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Sample records for haplodiploid androgenetic breeding

  1. Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia

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    Taniela De Cesaro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena spp. is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be identified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.A aveia (Avena spp. tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em geral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das

  2. Androgenetic alopecia: a review.

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    Lolli, Francesca; Pallotti, Francesco; Rossi, Alfredo; Fortuna, Maria C; Caro, Gemma; Lenzi, Andrea; Sansone, Andrea; Lombardo, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder in men. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and molecular mechanism of androgenetic alopecia. Using the PubMed database, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting studies published from 1916 to 2016. The occurrence and development of androgenetic alopecia depends on the interaction of endocrine factors and genetic predisposition. Androgenetic alopecia is characterized by progressive hair follicular miniaturization, caused by the actions of androgens on the epithelial cells of genetically susceptible hair follicles in androgen-dependent areas. Although the exact pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia remains to be clarified, research has shown that it is a polygenetic condition. Numerous studies have unequivocally identified two major genetic risk loci for androgenetic alopecia, on the X-chromosome AR⁄EDA2R locus and the chromosome 20p11 locus. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have reported that single-nucleotide polymorphisms at different genomic loci are associated with androgenetic alopecia development. A number of genes determine the predisposition for androgenetic alopecia in a polygenic fashion. However, further studies are needed before the specific genetic factors of this polygenic condition can be fully explained.

  3. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

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    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  4. Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations.

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    Zayed, Amro; Packer, Laurence

    2005-07-26

    The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) imposes a substantial genetic load through homozygosity at the sex locus that results in the production of inviable or sterile diploid males. Using stochastic modeling, we have discovered that diploid male production (DMP) can initiate a rapid and previously uncharacterized extinction vortex. The extinction rate in haplodiploid populations with DMP is an order of magnitude greater than in its absence under realistic but conservative demographic parameter values. Furthermore, DMP alone can elevate the base extinction risk in haplodiploids by over an order of magnitude higher than that caused by inbreeding depression in threatened diploids. Thus, contrary to previous expectations, haplodiploids are more, rather than less, prone to extinction for genetic reasons. Our findings necessitate a fundamental shift in approaches to the conservation and population biology of these ecologically and economically crucial insects.

  5. Male androgenetic alopecia

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    Zekayi Kutlubay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is a form of hair loss due to the effects of androgens, in genetically susceptible individuals. This disease is seen very commonly in every population and causes increased amount of stress for the patients. The disease is known from very early ages and is first medically described by Hamilton. The pathogenesis of the disease can be based on age, genetic factors, and androgens. Clinically alopecia is observed on the temporal and vertex areas, during postpubertal period. Vellus like hairs are pathognomonic for the disease. The decrease in anagen/telogen ratio is detected in histopathological examination. The treatment consists of topical mioxidil, oral finasteride and commonly used surgical methods.

  6. Androgenetic alopecia: An update

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    Feroze Kaliyadan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the commonest reasons for dermatological consultation. Over the last few years our understanding of the pathophysiology of AGA has improved and this has paved way for better diagnostic and therapeutic options. Recent research has dwelled on the role of stem cells in the pathophysiology of AGA and has also identified newer genetic basis for the condition. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy has emerged as a useful diagnostic tool for AGA. While the major treatment options continue to be topical minoxidil, systemic Finasteride and hair transplantations, newer modalities are under investigation. Specific diagnostic and treatment recommendations have also been developed on evidence based principles. This article reviews the recent concepts in relation to AGA. With regards to the pathophysiology we have tried to stress on recent knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis of AGA. We have emphasized on an evidence based approach for treatment and diagnosis.

  7. PHARMACOTHERAPY ALOPECIA ANDROGENETIC IN MEN

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    Riezky Januar Pramitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is hair thinning due to the stimulation of hair follicles to androgens. Incidence in men is higher than in women, it is because men have a degree higher 5? reductase. This condition can cause both physical and psychological effects to the patient. Physical effects due to baldness cause hair loss as a function of protection against heat, cold and trauma. While psychologically can affect self-esteem and self-perception of the patient. Androgenetic alopecia in men influenced by the androgen dihydrotestosterone and genetic predisposition, although the physiology remains unclear. Modality in the management of androgenetic alopecia in males patients including pharmacotherapy, hair transplants and cosmetic approach. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are two main drugs are safe and effective in the long term given to men with androgenetic alopecia are minoxidil and finasteride. Although the mechanism of action and route of administration are different, but both drugs have similar effectiveness in stopping the progression of androgenetic alopecia in men.

  8. Inbreeding Depression and Purging in a Haplodiploid: Gender-Related Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, N.S.H.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with diploid species, haplodiploids suffer less inbreeding depression because male haploidy imposes purifying selection on recessive deleterious alleles. However, alleles of genes only expressed in the diploid females are protected in heterozygous individuals. This leads to the prediction

  9. Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Tobias W; Tr?eb, Ralph M; H?nggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardise...

  10. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

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    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  11. Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene pol...

  12. Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia.

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    Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc.

  13. Topical melatonin for treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tobias W; Trüeb, Ralph M; Hänggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. FIVE CLINICAL STUDIES SHOWED POSITIVE EFFECTS OF A TOPICAL MELATONIN SOLUTION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGA IN MEN AND WOMEN WHILE SHOWING GOOD TOLERABILITY: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P melatonin solution can be considered as a treatment option in androgenetic alopecia.

  14. [Female androgenetic alopecia, a survey of causes and therapeutic options].

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    Duchková, Hana; Hašková, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mesotherapy is one of the options for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Testing 24 women with androgenetic alopecia has demonstrated a positive effect of mesotherapy on the hair growth, hair thickness, with only insignificant increase of hair density. It is known that androgenetic alopecia represents a localized aging of hair follicles. We therefore decided to examine the different effects of mesotherapy on hair density in younger and in elderly women. In younger women mesotherapy significantly increased hair density compared with older women. For mesotherapy we used a combination of micronutrients and antioxidants. Mesotherapy achievements were evident for 6-12 months. Treatment requires a long-term care.

  15. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

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    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  16. The association of urolithiasis and androgenetic alopecia.

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    Resorlu, Mustafa; Sancak, Eyup Burak; Uysal, Fatma; Arslan, Muhammet; Diri, Akif; Adam, Gurhan; Akbas, Alpaslan; Sariyildirim, Abdullah; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Resorlu, Berkan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether patients with androgenetic alopecia were at risk in terms of urinary system stone disease. Patients with no baldness (Hamilton-Norwood Scala [HNS] stage I) were categorized as Group I, those with hair loss in the frontal region (HNS stages II, III, IIIa, and IVa) as Group II, those with hair loss in the vertex region (HNS stage III-vertex, V) as Group III and those with hair loss in both vertex and frontal regions (HNS stages IV, Va, VI, and VII) as Group IV. Patients in all groups were compared in terms of presence of stone, and the presence of any association between alopecia and urolithiasis, with common etiological risk factors, was investigated. Three hundred and two male patients were included in the study. The presence of urolithiasis was detected in 28.9% of patients in Group I; 26.5% of Group II; 36.9% of Group III; and 44.4% of Group IV (p = 0.085). Among patients aged under 60, urinary stone disease was detected in 30.8% of patients in Group I; 26.4% of Group II; 41.2% of Group III; and 53.8% of Group IV (p = 0.001). In patients aged over 60, urolithiasis was detected in 12.5% of patients in Group I; 26.9% of Group II; 32.2% of Group III; and 37.8% of Group IV (p = 0.371). We determined a significant correlation between vertex pattern and total alopecia with urolithiasis in patients younger than 60 years old.

  17. MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moilanen, A.; Sundström, L.; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects......breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects...

  18. Perception of Hair Transplant for Androgenetic Alopecia.

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    Bater, Kristin L; Ishii, Masaru; Joseph, Andrew; Su, Peiyi; Nellis, Jason; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    Hair transplant is among the most common cosmetic services sought by men, with more than 11 000 procedures performed in 2014. Despite its growing popularity, the effect of hair transplant on societal perceptions of youth, attractiveness, or facets of workplace and social success is unknown. To determine whether hair transplant improves observer ratings of age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability in men treated for androgenetic alopecia and to quantify the effect of hair transplant on each of these domains. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted from November 10 to December 6, 2015, using web-based surveys featuring photographs of men before and after hair transplant. One hundred twenty-two participants recruited through various social media platforms successfully completed the survey. Observers were shown 2 side-by-side images of each man and asked to compare the image on the left with the one on the right. Of 13 pairs of images displayed, 7 men had undergone a hair transplant procedure and 6 had served as controls. Observers evaluated each photograph using various metrics, including age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to understand the effect of hair transplant on observer perceptions. Planned posthypothesis testing was used to identify which variables changed significantly as a result of the transplant. Observer ratings of age (in number of years younger) and attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability (on a scale of 0 to 100; scores higher than 50 indicate a positive change). Of the 122 participants in the survey, 58 were men (47.5%); mean (range) age was 27.1 (18-52) years. The initial multivariate analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect for transplant (Wilks λ = 0.9646; P hair transplant on observers' perceptions of age (mean [SD] number of years younger, 3.6 [2.9] years; P hair transplant. Participants also

  19. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

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    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Koevoets, Tosca; Morales, Hernán E.; Ferber, Steven; van de Zande, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane's rule hybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute asymmetry in hybridization effects to either phenotype (sex) or genotype (heterogamety). Here we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid genome incompatibility in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia using the powerful features of haploid males and sex reversal. We separately investigate the effects of heterozygosity (ploidy level) and sex by generating sex reversed diploid hybrid males and comparing them to genotypically similar haploid hybrid males and diploid hybrid females. Hybrid effects of sterility were more pronounced than of inviability, and were particularly strong in haploid males, but weak to absent in diploid males and females, indicating a strong ploidy level but no sex specific effect. Molecular markers identified a number of genomic regions associated with hybrid inviability in haploid males that disappeared under diploidy in both hybrid males and females. Hybrid inviability was rescued by dominance effects at some genomic regions, but aggravated or alleviated by dosage effects at other regions, consistent with cytonuclear incompatibilities. Dosage effects underlying Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller (BDM) incompatibilities need more consideration in explaining Haldane's rule in diploid systems. PMID:25926847

  20. Guidelines on the use of finasteride in androgenetic alopecia

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    Venkataram Mysore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride is a widely used drug in dermatology for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. There are many reports of associated sexual side effects. This article reviews the use of once-daily 1 mg finasteride in androgenetic alopecia and its associated sexual adverse effects. Methods: A literature search was performed to collect data on the use of finasteride in male pattern baldness. Relevant literature published till March 2014 was obtained from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane registers and LILACS. The keywords "finasteride", "male pattern baldness" and "androgenetic alopecia" were used for literature search. Similarly, a search was done for finasteride in female pattern hair loss with keywords "female pattern baldness", "finasteride" and "female pattern alopecia". All systematic reviews, meta-analyses, national guidelines, randomized controlled trials, prospective open label studies and retrospective case series in the English literature were reviewed. Results: Two hundred sixty two studies were evaluated, twelve of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusions and Recommendations: Current evidence on the safety of finasteride indicates that it is safe but there is growing concern about its sexual side effects. In view of this, proper information should be provided to patients prior to starting treatment (Level of recommendation 1+, Grade of recommendation B. The reported sexual side effects are few and reverse with stoppage of the drug (Grade of recommendation B but further studies are required.

  1. Guidelines on the use of finasteride in androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Venkataram; Shashikumar, B M

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride is a widely used drug in dermatology for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. There are many reports of associated sexual side effects. This article reviews the use of once-daily 1 mg finasteride in androgenetic alopecia and its associated sexual adverse effects. A literature search was performed to collect data on the use of finasteride in male pattern baldness. Relevant literature published till March 2014 was obtained from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane registers and LILACS. The keywords "finasteride", "male pattern baldness" and "androgenetic alopecia" were used for literature search. Similarly, a search was done for finasteride in female pattern hair loss with keywords "female pattern baldness", "finasteride" and "female pattern alopecia". All systematic reviews, meta-analyses, national guidelines, randomized controlled trials, prospective open label studies and retrospective case series in the English literature were reviewed. Two hundred sixty two studies were evaluated, twelve of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Current evidence on the safety of finasteride indicates that it is safe but there is growing concern about its sexual side effects. In view of this, proper information should be provided to patients prior to starting treatment (Level of recommendation 1+, Grade of recommendation B). The reported sexual side effects are few and reverse with stoppage of the drug (Grade of recommendation B) but further studies are required.

  2. Heredity of stress-related response in androgenetic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Vermeulen, K.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the heritability for the intensity of the stress-related cortisol response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenetic progeny groups. For this, 660 androgenetic individuals (age: 110 days) were subjected to a 9°C cold shock and blood sampled 20 min

  3. Recombination and its impact on the genome of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp Nasonia.

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    Oliver Niehuis

    2010-01-01

    that the genomes of haplodiploid and of diploid higher eukaryotes do not differ systematically in their recombination rates and associated parameters.

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

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    Zari Javidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  5. Age-dependent associations between androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer risk.

