentiation in human-derived neural progenitor cells, potentially disrupting brain development.

  12. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Camila ML; Boetcher-Luiz, Fátima; Verinaud, Liana; Ikemori, Rafael Y; Zorzeto, Tatiana Q; Nogueira, Ana CMA; Barbosa, Suse DS; Savino, Wilson; Schenka, André A; Vassallo, José; Heinrich, Juliana K

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60 th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results showed that NG97(ht) had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht) revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells with stromal murine cells in the xenotransplant. In

  13. Establishment and cryopreservation of a skin fibroblast cell line derived from Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep in the presence of synthetic ice blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai Shuai; Li, Dong Jiang; Lv, Chun Rong; Yang, Hong Yuan; Zhu, Lan; Li, Wei Juan; Quan, Guo Bo; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the fibroblasts cell line derived from ear marginal tissue of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep was successfully established using the primary explants technique and cryopreservation technology. Additionally, the protective effect of synthetic ice blocker (SIB) including 1, 3-cyclohexanediol (1, 3-CHD) and 1, 4-cyclohexanediol (1, 4-CHD) on frozen fibroblast cells was also assessed and compared. Propidium iodide (PI) was used to stain the dead cells following cryopreservation and thawing. The results showed that compared with Medium 199 (M199) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium : Nutrient Mixture F-12 (1 : 1) Mixture (DMEM/F12), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) may be more suitable for the primary culture of fibroblast cells of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep. The growth curve of cells is a typical "S" type. After subculture for four days, the cells entered the plateau phase and began to degenerate. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for subculturing fibroblast cells was approximately 26h. The Karyotyping data indicated that the percentage of fibroblast cells with normal chromosome number 2n = 54 was over 90% following subculture for 10 passages. Moreover, the tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were negative. After serial subculture for 5 generations, the fibroblast cells were cryopreserved in the presence or absence of 1, 3-CHD or 1, 4-CHD. The data indicated that with increase of the synthetic ice blocker concentrations, the viability of frozen-thawed fibroblast cells was firstly increased and then decreased. When the concentration of 1, 3-CHD or 1, 4-CHD was 50 mM, the viable percentage of frozen-thawed fibroblast cells was 91.93% +/- 2.24% and 94.13% +/- 0.55% respectively and significantly higher than that of the cells frozen in the absence of synthetic ice blockers (88.10% +/- 1.49%, P skin fibroblast cell line of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep was firstly established in this study. Additionally

  14. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Juliana K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. Methods This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results Results showed that NG97(ht had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells

  15. Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Gao, Peng; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; He, Min-Di; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to mobile phone radiation (MPR) can induce DNA damage in male germ cells. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to a commercial mobile phone handset once every 20 min in standby, listen, dialed or dialing modes for 24 h. DNA damage was determined using an alkaline comet assay. The levels of DNA damage were significantly increased following exposure to MPR in the listen, dialed and dialing modes. Moreover, there were significantly higher increases in the dialed and dialing modes than in the listen mode. Interestingly, these results were consistent with the radiation intensities of these modes. However, the DNA damage effects of MPR in the dialing mode were efficiently attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. These results regarding mode-dependent DNA damage have important implications for the safety of inappropriate mobile phone use by males of reproductive age and also suggest a simple preventive measure: Keeping mobile phones as far away from our body as possible, not only during conversations but during 'dialed' and 'dialing' operation modes. Since the 'dialed' mode is actually part of the standby mode, mobile phones should be kept at a safe distance from our body even during standby operation. Furthermore, the protective role of melatonin suggests that it may be a promising pharmacological candidate for preventing mobile phone use-related reproductive impairments.

  16. Establishment and characterization of murine small cell lung carcinoma cell lines derived from HPV-16 E6/E7 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraresi, Laura; Martinelli, Rosanna; Vannoni, Alessandro; Riccio, Massimo; Dembic, Maja; Tripodi, Sergio; Cintorino, Marcella; Santi, Spartaco; Bigliardi, Elisa; Carmellini, Mario; Rossini, Mara

    2006-01-08

    We have established two murine cell lines derived from Small Cell Lung Carcinomas (SCLCs) developed by HPV-E6/E7 transgenic mice. These cells named PPAP-9 and PPAP-10 were isolated from mice bearing tumors, 9 and 10 months old, respectively. The cells, 5 microm in diameter, express HPV oncoproteins and sustain tumor formation after subcutaneous injection in syngenic mice. A detailed analysis indicated the epithelial origin and the neuroendocrine differentiation of these cells. We showed by confocal immunofluorescence the expression of the epithelial marker cytokeratin 5, whose gene promoter was used to direct the expression of HPV E6/E. Cells express several neuroendocrine markers such as CGRP, MAP-2, Ash1, CgrA, Scg2. The neuroendocrine differentiation of these cells was further confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating neuropeptides secreting granules in their cytoplasm. Furthermore, in agreement with the altered expression observed in the majority of human SCLC we showed in these cells the absence of both p53 and pRB and a dramatic reduction in the expression of Caveolin-1.

  17. The high-risk HPV E6 target scribble (hScrib is required for HPV E6 expression in cervical tumour-derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kranjec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins to target cellular proteins which harbor PDZ domains is believed to play an important role in the virus life cycle and to influence the ability of these viruses to bring about malignant transformation. Whilst many of these PDZ proteins are potential tumour suppressors, involved in the control of cell polarity and cell-contact, recent studies suggest that mislocalisation or overexpression might result in the emergence of oncogenic functions. This has been shown most clearly for two E6 targets, hDlg and hScrib. In this study we show that hScrib plays such a role in HeLa cells, where its expression is required for maintaining high levels of HPV-18 E6 protein. Loss of hScrib has no effect on E6 stability but results in lower levels of E6 transcription and a reduced rate of E6 translation. We further show that, in the context of cervical tumour-derived cell lines, both hScrib and E6 cooperate in the activation of the S6 kinase signaling pathway, and thereby contribute towards maintaining high rates of protein translation. These results indicate that the residual hScrib that is present within HPV transformed cells is pro-oncogenic, and highlights the dual functions of E6 cell polarity targets. Keywords: HPV E6, hScrib, S6 kinase, Protein translation

  18. Comparison of high-latitude line-of-sight ozone column density with derived ozone fields and the effects of horizontal inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Swartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive ozone measurements were made during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II. We compare high-latitude line-of-sight (LOS slant column ozone measurements from the NASA DC-8 to ozone simulated by forward integration of measurement-derived ozone fields constructed both with and without the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The average bias and rms error of the simulations assuming homogeneity are relatively small (−6 and 10%, respectively in comparison to the LOS measurements. The comparison improves significantly (−2% bias; 8% rms error using forward integrations of three-dimensional proxy ozone fields reconstructed from potential vorticity-O3 correlations. The comparisons provide additional verification of the proxy fields and quantify the influence of large-scale ozone inhomogeneity. The spatial inhomogeneity of the atmosphere is a source of error in the retrieval of trace gas vertical profiles and column abundance from LOS measurements, as well as a complicating factor in intercomparisons that include LOS measurements at large solar zenith angles.

  19. Visual detection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yong; Xing, Tao; Du, Li-Xin; Li, Qing-Min; Liu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Ji-Yue; Cai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. Detection of GDNF is vital to monitoring the survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, the specific method for GDNF detection is also un-discovered. The purpose of this study is to explore the method for protein detection of GDNF. A novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction (ISDPR) has been proposed for the detection of GDNF. In this study, a molecular translator was employed to convert the input protein to output deoxyribonucleic acid signal, which was further amplified by ISDPR. The product of ISDPR was detected by a lateral flow biosensor within 30 minutes. This novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and ISDPR has very high sensitivity and selectivity, with a dynamic response ranging from 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 1 pg/mL of GDNF. This novel visual detection method exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity, which is very simple and universal for GDNF detection to help disease therapy in clinical practice.

  20. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2016-01-15

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor into Liposomes across the Blood-Brain Barrier: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoling Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0–1 h in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system.

  2. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy [Argicultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Henry T. [Texas Tech Univ., Department of Plant and Soil Science, Lubbock TX (United States)

    2001-03-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F{sub 2} mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  3. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F 2 mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  4. Cell Line Derived Multi-Gene Predictor of Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: A Validation Study on US Oncology 02-103 Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Kui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to assess the predictive accuracy of a multi-gene predictor of response to docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy on gene expression data from patients who received these drugs as neoadjuvant treatment. Methods Tumor samples were obtained from patients with stage II-III breast cancer before starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC followed by four cycles of docetaxel/capecitabine (TX on US Oncology clinical trial 02-103. Most patients with HER-2-positive cancer also received trastuzumab (H. The chemotherapy predictor (TFEC-MGP was developed from publicly available gene expression data of 42 breast cancer cell-lines with corresponding in vitro chemotherapy sensitivity results for the four chemotherapy drugs. No predictor was developed for treatment with trastuzumab. The predictive performance of TFEC-MGP in distinguishing cases with pathologic complete response from those with residual disease was evaluated for the FEC/TX and FEC/TX plus H group separately. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC was used as the metric of predictive performance. Genomic predictions were performed blinded to clinical outcome. Results The AU-ROC was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57-0.82 for the FEC/TX group (n=66 and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20-0.66 for the FEC/TX plus H group (n=25. Among the patients treated with FEC/TX, the AU-ROC was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52-0.86 for estrogen receptor (ER-negative (n=28 and it was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.36-0.82 for ER-positive cancers (n=37. ER status was not reported for one patient. Conclusions Our results indicate that the cell line derived 291-probeset genomic predictor of response to FEC/TX combination chemotherapy shows good performance in a blinded validation study, particularly in ER-negative patients.

  5. Strategies for implementing genomic selection in family-based aquaculture breeding schemes: double haploid sib test populations

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    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation studies have shown that accuracy and genetic gain are increased in genomic selection schemes compared to traditional aquaculture sib-based schemes. In genomic selection, accuracy of selection can be maximized by increasing the precision of the estimation of SNP effects and by maximizing the relationships between test sibs and candidate sibs. Another means of increasing the accuracy of the estimation of SNP effects is to create individuals in the test population with extreme genotypes. The latter approach was studied here with creation of double haploids and use of non-random mating designs. Methods Six alternative breeding schemes were simulated in which the design of the test population was varied: test sibs inherited maternal (Mat, paternal (Pat or a mixture of maternal and paternal (MatPat double haploid genomes or test sibs were obtained by maximum coancestry mating (MaxC, minimum coancestry mating (MinC, or random (RAND mating. Three thousand test sibs and 3000 candidate sibs were genotyped. The test sibs were recorded for a trait that could not be measured on the candidates and were used to estimate SNP effects. Selection was done by truncation on genome-wide estimated breeding values and 100 individuals were selected as parents each generation, equally divided between both sexes. Results Results showed a 7 to 19% increase in selection accuracy and a 6 to 22% increase in genetic gain in the MatPat scheme compared to the RAND scheme. These increases were greater with lower heritabilities. Among all other scenarios, i.e. Mat, Pat, MaxC, and MinC, no substantial differences in selection accuracy and genetic gain were observed. Conclusions In conclusion, a test population designed with a mixture of paternal and maternal double haploids, i.e. the MatPat scheme, increases substantially the accuracy of selection and genetic gain. This will be particularly interesting for traits that cannot be recorded on the

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and CYP1A induction by cooked food-derived carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in human HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Masashi; Sumi, Haruna; Hosaka, Takuomi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-11-01

    The ability of nine cooked food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-6-methylpyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-pyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole hydrochloride (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), to activate human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR) was examined using a HepG2-A10 cell line, which has previously established from human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells for use in hAhR-based luciferase reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, AαC, MeAαC, IQ and MeIQx showed a definite ability to induce not only luciferase (hAhR activation) in HepG2-A10 cells but also cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1/1A2 mRNAs in HepG2 cells, while such the ability of Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, and PhIP was very low. In addition, all the HCAs examined, especially MeAαC and MeIQx, had a definite capacity for inhibiting the activity of ethoxyresorfin O-deethylase (CYP1As, especially CYP1A1). The present findings demonstrate that all the HCAs examined have the ability to activate hAhR and its target genes, and further confirm that these HCAs become good substrates for human CYP1A subfamily enzyme(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of 6-mercaptopurine nucleotide derivatives on the growth and survival of 6-mercaptopurine-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, H P; Hawley, P; White, S E; Gibson, I; Tidd, D M

    1985-04-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (MP)-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines were used to further characterize the apparent ability of MP nucleotide derivatives to overcome resistance to the parent drug. 6-Mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphate [MPRP], bis(6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(MPR)P], bis(O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(dibut.MPR)P], and O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphate [dibut.MPRP] were tested for cytotoxic and/or growth inhibitory effects against MP-resistant sublines of V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (CH/TG) and L1210 mouse leukaemia cells (L1210/MPR) in which deficiencies of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, and hence drug nucleotide forming capacity were the basis of resistance. L1210/MPR cells were totally resistant to 1 mM 6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside [MPR] and 2 mM MPRP, but were inhibited by high concentrations (greater than 0.25 mM) of bis(MPR)P. These results suggested that bis(MPR)P was taken up by cells as the intact molecule since MPR and MPRP were its extracellular breakdown products. L1210/MPR cells were much more sensitive to the lipophilic bis(dibut.MPR)P derivative which had a predominantly cytotoxic action as judged by trypan blue staining and the ability of treated cells to produce macroscopic colonies in soft agar medium. However, cells killed by bis(dibut.MPR)P did not disintegrate appreciably over periods of up to 10 days. The effects of bis(dibut.MPR)P were probably the result of cellular uptake of the intact molecule. Dibut.MPRP showed minimal ability to inhibit L1210/MPR cells although this compound was a possible breakdown product of bis(dibut.MPR)P and a source of the same extracellular degradation products. The median cell size decreased in L1210/MPR cultures during exposure to both bis(MPR)P and bis(dibut.MPR)P. This effect was elicited more rapidly and

  8. The effects of 6-mercaptopurine nucleotide derivatives on the growth and survival of 6-mercaptopurine-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, H. P.; Hawley, P.; White, S. E.; Gibson, I.; Tidd, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (MP)-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines were used to further characterize the apparent ability of MP nucleotide derivatives to overcome resistance to the parent drug. 6-Mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphate [MPRP], bis(6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(MPR)P], bis(O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(dibut.MPR)P], and O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphate [dibut.MPRP] were tested for cytotoxic and/or growth inhibitory effects against MP-resistant sublines of V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (CH/TG) and L1210 mouse leukaemia cells (L1210/MPR) in which deficiencies of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, and hence drug nucleotide forming capacity were the basis of resistance. L1210/MPR cells were totally resistant to 1 mM 6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside [MPR] and 2 mM MPRP, but were inhibited by high concentrations (greater than 0.25 mM) of bis(MPR)P. These results suggested that bis(MPR)P was taken up by cells as the intact molecule since MPR and MPRP were its extracellular breakdown products. L1210/MPR cells were much more sensitive to the lipophilic bis(dibut.MPR)P derivative which had a predominantly cytotoxic action as judged by trypan blue staining and the ability of treated cells to produce macroscopic colonies in soft agar medium. However, cells killed by bis(dibut.MPR)P did not disintegrate appreciably over periods of up to 10 days. The effects of bis(dibut.MPR)P were probably the result of cellular uptake of the intact molecule. Dibut.MPRP showed minimal ability to inhibit L1210/MPR cells although this compound was a possible breakdown product of bis(dibut.MPR)P and a source of the same extracellular degradation products. The median cell size decreased in L1210/MPR cultures during exposure to both bis(MPR)P and bis(dibut.MPR)P. This effect was elicited more rapidly and

  9. Generation of an iPS cell line via a non-integrative method using urine-derived cells from a patient with USH2A-associated retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We have established an induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell line using urine-derived cells from a 27-year-old male patient with retinitis pigmentosa associated with point mutations in the USH2A gene. Feeder-free culture conditions and the integration-free CytoTune™-iPS 2.0 Sendai Reprogramming Kit were used.

  10. Design and synthesis of thienopyrimidine urea derivatives with potential cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaleem, Eman F; Abdelhameid, Mohammed K; Kassab, Asmaa E; Kandeel, Manal M

    2018-01-01

    A series of novel tetrahydrobenzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine urea derivatives was synthesized according to fragment-based design strategy. They were evaluated for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. Three compounds 9c, 9d and 11b showed 1.5-1.03 folds more potent anticancer activity than doxorubicin. In this study, a promising multi-sited enzyme small molecule inhibitor 9c, which showed the most potent anti-proliferative activity, was identified. The anti-proliferative activity of this compound appears to correlate well with its ability to inhibit topoisomerase II (IC 50  = 9.29 μM). Moreover, compound 9c showed excellent VEGFR-2 inhibitory activity, at the sub-micromolar level with IC 50 value 0.2 μM, which is 2.1 folds more potent than sorafenib. Moreover, activation of damage response pathway of the DNA leads to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, accumulation of cells in pre-G1 phase and annexin-V and propidium iodide staining, indicating that cell death proceeds through an apoptotic mechanism. Compound 9c showed potent pro-apoptotic effect through induction of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This mechanistic pathway was confirmed by a significant increase in the expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53, elevation in Bax/BCL-2 ratio and a significant increase in the level of active caspase-3. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies delivered equations of five 3D descriptors with R 2  = 0.814. This QSAR model provides an effective technique for understanding the observed antitumor properties and thus could be adopted for developing effective lead structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery (AdGDNF) with L-arginine decreases contusion size but not behavioral deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeorge, M L; Marlowe, D; Werner, E; Soderstrom, K E; Stock, M; Mueller, A; Bohn, M C; Kozlowski, D A

    2011-07-27

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that viral administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (AdGDNF), one week prior to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb sensorimotor cortex of the rat (FL-SMC) is neuroprotective, but does not significantly enhance recovery of sensorimotor function. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that although protected, neurons may not have been functional due to enduring metabolic deficiencies. Additionally, metabolic events following TBI may interfere with expression of therapeutic proteins administered to the injured brain via gene therapy. The current study focused on enhancing the metabolic function of the brain by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) with l-arginine in conjunction with administration of AdGDNF immediately following CCI. An adenoviral vector harboring human GDNF was injected unilaterally into FL-SMC of the rat immediately following a unilateral CCI over the FL-SMC. Within 30min of the CCI and AdGDNF injections, some animals were injected with l-arginine (i.v.). Tests of forelimb function and asymmetry were administered for 4weeks post-injury. Animals were sacrificed and contusion size and GDNF protein expression measured. This study demonstrated that rats treated with AdGDNF and l-arginine post-CCI had a significantly smaller contusion than injured rats who did not receive any treatment, or injured rats treated with either AdGDNF or l-arginine alone. Nevertheless, no amelioration of behavioral deficits was seen. These findings suggest that AdGDNF alone following a CCI was not therapeutic and although combining it with l-arginine decreased contusion size, it did not enhance behavioral recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An in vitro test to screen skin sensitizers using a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Yutaka; Saito, Rumiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-8 can serve as a biomarker for discrimination of skin sensitizers from nonsensitizers. We established a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8, which harbors SLO and SLR luciferase genes under the control of IL-8 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoters, respectively. After 6 h treatment with chemicals, normalized SLO luciferase activity (nSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing SLO-LA by SLR-LA, and the fold induction of nSLO-LA (FInSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing nSLO-LA of chemically treated cells by that of nontreated cells. The nSLO-LA of THP-G8 cells increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and several sensitizers. The FInSLO-LA in THP-G8 cells induced by LPS or sensitizers positively correlated with their induction of IL-8 messenger RNA in THP-1 cells. The nSLO-LA value of THP-G8 cells was significantly increased (FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4) by 13 of the 15 sensitizers as well as by 5 of the 7 nonsensitizers. Interestingly, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine suppressed the increase in FInSLO-LA induced by all sensitizers (inhibition index (II) ≤ 0.8) but did not suppress that induced by most of the nonsensitizers. We then evaluated the performance of this assay using values of FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4 and II ≤ 0.8 in at least two of three independent experiments as the criteria of a sensitizer, which resulted in test accuracies of 82% for the 22 chemicals used and of 88% for the chemicals proposed by European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods. This newly developed assay is a candidate replacement for animal tests of skin sensitization because of its accuracy, convenience, and high throughput performance.

  13. Generation of human β-thalassemia induced pluripotent cell lines by reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ioanna; Karagiannidou, Angeliki; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Tzetis, Maria; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Siapati, Elena-Konstantina; Vassilopoulos, George; Graphakos, Stelios; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Goussetis, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modified mRNA molecules encoding pluripotency transcription factors have been used successfully in reprogramming human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have applied this method on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) obtained from a patient with β-thalassemia (β-thal) with the aim to generate trangene-free β-thal-iPSCs. Transfection of 10(4) BM-MSCs by lipofection with mRNA encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, cMyc, and Lin28 resulted in formation of five iPSC colonies, from which three were picked up and expanded in β-thal-iPSC lines. After 10 serial passages in vitro, β-thal-iPSCs maintain genetic stability as shown by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and are capable of forming embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Their gene expression profile compared to human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and BM-MSCs seems to be similar to that of ESCs, whereas it differs from the profile of the parental BM-MSCs. Differentiation cultures toward a hematopoietic lineage showed the generation of CD34(+) progenitors up to 10%, but with a decreased hematopoietic colony-forming capability. In conclusion, we report herein the generation of transgene-free β-thal-iPSCs that could be widely used for disease modeling and gene therapy applications. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the mRNA-based reprogramming method, used mainly in fibroblasts, is also suitable for reprogramming of human BM-MSCs.

  14. Identification of valid endogenous control genes for determining gene expression in C6 glioma cell line treated with conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, I C; de Campos, R P; Bertoni, A P S; Wink, M R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be important players in the tumor microenvironment. They can affect the glioma progression through the modulation of different genes. This modulation can be evaluated through a very useful model, treating the tumor cells with MSC-conditioned medium. However, for an accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is a prerequisite. We performed a systematic review in an attempt to find a reference gene to use when analyzing gene expression in C6 glioma cells lines. Considering that we were not able to find a reference gene originated by an appropriate validation, in this study we evaluated candidate genes to be used as reference gene in C6 cells under different treatments with adipose-derived stem cells conditioned medium (CM-ADSCs). β-actin (ACTB); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRT-1); TATA box binding protein (TBP) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The mean Cq, the maximum fold change (MFC) and NormFinder software were used for reference gene evaluation and selection. The GAPDH and ACTB genes have been the most widely used reference genes to normalize among the different investigated genes in our review, however, controversially these genes underwent a substantial variability among the genes evaluated in the present work. Individually, TBP gene was more stable when compared with other genes analyzed and the combination of TBP and HPRT-1 was even more stable. These results evidence the importance of appropriate validation of reference genes before performing qPCR experiments. Besides, our data will contribute with researchers that work analyzing the role of ADSCs in glioma microenvironment through gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline-induced Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Production Involves Pertussis Toxin-sensitive Gαi/o Activation in Astroglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Miyano, Kanako; Matsumoto, Chie; Kajitani, Naoto; Abe, Hiromi; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Uezono, Yasuhito; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2015-05-29