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    Muller, David C; Giles, Graham G; Sinclair, Rod; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Severi, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    Both prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia are strongly age-related conditions that are considered to be androgen dependent, but studies of the relationship between them have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to assess whether androgenetic alopecia at ages 20 and 40 years are associated with risk of prostate cancer. At a follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, men were asked to assess their hair pattern at ages 20 and 40 years relative to eight categories in showcards. Cases were men notified to the Victorian Cancer Registry with prostate cancer diagnosed between cohort enrollment (1990-1994) and follow-up attendance (2003-2009). Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate age-varying HRs and predicted cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer by androgenetic alopecia categories. Of 9,448 men that attended follow-up and provided data on androgenetic alopecia, we identified 476 prostate cancer cases during a median follow-up of 11 years four months. Cumulative probability of prostate cancer was greater at all ages up to 76 years, for men with vertex versus no androgenetic alopecia at age of 40 years. At age of 76 years, the estimated probabilities converged to 0.15. Vertex androgenetic alopecia at 40 years was also associated with younger age of diagnosis for prostate cancer cases. Vertex androgenetic alopecia at age of 40 years might be a marker of increased risk of early-onset prostate cancer. If confirmed, these results suggest that the apparently conflicting findings of previous studies might be explained by failure to adequately model the age-varying nature of the association between androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer.

  6. [What is the value of low-energie lasers in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia ?

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    Paquet, Ph; Orduz, M; Franchimont, C; Nikkels, A F

    2017-12-01

    Male and female androgenetic alopecia is a common, chronic, psychologically stressful disorder affecting more than 50 % of the individuals by 50 years of age. Despite the current topical (minoxidil) or oral (the inhibitors of 5-? reductase finasteride or dutasteride) treatments, there is a need for more effective management options. The current clinical evidence, the possible mechanisms of action and the rare adverse events of the low level laser therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia are presented.

  7. A pilot study to evaluate effectiveness of botulinum toxin in treatment of androgenetic alopecia in males

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    Sehdev Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia is a common form of alopecia with multifactorial etiology. Finasteride and minoxidil are approved by the FDA for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Balding scalp is believed to have relative microvascular insufficiency. Blood vessels in the scalp travel through the intramuscular plane. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin relaxes muscles and thereby increases blood flow in balding scalp. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin in androgenetic alopecia management. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center. A total of 10 male patients with androgenetic alopecia meeting inclusion criteria of the study were included. In the scalp, 30 sites were injected with 5 U of botulinum toxin in each site. Preprocedure photograph taken and evaluation was done, which was repeated after 24 weeks. Efficacy was assessed by photography and self-assessment scoring was done by patients. Results: Of 10 patients, 8 had good to excellent response on photographic assessment. At the end of 24 weeks, 1 patient showed poor and 1 showed fair response to treatment. As per self-assessment, 7of 10 patients showed good to excellent response. Two patients had fair response and 1 patient showed poor response to treatment. Conclusion: Botulinum toxin was found to be safe and effective therapy for the management of androgenetic alopecia in this pilot study. Studies with larger sample size and randomized controlled trials are required to establish the role of botulinum toxin in the management of androgenetic alopecia.

  8. Тіе Modern treatment of androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Karnaukhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is the most common reason for hair loss. Its frequency in Caucasian population is up to 80% in men and 42% in women. Current gold standard for AGA treatment includes minoxidil and/or finasteride. Both drugs have moderate treatment efficacy and can cause significant side effects. Minoxidil is the only option for treatment of AGA in women since finasteride has no efficacy. This review considers actual concepts of molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and current treatment options of AGA with their limitations and shortcomings. Current state and perspectives of novel approaches to AGA treatment, potentially more effective and safe than minoxidil and finasteride, are described. The review discusses growth factors and cytokines, topical 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor antagonists, prostaglandin analogs and antagonists, Wnt signaling activators and platelet-rich plasma injections.

  9. FINASTERIDE AS A TREATMENT FOR MALE ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA

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    Ni Komang Tristiana Dewi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is a type of alopecia non sikatrik that most often occur, especially in men. AGA is hereditary baldness and form distinctive patterns. Causes related to AGA estimated serum androgen levels, especially 5-?-dehydrotestosterone (DHT, which can lead to miniaturization of the hair follicle. Finasteride is one of drugs that proven effective in treating hair loss caused by AGA. Finasteride is a 4-azasteroid components that are competitive and specific inhibitor of the enzyme 5-?-reductase type II, an enzyme that converts testosteron into intracellular DHT. By inhibiting the enzyme 5-?-reductase type II, conversion of testosteron to DHT inhibited, thereby causing a significant decrease in serum and tissue DHT concentrations. The use of finasteride 1 mg per day proven to effectively treat AGA in men.  

  10. Evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumeyer, Anja; Tosti, Antonella; Messenger, Andrew; Reygagne, Pascal; del Marmol, Veronique; Spuls, Phyllis I.; Trakatelli, Myrto; Finner, Andreas; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Trüeb, Ralph; Rzany, Berthold; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting both men and women. Initial signs of androgenetic alopecia usually develop during teenage years leading to progressive hair loss with a pattern distribution. Moreover, its frequency increases with age and affects up to 80 %

  11. The effectiveness of treatments for androgenetic alopecia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Areej; Godwin, Marshall

    2017-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern hair loss, is a hair loss disorder mediated by dihydrotestosterone, the potent form of testosterone. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and HairMax LaserComb, which is FDA-cleared, are the only treatments recognized by the FDA as treatments of androgenetic alopecia. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of nonsurgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in comparison to placebo for improving hair density, thickness, growth (defined by an increased anagen:telogen ratio), or subjective global assessments done by patients and investigators. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched up to December 2016, with no lower limit on the year. We included only randomized controlled trials of good or fair quality based on the US Preventive Services Task Force quality assessment process. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for 5 groups of studies that tested the following hair loss treatments: low-level laser light therapy in men, 5% minoxidil in men, 2% minoxidil in men, 1 mg finasteride in men, and 2% minoxidil in women. All treatments were superior to placebo (P laser light therapy are effective for promoting hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia and that minoxidil is effective in women with androgenetic alopecia. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-level laser/light therapy for androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Lyons, Danika C A; Abramovits, William

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a persistent and pervasive condition that affects men worldwide. Some common treatment options for AGA include hair prosthetics, oral and topical medications, and surgical hair restoration (SHR). Pharmaceutical and SHR treatments are associated with limitations including adverse side effects and significant financial burden. Low-level laser or light (LLL) devices offer alternative treatment options that are not typically associated with adverse side effects or significant costs. There are clinic- and home-based LLL devices. One home-based laser comb device has set a standard for others; however, this device requires time devoted to carefully moving the comb through the hair to allow laser penetration to the scalp. A novel helmet-like LLL device for hair growth has proven effective in preliminary trials and allows for hands-free use. Regardless, there are few clinical trials that have been conducted regarding LLL devices for AGA and results are mixed. Further research is required to establish the true efficacy of these devices for hair growth in comparison to existing alternative therapies.

  13. Androgenetic alopecia and risk of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA or male pattern baldness (MPB has been found to be associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. The well-known risk factors are family history of CAD, hypertension, increased body mass index (BMI, central obesity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. The newer risk factors are serum lipoprotein-a (SL-a, serum homocysteine (SH, and serum adiponectin (SA. Aim : Identifying individuals at risk of CAD at an early age might help in preventing CAD and save life. Hence, a comparative study of CAD risk factors was planned in 100 males of AGA between the age of 25 and 40 years with equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. Materials and Methods : Patients of AGA grade II or more of Hamilton and Norwood (HN Scale and controls were examined clinically and advised blood test. The reports were available for fasting blood sugar (FBS, serum total serum cholesterol (SC in 64 cases, 64 controls; lipoproteins (high, low, very low density, HDL, LDL, VLDL, serum triglycerides (ST in 63 cases, 63 controls; SL-a in 63 cases, 74 controls; SH in 56 cases, 74 controls; and SA in 62 cases, 74 controls. Results : In these cases family history (FH of AGA and CAD was significantly high. The blood pressure (BP was also found to be significantly high in the cases. The difference of mean serum HDL, LDL, VLDL, ST, SH, and SL-a in cases and controls were statistically significant and with increasing grade of AGA, the risk factors also increased. Conclusion : Patients with AGA appear to be at an increased risk of developing CAD, therefore, clinical evaluation of cases with AGA of grade II and above may be of help in preventing CAD in future.

  14. THE ROLE OF ESTROGEN IN WOMEN WITH ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Diah Pratiwi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Hair loss may accured in both male and female population. Hair loss usually accured in Telogenic phase, meanwhile in Anagenic phase hair loss due to chemotherapy or radiation. Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is regarded as hair fall type which is accured in women in common and known as female androgenetic alopecia. Almost 40%, 50 years old female shown hair fall sign, which is developed progressive fibrosing alopecia of central scalp, especially in frontal and parietal area. There are two common treatment for Female pattern Hair Loss are Minoxidil for topical use, and Fenesteride by oral. However, it has long been known that estrogens also profoundly alter hair follicle growth and cycling by binding to locally expressed high-affinity estrogen receptors (ERs, in turn increase anagenic phase and represed telogenic phase. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. The role of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Cynthia M; Rossi, Anthony; Poe, Jonathan; Manhas-Bhutani, Suveena; Sadick, Neil

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss affects many women; its pathogenetic basis has been held to be similar to men with common baldness. The objective of this study was to determine the role of immunity and inflammation in androgenetic alopecia in women and modulate therapy according to inflammatory and immunoreactant profiles. 52 women with androgenetic alopecia (AA) underwent scalp biopsies for routine light microscopic assessment and direct immunofluroescent studies. In 18 patients, serologic assessment for antibodies to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and cytokeratin 15 was conducted. A lymphocytic folliculitis targeting the bulge epithelium was observed in many cases. Thirty-three of 52 female patients had significant deposits of IgM within the epidermal basement membrane zone typically accompanied by components of complement activation. The severity of changes light microscopically were more apparent in the positive immunoreactant group. Biopsies from men with androgenetic alopecia showed a similar pattern of inflammation and immunoreactant deposition. Serologic assessment for antibodies to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor or cytokeratin 15 were negative. Combined modality therapy with minocycline and topical steroids along with red light produced consistent good results in the positive immunoreactant group compared to the negative immunoreactant group. A lymphocytic microfolliculitis targeting the bulge epithelium along with deposits of epithelial basement membrane zone immunoreactants are frequent findings in androgenetic alopecia and could point toward an immunologically driven trigger. Cases showing a positive immunoreactant profile respond well to combined modality therapy compared to those with a negative result.

  16. Evaluation of DNA Variants Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Potential to Predict Male Pattern Baldness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorp......Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes...... and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness...

  17. Genome-wide gene expression dataset used to identify potential therapeutic targets in androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dey-Rao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The microarray dataset attached to this report is related to the research article with the title: “A genomic approach to susceptibility and pathogenesis leads to identifying potential novel therapeutic targets in androgenetic alopecia” (Dey-Rao and Sinha, 2017 [1]. Male-pattern hair loss that is induced by androgens (testosterone in genetically predisposed individuals is known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA. The raw dataset is being made publicly available to enable critical and/or extended analyses. Our related research paper utilizes the attached raw dataset, for genome-wide gene-expression associated investigations. Combined with several in silico bioinformatics-based analyses we were able to delineate five strategic molecular elements as potential novel targets towards future AGA-therapy.

  18. The effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride used for 3 years in women with androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ids H Boersma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride in women with androgenetic alopecia has been the subject of debate. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride on hair loss in women with androgenetic alopecia over a period of 3 years. Methods: From a database containing systematically retrieved data on 3500 women treated for androgenetic alopecia between 2002 and 2012 with finasteride 1.25 mg or dutasteride 0.15 mg, a random sample stratified for age and type of medication was taken to yield 30 women in two age categories: below and above 50 years, and for both medications. Hair thickness of the three thinnest hairs was measured from standardized microscopic images at three sites of the scalp at the start of the treatment and after 3 years of continuous medication intake. The macroscopic images were evaluated independently by three European dermatologists/hair experts. The diagnostic task was to identify the image displaying superior density of the hair. Results: Both age categories showed a statistically significant increase in hair thickness from baseline over the 3-year period for finasteride and dutasteride (signed rank test, P = 0.02. Hair thickness increase was observed in 49 (81.7% women in the finasteride group and in 50 (83.3% women in the dutasteride group. On average, the number of post-treatment images rated as displaying superior density was 124 (68.9% in the finasteride group, and 118 (65.6% in the dutasteride group. Dutasteride performed statistically significantly better than finasteride in the age category below 50 years at the central and vertex sites of the scalp. Conclusions: Finasteride 1.25 mg and dutasteride 0.15 mg given daily for 3 years effectively increased hair thickness and arrested further deterioration in women with androgenetic alopecia.