    Further elaborating the mechanism of antidepressants, beyond modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, this study sought to elucidate the mechanism of amitriptyline-induced production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in astroglial cells. Previous studies demonstrated that an amitriptyline-evoked matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/FGF receptor (FGFR)/FGFR substrate 2α (FRS2α)/ERK cascade is crucial for GDNF production, but how amitriptyline triggers this cascade remains unknown. MMP is activated by intracellular mediators such as G proteins, and this study sought to clarify the involvement of G protein signaling in amitriptyline-evoked GDNF production in rat C6 astroglial cells (C6 cells), primary cultured rat astrocytes, and normal human astrocytes. Amitriptyline-evoked GDNF mRNA expression and release were inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gα(i/o) inhibitor, but not by NF449, a Gα(s) inhibitor, or YM-254890, a Gαq inhibitor. The activation of the GDNF production cascade (FGFR/FRS2α/ERK) was also inhibited by PTX. Deletion of Gα(ο1) and Gα(i3) by RNAi demonstrated that these G proteins play important roles in amitriptyline signaling. G protein activation was directly analyzed by electrical impedance-based biosensors (CellKey(TM) assay), using a label-free (without use of fluorescent proteins/probes or radioisotopes) and real time approach. Amitriptyline increased impedance, indicating Gα(i/o) activation that was suppressed by PTX treatment. The impedance evoked by amitriptyline was not affected by inhibitors of the GDNF production cascade. Furthermore, FGF2 treatment did not elicit any effect on impedance, indicating that amitriptyline targets PTX-sensitive Gα(i/o) upstream of the MMP/FGFR/FRS2α/ERK cascade. These results suggest novel targeting for the development of antidepressants. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Inhibition of TRPA1 channel activity in sensory neurons by the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family member, artemin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shenglan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential (TRP channel subtype A1 (TRPA1 is known to be expressed on sensory neurons and respond to changes in temperature, pH and local application of certain noxious chemicals such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC. Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor and belongs to the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF family. Both TRPA1 and artemin have been reported to be involved in pathological pain initiation and maintenance. In the present study, using whole-cell patch clamp recording technique, in situ hybridization and behavioral analyses, we examined the functional interaction between TRPA1 and artemin. Results We found that 85.8 ± 1.9% of TRPA1-expressing neurons also expressed GDNF family receptor alpha 3 (GFR α3, and 87.5 ± 4.1% of GFRα3-expressing neurons were TRPA1-positive. In whole-cell patch clamp analysis, a short-term treatment of 100 ng/ml artemin significantly suppressed the AITC-induced TRPA1 currents. A concentration-response curve of AITC resulting from the effect of artemin showed that this inhibition did not change EC50 but did lower the AITC-induced maximum response. In addition, pre-treatment of artemin significantly suppressed the number of paw lifts induced by intraplantar injection of AITC, as well as the formalin-induced pain behaviors. Conclusions These findings that a short-term application of artemin inhibits the TRPA1 channel's activity and the sequential pain behaviors suggest a role of artemin in regulation of sensory neurons.

  17. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  18. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andreia A; Humann, Fernanda C; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A; Tavares, Mara G; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  19. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-06-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population.

  20. Obtaining apple haploid plants (Malus X domestica Borkh.) from in situ parthenogenesis induced by irradiated pollen and in vitro culture of immature seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Lespinasse, Y.; Chevreau, E.

    1988-01-01

    Two apple varieties, ''Erovan'' and ''Lodi'', have been pollinated with pollen carrying the marker gene R irradiated by gamma rays from Cobalt 60 with doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 Gy. By in vitro cultures of the immature seeds removed 7 to 13 weeks after pollination, haploid plants (2n=x=17) have been obtained from ''Erovan'' [fr

  1. Simulation and estimation of gene number in a biological pathway using almost complete saturation mutagenesis screening of haploid mouse cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Masahiro; Kokubu, Chikara; Maeda, Yusuke; Sese, Jun; Horie, Kyoji; Sugimoto, Nakaba; Kinoshita, Taroh; Yusa, Kosuke; Takeda, Junji

    2014-11-24

    Genome-wide saturation mutagenesis and subsequent phenotype-driven screening has been central to a comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes in classical model organisms such as flies, nematodes, and plants. The degree of "saturation" (i.e., the fraction of possible target genes identified) has been shown to be a critical parameter in determining all relevant genes involved in a biological function, without prior knowledge of their products. In mammalian model systems, however, the relatively large scale and labor intensity of experiments have hampered the achievement of actual saturation mutagenesis, especially for recessive traits that require biallelic mutations to manifest detectable phenotypes. By exploiting the recently established haploid mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we present an implementation of almost complete saturation mutagenesis in a mammalian system. The haploid ESCs were mutagenized with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and processed for the screening of mutants defective in various steps of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthetic pathway. The resulting 114 independent mutant clones were characterized by a functional complementation assay, and were shown to be defective in any of 20 genes among all 22 known genes essential for this well-characterized pathway. Ten mutants were further validated by whole-exome sequencing. The predominant generation of single-nucleotide substitutions by ENU resulted in a gene mutation rate proportional to the length of the coding sequence, which facilitated the experimental design of saturation mutagenesis screening with the aid of computational simulation. Our study enables mammalian saturation mutagenesis to become a realistic proposition. Computational simulation, combined with a pilot mutagenesis experiment, could serve as a tool for the estimation of the number of genes essential for biological processes such as drug target pathways when a positive selection of

  2. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Katrin; Ott, Hagen; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens Malte

    2012-01-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides – which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions – were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. -- Highlights: ► We tested the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs in vitro. ► In vitro assays were performed with moDCs and THP-1 cells. ► Beta-lactam antibiotics can be recognized as sensitizing compounds. ► They affect the expression of metabolic enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors. ► Sulfamethoxazole has no measurable effect on THP-1 cells and moDCs.

  3. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Katrin, E-mail: ksebastian@ukaachen.de [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Ott, Hagen [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele [IZKF (BIOMAT), RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens Malte [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides – which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions – were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. -- Highlights: ► We tested the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs in vitro. ► In vitro assays were performed with moDCs and THP-1 cells. ► Beta-lactam antibiotics can be recognized as sensitizing compounds. ► They affect the expression of metabolic enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors. ► Sulfamethoxazole has no measurable effect on THP-1 cells and moDCs.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Phenotypic Variation in an Introgression Line Population Derived from an Interspecific Cross between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijin Chen

    Full Text Available The introduction of closely related species genomic fragments is an effective way to enrich genetic diversity and creates new germplasms in crops. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of an introgression line (IL population composed of 106 ILs derived from an interspecific tetra cross between O. glaberrima and O. sativa (RAM3/Jin23B//Jin23B///YuetaiB. The proportion of O. glaberrima genome (PGG in the ILs ranged from 0.3% to 36.7%, with an average value of 12.32% which is close to the theoretically expected proportion. A total of 250 polymorphic alleles were amplified by 21 AFLP primer combinations with an average of 12 alleles per primer. Population structure analysis revealed that the IL population can be divided into four genetically distinct subpopulations. Both principal component analysis and neighbor-joining tree analysis showed that ILs with a higher PGG displayed greater genetic diversity. Canonical discriminant analysis identified six phenotypic traits (plant height, yield per plant, filled grain percentage, panicle length, panicle number and days to flowering as the main discriminatory traits among the ILs and between the subpopulations and showed significant phenotypic distances between subpopulations. The effects of PGG on phenotypic traits in the ILs were estimated using a linear admixed model, which showed a significant positive effect on grain yield per plant (0.286±0.117, plant height (0.418 ± 0.132, panicle length (0.663 ± 0.107, and spikelet number per panicle (0.339 ± 0.128, and a significant negative effect on filled grain percentage (-0.267 ± 0.123 and days to flowering (-0.324 ± 0.075. We found that an intermediate range (10% - 20% of PGG was more effective for producing ILs with favorable integrated agronomic traits. Our results confirm that construction of IL population carrying O. glaberrima genomic fragments could be an effective approach to increase the genetic diversity of O. sativa genome and an appropriate

  5. Generation of a gene-corrected isogenic control hiPSC line derived from a familial Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a L150P mutation in presenilin 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Anna Fong-Yee; Schmid, Benjamin; Pires, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    a familial AD patient carrying a L150P point mutation in PSEN1. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to correct for the single base pair mutation. This gene-corrected line, L150P-GC-hiPSC, serves as an isogenic control to the mutant line for future investigation of mechanisms and cellular phenotypes altered...

  6. Chemo-sensitivity in a panel of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines, YCUB series, derived from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroaki; Naruto, Takuya; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Fujii, Hisaki; Yokota, Shumpei; Komine, Hiromi

    2009-10-01

    Sensitivity to 10 anticancer drugs was evaluated in 6 childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cell lines. Authenticity of newly established cell lines was confirmed by genomic fingerprinting. The line YCUB-5R established at relapse was more resistant to 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, L-asparaginase, topotecan, fludarabine, and etoposide than YCUB-5 from the same patient at diagnosis. Of the drugs tested, etoposide and SN-38 (irinotecan) showed highest efficacy in the panel, with 50% growth inhibition at 0.22-1.8 microg/ml and 0.57-3.6 ng/ml, respectively. This cell line panel offers an in vitro model for the development of new therapies for childhood BCP-ALL.

  7. Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines derived after boosting BCG-vaccinated cattle with Ad5-85A possess both mycobacterial growth inhibition and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Hannah J; Biffar, Lucia; Steinbach, Sabine; Guzman, Efrain; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, Ivan; Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2018-05-11

    There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated. No difference before and after boosting was found in the capacity of these Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines to restrict mycobacterial growth, but the secretion of IL-10 in vitro post-boost increased significantly. Furthermore, cell lines derived post-boost had no statistically significant difference in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IFNγ or TNFα) compared to pre-boost lines. In conclusion, the protection associated with the increased number of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells restricting mycobacterial growth may be associated with anti-inflammatory properties to limit immune-pathology. Copyright © 2018 Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat DNA (ISSR) Polymorphism Utility in Haploid Nicotiana Alata Irradiated Plants for Finding Markers Associated with Gamma Irradiation and Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fiki, A.; Adly, M.; El-Metabteb, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotiana alata is an ornamental plant. It is a member of family Solanasea. Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is one of the most important commercial crops in the world. Wild Nicotiana species, as a store house of genes for several diseases and pests, in addition to genes for several important phytochemicals and quality traits which are not present in cultivated varieties. Inter simple sequence repeat DNA (ISSR) analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different treated haploid plant lets were amplified using five specific primers. All primers were polymorphic. A total of 209 bands were amplified of which 135 (59.47%) polymorphic across the radiation treatments. Whilst, the level of polymorphism among the salinity treatments were 181 (85.6 %). Whereas, the polymorphism among the combined effects between gamma radiation doses and salinity concentrations were 283 ( 73.95% ). Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on ISSR data

  9. Derivation, Characterization, and Neural Differentiation of Integration-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Parkinson's Disease Patients Carrying SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, and GBA Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momcilovic, Olga; Sivapatham, Renuka; Oron, Tal Ronnen

    2016-01-01

    We report generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from ten Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying SNCA, PARK2, LRRK2, and GBA mutations, and one age-matched control. After validation of pluripotency, long-term genome stability, and integration-free reprogramming, eight...... not be sufficient to determine the cause or mechanism of the disease, and highlights the need to use more focused strategies for large-scale data analysis........ We further examined gene expression in a stress model (MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death) using two clones from the SNCA triplication line, and detected changes in genes associated with mitophagy. Our data suggested that even a well-characterized line of a monogenic disease may...

  10. Seed Nutrition and Quality, Seed Coat Boron and Lignin Are Influenced by Delayed Harvest in Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines under High Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Smith, James R; Mengistu, Alemu

    2017-01-01

    The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest. A 2-year field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions. Results showed that, at harvest maturity, the exotic HG lines had higher seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin, but lower seed oil compared with the non-exotic checks (Control), confirming our hypothesis. At 28 days after harvest maturity (delayed harvest), the content of seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin were higher in some of the HG lines compared with the checks, indicating a possible involvement of these seed constituents, especially seed coat boron and seed coat lignin, in maintaining seed coat integrity and protecting seed coat against physical damage. Highly significant positive correlations were found between germination and seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, and seed coat boron and seed coat lignin. Highly significant negative correlation was found between germination and oil, linoleic acid, seed coat wrinkling, shattering, and hard seed. Yields of some HG lines were competitive with checks. This research demonstrated that time of harvesting is an important factor influencing seed protein and oil production. Also, since high oleic acid is desirable for oxidative stability, shelf-life and biodiesel properties, using HG lines could positively influence these important traits. This result should suggest to breeders of some of the advantages of selecting for high seed coat boron and

  11. In vitro haploid zygotic embryogenesis due to pollination with maize pollen and induced in vitro androgenesis in Czech wheat breeding genotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vagera, Jiří; Nesvadba, Z.; Martinek, P.; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2001), s. 193-200 ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/01/1383; GA ČR GV521/96/K117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : haploid zygote * embryogenesis * maize pollen Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2001

  12. Expression Patterns of ERF Genes Underlying Abiotic Stresses in Di-Haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 176 ERF genes from Populus were identified by bioinformatics analysis, 13 of these in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra were investigate by real-time RT-PCR, the results demonstrated that 13 ERF genes were highly responsive to salt stress, drought stress and ABA treatment, and all were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, whereas their expression levels were markedly different in the various tissues. In roots, PthERF99, 110, 119, and 168 were primarily downregulated under drought and ABA treatment but were specifically upregulated under high salt condition. Interestingly, in poplar stems, all ERF genes showed the similar trends in expression in response to NaCl stress, drought stress, and ABA treatment, indicating that they may not play either specific or unique roles in stems in abiotic stress responses. In poplar leaves, PthERF168 was highly induced by ABA treatment, but was suppressed by high salinity and drought stresses, implying that PthERF168 participated in the ABA signaling pathway. The results of this study indicated that ERF genes could play essential but distinct roles in various plant tissues in response to different environment cues and hormonal treatment.