  19. A bibliometric study of scientific literature in Scopus on botanicals for treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Peroni, Gabriella; Guido, Davide

    2016-06-01

    In androgenetic alopecia, a number of botanicals are available that can effectively slow or reduce hair loss and inflammation or stimulate partial hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on botanicals used for androgenetic alopecia and to perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for "alopecia" OR "androgenetic alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Camelia sinensis" OR (and other 15 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in Scopus database. A total of 29 references, that is, research articles, were retrieved by SCOPUS search, and 93.1% had been published since 2000. The majority (48.3%) describe applications of hair grow stimulants, followed by inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase applications (27.6%), and studies concerning inhibitors of inflammation (24.1%). The citation analysis revealed a growing interest for this topic and the papers on hair grow stimulants are most cited. Citation trend of inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase articles is growing in the last years. This study has highlighted three important aspects: (1) growing interest for this topic; (2) evidences mainly in hair grow stimulants and recently in the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, as demonstrated by article and citation counts across years; (3) in addition, all major studies have been focused on green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Serenoa repens, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuscuta reflexa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Patterns of reproductive isolation in a haplodiploid - strong post-mating, prezygotic barriers among three forms of a social spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Sakamoto, Hironori; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Saito, Yutaka; Chao, Jung-Tai; Egas, Martijn; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2018-03-22

    In speciation research, much attention is paid to the evolution of reproductive barriers, preventing diverging groups from hybridizing back into one gene pool. The prevalent view is that reproductive barriers evolve gradually as a by-product of genetic changes accumulated by natural selection and genetic drift in groups that are segregated spatially and/or temporally. Reproductive barriers, however, can also be reinforced by natural selection against maladaptive hybridization. These mutually compatible theories are both empirically supported by studies, analysing relationships between intensity of reproductive isolation and genetic distance in sympatric taxa and allopatric taxa. Here, we present the - to our knowledge - first comparative study in a haplodiploid organism, the social spider mite Stigmaeopsis miscanthi, by measuring premating and post-mating, pre- and post-zygotic components of reproductive isolation, using three recently diverged forms of the mite that partly overlap in home range. We carried out cross-experiments and measured genetic distances (mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA) among parapatric and allopatric populations of the three forms. Our results show that the three forms are reproductively isolated, despite the absence of premating barriers, and that the post-mating, prezygotic component contributes most to reproductive isolation. As expected, the strength of post-mating reproductive barriers positively correlated with genetic distance. We did not find a clear pattern of prezygotic barriers evolving faster in parapatry than in allopatry, although one form did show a trend in line with the ecological and behavioural relationships between the forms. Our study advocates the versatility of haplodiploid animals for investigating the evolution of reproductive barriers. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  2. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Androgenetic Alopecia: Identification of Four Genetic Risk Loci and Evidence for the Contribution of WNT Signaling to Its Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann, S.; Kiefer, A.K.; Fricker, N.; Drichel, D.; Hillmer, A.M.; Herold, C.; Tung, J.Y.; Eriksson, N.; Redler, S.; Betz, R.C.; Li, R.; Karason, A.; Nyholt, D.R.; Song, K.; Vermeulen, S.; Kanoni, S.; Dedoussis, G.; Martin, N.G.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Mooser, V.; Stefansson, K.; Richards, J.B.; Becker, T.; Brockschmidt, F.F.; Hinds, D.A.; Nothen, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA, male-pattern baldness) is driven by androgens, and genetic predisposition is the major prerequisite. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have reported that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at eight different genomic loci are

  4. Randomized clinical trial comparing 5% and 1% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Arano, Osamu; Nishikawa, Tooru; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    Minoxidil is efficacious in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by inducing hair follicles to undergo transition from the early to late anagen phase. Although the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil has been confirmed in Japan, no controlled study of 5% topical minoxidil has been conducted using male Japanese subjects. The objective of this trial was to verify the superiority in clinical efficacy of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in a double-blind controlled study with male, Japanese androgenetic alopecia patients as the subjects. The trial included 300 Japanese male patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 5% topical minoxidil (n = 150) or 1% topical minoxidil (n = 150) for 24 weeks. The mean change from the baseline in non-vellus hair/cm(2), the primary efficacy variable, was 26.4 (n = 142) in the 5% topical minoxidil group and 21.2 (n = 144) in the 1% topical minoxidil group at 16 weeks, the main time point for the evaluation. The difference between the groups was significant (P = 0.020). The incidence of adverse events was 8.7% (13/150) in the 5% group and 5.3% (8/150) in the 1% group, with no significant difference between the groups (chi(2)-test: P = 0.258). Our findings confirmed the superiority of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in treating Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

  5. Photobiomodulation therapy for androgenetic alopecia: A clinician's guide to home-use devices cleared by the Federal Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Erin M; Winter, Margo A; Hordinsky, Maria K; Sadick, Neil S; Farah, Ronda S

    2018-06-01

    The market for home-use photobiomodulation devices to treat androgenetic alopecia has rapidly expanded, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently cleared many devices for this purpose. Patients increasingly seek the advice of dermatologists regarding the safety and efficacy of these hair loss treatments. The purpose of this guide was threefold: (1) to identify all home-use photobiomodulation therapy devices with FDA-clearance for treatment of androgenetic alopecia; (2) to review device design, features and existing clinical evidence; and (3) to discuss practical considerations of photobiomodulation therapy, including patient suitability, treatment goals, safety, and device selection. A search of the FDA 510(k) Premarket Notification database was conducted using product code "OAP" to identify all home-use devices that are FDA-cleared to treat androgenetic alopecia. Thirteen commercially available devices were identified and compared. Devices varied in shape, wavelength, light sources, technical features, price, and level of clinical evidence. To date, there are no head-to-head studies comparing the efficacy of these devices. Photobiomodulation therapy devices have an excellent safety profile and mounting evidence supporting their efficacy. However, long-term, high quality studies comparing these devices in diverse populations are lacking. As these devices become increasingly popular, dermatologists should be familiar with this treatment modality to add to their therapeutic armamentarium. AGA, androgenetic alopecia; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission; LED, light-emitting diode; PBMT, photobiomodulation therapy.

  6. Modulation of the androgenetic response in diverse skin cell types: the pilosebaceous unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurvarra, F.; Kerner, N.; Hagelin, K.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens play a central role in diverse morphogenetic processes of the skin. Hair growth and follicular cycle are regulated in part by androgens. Androgens also play a key function, together with other receptors such as the PPARs receptors family, on the proliferation and differentiation of the sebaceous gland that forms part of the pilosebaceous unit and influences hair growth and skin well-being. UV radiation may affect androgens regulation of skin homeostasis. Objectives: to study the modulation of androgenetic response related to UV radiation on the pilosebaceous unit, in two skin conditions: androgenetic alopecia and acne, both affecting skin and constituting major concerns for affected individuals. Methods: primary cultures of cells and established cell lines from the pilosebaceous unit: dermal papillae cells, keratinocytes and sebocytes. Analysis of lipid content, inflammatory response and proliferation of cells under the influence of androgens, PPARs ligands and UVR. Results: sebocytes primary cultures were obtained from human sebaceous glands. Proliferation and differentiation, as well as the expression of proinflammatory molecules (IL-1, TNF alpha, iNOs) and lipogenic enzymes (FASN) under androgens and UV treatment were assessed. The response to androgens under UV exposure was also analyzed in dermal papillae cells in culture. (authors)

  7. Efficacy of a cosmetic phyto-caffeine shampoo in female androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussoletti, Carolina; Tolaini, Maria V; Celleno, Leonardo

    2018-03-06

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in both males as well as females, occurring in up to 57% of women by the age of 80 years. Androgenetic alopecia is associated with a high psychological burden and often results in substantially reduced quality of life, poor body image and low self-esteem, particularly in women. Caffeine-based products have shown promise, both in vitro and in vivo, as potential treatments for AGA. This study was performed to determine the efficacy of a phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo used over a 6-month period in female subjects with AGA. This was a single-centre, double-blind parallel trial in which female subjects with AGA were randomized to either a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo or a control shampoo. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the number of hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months. Hair loss intensity, hair strength, subject satisfaction and tolerability were also assessed. Subjects using the phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo had significantly fewer hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months, compared with subjects using the control shampoo (-3.1 vs -0.5 hairs; pshampoo, compared with controls. Both products were very well tolerated. Compared with a control shampoo, a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo was more efficacious, with respect to the number of hairs being pulled out at 6 months, hair loss intensity and hair strength in subjects with AGA.

  8. An Open-Label Evaluator Blinded Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Nutritional Supplement in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Anna J.; Hughes, Olivia Bosshardt; Canazza, Agnese; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel oral supplement, Forti5?, containing green tea extract, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, melatonin, beta-sitosterol, and soy isoflavones, and in the management of subjects with androgenetic alopecia. Design: A prospective case series of 10 subjects. Setting: Open-label, evaluator-blinded, proof-of-concept study. Participants: Ten adult subjects with androgenetic alopecia completed the study. Subjects were not allowed to use oral o...

  9. Balancing in- and out-breeding by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Demet; Schausberger, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In- and out-breeding depressions are commonly observed phenomena in sexually reproducing organisms with a patchy distribution pattern, and spatial segmentation and/or isolation of groups. At the genetic level, inbreeding depression is due to increased homozygosity, whereas outbreeding depression is due to inferior genetic compatibility of mates. Optimal outbreeding theory suggests that intermediate levels of mate relatedness should provide for the highest fitness gains. Here, we assessed the fitness consequences of genetic relatedness between mates in plant-inhabiting predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis, which are obligatory sexually reproducing but haplo-diploid. Both females and males arise from fertilized eggs but males lose the paternal chromosome set during embryogenesis, dubbed pseudo-arrhenotoky. Phytoseiulus persimilis are highly efficacious in reducing crop-damaging spider mite populations and widely used in biological control. Using iso-female lines of two populations, from Sicily and Greece, we assessed the fecundity of females, and sex ratio of their offspring, that mated with either a sibling, a male from the same population or a male from the other population. Additionally, we recorded mating latency and duration. Females mating with a male from the same population produced more eggs, with a lower female bias, over a longer time than females mating with a sibling or with a male from the other population. Mating latency was unaffected by mate relatedness; mating duration was disproportionally long in sibling couples, likely indicating female reluctance to mate and sub-optimal spermatophore transfer. Our study provides a rare example of in- and out-breeding depression in a haplo-diploid arthropod, supporting the optimal outbreeding theory.

  10. The development of cream-mask base composition for androgenetic alopecia prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorovska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Androgenetic Alopecia (AA treatment nowadays is still a difficult task of dermatology as the range of drugs that affect the pathological link of disease and are safe for prolonged use, is limited. Methods and results. The purpose of the work was to study the optimal composition of the cream-mask base with Saw palmetto dry extract and the tincture of Sophora Japonica intended for prophylactic and therapeutic use in AA. The work presents a complex of physical, biopharmaceutical and microscopic research on the choice of the optimal cream-mask base. Conclusion. It has been established that the best consumer and pharmaco-technological properties are characterized with the bases, to which a complex of emulsifiers MONTANOV 68 and NatureMulse or Olivem 1000 polymers; Carbopol (0,5% and guar gum (1% is introduced;

  11. Androgenetic alopecia: new insights into the pathogenesis and mechanism of hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rodney; Torkamani, Niloufar; Jones, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    The hair follicle is a complete mini-organ that lends itself as a model for investigation of a variety of complex biological phenomena, including stem cell biology, organ regeneration and cloning.  The arrector pili muscle inserts into the hair follicle at the level of the bulge- the epithelial stem cell niche.  The arrector pili muscle has been previously thought to be merely a bystander and not to have an active role in hair disease. Computer generated 3D reconstructions of the arrector pili muscle have helped explain why women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) experience diffuse hair loss rather than the patterned baldness seen in men.  Loss of attachment between the bulge stem cell population and the arrector pili muscle also explains why miniaturization is irreversible in AGA but not alopecia areata. A new model for the progression of AGA is presented. PMID:26339482

  12. Clinical utility and validity of minoxidil response testing in androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Roberts, Janet; McCoy, John; Desai, Nisha; Zarrab, Zoulikha; Pietrzak, Aldona; Lotti, Torello

    2015-01-01

    Clinical response to 5% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is typically observed after 3-6 months. Approximately 40% of patients will regrow hair. Given the prolonged treatment time required to elicit a response, a diagnostic test for ruling out nonresponders would have significant clinical utility. Two studies have previously reported that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts a patient's response to topical minoxidil therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility and validity of minoxidil response testing. In this communication, the present authors conducted an analysis of completed and ongoing studies of minoxidil response testing. The analysis confirmed the clinical utility of a sulfotransferase enzyme test in successfully ruling out 95.9% of nonresponders to topical minoxidil for the treatment of AGA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Marczakiewicz-Lustig, Anna; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC). Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Marcińska

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB, is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC. Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  15. Androgenetic Alopecia: A Chronic or Pubertal Onset Disease Retarded by Blood Donation

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    Mohammad Reza Dayer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss and common baldness that affects psychological more than physiological aspects of people’s lives. Studies have shown that this multi factorial disorder is initiated by androgens secretion in pubertal period, minerals limitations, autoimmunity, mental stress, genetic predisposition and some alterations in hematological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of hematologic parameters in this disease using a case control study design. Methods In this case-controlled study, two groups each of 80 individuals with androgenetic alopecia were voluntarily included in the study based on their medical histories and clinical examinations and subjected to blood tests for routine hematological parameters. The results were then compared and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Our findings indicated that all the parameters for both groups fall in normal ranges (Mean ± SD but the values for RBC, HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, LYM and TIBC were significantly higher in patients than in normal group. The average counts of PLT was significantly lower in patients compared with the normal group. Otherwise, Person’s tests for statistical correlations between two groups indicated that the pattern of correlations were abnormal in patients. Conclusions Our findings indicated the presence of a chronic, immunologic and slowly progressing disorder that causes hair loss, the disease which is in turn triggered in pubertal period upon androgen secretion. We suggest, therefore, that the conditions may be ameliorated by prescription of iron tablet, platelet transfusion and anti-inflammation therapy.

  16. Response to microneedling treatment in men with androgenetic alopecia who failed to respond to conventional therapy

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    Rachita Dhurat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficacy of conventional therapy viz. finasteride and minoxidil in androgenetic alopecia (AGA that is based on both preventing hair loss and promoting new hair growth, varies between 30% and 60%. This has led to a large number of patients unsatisfied who demand for a better cosmetic coverage over the scalp. Microneedling has recently been reported to be promising, effective and a safe treatment modality in the treatment of AGA. This augments the response of conventional therapy. Materials and Methods: Four men with AGA were on finasteride and 5% minoxidil solution since 2 to 5 years. Though there was no worsening in their respective AGA stages with the therapy, they showed no new hair growth. They were subjected to microneedling procedure over a period of 6 months along with their ongoing therapy. Patients were assessed with the use of the standardized 7-point evaluation scale and patients′ subjective hair growth assessment scale. The patients were followed up for 18 months post microneedling procedure to assess the sustainability of the response. Results: All patients showed a response of + 2 to + 3 on standardized 7-point evaluation scale. The response in the form of new hair growth started after 8-10 sessions. The patients′ satisfaction was more than 75% in three patients and more 50% in one patient, on patients′ subjective hair growth assessment scale. The obtained results were sustained post procedure during 18 months follow-up period. Conclusion : Treatment with microneedling showed an accelerated response with addition of microneedling procedure leading to significant scalp density. This is the first case series to report the boosting effect of microneedling with respect to new hair follicle stimulation in patients with androgenetic alopecia who were poor responders to conventional therapy.

  17. Evaluation of Perifollicular Inflammation of Donor Area during Hair Transplantation in Androgenetic Alopecia and its Comparison with Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal, Balakrishnan; Somiah, Savitha; Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy A; Biligi, Dayananda S; Palo, Seetu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild perifollicular inflammation is seen in both androgenetic alopecia (AGA) cases and normal controls, whereas moderate or dense inflammation with concentric layers of collagen, is seen in AGA cases but only in very few normal controls, and may lessen the response to topical minoxidil. Moderate or dense lymphocytic inflammation and perifollicular fibrosis have poor hair growth following transplantation. Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the perifollicular lymphocytic i...

  18. Melatonin increases anagen hair rate in women with androgenetic alopecia or diffuse alopecia: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Burmeister, G; Schmidt, H W; Elsner, P

    2004-02-01

    In addition to the well-known hormonal influences of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on the hair cycle, melatonin has been reported to have a beneficial effect on hair growth in animals. The effect of melatonin on hair growth in humans has not been investigated so far. To examine whether topically applied melatonin influences anagen and telogen hair rate in women with androgenetic or diffuse hair loss. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 40 women suffering from diffuse alopecia or androgenetic alopecia. A 0.1% melatonin or a placebo solution was applied on the scalp once daily for 6 months and trichograms were performed to assess anagen and telogen hair rate. To monitor effects of treatment on physiological melatonin levels, blood samples were taken over the whole study period. Melatonin led to a significantly increased anagen hair rate in occipital hair in women with androgenetic hair loss compared with placebo (n=12; P=0.012). For frontal hair, melatonin gave a significant increase in the group with diffuse alopecia (n=28; P=0.046). The occipital hair samples of patients with diffuse alopecia and the frontal hair counts of those with androgenetic alopecia also showed an increase of anagen hair, but differences were not significant. Plasma melatonin levels increased under treatment with melatonin, but did not exceed the physiological night peak. To the authors' knowledge, this pilot study is the first to show that topically applied melatonin might influence hair growth in humans in vivo. The mode of action is not known, but the effect might result from an induction of anagen phase.

  19. Randomized trial of electrodynamic microneedle combined with 5% minoxidil topical solution for the treatment of Chinese male Androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Linlin; Gong, Lin; Guo, Menger; Liu, Taoming; Shi, Anyu; Zong, Haifeng; Xu, Xuegang; Chen, Hongduo; Gao, Xinghua; Li, Yuanhong

    2017-10-13

    In treating androgenetic alopecia, 5% minoxidil is a commonly used topical drug. By using electrodynamic microneedle at the same time may increase absorption of minoxidil and further stimulate hair growth. A 24-week, randomized, evaluator blinded, comparative study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of treating Chinese male androgenetic alopecia using microneedle combined with 5% minoxidil topical solution. Randomized subjects received topical 5% minoxidil (group 1, n = 20), local electrodynamic microneedle treatments (group 2, n = 20), or local electrodynamic microneedle treatments plus topical 5% minoxidil (group 3, n = 20). A total of 12 microneedle treatments were performed every 2 weeks with 2ml 5% minoxidil delivery in group 3 during each microneedle treatment. Patient receiving topical 5% minoxidil applied 1 ml of the solution twice daily over the course of the study. A total of 60 Chinese male subjects with Norwood-Hamilton type III-VI androgenetic alopecia were treated. The mean improvement in total hair density from baseline to 24 weeks was 18.8/cm 2 in group 1, 23.4/cm 2 in group 2, and 38.3/cm 2 in group 3. The hair growth in the 3 groups was significantly different (P = 0.002), but there were no significant differences in toxicity found between the 3 groups. Treatment with microneedle plus topical 5% minoxidil was associated with the best hair growth.

  20. Androgenetic alopecia as an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Ragip; Orscelik, Ozcan; Kartal, Demet; Dogan, Ali; Ertas, Sule Ketenci; Aydogdu, Ebru Guler; Ascioglu, Ozcan; Borlu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated a probable association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by researching limited and dispersed parameters. We aimed to evaluate both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in male patients with early-onset AGA. This case-control study included 68 participants: 51 male patients with early-onset AGA and 17 healthy male controls. Patients with AGA were classified into three groups according to the Hamilton-Norwood scale and the presence of vertex hair loss. Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors were examined in all study subjects. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 25 patients with AGA and in two control subjects (p baldness and controls (p < 0.05). The pulse-wave velocity values were also found to be significantly higher in patients (p < 0.001). A limitation of this study was the small study population. In conclusion, vertex pattern AGA appears to be a marker for early atherosclerosis. This finding supports the hypothesis that early-onset AGA alone could be an independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

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    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01

    Hair thickness is more important than hair density in the appearance of baldness in male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Adenosine improves hair loss by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hair growth efficacy and safety of topical adenosine in men with AGA. A lotion containing either adenosine or niacinamide was administered to the scalps of 102 Japanese men twice daily for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized study. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists who assessed the quality of the hair and by calculating the percentages of vellus-like and thick hairs among the vertex hairs, as well as hair density. Adenosine was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to niacinamide in terms of global improvement of AGA, increase in the percentage of thick hairs (at least 60 μm) and self-assessment of hair thickness by the study participants. No causal adverse event due to the adenosine lotion was observed. These data indicate that adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with AGA, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Treatment of male androgenetic alopecia with topical products containing Serenoa repens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessagowit, Vesarat; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Kootiratrakarn, Tanawatt; Bunnag, Thareena; Pimonrat, Tanatya; Muangdang, Nattaporn; Pichai, Pitchayasak

    2016-08-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common hair problem. Serenoa repens extract has been shown to inhibit both types of 5-α reductase and, when taken orally, has been shown to increase hair growth in AGA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical products containing S. repens extract for the treatment of male AGA. This was a pilot, prospective, open, within-subject comparison limited to 24 weeks using no placebo controls. In all, 50 male volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years received topical S. repens products for 24 weeks. The primary end-point was a hair count in an area of 2.54 cm(2) at week 24. Secondary end-points included hair restoration, investigators' photographic assessment, patients' evaluation and discovering adverse events. The average hair count and terminal hair count increased at weeks 12 and 24 compared to baseline. Some of these positive results levelled off at week 24, presumably because the concentrated topical product containing S. repens extract was stopped after 4 weeks. The patients were satisfied with the products and the side-effects were limited. The topical application of S. repens extract could be an alternative treatment in male pattern baldness in male patients who do not want or cannot tolerate the side-effects of standard medications, but the use of a concentrated S. repens product beyond 4 weeks may be necessary for sustained efficacy. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. SERUM-CONCENTRATIONS OF Dehydroepyandrosterone-sulfate IN MEN WITH ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA

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    Ani Tsvetanova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AA is considered as a genetically determinate androgen (DHT-dependent disorder. Theoretically Dehydroepyandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S is the first main metabolite in the androgen metabolism. The aim of the study was to determine the serum-levels of DHEA-S (DHEA-S(s in patients with AA and the possible correlation between clinical stage of AA and DHEA-S(s. Forty-four men (37 with male pattern baldness and 7 healthy controls aged 19 to 55 had DHEA-S(s measured. Determination of the hormone was performed by standard radioimmunoassay. Only nine of the men with AA showed high levels of DHEA-S(s. In 3 of the patients were detected a boundary high levels of DHEA-S(s. No correlation between the clinical stage of AA and DHEA-S(s -levels was established. There was relationship only between increase of the age and decrease of the concentrations of DHEA-S(s. In contrast to previous studies, in our investigation, no elevation of DHEA-S(s in men with AA was found. Our results indirect support the current understanding of the importance of some follicular enzymes (STS, 3-beta-HSD, 17-beta-HSD etc. that could increase the amount of the alternative DHT-sources in AA, as well as the theory for the “endocrinology of hair follicle”.

  4. Novel Approach to Treating Androgenetic Alopecia in Females With Photobiomodulation (Low-Level Laser Therapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Shelly; Schnoor, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Photobiomodulation, also referred to as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), has been studied and used for (among other diseases) the promotion of hair regrowth. A clinical study was developed to define the physiologic effects that occur when the human hair follicle and surrounding tissue structures are exposed to laser light using a novel device that is fitted with an array of laser diode sources operating at 650 nm and placed inside a sports cap to promote discretion while in use. The study demonstrates that low-level laser treatment of the scalp every other day for 17 weeks using the HANDI-DOME LASER device is a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia in healthy females between the ages of 18 to 60 with Fitzpatrick skin Types I to IV and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2 to II-2 baldness patterns. Subjects receiving LLLT at 650 nm achieved a 51% increase in hair counts as compared with sham-treated control patients in this multicenter randomized controlled trial. These results suggest that the emerging technology of low-level laser therapy may play a potentially significant role in health care providers' armamentarium for the disease androgenic alopecia.

  5. Genetic variants at 20p11 confer risk to androgenetic alopecia in the Chinese Han population.

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    Bo Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is a well-characterized type of progressive hair loss commonly seen in men, with different prevalences in different ethnic populations. It is generally considered to be a polygenic heritable trait. Several susceptibility genes/loci, such as AR/EDA2R, HDAC9 and 20p11, have been identified as being involved in its development in European populations. In this study, we aim to validate whether these loci are also associated with AGA in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: We genotyped 16 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with 445 AGA cases and 546 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. The trend test was used to evaluate the association between these loci and AGA in the Chinese Han population. Conservatively accounting for multiple testing by the Bonferroni correction, the threshold for statistical significance was P ≤ 3.13 × 10(-3. RESULTS: We identified that 5 SNPs at 20p11 were significantly associated with AGA in the Chinese Han population (1.84 × 10(-11 ≤ P ≤ 2.10 × 10(-6. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated, for the first time, that 20p11 also confers risk for AGA in the Chinese Han population and implicated the potential common genetic factors for AGA shared by both Chinese and European populations.

  6. Topical Minoxidil: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy in Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Charrette, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Topical minoxidil has become a mainstay in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Despite being a longstanding treatment for AGA, relatively few reviews of its efficacy have been published. The current study sought to synthesize the available efficacy data by performing a systematic review of the literature and conducting random-effects pairwise meta-analyses for the outcomes percent increase in hair count from baseline, investigator assessment, and patient self-assessment. Results showed that minoxidil is more effective than placebo in promoting total and nonvellus hair growth (mean difference [MD], 16.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.34-24.03 and MD, 20.90; 95% CI, 9.07-32.74). A significantly higher proportion of participants in the minoxidil group had greater hair growth than participants in the placebo group as judged by both investigators and self-reports (relative risk [RR], 2.28; 95% CI, 1.58-3.31 and RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.80). Despite significant clinical efficacy, cosmetically acceptable results are present in only a subset of patients. Compliance is thought to be a major limiting factor and is being addressed by novel formulations and combinations.

  7. Novel enzymatic assay predicts minoxidil response in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Andy; Castano, Juan Antonio; McCoy, John; Bermudez, Fernando; Lotti, Torello

    2014-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the most common drug used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men and women. Although topical minoxidil exhibits a good safety profile, the efficacy in the overall population remains relatively low at 30-40%. To observe significant improvement in hair growth, minoxidil is typically used daily for a period of at least 3-4 months. Due to the significant time commitment and low response rate, a biomarker for predicting patient response prior to therapy would be advantageous. Minoxidil is converted in the scalp to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by the sulfotransferase enzyme SULT1A1. We hypothesized that SULT1A1 enzyme activity in the hair follicle correlates with minoxidil response for the treatment of AGA. Our preliminary retrospective study of a SULT1A1 activity assay demonstrates 95% sensitivity and 73% specificity in predicting minoxidil treatment response for AGA. A larger prospective study is now under way to further validate this novel assay. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with diverse activities including enhancement microcapillary perfusion. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compare its effects with minoxidil 2%. Patients with AGA were randomly assigned to rosemary oil (n = 50) or minoxidil 2% (n = 50) for a period of 6 months. After a baseline visit, patients returned to the clinic for efficacy and safety evaluations every 3 months. A standardized professional microphotographic assessment of each volunteer was taken at the initial interview and after 3 and 6 months of the trial. No significant change was observed in the mean hair count at the 3-month endpoint, neither in the rosemary nor in the minoxidil group (P > .05). In contrast, both groups experienced a significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint compared with the baseline and 3-month endpoint (P .05). The frequencies of dry hair, greasy hair, and dandruff were not found to be significantly different from baseline at either month 3 or month 6 trial in the groups (P > .05). The frequency of scalp itching at the 3- and 6-month trial points was significantly higher compared with baseline in both groups (P minoxidil group at both assessed endpoints (P < .05). The findings of the present trial provided evidence with respect to the efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA.