  13. Evaluation of GRCh38 and de novo haploid genome assemblies demonstrates the enduring quality of the reference assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A; Graves-Lindsay, Tina; Howe, Kerstin; Bouk, Nathan; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Kitts, Paul A; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Albracht, Derek; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Milinn; Magrini, Vincent; Markovic, Chris; McGrath, Sean; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Auger, Kate; Chow, William; Collins, Joanna; Harden, Glenn; Hubbard, Timothy; Pelan, Sarah; Simpson, Jared T; Threadgold, Glen; Torrance, James; Wood, Jonathan M; Clarke, Laura; Koren, Sergey; Boitano, Matthew; Peluso, Paul; Li, Heng; Chin, Chen-Shan; Phillippy, Adam M; Durbin, Richard; Wilson, Richard K; Flicek, Paul; Eichler, Evan E; Church, Deanna M

    2017-05-01

    The human reference genome assembly plays a central role in nearly all aspects of today's basic and clinical research. GRCh38 is the first coordinate-changing assembly update since 2009; it reflects the resolution of roughly 1000 issues and encompasses modifications ranging from thousands of single base changes to megabase-scale path reorganizations, gap closures, and localization of previously orphaned sequences. We developed a new approach to sequence generation for targeted base updates and used data from new genome mapping technologies and single haplotype resources to identify and resolve larger assembly issues. For the first time, the reference assembly contains sequence-based representations for the centromeres. We also expanded the number of alternate loci to create a reference that provides a more robust representation of human population variation. We demonstrate that the updates render the reference an improved annotation substrate, alter read alignments in unchanged regions, and impact variant interpretation at clinically relevant loci. We additionally evaluated a collection of new de novo long-read haploid assemblies and conclude that although the new assemblies compare favorably to the reference with respect to continuity, error rate, and gene completeness, the reference still provides the best representation for complex genomic regions and coding sequences. We assert that the collected updates in GRCh38 make the newer assembly a more robust substrate for comprehensive analyses that will promote our understanding of human biology and advance our efforts to improve health. © 2017 Schneider et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Global gene transcription patterns in in vitro-cultured fertilized embryos and diploid and haploid murine parthenotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiangshun; Li Xingyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    To gain insights into the roles the paternal genome and chromosome number play in pre-implantation development, we cultured fertilized embryos and diploid and haploid parthenotes (DPs and HPs, respectively), and compared their development and gene expression patterns. The DPs and fertilized embryos did not differ in developmental ability but HPs development was slower and characterized by impaired compaction and blastocoel formation. Microarray analysis revealed that fertilized blastocysts expressed several genes at higher levels than DP blastocysts; these included the Y-chromosome-specific gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3, structural gene Y-linked (Eif2s3y) and the imprinting gene U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 1, related sequence 1 (U2af1-rs1). We also found that when DPs and HPs were both harvested at 44 and 58 h of culture, they differed in the expression of 38 and 665 genes, respectively. However, when DPs and HPs were harvested at the midpoints of 4-cell stage (44 and 49 h, respectively), no differences in expression was observed. Similarly, when the DPs and HPs were harvested when they became blastocysts (102 and 138 h, respectively), only 15 genes showed disparate expression. These results suggest that while transcripts needed for early development are delayed in HPs, it does progress sufficiently for the generation of the various developmental stages despite the lack of genetic components

  15. Comparison of the effect of cortisol on aromatase activity and androgen metabolism in two human fibroblast cell lines derived from the same individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, B; Brünner, N; Dombernowsky, P

    1990-01-01

    The effect of preincubation with cortisol on estrogen and androgen metabolism was investigated in human fibroblast monolayers grown from biopsies of genital and non-genital skin of the same person. The activity in the cells of aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase.......5-1.0 x 10(-6) M in both cell lines. When preincubation with cortisol was omitted no estrogen synthesis was detected. The formation of androgen was not altered after preincubation with cortisol. Pronounced differences were found in estrogen and in androgen metabolism in the two cell lines suggesting...

  16. Establishment and characterization of two human breast carcinoma cell lines by spontaneous immortalization: Discordance between Estrogen, Progesterone and HER2/neu receptors of breast carcinoma tissues with derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalidehghan Behnam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women throughout the world. Therefore, established cell lines are widely used as in vitro experimental models in cancer research. Methods Two continuous human breast cell lines, designated MBC1 and MBC2, were successfully established and characterized from invasive ductal breast carcinoma tissues of Malaysian patients. MBC1 and MBC2 have been characterized in terms of morphology analysis, population doubling time, clonogenic formation, wound healing assay, invasion assay, cell cycle, DNA profiling, fluorescence immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and karyotyping. Results MBC1 and MBC2 exhibited adherent monolayer epithelial morphology at a passage number of 150. Receptor status of MBC1 and MBC2 show (ER+, PR+, HER2+ and (ER+, PR-, HER2+, respectively. These results are in discordance with histopathological studies of the tumoral tissues, which were triple negative and (ER-, PR-, HER2+ for MBC1 and MBC2, respectively. Both cell lines were capable of growing in soft agar culture, which suggests their metastatic potential. The MBC1 and MBC2 metaphase spreads showed an abnormal karyotype, including hyperdiploidy and complex rearrangements with modes of 52–58 chromosomes per cell. Conclusions Loss or gain in secondary properties, deregulation and specific genetic changes possibly conferred receptor changes during the culturing of tumoral cells. Thus, we hypothesize that, among heterogenous tumoral cells, only a small minority of ER+/PR+/HER2+ and ER+/PR-/HER2+ cells with lower energy metabolism might survive and adjust easily to in vitro conditions. These cell lines will pave the way for new perspectives in genetic and biological investigations, drug resistance and chemotherapy studies, and would serve as prototype models in Malaysian breast carcinogenesis investigations.

  17. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  18. Analysis of skin derived peptides from the Cuyaba Dwarf Frog Physalaemus nattereri by off-line LC MALDI MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Mariana S; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Fontes, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the potential for analysis of the complex peptide mixtures secreted from frog skin using off-line LC-MALDI MS/MS. Since only limited information about the sequence of such peptides is available, de novo sequencing followed by Blast search was needed. An automated workflow has...... for future studies of peptides secreted from frogs....

  19. Selective on-line detection of boronic acids and derivatives in high-performance liquid chromatography eluates by post-column reaction with alizarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, F.L.; Wardani, P.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Beek, van T.A.

    2015-01-01

    An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid and selective detection of boronic acids in complex mixtures was developed. After optimization experiments at an HPLC flow rate of 0.40 mL/min, the HPLC-separated analytes were mixed post-column with a solution of 75 µM

  20. Derivation from an alloreactive T-cell line of a clone which cross-reacts with a self H2-E-restricted minor alloantigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Liddell, M E; Crispe, I N

    1984-01-01

    An alloreactive T-helper-cell line [(A.TH X Balb/c) anti-A.TL] was shown to recognize both H2-Ek and H2-Ed. Both proliferation and polyclonal B-cell activation (protein A plaques) were used in the analyses of specificity. On cloning, the H2-Ek/Ed cross-reaction was shown by one clonotype...

  1. Newly-derived neuroblastoma cell lines propagated in serum-free media recapitulate the genotype and phenotype of primary neuroblastoma tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T.; Ebus, Marli E.; Koster, Jan; den Hartog, Ilona J. M.; Zwijnenburg, Danny A.; Schild, Linda; van der Ploeg, Ida; Dolman, M. Emmy M.; Caron, Huib N.; Versteeg, Rogier; Molenaar, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently protocols have been devised for the culturing of cell lines from fresh tumours under serum-free conditions in defined neural stem cell medium. These cells, frequently called tumour initiating cells (TICs) closely retained characteristics of the tumours of origin. We report the isolation of

  2. Generation of integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from two patients with X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Bernd; Aran, Begoña; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Muñoz, Yolanda; Ars, Elisabet; Bullich, Gemma; Furlano, Monica; Torra, Roser; Marti, Merce; Veiga, Anna; Raya, Angel

    2017-12-01

    Skin biopsies were obtained from two male patients with X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) with hemizygous COL4A5 mutations in exon 41 or exon 46. Dermal fibroblasts were extracted and reprogrammed by nucleofection with episomal plasmids carrying OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 LIN28, L-MYC and p53 shRNA. The generated induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) lines AS-FiPS2-Ep6F-28 and AS-FiPS3-Ep6F-9 were free of genomically integrated reprogramming genes, had the specific mutations, a stable karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers and generated embryoid bodies which were differentiated towards the three germ layers in vitro. These iPSC lines offer a useful resource to study Alport syndrome pathomechanisms and drug testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line, FPS-1, derived from human undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Hojo, Hiroshi; Sato, Michiko; Tajino, Takahiro; Yamada, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is among the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults. In order to improve its aggressive course or prognosis and establish new therapeutic methods, molecular genetic and biological characterizations of UPS are required. A new human UPS cell line (FPS-1) was established from UPS of the upper arm of a 79-year-old man. The cell line has been maintained for over 14 months with more than 60 passages. FPS-1 cells were characterized using molecular biological methods. FPS-1 cells showed the same morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics as the primary tumor. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a nonsense mutation in exon 6 of the p53 gene. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were expressed in FPS-1 cells. FPS-1 cells might be useful for investigating biological behavior and developing new molecular targeting antitumor drugs for UPS with EGFR or COX-2 expression.

  4. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers – two independent studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, Leon; Ibrahim, S.; Keown, M.

    2011-01-01

    reagents, and from 7.0% to 2.6% with rabbit reagents. In the second study, deviation was reduced from 11.2% to 0.4% with human reagents by both local ISI calibration and the PT/INR Line. With rabbit reagents, 10.4% deviation was reduced to 1.1% with both procedures; 4.9% deviation was reduced to 0.5......Background: The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). Methods...... thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. Results: In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human...

  5. Derivation of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line lacking DMD exons 49 and 50 (CCMi001DMD-A-3, ∆49, ∆50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Spaltro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is caused by abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and is clinically characterised by childhood muscle degeneration and cardiomyopathy. We produced an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a DMD patient's dermal fibroblasts by electroporation with episomal vectors containing: hL-MYC, hLIN28, hSOX2, hKLF4, hOCT3/4. The resultant DMD iPSC line (CCMi001DMD-A-3 displayed iPSC morphology, expressed pluripotency markers, possessed trilineage differentiation potential and was karyotypically normal. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi001DMD-A-3 showed a deletion of exons 49 and 50 (CCMi001DMD-A-3, ∆49, ∆50.

  6. Two epithelial tumor cell lines (HNE-1 and HONE-1) latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus that were derived from nasopharyngeal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.; Zhang, Haizhang; Yao, Kaitai; Zhu, Hecheng; Wang, Fuxi; Li, Guiyuan; Wen, Dongseng; Li, Yingping

    1989-01-01

    Two epithelia tumor cell lines were established from biopsy specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The specimens were taken from poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas of the nasopharynx. The tissues were prepared for cell culture and eventually two continuous epithelia cell lines were obtained and designated HONE-1 and HNE-1. Light and electron microscopic examination of these two cell lines demonstrated cells with an epithelial morphology including the presence of desmosomes. It was found that early-passage uncloned HNE-1 cells (passage 23) could be superinfected with B95-8 and NPC-EBV isolates as demonstrated by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific early antigen(s) in a small percentage of the cells; HONE-1 cells could also be superinfected with EBV. Southern blot analysis detected EBV DNA in samples from uncloned HNE-1 cells at passages 12, 17, 21, 27, and 35. However, by passage 45, EBV DNA could no longer be detected in HNE-1 cells by Southern blot analysis. The EBV genome was detected in parental HONE-1 cells at subculture 9 and in clone 40 cells up to passage 40 thus far. The data suggest that EBV genome-positive HNE-1 and HONE-1 cells were lost as the cells were cultivated in vitro and that cloning the cells at an early passage level may be critical in maintaining EBV genome-positive epithelial NPC cells. These EBV genome-positive epithelia NPC cell lines will be useful for studying the association of EBV and NPC

  7. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Bollinedi

    Full Text Available Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  8. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo evolutionary engineering for ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells triggers diploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanlı-Yıldız, Burcu; Benbadis, Laurent; Alkım, Ceren; Sezgin, Tuğba; Akşit, Arman; Gökçe, Abdülmecit; Öztürk, Yavuz; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Çakar, Zeynep Petek; François, Jean M

    2017-09-01

    Microbial ethanol production is an important alternative energy resource to replace fossil fuels, but at high level, this product is highly toxic, which hampers its efficient production. Towards increasing ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the so far best industrial ethanol-producer, we evaluated an in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy based on batch selection under both constant (5%, v v -1 ) and gradually increasing (5-11.4%, v v -1 ) ethanol concentrations. Selection under increasing ethanol levels yielded evolved clones that could tolerate up to 12% (v v -1 ) ethanol and had cross-resistance to other stresses. Quite surprisingly, diploidization of the yeast population took place already at 7% (v v -1 ) ethanol level during evolutionary engineering, and this event was abolished by the loss of MKT1, a gene previously identified as being implicated in ethanol tolerance (Swinnen et al., Genome Res., 22, 975-984, 2012). Transcriptomic analysis confirmed diploidization of the evolved clones with strong down-regulation in mating process, and in several haploid-specific genes. We selected two clones exhibiting the highest viability on 12% ethanol, and found productivity and titer of ethanol significantly higher than those of the reference strain under aerated fed-batch cultivation conditions. This higher fermentation performance could be related with a higher abundance of glycolytic and ribosomal proteins and with a relatively lower respiratory capacity of the evolved strain, as revealed by a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis between the evolved and the reference strains. Altogether, these results emphasize the efficiency of the in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy for improving ethanol tolerance, and the link between ethanol tolerance and diploidization. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of Oncogenic Transcription Factor REL by the Natural Product Derivative Calafianin Monomer 101 Induces Proliferation Arrest and Apoptosis in Human B-Lymphoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Alan T; Chennamadhavuni, Spandan; Whitty, Adrian; Porco, John A; Gilmore, Thomas D

    2015-04-23

    Increased activity of transcription factor NF-κB has been implicated in many B-cell lymphomas. We investigated effects of synthetic compound calafianin monomer (CM101) on biochemical and biological properties of NF-κB. In human 293 cells, CM101 selectively inhibited DNA binding by overexpressed NF-κB subunits REL (human c-Rel) and p65 as compared to NF-κB p50, and inhibition of REL and p65 DNA binding by CM101 required a conserved cysteine residue. CM101 also inhibited DNA binding by REL in human B-lymphoma cell lines, and the sensitivity of several B-lymphoma cell lines to CM101-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis correlated with levels of cellular and nuclear REL. CM101 treatment induced both phosphorylation and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL, a REL target gene product, in sensitive B-lymphoma cell lines. Ectopic expression of Bcl-XL protected SUDHL-2 B-lymphoma cells against CM101-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of a transforming mutant of REL decreased the sensitivity of BJAB B-lymphoma cells to CM101-induced apoptosis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB signaling upstream components occurred in RAW264.7 macrophages at CM101 concentrations that blocked NF-κB DNA binding. Direct inhibitors of REL may be useful for treating B-cell lymphomas in which REL is active, and may inhibit B-lymphoma cell growth at doses that do not affect some immune-related responses in normal cells.

  11. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  12. Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by novel synthetic curcumin derivatives in sensitive and multidrug-resistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooko, Edna [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alsalim, Tahseen; Saeed, Bahjat [Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Basrah, P.O. Box 49 Basrah, Al Basrah (Iraq); Saeed, Mohamed E.M.; Kadioglu, Onat [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Abbo, Hanna S. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P/B X17, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Titinchi, Salam J.J., E-mail: stitinchi@uwc.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P/B X17, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Efferth, Thomas, E-mail: efferth@uni-mainz.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR) and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) represent major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. We investigated 19 synthetic curcumin derivatives in drug-sensitive acute lymphoblastic CCRF–CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-gp-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000. Material and methods: Cytotoxicity was tested by resazurin assays. Doxorubicin uptake was assessed by flow cytometry. Binding modes of compounds to P-gp were analyzed by molecular docking. Chemical features responsible for bioactivity were studied by quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analyses. A 7-descriptor QSAR model was correlated with doxorubicin uptake values, IC{sub 50} values and binding energies. Results: The compounds displayed IC{sub 50} values between 0.7 ± 0.03 and 20.2 ± 0.25 μM. CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited cross-resistance to 10 compounds, collateral sensitivity to three compounds and regular sensitivity to the remaining six curcumins. Molecular docking studies at the intra-channel transmembrane domain of human P-gp resulted in lowest binding energies ranging from − 9.00 ± 0.10 to − 6.20 ± 0.02 kcal/mol and pKi values from 0.24 ± 0.04 to 29.17 ± 0.88 μM. At the ATP-binding site of P-gp, lowest binding energies ranged from − 9.78 ± 0.17 to − 6.79 ± 0.01 kcal/mol and pKi values from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.03 ± 0.03 μM. CEM/ADR5000 cells accumulated approximately 4-fold less doxorubicin than CCRF–CEM cells. The control P-gp inhibitor, verapamil, partially increased doxorubicin uptake in CEM/ADR5000 cells. Six curcumins increased doxorubicin uptake in resistant cells or even exceeded uptake levels compared to sensitive one. QSAR yielded good activity prediction (R = 0.797 and R = 0.794 for training and test sets). Conclusion: Selected derivatives may serve to guide future design of novel P-gp inhibitors and collateral sensitive drugs to combat MDR. - Highlights: • Novel derivatives of curcumin in reversing

  13. Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by novel synthetic curcumin derivatives in sensitive and multidrug-resistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooko, Edna; Alsalim, Tahseen; Saeed, Bahjat; Saeed, Mohamed E.M.; Kadioglu, Onat; Abbo, Hanna S.; Titinchi, Salam J.J.; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR) and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) represent major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. We investigated 19 synthetic curcumin derivatives in drug-sensitive acute lymphoblastic CCRF–CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-gp-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000. Material and methods: Cytotoxicity was tested by resazurin assays. Doxorubicin uptake was assessed by flow cytometry. Binding modes of compounds to P-gp were analyzed by molecular docking. Chemical features responsible for bioactivity were studied by quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analyses. A 7-descriptor QSAR model was correlated with doxorubicin uptake values, IC 50 values and binding energies. Results: The compounds displayed IC 50 values between 0.7 ± 0.03 and 20.2 ± 0.25 μM. CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited cross-resistance to 10 compounds, collateral sensitivity to three compounds and regular sensitivity to the remaining six curcumins. Molecular docking studies at the intra-channel transmembrane domain of human P-gp resulted in lowest binding energies ranging from − 9.00 ± 0.10 to − 6.20 ± 0.02 kcal/mol and pKi values from 0.24 ± 0.04 to 29.17 ± 0.88 μM. At the ATP-binding site of P-gp, lowest binding energies ranged from − 9.78 ± 0.17 to − 6.79 ± 0.01 kcal/mol and pKi values from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.03 ± 0.03 μM. CEM/ADR5000 cells accumulated approximately 4-fold less doxorubicin than CCRF–CEM cells. The control P-gp inhibitor, verapamil, partially increased doxorubicin uptake in CEM/ADR5000 cells. Six curcumins increased doxorubicin uptake in resistant cells or even exceeded uptake levels compared to sensitive one. QSAR yielded good activity prediction (R = 0.797 and R = 0.794 for training and test sets). Conclusion: Selected derivatives may serve to guide future design of novel P-gp inhibitors and collateral sensitive drugs to combat MDR. - Highlights: • Novel derivatives of curcumin in reversing multidrug

  14. Prognostic risk stratification derived from individual patient level data for men with advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Gregory R; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Necchi, Andrea; Eigl, Bernhard J; Kolinsky, Michael P; Chacko, Raju T; Dorff, Tanya B; Harshman, Lauren C; Milowsky, Matthew I; Lee, Richard J; Galsky, Matthew D; Federico, Piera; Bolger, Graeme; DeShazo, Mollie; Mehta, Amitkumar; Goyal, Jatinder; Sonpavde, Guru

    2014-05-01

    Prognostic factors in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) receiving systemic therapy are unknown. A prognostic classification system in this disease may facilitate interpretation of outcomes and guide rational drug development. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify prognostic factors in men with PSCC receiving first-line systemic therapy for advanced disease. Individual patient level data were obtained from 13 institutions to study prognostic factors in the context of first-line systemic therapy for advanced PSCC. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to examine the prognostic effect of these candidate factors on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): age, stage, hemoglobin, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, albumin, site of metastasis (visceral or nonvisceral), smoking, circumcision, regimen, ECOG performance status (PS), lymphovascular invasion, precancerous lesion, and surgery following chemotherapy. The effect of different treatments was then evaluated adjusting for factors in the prognostic model. The study included 140 eligible men. Mean age across all men was 57.0 years. Among them, 8.6%, 21.4%, and 70.0% of patients had stage 2, 3, and 4 diseases, respectively; 40.7% had ECOG PS ≥ 1, 47.4% had visceral metastases, and 73.6% received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The multivariate model of poor prognostic factors included visceral metastases (Pstatistic of 0.657 and 0.677 for OS and PFS, respectively). The median OS for the entire population was 9 months. Median OS was not reached, 8, and 7 months for those with 0, 1, and both risk factors, respectively. Cisplatin-based regimens were associated with better OS (P = 0.017) but not PFS (P = 0.37) compared with noncisplatin-based regimens after adjusting for the 2 prognostic factors. In men with advanced PSCC receiving first-line systemic therapy, visceral metastases and ECOG PS ≥ 1 were poor prognostic factors. A prognostic model including

  15. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  16. Analysis of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides in glycoproteins detected on two-dimensional gel by capillary electrophoresis using on-line concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoda, Satoru; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Rika; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2006-02-17

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool to analyze carbohydrate mixture derived from glycoproteins with high resolution. However, CE has a disadvantage that a few nanoliters of a sample solution are injected to a narrow capillary. Therefore, we have to prepare a sample solution of high concentration for CE analysis. In the present study, we applied head column field-amplified sample stacking method to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides derived from glycoprotein separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Model studies demonstrated that we achieved 60-360 times concentration effect on the analysis of carbohydrate chains labeled with 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-AA). The method was applied to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins separated and detected on PAGE gel. Heterogeneity of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), i.e. glycoforms, was examined by 2D-PAGE and N-linked oligosaccharides were released by in-gel digestion with PNGase F. The released oligosaccharides were derivatized with 3-AA and analyzed by CE. The results showed that glycoforms having lower pI values contained a larger amount of tetra- and tri-antennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, glycoforms having higher pI values contained bi-antennary oligosaccharides abundantly. The result clearly indicated that the spot of a glycoprotein glycoform detected by Coomassie brilliant blue staining on 2D-PAGE gel is sufficient for quantitative profiling of oligosaccharides.