  9. Study of gene expression alteration in male androgenetic alopecia: evidence of predominant molecular signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Reygagne, P; Benech, P; Jean-Louis, F; Scalvino, S; Ly Ka So, S; Hamidou, Z; Bianovici, S; Pouch, J; Ducos, B; Bonnet, M; Bensussan, A; Patatian, A; Lati, E; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J; Choulot, J-C; Loing, E; Hocquaux, M

    2017-11-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men. It is characterized by a distinct pattern of progressive hair loss starting from the frontal area and the vertex of the scalp. Although several genetic risk loci have been identified, relevant genes for AGA remain to be defined. To identify biomarkers associated with AGA. Molecular biomarkers associated with premature AGA were identified through gene expression analysis using cDNA generated from scalp vertex biopsies of hairless or bald men with premature AGA, and healthy volunteers. This monocentric study reveals that genes encoding mast cell granule enzymes, inflammatory mediators and immunoglobulin-associated immune mediators were significantly overexpressed in AGA. In contrast, underexpressed genes appear to be associated with the Wnt/β-catenin and bone morphogenic protein/transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways. Although involvement of these pathways in hair follicle regeneration is well described, functional interpretation of the transcriptomic data highlights different events that account for their inhibition. In particular, one of these events depends on the dysregulated expression of proopiomelanocortin, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In addition, lower expression of CYP27B1 in patients with AGA supports the notion that changes in vitamin D metabolism contributes to hair loss. This study provides compelling evidence for distinct molecular events contributing to alopecia that may pave the way for new therapeutic approaches. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Mechanical and Controlled PRP Injections in Patients Affected by Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2018-01-27

    23 patients (18 male and 5 female) aged 21-70 years who displayed male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale, and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 2 as determined by the Ludwig classification scale, were treated with non-activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (A-PRP). Autologous blood (55 mL) was harvested using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. A-PRP (23 mL) was produced for all cases using a closed system according to the transfusion service protocol. Following centrifugation (260 x g for 10 min) the A-PRP was inserted in a laser light selector device, and after the centrifugation, 9 mL of A-PRP was collected. The scalp of the patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA) was divided into four areas (frontal, parietal, vertex, and occipital); local anesthesia was not performed. Interfollicular A-PRP injections (0.2 mL x cm 2 ) were performed by controlled and mechanical injections scheduled at a depth of 5 mm using a medical injector gun. Treatment sessions were performed with a 30-day interval. For each patient, three treatment sessions were performed. PRP was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp affected by hair loss. Placebo (normal saline solution) was loaded in another syringe (10 mL) and injected on the adjacent side in a similar fashion.

  11. Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Mays, Rachel R; Dotzert, Michelle S; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H; Piguet, Vincent

    2018-05-24

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male/female pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia and identify the most effective treatments. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted of the available literature of the six most common non-surgical treatment options for treating androgenetic alopecia in both men and women; dutasteride 0.5mg, finasteride 1mg, low level laser therapy (LLLT), minoxidil 2%, minoxidil 5% and platelet rich plasma (PRP). Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and twenty-two studies had the data necessary for a network meta-analysis. Relative effects show LLLT as the superior treatment. Relative effects show PRP, finasteride 1 mg (male), finasteride 1 mg (female), minoxidil 5%, minoxidil 2% and dutasteride (male) are approximately equivalent in mean change hair count following treatment. Minoxidil 5% and minoxidil 2% reported the most drug-related adverse events (n=45 and n=23, respectively). The quality of evidence of minoxidil 2% vs. minoxidil 5% was high; minoxidil 5% vs. placebo was moderate; dutasteride (male) vs. placebo, finasteride (female) vs placebo, minoxidil 2% vs. placebo, minoxidil 5% vs. LLLT was low and finasteride (male) vs. placebo, LLLT vs. sham, PRP vs. placebo, finasteride vs. minoxidil 2% was very low. Results of this NMA indicate the emergence of novel, non-hormonal therapies as effective treatments for hair loss; however, the quality of evidence is generally low. High quality randomized controlled trials and head to head trials are required to support these findings and aid in the development of more standardized protocols, particularly for PRP. Regardless, this analysis may aid physicians in clinical decision making and highlight the variety of non-surgical hair restoration options for patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  12. Androgenetic alopecia in men aged 40-69 years: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, G; Sinclair, R; Hopper, J L; English, D R; McCredie, M R E; Boyle, P; Giles, G G

    2003-12-01

    The epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is not fully understood. Although a strong genetic basis has long been identified, little is known of its non-genetic causes. To estimate the prevalence of and to determine risk factors for AGA in men aged 40-69 years in Australia. Men (n = 1390) were recruited at random from the electoral rolls to serve as controls in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. All were interviewed in person and direct observations of AGA were made. Men were grouped into the following categories; no AGA, frontal AGA, vertex AGA and full AGA (frontal and vertex AGA). Epidemiological data collected from these men were used for an analysis of risk factors for each AGA category using unconditional logistic regression with AGA category as the response variable adjusting for age, education and country of birth. The prevalence of vertex and full AGA increased with age from 31% (age 40-55 years) to 53% (age 65-69 years). Conversely, the proportion of men with only frontal AGA was very similar across all age groups (31-33%). No associations were found between pubertal growth spurt or acne, reports of adult body size at time of interview, urinary symptom score, marital status, or current smoking status or duration of smoking and the risk of any form of AGA. The consumption of alcohol was associated with a significant increase in risk of frontal and vertex AGA but not full AGA. Men with vertex AGA had fewer female sexual partners but average ejaculatory frequency did not differ between men in different AGA categories. Reported weight and lean body mass at reaching maturity at about 21 years of age were negatively associated with vertex balding (P for trend body mass at age 21 years would be worthy of further research if they were able to be replicated in other studies.

  13. Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ladan; Maranda, Eric L; Zarei, Mina; Delcanto, Gina M; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Kluijfhout, Wouter P; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) affects 50% of males by age 50 and 50% of females by age 80. Recently, the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proposed as a treatment for hair loss and to stimulate hair regrowth in AGA. This paper aims to review the existing research studies to determine whether LLLT is an effective therapy for AGA based on objective measurements and patient satisfaction. A systematic literature review was done to identify articles on Medline, Google Scholar, and Embase that were published between January 1960 and November 2015. All search hits were screened by two reviewers and examined for relevant abstracts and titles. Articles were divided based on study design and assessed for risk of bias. Eleven studies were evaluated, which investigated a total of 680 patients, consisting of 444 males and 236 females. Nine out of 11 studies assessing hair count/hair density found statistically significant improvements in both males and females following LLLT treatment. Additionally, hair thickness and tensile strength significantly improved in two out of four studies. Patient satisfaction was investigated in five studies, and was overall positive, though not as profound as the objective outcomes. The majority of studies covered in this review found an overall improvement in hair regrowth, thickness, and patient satisfaction following LLLT therapy. Although we should be cautious when interpreting these findings, LLLT therapy seems to be a promising monotherapy for AGA and may serve as an effective alternative for individuals unwilling to use medical therapy or undergo surgical options. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:27-39, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  15. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  16. Serum androgens and prostate-specific antigen levels in androgenetic alopecia: is there a difference between frontal and vertex baldness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Święty, A; Arasiewicz, H; Ranosz-Janicka, I; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L

    2017-12-13

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) seems to be a marker of increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). We sought to investigate potential pathophysiological differences between frontal and vertex balding that might have the impact on the incidence of PCa. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were measured in 88 subjects with AGA. We have examined sixty patients with frontal baldness and 28 patients with vertex baldness. The subgroups did not differ significantly in age, BMI and as regards age of AGA onset, duration of AGA and comorbidities. The mean value of DHT in serum of the men with vertex baldness was higher than those in the men with frontal baldness with statistical significance (P baldness may signal higher exposures to circulating DHT. Serum PSA level cannot serve as surrogate diagnostic marker of increased androgenic activity in men with AGA. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Dermoscopic findings in female androgenetic alopecia Achados dermatoscópicos na alopecia androgenética feminina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Duarte Ramos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. It is a clinical entity of relevant interest and presents a significant psychosocial impact as it undermines self-esteem and quality of life in female patients due to the importance of the hair for people's facial balance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate dermoscopic signs in women clinically diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia. METHOD: Observational study with 34 women between 17 and 68 years old who were diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia. All of them underwent photographic sessions with a 10x magnification dermoscope and a digital camera zoom set to 20x magnification and 40x magnification on the scalp frontal midline. RESULTS: All patients showed miniaturization. A peripilar brown halo was found in 22 patients, honeycomb-like scalp pigmentation was found in 14 and yellow dots in only 1 patient. Recent studies show dermoscopy as the new tool for diagnosis assistance and treatment follow up in scalp disorders. Our study used an ordinary dermoscope and we evaluated several findings reported in the literature with significant clarity and easiness. CONCLUSION: The dermoscope, which is used by dermatologists on a daily basis, is an excellent tool to assist in early diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic response in androgenetic alopecia.FUNDAMENTOS: Alopecia androgenética é forma mais comum de queda de cabelo. Constitui entidade clínica de interesse relevante e acarreta grande impacto psicossocial por comprometer a auto-estima e a qualidade de vida das pacientes. OBJETIVO: Procurar os sinais dermatoscópicos comuns em mulheres com diagnóstico clínico de alopecia androgenética, visando diagnóstico precoce e melhor resposta terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional em 34 mulheres com idades entre 17 e 68 anos, com diagnóstico clínico de alopecia androgenética. Todas pacientes foram avaliadas e submetidas a registros fotográficos com o

  18. Study of platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia through an one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Angeliki Gkini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA. Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA. Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001. At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001 and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001 respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy.

  19. Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, A; Naccarato, T; Situm, M; Kovacevic, M; Lotti, T; McCoy, J

    2017-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only topical drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. However, the exact mechanism by which minoxidil stimulates anagen phase and promotes hair growth is not fully understood. In the late telegen phase of the hair follicle growth cycle, stem cells located in the bulge region differentiate and re-enter anagen phase, a period of growth lasting 2-6 years. In androgenetic alopecia, the anagen phase is shortened and a progressive miniaturization of hair follicles occurs, eventually leading to hair loss. Several studies have demonstrated that minoxidil increases the amount of intracellular Ca2+, which has been shown to up-regulate the enzyme adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. A recent study demonstrated that ATP synthase, independent of its role in ATP synthesis, promotes stem cell differentiation. As such, we propose that minoxidil induced Ca2+ influx can increase stem cell differentiation and may be a key factor in the mechanism by which minoxidil facilitates hair growth. Based on our theory, we provide a roadmap for the development of a new class of drugs for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  20. [Efficacy and tolerability of 5% minoxidil solution (Carexidil®) in male and female androgenetic alopecia: a 6-month open multicentric study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraccini, B; Starace, M; Alessandrini, A; Guarrera, M; Fiorucci, M C; Lorenzi, S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of 5% Carexidil solution®, applied twice a day on the scalp, on male and female androgenetic alopecia. The 6 month-study was performed in three Italian dermatological centers. Evaluation of efficacy was performed with subjective and objective methods, including operator and patient assessments, global photography and videodermoscopy. Global photography revealed that after 6 months of treatment with 5% Carexidil solution®, androgenetic alopecia was improved in all 32 females and 16 males. Alopecia stopped to progress in 6 males. Scalp videodermoscopy confirmed the results. Some patients complained of increased hair greasiness, others complained of mild scalp itching. Two female patients developed contact sensitization to minoxidil, confirmed by patch test, 2 a mild malar-temporal hypertrichosis. All patients were satisfied by treatment and continued it after the end of the study. Our study confirms the data of the literature and the evidence coming from years of clinical experience, that twice a day topical application of 5% minoxidil solution, Carexidil ®, is effective in the treatment of male and female androgenetic alopecia, with evident efficacy already after 6 months.