  17. Analysis of gene expression in a human-derived glial cell line exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomonori; Narita, Eijiro; Miyakoshi, Junji; Kiyokawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Taki, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones has aroused public concern regarding the potential health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields. We investigated the effects of exposure to RF fields (2.45 GHz, continuous wave) at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 5, and 10 W/kg for 1, 4, and 24 h on gene expression in a normal human glial cell line, SVGp12, using DNA microarray. Microarray analysis revealed 23 assigned gene spots and 5 non-assigned gene spots as prospective altered gene spots. Twenty-two genes out of the 23 assigned gene spots were further analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to validate the results of microarray, and no significant alterations in gene expression were observed. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found no evidence that exposure to RF fields affected gene expression in SVGp12 cells. (author)

  18. Further studies on the intermediary metabolism of bone in vitro and a monoclonal cell line (MMB-1) derived from bone: effects of parathyroid hormone and acetazolamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism/mechanisms by which PTH affects Ca homeostasis between blood and bone have not been clearly established. Most studies of metabolic acid production in bone took place during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since that time, assay techniques for metabolic acid production have been improved for greater sensitivity, more has been learned as to how PTH mediates its cellular responses, and techniques for cell isolation and culture have dramatically improved. These improvements have made possible new approaches to the study of short term effects of PTH on metabolic acid production in bone. Chapter 1 explores the potential of bone to utilize substrates other than glucose for metabolic energy transfer. Chapter 2 characterizes glucose metabolism in mouse calvaria in vitro and explores effects of PTH, acetazolamide, and C1 13,850 on calvaria oxidative metabolism. Chapter 3 describes PTH effects on glucose metabolism of MMB-1 cells, a monoclonal cell line reported to possess osteoblast-like characteristics

  19. Properties of Dense Cores Embedded in Musca Derived from Extinction Maps and {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O, and NH{sub 3} Emission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaieie, Dinelsa A.; Vilas-Boas, José W.; Wuensche, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1.758—Jardim da Granja, CEP-12227-010, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Racca, Germán A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Naturais/Depto. de Física, Campus Universitário Central, Setor II BR 110, KM 48, Rua Prof. António Campos, Costa e Silva 59610-090—Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Myers, Philip C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hickel, Gabriel R., E-mail: dinelsa.machaieie@inpe.br [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Departamento de Física, Av. BPS, 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    Using near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and the Near Infrared Color Excess method, we studied the extinction distribution in five dense cores of Musca, which show visual extinction greater than 10 mag and are potential sites of star formation. We analyzed the stability in four of them, fitting their radial extinction profiles with Bonnor–Ebert isothermal spheres, and explored their properties using the J = 1–0 transition of {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O and the J = K = 1 transition of NH{sub 3}. One core is not well described by the model. The stability parameter of the fitted cores ranges from 4.5 to 5.7 and suggests that all cores are stable, including Mu13, which harbors one young stellar object (YSO), the IRAS 12322-7023 source. However, the analysis of the physical parameters shows that Mu13 tends to have larger A {sub V}, n {sub c}, and P {sub ext} than the remaining starless cores. The other physical parameters do not show any trend. It is possible that those are the main parameters to explore in active star-forming cores. Mu13 also shows the most intense emission of NH{sub 3}. Its {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O lines have double peaks, whose integrated intensity maps suggest that they are due to the superposition of clouds with different radial velocities seen in the line of sight. It is not possible to state whether these clouds are colliding and inducing star formation or are related to a physical process associated with the formation of the YSO.

  20. Measuring and modeling of binary mixture effects of pharmaceuticals and nickel on cell viability/cytotoxicity in the human hepatoma derived cell line HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzok, S.; Schlink, U.; Herbarth, O.; Bauer, M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of drugs and non-therapeutic xenobiotics constitutes a central role in human health risk assessment. Still, available data are rare. Two different models have been established to predict mixture toxicity from single dose data, namely, the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. However, chemicals can also act synergistic or antagonistic or in dose level deviation, or in a dose ratio dependent deviation. In the present study we used the MIXTOX model (EU project ENV4-CT97-0507), which incorporates these algorithms, to assess effects of the binary mixtures in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. These cells possess a liver-like enzyme pattern and a variety of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (phases I and II). We tested binary mixtures of the metal nickel, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, and the antibiotic agent irgasan and compared the experimental data to the mathematical models. Cell viability was determined by three different methods the MTT-, AlamarBlue (registered) and NRU assay. The compounds were tested separately and in combinations. We could show that the metal nickel is the dominant component in the mixture, affecting an antagonism at low-dose levels and a synergism at high-dose levels in combination with diclofenac or irgasan, when using the NRU and the AlamarBlue assay. The dose-response surface of irgasan and diclofenac indicated a concentration addition. The experimental data could be described by the algorithms with a regression of up to 90%, revealing the HepG2 cell line and the MIXTOX model as valuable tool for risk assessment of binary mixtures for cytotoxic endpoints. However the model failed to predict a specific mode of action, the CYP1A1 enzyme activity.

  1. Over-expression and siRNA of a novel environmental lipopolysaccharide-responding gene on the cell cycle of the human hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Kejun; Chai Yubo; Hou Lichao; Chang Wenhui; Chen Suming; Luo Wenjing; Cai Tongjian; Zhang Xiaonan; Chen Nanchun; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the toxic determinant for Gram-negative bacterium infection. The individual response to LPS was related to its gene background. It is necessary to identify new molecules and signaling transduction pathways about LPS. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a novel environmental lipopolysaccharide-responding (Elrg) gene on the regulation of proliferation and cell cycle of the hepatoma-derived cell line, HepG2. By means of RT-PCR, the new molecule of Elrg was generated from a human dental pulp cell cDNA library. Expression level of Elrg in HepG2 cells was remarkably upgraded by the irritation of LPS. Localization of Elrg in HepG2 cells was positioned mainly in cytoplasm. HepG2 cells were markedly arrested in the G1 phase by over-expressing Elrg. The percentage of HepG2 cells in G1 phase partly decreased after Elrg-siRNA. In conclusion, Elrg is probably correlative with LPS responding. Elrg is probably a new protein in cytoplasm which plays an important role in regulating cell cycle. The results will deepen our understanding about the potential effects of Elrg on the human hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2

  2. Genetic Diversity in Haploid Nicotiana alata Induced by Gamma Irradiation, Salt Tolerance and Detection of These Differences by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haploid plants of Nicotiana alata were cultured in vitro on MS medium with IAA + KIN. The resulting plantlets were irradiated using gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. Single node pieces were cut and transferred onto fresh MS medium. Gamma radiation doses caused the death of 9% and up to 28% of explants. NaCl concentrations caused the death of 8% up to 36% of explants, while the combined effect between gamma radiation doses and salinity had an impact suffused on the percentage of survival. The combined effect of gamma radiation doses 20 Gy and 25 Gy on NaCl concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 mM were deadly. Even more, the combined effect of gamma radiation doses and salinity had a severe negative impact on both the proline content and total soluble protein. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different haploid plantlets treated were amplified using five arbitrary primers. Two hundred and seventy bands were detected from plantlets irradiated with doses of 15, 20 and 25 Gy, with polymorphic band number 226 (83.7%. The total number of bands resulted from plant grew on 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl were 260 bands with polymorphic bands 185 (85.6%. However, the total number of bands produced from combined effects between gamma rays and salinity (20 Gy X 50 mM NaCl, 20 Gy X 100 mM NaCl and 25 Gy X 50 mM NaCl were 270, with polymorphic band number 231 (85.5%. High similarity between treatments was revealed. Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA based on RAPD data.

  3. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Derivation of a JC virus-resistant human glial cell line: implications for the identification of host cell factors that determine viral tropism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Gretchen V.; Manley, Kate; Atwood, Walter J.

    2003-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a common human polyomavirus that infects 70-80% of the population worldwide. In immunosuppressed individuals, JCV infects oligodendrocytes and causes a fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The tropism of JCV is restricted to oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and B lymphocytes. Several mechanisms may contribute to the restricted tropism of JCV, including the presence or absence of cell-type-specific transcription and replication factors and the presence or absence of cell-type-specific receptors. We have established a system to investigate cellular factors that influence viral tropism by selecting JCV-resistant cells from a susceptible glial cell line (SVG-A). SVG-A cells were subjected to several rounds of viral infection using JC virus (M1/SVEΔ). A population of resistant cells emerged (SVGR2) that were refractory to infection with the Mad-4 strain of JCV, the hybrid virus M1/SVEΔ, as well as to the related polyomavirus SV40. SVGR2 cells were as susceptible as the SVG-A cells to infection with an unrelated amphotropic retrovirus. The stage at which these cells are resistant to infection was investigated and the block appears to be at early viral gene transcription. This system should ultimately allow us to identify glial specific factors that influence the tropism of JCV

  5. Cytogenetic analysis and mapping of leaf rust resistance in Aegilops speltoides Tausch derived bread wheat line Selection2427 carrying putative gametocidal gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M; Vinod; Sharma, J B; Mallick, Niharika; Tomar, S M S; Jha, S K

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major biotic stress affecting wheat yields worldwide. Host-plant resistance is the best method for controlling leaf rust. Aegilops speltoides is a good source of resistance against wheat rusts. To date, five Lr genes, Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, and Lr51, have been transferred from Ae. speltoides to bread wheat. In Selection2427, a bread wheat introgresed line with Ae. speltoides as the donor parent, a dominant gene for leaf rust resistance was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3B (LrS2427). None of the Lr genes introgressed from Ae. speltoides have been mapped to chromosome 3B. Since none of the designated seedling leaf rust resistance genes have been located on chromosome 3B, LrS2427 seems to be a novel gene. Selection2427 showed a unique property typical of gametocidal genes, that when crossed to other bread wheat cultivars, the F 1 showed partial pollen sterility and poor seed setting, whilst Selection2427 showed reasonable male and female fertility. Accidental co-transfer of gametocidal genes with LrS2427 may have occurred in Selection2427. Though LrS2427 did not show any segregation distortion and assorted independently of putative gametocidal gene(s), its utilization will be difficult due to the selfish behavior of gametocidal genes.

  6. The radiosensitizing effect of a N(4)-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine derived thiosemicarbazone and its metallic complex against a glioblastoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, Fabricio A.S.; Hudson, Luiza O.; Santos, Raquel G. dos; Mendes, Isolda C.; Beraldo, Heloisa O.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prevalent and difficult diseases to be treated. Despite the efforts at improving diagnose and treatment, the success is still very limited. One of the factors implicated in such limitation is the inherent radioresistance of most tumors, specially the cerebral ones. They are poorly vascularized due to the rapid growth of cells and disorganized angiogenesis that leads to hypoxic tissue that increases radioresistance. Also another issue is the side effects of exposition to high levels of radiation and chemicals. Combined approaches using both chemo and radiotherapy are one of the most effective strategies applied to maximize the results and decrease the side effects of the treatment to the patient. One of the drugs that are commonly used is cisplatin that has some, yet limited result. Given this context, our group has been testing several synthetic compounds of the thiosemicarbazone class. These chemicals have broad pharmacologic profile including antitumoral effect. We have shown in previous works the effective reduction of cell viability and proliferation using very low concentrations of thiosemicarbazones both in free form and complexed with metals like copper. In this work we present another application of this compound that can also be used as a radiosensitization agent in glioblastoma multiform cell line RT-2 present that the combined approach increases de effect of gamma radiation. Also, that the coordination to copper apparently does not increase this activity. (author)

  7. In vitro anticancer activity of Betulinic acid and derivatives thereof on equine melanoma cell lines from grey horses and in vivo safety assessment of the compound NVX-207 in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, G; Vanchangiri, K; Mueller, Th; Feige, K; Cavalleri, J-M V; Paschke, R

    2016-02-25

    Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, and its derivatives are promising compounds for cancer treatment in humans. Melanoma is not only a problem for humans but also for grey horses as they have a high potential of developing melanoma lesions coupled to the mutation causing their phenotype. Current chemotherapeutic treatment carries the risk of adverse health effects for the horse owner or the treating veterinarian by exposure to antineoplastic compounds. Most treatments have low prospects for systemic tumor regression. Thus, a new therapy is needed. In this in vitro study, Betulinic acid and its two derivatives B10 and NVX-207, both with an improved water solubility compared to Betulinic acid, were tested on two equine melanoma cell lines (MelDuWi and MellJess/HoMelZh) and human melanoma (A375) cell line. We could demonstrate that all three compounds especially NVX-207 show high cytotoxicity on both equine melanoma cell lines. The treatment with these compounds lead to externalization of phosphatidylserines on the cell membrane (AnnexinV-staining), DNA-fragmentation (cell cycle analysis) and activation of initiator and effector caspases (Caspase assays). Our results indicate that the apoptosis is induced in the equine melanoma cells by all three compounds. Furthermore, we succeed in encapsulating the most active compound NVX-207 in 2-Hydroxyprolyl-β-cyclodextrine without a loss of its activity. This formulation can be used as a promising antitumor agent for treating grey horse melanoma. In a first tolerability evaluation in vivo the formulation was administered every one week for 19 consecutive weeks and well tolerated in two adult melanoma affected horses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative trait loci mapping of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) host plant resistance in two populations of doubled haploid lines in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last 70 years, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Sele...