  1. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  2. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  3. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  4. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  5. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  6. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Consolo, Mary; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

  8. Study of the international epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia in young caucasian men using photographs from the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shalom Avital

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII, non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results : The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  9. Baldness and the androgen receptor: the AR polyglycine repeat polymorphism does not confer susceptibility to androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Cobb, Joanna E; Zaloumis, Sophie G; Duncan, Anna E; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-05-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern baldness, is a complex condition with a strong heritable component. In 2001, we published the first significant evidence of a genetic association between baldness and a synonymous coding SNP (rs6152) in the androgen receptor gene, AR. Recently, this finding was replicated in three independent studies, confirming an important role for AR in the baldness phenotype. In one such replication study, it was claimed that the causative variant underlying the association was likely to be the polyglycine (GGN) repeat polymorphism, one of two apparently functional triplet repeat polymorphisms located in the exon 1 transactivating domain of the gene. Here, we extend our original association finding and present comprehensive evidence from approximately 1,200 fathers and sons drawn from 703 families of the Victorian Family Heart Study, a general population Caucasian cohort, that neither exon 1 triplet repeat polymorphism is causative in this condition. Seventy-eight percent of fathers (531/683) and 30% of sons (157/520) were affected to some degree with AGA. We utilised statistical methods appropriate for the categorical nature of the phenotype and familial structure of the cohort, and determined that whilst SNP rs6152 was strongly associated with baldness (P baldness, but also for the many other complex conditions that have thus far been linked to AR.

  10. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  11. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  12. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL.

  13. The clinical effect of JetpPeel-assisted topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lin; Bao, Linlin; Tian, Tian; Li, Yuanhong

    2018-02-01

    We used JetPeel, combined with topical minoxidil to treat patients with AGA, in order to observe whether the JetPeel can accelerate the recovery of the disease and find a new method for AGA treatment. Thirty patients who met the standard were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was treated with JetPeel-assisted topical minoxidil. The second group received topical minoxidil monotherapy. The third group was not given any treatment. We used objective evaluation (amount and diameter of hair, oil secretion level) and subjective evaluation (hair growth score marked by dermatologist and patient) to evaluate the hair growth condition before treatment and every other month. The calculated p values of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. All of the 30 patients finished the study. There was no difference in age, sex, and duration and severity of the disease among groups prior to treatment (p > 0.05). And there was greater improvement in scores of hair growth in the first group compared to the second and third group, which was statistically significant (p topical minoxidil monotherapy, JetPeel-assisted topical minoxidil is more effective during the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  14. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mouse androgenetic embryonic stem cells differentiated to multiple cell lineages in three embryonic germ layers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Takeshi; Onodera, Yuta; Murakami, Hideki; Ito, Syunsuke; Mihara, Toshihiro; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Kato, Hiromi; Mitani, Tasuku; Anzai, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kanji; Sagawa, Norimasa; Osoi, Yoshihiko

    2009-06-01

    The embryos of some rodents and primates can precede early development without the process of fertilization; however, they cease to develop after implantation because of restricted expressions of imprinting genes. Asexually developed embryos are classified into parthenote/gynogenote and androgenote by their genomic origins. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from asexual origins have also been reported. To date, ESCs derived from parthenogenetic embryos (PgESCs) have been established in some species, including humans, and the possibility to be alternative sources for autologous cell transplantation in regenerative medicine has been proposed. However, some developmental characteristics, which might be important for therapeutic applications, such as multiple differentiation capacity and transplantability of the ESCs of androgenetic origin (AgESCs) are uncertain. Here, we induced differentiation of mouse AgESCs and observed derivation of neural cells, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes in vitro. Following differentiated embryoid body (EB) transplantation in various mouse strains including the strain of origin, we found that the EBs could engraft in theoretically MHC-matched strains. Our results indicate that AgESCs possess at least two important characteristics, multiple differentiation properties in vitro and transplantability after differentiation, and suggest that they can also serve as a source of histocompatible tissues for transplantation.

  17. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-11-01

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  18. Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb(®), in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.

  19. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  20. Superiority of dutasteride over finasteride in hair regrowth and reversal of miniaturization in men with androgenetic alopecia: A randomized controlled open-label, evaluator-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit J.S Shanshanwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride and dutasteride are inhibitors of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride inhibits both type I and type II 5-alpha-reductase while finasteride inhibits only the type II enzyme. As both isoenzymes are present in hair follicles, it is likely that dutasteride is more effective than finasteride. Aims: To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of dutasteride and finasteride in men with androgenetic alopecia. Methods: Men with androgenetic alopecia between 18 and 40 years of age were randomized to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride or 1 mg finasteride daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were hair counts (thick and thin in the target area from modified phototrichograms and global photography evaluation by blinded and non-blinded investigators. The secondary efficacy variable was subjective assessment using a preset questionnaire. Patients were assessed monthly for side effects. Results: Ninety men with androgenetic alopecia were recruited. The increase in total hair count per cm[2] representing new growth was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 223 hair; at 24 weeks- 246 hair compared to finasteride group (baseline- 227 hair; at 24 weeks- 231 hair. The decrease in thin hair count per cm[2] suggestive of reversal of miniaturization was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 65 hair; at 24 weeks- 57 hair compared to finasteride group (baseline- 67 hair; at 24 weeks- 66 hair. Both the groups showed a similar side effect profile with sexual dysfunction being the most common and reversible side effect. Limitations: Limitations include the short duration of the study (6 months, the small sample size and the fact that it was an open-label study. Conclusions: Dutasteride was shown to be more efficacious than finasteride and the side-effect profiles were comparable.

  1. A randomized, single-blind trial of 5% minoxidil foam once daily versus 2% minoxidil solution twice daily in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hillmann, Kathrin; Dietz, Ekkehart; Canfield, Douglas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2011-12-01

    Although twice-daily application of propylene glycol-containing 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) stimulates new hair growth, higher concentrations of minoxidil in a once-daily, propylene glycol-free formulation may improve efficacy and reduce unpleasant side effects. We sought to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability and to show noninferiority of once-daily 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) with twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia. A total of 113 women with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with 5% MTF or 2% MTS. The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline in nonvellus target area hair count at week 24. Secondary end points included change in nonvellus target area hair width, overall efficacy by global photographic review as assessed by treatment-blinded evaluators and the subject herself, adverse events, and participants' assessment of product aesthetics. After 24 weeks, women randomized to 5% MTF once daily showed noninferior target area hair count and target area hair width and experienced greater, but nonsignificant, improvements in target area hair count, target area hair width, and overall efficacy by global photographic review than those randomized to 2% MTS used twice daily. 5% MTF was significantly superior to 2% MTS in participants' agreement with "the treatment does not interfere with styling my hair" (P = .002). Women randomized to 5% MTF experienced significantly lower rates of local intolerance (P = .046) especially in pruritus and dandruff compared with 2% MTS. Because of differences in the formulations tested, study participants were not blinded to treatment. Once-daily 5% MTF is noninferior and as effective for stimulating hair growth as twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia and is associated with several aesthetic and practical advantages. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% solutions on male androgenetic alopecia and measuring patient satisfaction rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Rajaee Harandi, Manijeh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad-Ali; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    According to the hypothesis on the stimulating effect of adenosine on increasing fibroblast growth factor 7 in dermal papilla cells and its vasorelaxant effect, we performed this study to compare the effect of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% on male pattern androgenetic alopecia. This prospective-randomized study recruited 110 male patients suffering from grade II-V Hamilton androgenetic alopecia. Fifty-five patients received minoxidil 5% (group 1) and adenosine 0.75% (group 2) each. Later, 16 patients were excluded due to allergic reactions or loss to follow up. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, complete and relative recovery rates alongside patient satisfaction rate (faster prevention of primary hair loss and appearance of newly grown hair) were compared between the groups. After 3 months of treatment, relative recovery was achieved in 2.4% and 1.9% of patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was not significantly different (p=0.17). During 6 months, the relative recovery rate did not change either within or between the groups (p=0.99) and after 6 months none of the patients achieved complete recovery. However, the patient satisfaction rate was significantly higher in group 2 (p=0.003). In the light of the results, adenosine has no statistically superiority to minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia according to recovery rates. However, the patients were significantly more satisfied with adenosine because of faster prevention of hair loss and appearance of the newly grown hairs. It seems further studies with larger sample size or different drug dosages are required to clarify the findings.

  3. An Open-Label Evaluator Blinded Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Nutritional Supplement in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Anna J; Hughes, Olivia Bosshardt; Canazza, Agnese; Zaiac, Martin N

    2017-02-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel oral supplement, Forti5 ® , containing green tea extract, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, melatonin, beta-sitosterol, and soy isoflavones, and in the management of subjects with androgenetic alopecia. Design: A prospective case series of 10 subjects. Setting: Open-label, evaluator-blinded, proof-of-concept study. Participants: Ten adult subjects with androgenetic alopecia completed the study. Subjects were not allowed to use oral or topical hair growth products in the 24 weeks preceding the study or during the study. The nutritional supplement was administered at a dosage of two tablets daily for 24 weeks. Measurements: Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline and at 24 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using hair mass index measured by cross section trichometer, terminal hair count measured with dermoscopy and Investigator Global Photography Assessment. Results: Overall 80 percent of subjects (8/10) were rated as improved after 24 weeks of supplementation (mean change of +1.4 equivalent to slightly-to-moderately increased). Forty percent of subjects (4/10) were rated as moderately improved (2+), and 10 percent (1/10) were rated as greatly improved (3+). There was a significant improvement in terminal hair count (mean increase of 5.9% or 4.2 more terminal hairs in the area examined, p =0.014) and in Hair Mass Index (mean increase of 9.5% or 4.5 higher Hair Mass Index, p =0.003). Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that Forti5 ® a novel nutritional supplement that contains cholecalciferol, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, melatonin, antioxidants, and botanical 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  4. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  5. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  6. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  7. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  8. Understanding patient and physician perceptions of male androgenetic alopecia treatments in Asia-Pacific and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulic, Zrinka; Inui, Shigeki; Sim, Woo-Young; Kang, Hoon; Choi, Gwang Seong; Hong, Woosung; Hatanaka, Toshiki; Wilson, Timothy; Manyak, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This survey aimed to explore patient and physician attitudes towards male androgenetic alopecia (AGA), satisfaction with currently available male AGA treatments and investigate the factors affecting treatment choice. The survey was carried out in five countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil) between November and December 2015 using a standard market research methodology. Questionnaires were completed by patients with male AGA or hair loss/thinning and practicing physicians who were responsible for prescribing AGA treatment. In total, 835 patients and 338 physicians completed the questionnaire. Overall, 37.6% of patients reported satisfaction with the treatments they had used. The highest patient satisfaction was reported for 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (53.9% of patients satisfied). In all countries, physicians were more likely than patients to think that male AGA has a major impact on patient confidence (89.3% vs 70.4%, respectively). There was agreement by physicians and patients that male AGA patients who are involved in their treatment decisions have better outcomes. Patients who were satisfied with AGA treatments were more likely to have the level of involvement they desired in treatment decisions (69.1% of satisfied patients) than dissatisfied patients (56.4% of dissatisfied patients). This survey provides valuable insights into the attitudes of patients and physicians in Asia and Latin America about male AGA and its treatments. The survey identified areas of disconnect between physicians and patients regarding the impact of male AGA, treatment consultations and the importance of treatment attributes. It also highlights the need for physicians to spend sufficient time with patients discussing AGA treatment approaches. © 2017 GlaxoSmithKline. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. A randomized, active- and placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of different doses of dutasteride versus placebo and finasteride in the treatment of male subjects with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelin Harcha, Walter; Barboza Martínez, Julia; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Katsuoka, Kensei; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Barnes, Allison; Ferron-Brady, Geraldine; Chetty, Dushen

    2014-03-01

    Dihydrotestosterone is the main androgen causative of androgenetic alopecia, a psychologically and physically harmful condition warranting medical treatment. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of dutasteride (type 1 and 2 5-alpha reductase inhibitor) with finasteride (type 2 5-alpha reductase inhibitor) and placebo in men with androgenetic alopecia. Men aged 20 to 50 years with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to receive dutasteride (0.02, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/d), finasteride (1 mg/d), or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was hair count (2.54-cm diameter) at week 24. Other assessments included hair count (1.13-cm diameter) and width, photographic assessments (investigators and panel), change in stage, and health outcomes. In total, 917 men were randomized. Hair count and width increased dose dependently with dutasteride. Dutasteride 0.5 mg significantly increased hair count and width in a 2.54-cm diameter and improved hair growth (frontal view; panel photographic assessment) at week 24 compared with finasteride (P = .003, P = .004, and P = .002, respectively) and placebo (all P < .001). The number and severity of adverse events were similar among treatment groups. The study was limited to 24 weeks. Dutasteride increased hair growth and restoration in men with androgenetic alopecia and was relatively well tolerated. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced Self-Diploidization and Improved Survival of Semi-cloned Mice Produced from Androgenetic Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells through Overexpression of Dnmt3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenteng He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells (AG-haESCs hold great promise for exploring gene functions and generating gene-edited semi-cloned (SC mice. However, the high incidence of self-diploidization and low efficiency of SC mouse production are major obstacles preventing widespread use of these cells. Moreover, although SC mice generation could be greatly improved by knocking out the differentially methylated regions of two imprinted genes, 50% of the SC mice did not survive into adulthood. Here, we found that the genome-wide DNA methylation level in AG-haESCs is extremely low. Subsequently, downregulation of both de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b and other methylation-related genes was determined to be responsible for DNA hypomethylation. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of Dnmt3b in AG-haESCs could effectively improve DNA methylation level, and the high incidence of self-diploidization could be markedly rescued. More importantly, the developmental potential of SC embryos was improved, and most SC mice could survive into adulthood. : Ectopic expression of Dnmt3b could rescue DNA methylation level in repetitive sequences of hypomethylated AG-haESCs, suppress high incidence of self-diploidization, and promote developmental potential of SC embryos, and most SC mice could survive into adulthood. Keywords: androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells, self-diploidization, semi-cloned mice, DNA methylation, Dnmt3b

  11. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  12. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  13. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  14. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  15. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  16. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  17. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  19. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  20. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  1. Androgenetic alopecia: new insights into the pathogenesis and mechanism of hair loss [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Sinclair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a complete mini-organ that lends itself as a model for investigation of a variety of complex biological phenomena, including stem cell biology, organ regeneration and cloning.  The arrector pili muscle inserts into the hair follicle at the level of the bulge- the epithelial stem cell niche.  The arrector pili muscle has been previously thought to be merely a bystander and not to have an active role in hair disease. Computer generated 3D reconstructions of the arrector pili muscle have helped explain why women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA experience diffuse hair loss rather than the patterned baldness seen in men.  Loss of attachment between the bulge stem cell population and the arrector pili muscle also explains why miniaturization is irreversible in AGA but not alopecia areata. A new model for the progression of AGA is presented.

  2. Lack of concordance and linkage disequilibrium among brothers for androgenetic alopecia and CAG/GGC haplotypes of the androgen receptor gene in Mexican families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga-Vázquez, Jazmín; López-Hernández, María A; Svyryd, Yevgeniya; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M

    2015-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or common baldness is the most prevalent form of hair loss in males. Familial predisposition has been recognized, and heritability estimated in monozygotic twins suggests an important genetic predisposition. Several studies indicate that the numbers of CAG/GGC repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (AR) maybe associated with AGA susceptibility. To investigate a possible correlation between AR CAG/GGC haplotypes and the presence or not of alopecia in sibships with two or more brothers among them at least one of them has AGA. Thirty-two trios including an alopecic man, one brother alopecic or not, and their mother were enrolled. Sanger sequencing of the exon 1 of the AR gene was conducted to ascertain the number of CAG/GGC repeats in each individual. Heterozygous mother for the CAG/GGC haplotypes was an inclusion criterion to analyze the segregation haplotype patterns in the family. Concordance for the number of repeats and AGA among brothers was evaluated using kappa coefficient and the probability of association in the presence of genetic linkage between CAG and GGC repeats and AGA estimated by means of the family-based association test (FBAT). The median for the CAG and GGC repeats in the AR is similar to that reported in other populations. The CAG/GGC haplotypes were less polymorphic than that reported in other studies, especially due to the GGC number of repeats found. Kappa coefficient resulted in a concordance of 37.3% (IC 95%, 5.0-69.0%) for the AGA phenotype and identical CAG/GGC haplotypes. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Our results do not confirm a possible correlation or linkage disequilibrium between the CAG/GGC haplotypes of the AR gene and androgenetic alopecia in Mexican brothers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Two different trichoscopic patterns of mid-frontal scalp in patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and clinical features of androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rakowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia with progressive frontotemporal hairline recession. In some cases, hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp, similar to female pattern hair loss, may be observed. Objective. Assessment of the trichoscopic pattern of mid-frontal scalp hair loss in patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia. Material and methods. The retrospective analysis included 31 women diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia and hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp and 36 women diagnosed with female pattern hair loss. Results . In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia two different trichoscopic patterns in the mid-frontal scalp were identified. In 68% of patients (21/31 we observed a diffuse fibrotic pattern. It was characterized by irregular arrangement of follicular units with small areas with loss of follicular units, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs, normal hair shaft thickness and presence of mild perifollicular scaling. The androgenetic alopecia pattern was present in 32% of patients (10/31. It was characterized by hair shaft thickness diversity (20% or more, a percentage of vellus hairs higher than 10%, presence of yellow dots, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs. Conclusions. In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and coexisting mid-frontal scalp hair loss, we identified two different patterns of this area in trichoscopy: the diffuse fibrotic pattern (more common and the androgenetic alopecia pattern. This observation may have therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  4. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  5. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  6. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  7. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  8. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  10. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  11. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  13. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  14. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  15. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  16. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  17. Mutation breeding in jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M 1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  18. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  19. Higher body mass index is associated with greater severity of alopecia in men with male-pattern androgenetic alopecia in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsieh, Fu-Nien; Lin, Li-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chen, WenChieh

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Similar Response Patterns to 5%Topical Minoxidil Foam in Frontal and Vertex Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, P.; Consolo, M.; Oyetakin-White, P.; Baron, E.; Leahy, P.; Karnik, P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are regional variations in scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions are less well studied. Methods A placebo controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs placebo was conducted in sixteen healthy men ages 18-49 with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for eight weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were done at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo and microarray analysis was done using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Results Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. Conclusions These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. PMID:25204361

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  5. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  14. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  15. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  16. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  17. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  18. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of the start and duration of breeding and the effect of these on breeding productivity were analysed for African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus moquini on Robben Island, South Africa, over three breeding seasons from 2001 to 2004. African Black Oystercatchers have a long breeding season, from November ...

  19. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  20. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  1. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  2. Similar response patterns to topical minoxidil foam 5% in frontal and vertex scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia: a microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, P; Consolo, M; Oyetakin-White, P; Baron, E; Leahy, P; Karnik, P

    2015-06-01

    There are regional variations in the scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions have been less well studied. To determine whether scalp biopsies from men with AGA show variable gene expression before and after 8 weeks of treatment with minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs. placebo. A placebo-controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of MTF vs. placebo was conducted in 16 healthy men aged 18-49 years with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for 8 weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits, to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were taken at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo, and microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin-associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Effect of minoxidil topical foam on frontotemporal and vertex androgenetic alopecia in men: a 104-week open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, V; Hillmann, K; Kottner, J; Stroux, A; Canfield, D; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2016-07-01

    Topical minoxidil formulations have been shown to be effective in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 12 months. Efficacy and safety in both frontotemporal and vertex regions over longer application periods have not been studied so far. To evaluate the effect of 5% minoxidil topical foam (5% MTF) in the frontotemporal and vertex areas in patients with moderate AGA over 104 weeks. An 80-week, open-label extension phase was performed, following a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with AGA grade IIIvertex to VI. Group 1 (n = 22) received ongoing 5% MTF for 104 weeks, Group 2 (n = 23) received placebo topical foam (plaTF) until week 24, followed by 5% MTF until week 104 during the extension phase. Frontotemporal and vertex target area non-vellus hair counts (f-TAHC, v-TAHC) and cumulative hair width (f-TAHW, v-TAHW) were assessed at baseline and at weeks 24, 52, 76 and 104. In Group 1, f-TAHW and f-TAHC showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to week 52 and week 76, respectively, returning to values comparable to baseline at week 104. No significant differences were found between baseline and week 104 in v-TAHC in Group 1 as well as f-TAHC, v-TAHC, f-TAHW and v-TAHW values in Group 2. 5% MTF is effective in stabilizing hair density, hair width and scalp coverage in both frontotemporal and vertex areas over an application period of 104 weeks, while showing a good safety and tolerability profile with a low rate of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p laser phototherapy device for the treatment of AGA in males.

  5. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  6. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  7. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  8. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  10. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  11. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  12. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    among dairy cattle breeds in the US was reported to be 161, 61, 65, 39 and 30 for the Ayrshire, Brown ... Knowledge of these parameters could help the industry when formulating breeding programmes. ..... In 'Ratites in a competitive world.

  13. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  14. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  15. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  16. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  17. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species

  18. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  19. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  20. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  1. A Comparison of the Hormonal Profile of Early Androgenetic Alopecia in Men With the Phenotypic Equivalent of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanke, Sarita; Chander, Ram; Jain, Anju; Garg, Taru; Yadav, Pravesh

    2016-09-01

    Early androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is patterned hair loss occurring before age 30 years. Early AGA in men is frequently reported as the phenotypic equivalent of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women, which carries the risk of developing obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate this. To study the hormonal profile of men with early AGA and to evaluate if early AGA in men can be considered as the phenotypic equivalent of PCOS, the associated risks of which are well known. This case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015, in a tertiary care government hospital. Fifty-seven men aged 19 to 30 years presenting with patterned hair loss were recruited as study participants. Thirty-two age-matched men with no evidence of hair loss were recruited as controls. Men who had any established endocrine disorder, diabetes mellitus, or cardiovascular disease and those who took any oral medication or hormonal treatment for hair loss were excluded from the study. The serum concentrations of total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) and free androgen index (FAI) were calculated and compared with age- and sex-matched controls. The primary outcome was to measure the clinico-endocrinological profiles (LH, FSH, SHBG, DHEAS, and testosterone levels) of men with early AGA and to compare it with the PCOS profile; the secondary outcome was to establish a relationship between this endocrinological profile and IR. Compared with the 32 controls, the 57 participants with AGA showed significantly increased mean (SD) levels of testosterone (24.61 [7.97] vs 20.57 [4.9] nmol/L; P = .04), DHEAS (3.63 [2.19] vs 2.64 [1.49] µg/mL; P = .02), LH (7.78 [3.19] vs 4.56 [2.01] mIU/mL; P PCOS. The

  2. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier

    2013-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  6. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  7. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  8. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  9. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  10. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  11. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  12. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  13. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  14. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  15. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  16. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  17. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  18. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  19. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.

  20. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  1. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  2. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  3. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  4. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  5. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  6. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  7. Filling the toolbox of precision breeding methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant breeding has
    resulted in numerous
    high-quality crop
    varieties being
    cultivated nowadays.
    Breeding based on
    crossing and selection
    remains an important
    and ongoing activity for
    crop improvement, but
    needs innovation to be
    able to address

  8. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  9. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  10. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  11. Progress in a Crambe cross breeding programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Lange, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex Fries) is an annual cruciferous oilseed crop with a high content of erucic acid (55-60%) in the seed oil. Since 1990, a breeding programme in crambe has been carried out at the DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research. Three accessions, two early

  12. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  13. Managing meiotic recombination in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Crossover recombination is a crucial process in plant breeding because it allows plant breeders to create novel allele combnations on chromosomes that can be used for breeding superior F1 hybrids. Gaining control over this process, in terms of increasing crossover incidence, altering crossover

  14. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  15. Genetics of sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... How gender is determined under haplodiploidy in the ab- sence of heteromorphic sex ... determination (see below). Sex-determination mutants ... not others (Nöthiger and Steinmann-Zwicky 1985; Wilkins. 1995; Saccone et al.

  16. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  17. A computational approach to animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Moore, Cristopher; Saia, Jared

    2007-02-07

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding problem and analyse heuristics for two possible objectives: (1) breeding for maximum diversity and (2) breeding a target individual. These two goals are representative of conservation biology and agricultural livestock management, respectively. We evaluate several mating strategies and provide upper and lower bounds for the expected number of matings. While the population parameters may vary and can change the actual number of matings for a particular strategy, the order of magnitude of the number of expected matings and the relative competitiveness of the mating heuristics remains the same. Thus, our simple discrete model of the animal breeding problem provides a novel viable and robust approach to designing and comparing breeding strategies in captive populations.

  18. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  19. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  20. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  1. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  2. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  3. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  4. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  5. Morphological Indices in Mangalitsa Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made in several Mangalitsa farm from Hungary and Romania on Red, Blonde and Swallowbelliedvarieties. Body measurements were performed on a total of 175 individuals of Mangalitsa and Mangalitsa xDuroc hybrids. There are differences in physical development among Mangalitsa varieties: blond variety has the bestbody development followed by red and swallow-bellied varieties. The average body weight for Mangalitsa pigs was109.031.4 kg and the thoracic perimeter 115.180.95 cm. Results obtained indicate that body development ofMangalitsa pigs from Hungary area, are close to the breed standard. In average height at withers was 65.872.09 cm,while height at back was 72.591.2 cm. Low coefficient of variation for both measurements (CV%=1.83 for withersheigh and 1.52% for back height indicate that pigs populations in which measurements were made are veryhomogeneous.

  6. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  7. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  8. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  10. genetic polymorphism in eight breeds of Algeria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amal Djaout

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... 3Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 .... the implementation of future breeding plans in terms of ..... control policies based on selecting rams of resistant geno-.

  11. EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding Programmes and National/Regional Tree Seed Centres in Africa. ... Discovery and Innovation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  12. Breeding for mechanised sesame production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, D.F.; Imrie, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction of sesame germplasm from Myanmar and Mexico was not satisfactory for successful development of the Australian sesame industry. Therefore, a national breeding programme was undertaken by CSIRO and the Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries (NTDPIF). The main traits considered for selection were latitudinal adaptation, temperature response, growth habit, determinacy, palatability, capsules per leaf axil, seed shattering and seed dormancy. The CSIRO breeding efforts started in 1989 with a hybridization programme using germplasm from Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, Rep. of Korea and Venezuela. This programme resulted in selection in the F 6 generation of branched types released under the names 'Beech's choice' and 'Aussie Gold'. The NTDPIF sesame breeding programme started in 1993 with hybridization of introductions. The Mexican cultivar 'Yori 77' was selected for release, and after several years of intraline selection the uniculm cultivar 'Edith' was released in 1996. Further breeding continues to improve seed retention and resistance to charcoal rot. (author)

  13. Manual on mutation breeding. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The manual is a compilation of work done on the use of induced mutations in plant breeding, and presents general methods and techniques in this field. The use of chemical mutagens and ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, α- and β-particles, protons, neutrons) are described as well as the effects of these mutagens. The different types of mutations achieved can be divided into genome mutations, chromosome mutations and extra nuclear mutations. Separate chapters deal with mutation techniques in breeding seed-propagated species and asexually propagated plants (examples of development of cultivars given). Plant characters which can be improved by mutation breeding include yield, ripening time, growth habit, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors (temperature, salinity etc.). The use of mutagens for some specific plant breeding problems is discussed and attention is also paid to somatic cell genetics in connection with induced mutations. The manual contains a comprehensive bibliography (60 p. references) and a subject index

  14. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  15. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic...