  9. Break Lines, This data was produced for the USGS according to specific project requirements. The Lidar derived breaklines cover Somerset County and the Western portion of Wicomico County, Maryland. Inland streams, rivers, lakes, ponds and tidal features are present., Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Break Lines dataset current as of 2012. This data was produced for the USGS according to specific project requirements. The Lidar derived breaklines cover Somerset...

  10. Structure-activity relationships of dimethylsphingosine (DMS) derivatives and their effects on intracellular pH and Ca2+ in the U937 monocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Ja; Lee, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Jeong-Ju; Chung, Sung-Kee; Im, Dong-Soon

    2006-08-01

    We recently reported that dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a metabolite of sphingolipids, increased intracellular pH and Ca2+ concentration in U937 human monocytes. In the present study, we found that dimethylphytosphingosine (DMPH) induced the above responses more robustly than DMS. However, phytosphingosine, monomethylphytosphingosine or trimethylsphingosine showed little or no activity. Synthetic C3 deoxy analogues of sphingosine did show similar activities, with the C16 analogue more so than C18. The following structure-activity relationships were observed between DMS derivatives and the intracellular pH and Ca2+ concentrations in U937 monocytes; 1) dimethyl modification is important for the DMS-induced increase of intracellular pH and Ca2+, 2) the addition of an OH group on C4 enhances both activities, 3) the deletion of the OH group on C3 has a negligible effect on the activities, and 4) C16 appears to be more effective than C18. We also found that W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor, blocked the DMS-induced pH increase, whereas, KN-62, ML9, and MMPX, specific inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase, respectively, did not affect DMS-induced increases of pH in the U937 monocytes.

  11. Transposition of a Ds element from a plasmid into the plant genome in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplast-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houba-Hérin, N; Domin, M; Pédron, J

    1994-07-01

    Nicotiana plumbaginifolia haploid protoplasts were co-transformed with two plasmids, one with a NPT-II/Ds element and one with a gene encoding an amino-terminal truncated Ac transposase. It is shown that Ds can efficiently transpose from extrachromosomal DNA to N. plumbaginifolia chromosomes when the Ac transposase gene is present in trans. Ds has been shown to have transposed into the plant genome in a limited number of copies (1.9 copies per genome), for 21/32 transgenic lines tested. The flanking sequences present in the original plasmid are missing in these 21 plants. In only two of 21 plants was part of the transposase construct integrated. By segregation analysis of transgenic progeny, Ds was shown to be present in the heterozygous state in 10 lines even though haploid protoplasts had been originally transformed. This observation could indicate that integration occurred after or during DNA replication that leads to protoplast diploidization.

  12. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and Pancreatic Tumor Cell Lines: The Role of Neutrophils and Neutrophil-Derived Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Große-Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is frequently associated with fibrosis and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate in the desmoplastic stroma. Moreover, in PDAC, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is observed. To explore a possible connection between the infiltrating cells, particularly the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN and the tumor cell transition, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n=115 were analysed with regard to PMN infiltration and nuclear expression of β-catenin and of ZEB1, well-established indicators of EMT. In biopsies with a dense PMN infiltrate, a nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and of ZEB1 was observed. To address the question whether PMN could induce EMT, they were isolated from healthy donors and were cocultivated with pancreatic tumor cells grown as monolayers. Rapid dyshesion of the tumor cells was seen, most likely due to an elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin. In parallel, the transcription factor TWIST was upregulated, β-catenin translocated into the nucleus, ZEB1 appeared in the nucleus, and keratins were downregulated. EMT was also induced when the tumor cells were grown under conditions preventing attachment to the culture plates. Here, also in the absence of elastase, E-cadherin was downmodulated. PMN as well as prevention of adhesion induced EMT also in liver cancer cell line. In conclusion, PMN via elastase induce EMT in vitro, most likely due to the loss of cell-to-cell contact. Because in pancreatic cancers the transition to a mesenchymal phenotype coincides with the PMN infiltrate, a contribution of the inflammatory response to the induction of EMT and—by implication—to tumor progression is possible.

  13. Human omental adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium alters the proteomic profile of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yanling Zhang,1,* Weihong Dong,1,* Junjie Wang,2 Jing Cai,1 Zehua Wang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renhe Hospital, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to participate in the formation of supportive tumor stroma. The abilities of proliferation and invasion of human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cells were significantly enhanced when indirectly cocultured with human omental adipose-derived MSCs (O-ADSCs in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, EOC cells were cultured with conditioned medium (CM from O-ADSCs (O-ADSC, and the effect of O-ADSC CM on the proteomic profile of EOC cells was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The 2-DE assays revealed a global increase in protein expression in the EOC cells treated with CM. Nine proteins were identified from 11 selected protein spots with differential expression after treatment with CM from O-ADSCs. All the nine proteins have been linked to carcinoma and apoptosis, and the migration ability of tumor cells can be regulated by these proteins. Moreover, the upregulation of prohibitin and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 in EOC cells treated with CM was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that O-ADSCs affect the proteomic profile of EOC cells via paracrine mechanism in favor of EOC progression. Keywords: ovarian cancer, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, omentum, proteomic

  14. Polypeptide structure of a human dermal fibroblast-activating factor (FAF) derived from the U937 cultured line of human monocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, M.P.; Allar, W.J.; Goetzl, E.J.; Dohlman, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Six liter batches of 1 x 10 6 U937 cells/ml of serum-free RPMI medium were incubated with 100 ng/ml of phorbol myristate acetate for 48 hr at 37 0 C in 5% CO 2 in air to generate FAFs, as quantified by the stimulation of uptake of [ 3 H]thymidine by quiescent human dermal fibroblasts. Filtration of the supernatants on Sephadex G-75 resolved two FAFs of approximately 40,000 and 10-13,000 daltons. The latter principle was purified to homogeneity by sequential Sephadex G-50 filtration, revealing an apparent m.w. of 7-8000, Mono-Q FPLC anion-exchange chromatography with a linear gradient from 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3) to 0.5 M NaCl-20 mM Tris-HCl in 30 min, and two cycles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 A pore 10 μm C4 column at 1 ml/min with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water to 30:70 (v:v) and then to 60:40 (v:v) acetonitrile: 0.05% TFA linearly in 15 min and 30 min, respectively, The FAF activity eluted from HPLC in a sharp peak of O.D. 215 nm at 45% acetonitrile. Analyses of amino acid composition of the highly purified 7-8000 dalton FAF-U937 revealed 37% hydrophobic, 14% basic, and 21% acidic or amide residues, as well as one tryrosine and one methionine. This U937 cell-derived FAF appears to be a unique acidic polypeptide growth factor

  15. Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Exosomes Derived from Inducible Hepatitis B Virus-Replicating HepAD38 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Chen, Jieliang; Megger, Dominik A; Zhang, Xiaonan; Kozlowski, Maya; Zhang, Lijun; Fang, Zhong; Li, Jin; Chu, Qiaofang; Wu, Min; Li, Yaming; Sitek, Barbara; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that some viruses can manipulate the infection process by packing specific viral and cellular components into exosomes, small nanometer-sized (30-150 nm) vesicles secreted from various cells. However, the impact of HBV replication on the content of exosomes produced by hepatocytes has not been fully delineated. In this work, an HBV-inducible cell line HepAD38 was used to directly compare changes in the protein content of exosomes secreted from HepAD38 cells with or without HBV replication. Exosomes were isolated from supernantants of HepAD38 cells cultured with or without doxycycline (dox) and their purity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western immunoblotting assays. Ion-intensity based label-free LC-MS/MS quantitation technologies were applied to analyze protein content of exosomes from HBV replicating cells [referred as HepAD38 (dox - )-exo] and from HBV nonreplicating cells [referred as HepAD38 (dox + )-exo]. A total of 1412 exosomal protein groups were identified, among which the abundance of 35 proteins was significantly changed following HBV replication. Strikingly, 5 subunit proteins from the 26S proteasome complex, including PSMC1, PSMC2, PSMD1, PSMD7 and PSMD14 were consistently enhanced in HepAD38 (dox - )-exo. Bioinformatic analysis of differential exosomal proteins confirmed the significant enrichment of components involved in the proteasomal catabolic process. Proteasome activity assays further suggested that HepAD38 (dox - )-exo had enhanced proteolytic activity compared with HepAD38 (dox + )-exo. Furthermore, human peripheral monocytes incubated with HepAD38 (dox - )-exo induced a significantly lower level of IL-6 secretion compared with IL-6 levels from HepAD38 (dox + )-exo. Irreversible inhibition of proteasomal activity within exosomes restored higher production of IL-6 by monocytes, suggesting that transmission of

  16. Comparison of Different Methods for Separation of Haploid Embryo Induced through Irradiated Pollen and Their Economic Analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baktemur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as “inspecting the seeds one by one” is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. “Inspecting the seeds one by one” was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were “sowing seeds direct nutrient media,” “inspecting seeds in the light source,” “floating seeds on liquid media,” and “floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization.” Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods “inspecting the seeds one by one,” “sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media,” and “inspecting seeds in the light source,” although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were “sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media“ and ”inspecting seeds in the light source.”

  17. Reduced Self-Diploidization and Improved Survival of Semi-cloned Mice Produced from Androgenetic Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells through Overexpression of Dnmt3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenteng He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells (AG-haESCs hold great promise for exploring gene functions and generating gene-edited semi-cloned (SC mice. However, the high incidence of self-diploidization and low efficiency of SC mouse production are major obstacles preventing widespread use of these cells. Moreover, although SC mice generation could be greatly improved by knocking out the differentially methylated regions of two imprinted genes, 50% of the SC mice did not survive into adulthood. Here, we found that the genome-wide DNA methylation level in AG-haESCs is extremely low. Subsequently, downregulation of both de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b and other methylation-related genes was determined to be responsible for DNA hypomethylation. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of Dnmt3b in AG-haESCs could effectively improve DNA methylation level, and the high incidence of self-diploidization could be markedly rescued. More importantly, the developmental potential of SC embryos was improved, and most SC mice could survive into adulthood. : Ectopic expression of Dnmt3b could rescue DNA methylation level in repetitive sequences of hypomethylated AG-haESCs, suppress high incidence of self-diploidization, and promote developmental potential of SC embryos, and most SC mice could survive into adulthood. Keywords: androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells, self-diploidization, semi-cloned mice, DNA methylation, Dnmt3b

  18. Haploid genetic screens identify an essential role for PLP2 in the downregulation of novel plasma membrane targets by viral E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Timms

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2, a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system.

  19. A Perfect Match Genomic Landscape Provides a Unified Framework for the Precise Detection of Variation in Natural and Synthetic Haploid Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Flores, Kim; García-Sotelo, Jair; Castillo, Alejandra; Uribe, Carina; Aguilar, Luis; Morales, Lucía; Gómez-Romero, Laura; Reyes, José; Garciarubio, Alejandro; Boege, Margareta; Dávila, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple, sensitive, precise, and essentially nonstatistical solution for the analysis of genome variation in haploid organisms. The generation of a Perfect Match Genomic Landscape (PMGL), which computes intergenome identity with single nucleotide resolution, reveals signatures of variation wherever a query genome differs from a reference genome. Such signatures encode the precise location of different types of variants, including single nucleotide variants, deletions, insertions, and amplifications, effectively introducing the concept of a general signature of variation. The precise nature of variants is then resolved through the generation of targeted alignments between specific sets of sequence reads and known regions of the reference genome. Thus, the perfect match logic decouples the identification of the location of variants from the characterization of their nature, providing a unified framework for the detection of genome variation. We assessed the performance of the PMGL strategy via simulation experiments. We determined the variation profiles of natural genomes and of a synthetic chromosome, both in the context of haploid yeast strains. Our approach uncovered variants that have previously escaped detection. Moreover, our strategy is ideally suited for further refining high-quality reference genomes. The source codes for the automated PMGL pipeline have been deposited in a public repository. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  1. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  2. Synthesis and in vitro anti-proliferative effects of 3-(hetero)aryl substituted 3-[(prop-2-ynyloxy)(thiophen-2-yl)methyl]pyridine derivatives on various cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Chamakura, Upendar; Sailaja, E; Dulla, Balakrishna; Kalle, Arunasree M; Bhavani, S; Rambabu, D; Kapavarapu, Ravikumar; Rao, M V Basaveswara; Pal, Manojit

    2014-03-01

    A series of 3-(hetero)aryl substituted 3-[(prop-2-ynyloxy)(thiophen-2-yl)methyl]pyridine derivatives were designed as potential anticancer agents. These compounds were conveniently prepared by using Pd/C-Cu mediated Sonogashira type coupling as a key step. Many of these compounds were found to be promising when tested for their in vitro anti-proliferative properties against six cancer cell lines. All these compounds were found to be selective towards the growth inhibition of cancer cells with IC50 values in the range of 0.9-1.7 μM (against MDA-MB 231 and MCF7 cells), comparable to the known anticancer drug doxorubicin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The mechanism of thioacetamide-induced apoptosis in the L37 albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat hepatocyte-derived cell line occurs without DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulera, S J; Sattler, C A; Gast, W L; Heath, S; Festerling, T A; Pitot, H C

    1998-10-01

    The hepatotoxicant thioacetamide (TH) has classically been used as a model to study hepatic necrosis; however, recent studies have shown that TH can also induce apoptosis. In this report we demonstrate that 2.68+/-0.54% of the albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat hepatocytes undergo TH-induced apoptosis, a level comparable to other in vivo models of liver apoptosis. In addition, TH could induce apoptosis and necrosis in the L37 albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat liver-derived cell line. Examination of dying L37 cells treated with 100 mM TH by electron microscopy revealed distinct morphological characteristics that could be attributed to apoptosis. Quantitation of apoptosis by FACS analysis 24 h after treatment with 100 mM TH revealed that 81.3+/-1.6% of the cells were undergoing apoptosis. In contrast, when L37 cells were treated with 250 mM TH, cells exhibited characteristics consistent with necrotic cell death. DNA fragmentation ladders were produced by growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis; however, in 100 mM TH-induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation ladders were not observed. Analysis of endonuclease activity in L37 cells revealed that the enzymes were not inactivated in the presence of 100 mM TH. The data presented in this report indicate that the L37 cell line could be used to study the mechanism of TH-induced apoptosis that was not mediated through a mechanism requiring DNA fragmentation.

  4. Allelic variations at the haploid TBX1 locus do not influence the cardiac phenotype in cases of 22q11 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelckel, Marie-Antoinette; Girardot, Lydie; Giusiano, Bernard; Levy, Nicolas; Philip, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Microdeletion at the 22q11 locus is characterised by a high clinical variability. Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most life-threatening manifestations of the syndrome and affect approximately 50% of patients carrying the deleted chromosome 22. The causes of this phenotype variability remain unknown although several hypotheses have been raised. It has been suggested that allelic variations at the haploid locus could modify the phenotypic expression. Regarding this hypothesis, TBX1 was thought to be a major candidate to the cardiac phenotype or its severity in patients carrying the 22q11 microdeletion. A mutational screening was performed in this gene, in a series of 39 deleted patients, with and without CHD. The results indicate that mutations in TBX1 are not likely to be involved in the cardiac phenotype observed in del22q11 patients.

  5. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  6. In vitro and in silico derived relative effect potencies of ah-receptor-mediated effects by PCDD/Fs and PCBs in rat, mouse, and guinea pig CALUX cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Mehdi; van Ede, Karin I; Larsson, Malin; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Poellinger, Lorenz; Lücke-Johansson, Sandra; Machala, Miroslav; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Vondráček, Jan; van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Ringsted, Tine; Andersson, Patrik L

    2014-07-21

    For a better understanding of species-specific relative effect potencies (REPs), responses of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were assessed. REPs were calculated using chemical-activated luciferase gene expression assays (CALUX) derived from guinea pig, rat, and mouse cell lines. Almost all 20 congeners tested in the rodent cell lines were partial agonists and less efficacious than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For this reason, REPs were calculated for each congener using concentrations at which 20% of the maximal TCDD response was reached (REP20TCDD). REP20TCDD values obtained for PCDD/Fs were comparable with their toxic equivalency factors assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO-TEF), while those for PCBs were in general lower than the WHO-TEF values. Moreover, the guinea pig cell line was the most sensitive as indicated by the 20% effect concentrations of TCDD of 1.5, 5.6, and 11.0 pM for guinea pig, rat, and mouse cells, respectively. A similar response pattern was observed using multivariate statistical analysis between the three CALUX assays and the WHO-TEFs. The mouse assay showed minor deviation due to higher relative induction potential for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran and lower for 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was more than two times more potent in the mouse assay as compared with that of rat and guinea pig cells, while measured REP20TCDD for PCB126 was lower in mouse cells (0.05) as compared with that of the guinea pig (0.2) and rat (0.07). In order to provide REP20TCDD values for all WHO-TEF assigned compounds, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed. The QSAR models showed that specific electronic properties and molecular surface characteristics play important roles in the AhR-mediated response. In silico derived REP20TCDD values were generally consistent with the WHO

  7. Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

    2011-05-20

    An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 μg mL(-1) and 4.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 μg mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 μg mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For

  8. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  9. Fast and simple screening for the simultaneous analysis of seven metabolites derived from five volatile organic compounds in human urine using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Ting-Chen; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on cancer classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1), based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong mechanistic evidence. In particular, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatized or released into the atmosphere and can become ubiquitous, as they originate from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, such as paints, pesticides, vehicle exhausts, cooking fumes, and tobacco smoke. Humans may be exposed to VOCs through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact, which may increase the risk of leukemia, birth defects, neurocognitive impairment, and cancer. Therefore, the focus of this study was the development of a simple, effective and rapid sample preparation method for the simultaneous determination of seven metabolites (6 mercaptic acids+t,t-muconic acid) derived from five VOCs (acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and xylene) in human urine by using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An aliquot of each diluted urinary sample was directly injected into an autosampler through a trap column to reduce contamination, and then the retained target compounds were eluted by back-flush mode into an analytical column for separation. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was utilized for quantification. The coefficients of correlation (r(2)) for the calibration curves were greater than 0.995. Reproducibility was assessed by the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day precision, which showed results for coefficient of variation (CV) that were low 0.9 to 6.6% and 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively, and results for recovery that ranged from 90.8 to 108.9% and 92.1 to 107.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of

  10. In vitro production of haploid cells after coculture of CD49f+ with Sertoli cells from testicular sperm extraction in nonobstructive azoospermic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Marcia; Rubio, Carmen; Pellicer, Antonio; Gil-Salom, Manuel; Simón, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    To isolate CD49f+ cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) samples of azoospermic patients and induce meiosis by coculturing these cells with Sertoli cells. Prospective analysis. Research center. Obstructive azoospermic (OA) and nonobstructive azoospermic (NOA) patients. TESE, with enzymatic dissociation of samples to obtain a cell suspension, which was cultured for 4 days with 4 ng/mL GDNF. The CD49f+ cells were sorted using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) as a marker to identify spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which were cocultured with Sertoli cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) in knockout serum replacement (KSR) media with addition of 1,000 IU/mL of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 1 μM testosterone, 40 ng/mL of GDNF, and 2 μM retinoic acid (RA) for 15 days in culture at 37°C and 5% CO(2) to induce meiotic progression. Cells were collected and analyzed by immunofluorescence for meiosis progression with specific markers SCP3 and CREST, and they were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Isolation of CD49f+ cells and coculture with Sertoli cells, meiosis progression in vitro, assessment of SSCs and meiotic markers real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical analysis, and FISH. The CD49f+ isolated from the of total cell count in the TESE samples of azoospermic patients varied from 5.45% in OA to 2.36% in NOA. Sertoli cells were obtained from the same TESE samples, and established protocols were used to characterize them as positive for SCF, rGDNF, WT1, GATA-4, and vimentin, with the presence of tight junctions and lipid droplets shown by oil red staining. After isolation, the CD49f+ cells were cocultured with RFP Sertoli cells in a 15-day time-course experiment. Positive immunostaining for meiosis markers SCP3 and CREST on days 3 to 5 was noted in the samples obtained from one NOA patient. A FISH analysis for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y confirmed the presence of haploid cells on day

  11. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  12. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  13. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  14. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  16. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized

  17. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation exposure. II. Combination of UV-irradiation and X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B; Zölzer, F; Kiefer, J

    2004-01-01

    Split-dose protocols can be used to investigate the kinetics of recovery from radiation damage and to elucidate the mechanisms of cell inactivation and mutation induction. In this study, a haploid strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wild-type with regard to radiation sensitivity, was irradiated with 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and then exposed to X-rays after incubation for 0-6 hr. The cells were incubated either on nutrient medium or salt agar between the treatments. Loss of reproductive ability and mutation to canavanine resistance were measured. When the X-ray exposure immediately followed UV-irradiation, the X-ray survival curves had the same slope irrespective of the pretreatment, while the X-ray mutation induction curves were changed from linear to linear quadratic with increasing UV fluence. Incubations up to about 3 hr on nutrient medium between the treatments led to synergism with respect to cell inactivation and antagonism with respect to mutation, but after 4-6 hr the two treatments acted independently. Incubation on salt agar did not cause any change in the survival curves, but there was a strong suppression of X-ray-induced mutation with increasing UV fluence. On the basis of these results, we suggest that mutation after combined UV and X-ray exposure is affected not only by the induction and suppression of DNA repair processes, but also by radiation-induced modifications of cell-cycle progression and changes in the expression of the mutant phenotype. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Microwave transmission-line impedance data

    CERN Document Server

    Gunston, M A R

    1996-01-01

    A compendium of data for computing the characteristic impedance of transmission lines based on physical dimensions. Covers both conventional structures and unusual geometries, including coaxial, eccentric and elliptic coaxial, twin-wire, wire-above-ground, microstrip and derivatives, stripline, slabline and trough line. Also details numerous configurations of coupled lines.

  19. Accelerated Generation of Selfed Pure Line Plants for Gene Identification and Crop Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of pure lines is an important step in biological studies and breeding of many crop plants. The major types of pure lines for biological studies and breeding include doubled haploid (DH lines, recombinant inbred lines (RILs, and near isogenic lines (NILs. DH lines can be produced through microspore and megaspore culture followed by chromosome doubling while RILs and NILs can be produced through introgressions or repeated selfing of hybrids. DH approach was developed as a quicker method than conventional method to produce pure lines. However, its drawbacks of genotype-dependency and only a single chance of recombination limited its wider application. A recently developed fast generation cycling system (FGCS achieved similar times to those of DH for the production of selfed pure lines but is more versatile as it is much less genotype-dependent than DH technology and does not restrict recombination to a single event. The advantages and disadvantages of the technologies and their produced pure line populations for different purposes of biological research a