  17. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  18. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  19. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  20. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  1. Breeding strategies for north central tree improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald P. Overton; Hyun Kang

    1985-01-01

    The rationales and concepts of long-term tree breeding are discussed and compared with those for short-term breeding. A model breeding program is reviewed which maximizes short-term genetic gain for currently important traits and provides genetic resources that can be used effectively in future short-term breeding. The resources of the north-central region are examined...

  2. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details of nestling growth, and fledging and post-fledging dependence periods, are provided. Breeding success was relatively poor. Early breeding attempts were more successful than late breeding attempts. Breeding failure was suspected, or known, to be associated with observer disturbance, egg breakage, failure of ...

  3. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  4. A Single-Centre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil Topical Foam in Frontotemporal and Vertex Androgenetic Alopecia in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Kathrin; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Kottner, Jan; Stroux, Andrea; Canfield, Douglas; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    5% minoxidil formulations twice daily are effective in treating vertex male androgenetic alopecia (AGA); however, efficacy and safety data in frontotemporal regions are lacking. To assess the efficacy of 5% minoxidil topical foam (5% MTF) in the frontotemporal region of male AGA patients after 24 weeks of treatment compared to placebo treatment and to the vertex region. Seventy males with moderate AGA applied 5% MTF or placebo foam (plaTF) twice daily for 24 weeks in frontotemporal and vertex regions. Target area non-vellus hair count (TAHC) was the primary end point. Frontotemporal and vertex TAHC and target area cumulative non-vellus hair width (TAHW) showed similar responses to 5% MTF with significant increases up to week 16 compared to baseline (p < 0.001). After 24 weeks of treatment, frontotemporal TAHW increased significantly in the 5% MTF group compared to the plaTF group (p = 0.017), while TAHC showed a similar non-significant increase from baseline in both regions. At 24 weeks, 5% MTF users rated a significant improvement in scalp coverage for the frontotemporal (p = 0.016) and vertex areas (p = 0.027). 5% MTF twice a day promotes hair density and width in both frontotemporal and vertex regions in men with moderate stages of AGA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  6. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2018-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  7. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  8. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  9. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows bred to Afrikaner bulls were less (P < 0.05) productive than cows bred to other Bos taurus sires. An increase in proportion Afrikaner breeding in dam resulted in longer calving intervals and a decline in cow productivity, but these differences were not always significant. A breeding strategy for the retainment of superior ...

  10. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  12. Eggplant variety breeding aerospace Hangqie No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Guo Zhenfang; Ding Yaohong; Kong Xiaojuan

    2012-01-01

    Hangqie No.4 is on the Shenzhou spacecraft carrying no. 3 local variety reported by four generations enterprise round tomato breeding 03-4-15-2-3-1 has breeding for female to the 18th retuning-type science technology and experimental satellite launch of the optimal tomato after 0448-1-3-1 has breeding for male parent, mixture of the generation of hybrid. Medium-early maturity, 667 m 2 production 5000 kg around. Plant growth potential of half erect, with strong sex is strong, leaves thicker, purple-brown, heart-shaped, flower violet, pulp green white, The weight of per fruit 0.15 ∼ 0.35 kg. It's can be planted in open land and protected area, and grow well. (authors)

  13. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  14. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  15. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  16. Eggplant variety breeding aerospace Hangqie No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Guo Zhenfang; Ding Yaohong; Kong Xiaojuan

    2011-01-01

    Hangqie No.4 is on the shenzhou spacecraft carrying no.3 local variety reported by four generations enterprise round tomato breeding 03-4-15-2-3-1 has breeding for female to the 18th retuning-type science technology and experimental satellite launch of the optimal tomato after 04-4-8-1-3-1 has breeding for male parent, mixture of the generation of hybrid. Medium-early maturity, 667 m 2 production 5000 kg around. Plant growth potential of half erect, with strong sex is strong, leaves thicker, purple-brown, heart-shaped, flower violet, pulp green white, The weight of per fruit 0.15∼0.35 kg. It's can be planted in open land and protected area, and grow well. (authors)

  17. Study of space mutation breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Zhang Long; Dai Weixu; Li Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as return satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times. New varieties of 19 with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, have been bred though years of breeding at the earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. The new varieties include five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, three lotus varieties and one ganoderma lucidum variety. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germplasm resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted, and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breeding is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by return satellites of the first three generation in space science. Some basic parameters involved in the study on space mutation breeding of return satellites were listed

  18. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    model identified two novel QTL for common bunt resistance located on wheat chromosomes 2B and 7 A. The identification of new resistance loci may help to broaden our understanding of common bunt resistance in wheat, and QTL may potentially be exploited by marker assisted selection in plant breeding. QTL...... markers for common bunt resistance may potentially help to speed up resistance breeding by shortening the long time required for phenotypic disease screening. Here, we report the results of 1. an association mapping study for common bunt resistance, 2. a QTL mapping study for the localization of common...

  20. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities.

  1. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  2. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  3. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  4. Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O

    2001-01-01

    The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of existi...

  5. Black Sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus breeding behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, delivery of fresh leaf material to the nest site increased with chick age. Over the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons respectively 74% and 41% of nests successfully fledged chicks, with the majority of these producing two offspring. Keywords: brooding, incubation, nest building, parental care, reproductive success ...

  6. On statistical selection in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourleijn, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is the development of new varieties. An important phase in the development process is testing and selecting potential new varieties. The varieties are tested by means of experiments at various sites, (sometimes) in several years. The observations from the

  7. Mutation breeding for crop improvement: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70 years have passed since radiation was used successfully to generate genetic variation in plants. Since the research on theoretical basis of mutagenesis was performed with a peak in the mid sixties. The result of these investigations led to the formulation of methodological principles in the use of various mutagens for the creation and selection of desired variability. The induced genetic variability has been extensively used for evolution of crop varieties as well as in breeding programmes. More than 1800 varieties of 154 plants species have so far been released for commercial cultivation, of which cereals are at the top, demonstrating the economics of the mutation breeding technique. The most frequently occurring mutations have been the short stature and really maturity. In Pakistan, the use of mutation breeding technique for the improvement of crops has also led to the development of 34 cultivars of cotton, rice, wheat, chickpea, mungbean and rapeseed which have played a significant role in increasing crop production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross breeding programmes, and the breeders in Pakistan have released six varieties of cotton by using an induced mutant as one of the parents. (author)

  8. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  9. Stamina and Clout Define This Rare Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Takeover artists are a rare breed. Persons hired to put bankrupt school systems back on the road to academic solvency need stamina, clout, and plenty of experience. For all their state-given powers, takeover superintendents must identify key constituencies, build bridges, and promote belief in change from within. (MLH)

  10. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. UNUSUAL BREEDING BY SEABIRDS AT MARION ISLAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  12. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  13. Mary Bidwell Breed: The Educator as Dean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fley, Jo Ann; Jaramillo, George R.

    1979-01-01

    Mary Bidwell Breed predicted that midwestern universities would probably "pass through a stage of educational development in which the liberal arts are entirely feminized, the men are entirely commercialized." We can appreciate how close she came to pinpointing trends which did not begin to be reversed until sixty years later.…

  14. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  15. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue reports on the creation of the Agency's Subprogramme of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems (E1) through the merger of the Soils and Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogrammes together with part of the Entomology Subprogramme activities. Implementation of a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Effects of Mutagenic Agents on the DNA Sequence in Plants, and the successful submission of a new CRP proposal on Pyramiding of Mutated Genes Contributing to Crop Quality and Resistance to Stress Affecting Quality were among the major activities of our Subprogramme during the last six months. We actively participated in the International Year of Rice (IYR 2004) events such as the Meeting of the Informal International Working Group on the International Year of Rice (IIWG) and the FAO Rice Conference on Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems (Rome, Italy), both in February this year. A lot of work has been concentrated this last semester on the preparation of Programme and Budget for the biennium 2006-2007 and the appraisal of TC proposals for the biennium 2005-2006. The Mutation Breeding Newsletter and the Mutation Breeding Review will merge to become the Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews (MBN and R). Starting at the end of July, the MBN and R will appear on a regular basis

  16. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo

    2007-06-01

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits

  17. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young

    horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity

    of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male

    reproduction. The study was

  18. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  19. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  20. Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple resistance genes from American to Chinese wheat. JN Qi, X Zhang, C Yin, H Li, F Lin. Abstract. Stripe rust is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars with resistance genes is the most effective method to control this ...

  1. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 25 %of pairs laid eggs, and mating appears to have been constrained by low nectar and arthropod energy availability, and the costs associated with the defence of large territories. Reproductive success was directly related to arthropod availability on territories, with pairs not even appearing to attempt breeding if this is ...

  2. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  3. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  4. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  5. Organic plant breeding and propagation : concepts and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Key-words : crop ideotype, genetic diversity, integrity of plants, intrinsic value, isophenic line mixture varieties, organic plant breeding, organic farming, organic propagation, participatory plant breeding, variety characteristics,

  6. Floral syndrome and breeding system of Senna (Cassia) corymbosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Key words: Senna, pollen, pollination, breeding system. ... through winter in frost free areas. Okogun et al. (2000) ... But the breeding system character was ..... hairy, black and yellow bee whose size can range from 1.5.

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water samples was carried out in the Nigerian ... Key words: Malaria, Anopheles mosquitoes, breeding habitat, physico-chemical properties. ... Anopheles mosquito has been found to breed in.

  8. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  9. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  10. Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local ...

  11. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, T. N.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish...... Pointing Dog (ODP; n = 24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n = 23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile...... as the degree of polymorphism (P%) ranked the dog breeds in the order DS > DSF > BR > ODP > GD. Interestingly, the breed with a tenfold higher census population size compared to the other breeds, the Greenland Dog, had the lowest within-breed genetic variation, emphasizing that census size is a poor predictor...

  12. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Saudi goat breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... rational breeding strategy for genetic improvement of goats in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The studied. Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and Asian populations seem to have ..... West Asia and North Africa, Vol. 2.

  13. Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African dairy cattle. ... are not unity, the RM-model estimates more competitive variances and requires ... are therefore recommended for breeding value estimation on a national basis.

  14. Tritium breeding blanket device of D-T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.

    1984-01-01

    This blanket device uses solid tritium breeding materials as those which include, in a known manner, near a neutron breeding plasma, a neutron multiplier medium and a tritium breeding medium, cooled by a cooling fluid circulation. This device is characterized by the fact that the association of the multiplier media and the tritium breeding media is realized by pellet alternated piling up of each of those both media, help in close contact on all their lateral surfaces [fr

  15. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, N T.D. [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Melchinger, E; Kuss, A W; Peischl, T; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Cuong, N V [Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2005-07-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  16. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N.T.D.; Melchinger, E.; Kuss, A.W.; Peischl, T.; Bartenschlager, H.; Geldermann, H.; Cuong, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  17. Current status and research of plant space mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xinmian

    2011-01-01

    Plant space mutation breeding and discussed themechanism of plant space mutagenesis. The variations of organisms were induced by the comprehensive effects of high vacuum, microgravity,incense radiat ion and so on. The application of space mutation breeding and inheritance in specially good grmplasm material in China were well summarized. The prospects of space mutat ion breeding was described. The space mutagenesis will provided a new way for the future breeding. (author)

  18. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both genetic and epigenetic controls influence genetic expression and should be taken into account when formulating breeding programmes. Subsistence farmers keep livestock for multiple purposes and the formulation of breeding objectives/strategies will have to consider these dynamics. Keywords: Breeding ...

  20. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  1. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Dong Xicun; Zhou Libin; Ma Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  2. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  3. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  4. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  5. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  6. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    . This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing...

  7. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  8. Future breeding for organic and low-input agriculture: integrating values and modern breeding tools for improving robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker

  9. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik.

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with γ-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of γ-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10∼12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs

  10. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab [Pathumthani Rice Research Center (Thailand)

    2001-03-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  11. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab

    2001-01-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  12. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  13. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997-1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  14. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  15. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  16. Selection problems and objectives in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Key, J.

    1984-01-01

    In plant breeding, major genes are preferably handled by inbreeding, back-crosses and selection through the family/pedigree method. Polygenic systems need gene accumulation, i.e. handling in bulk allowing natural/recurrent selection to operate. The two types of genetic control normally occur together irrespective of whether the variation is created by crossing or by mutagenesis. Cross-breeding can conveniently work with both types of variation and offers a range of genetic backgrounds. Problems are the often enormous recombination potential risking the break-down of already accomplished genic constellations or undesirable linkages. Mutation induction implies a scattered mono- to oligo-factorial variation mostly functioning as a negative load. As a result, it will be difficult and unrealistic to try to explore micromutations, as defined by Gaul, in vegetatively propagated and autogamous crop plants. Quantitative analyses have not been able to give guidance since the induced variation includes disturbed vitality and main or side-effects of events that are possible to define as macro-mutations. The possibility of better exhausting the variation induced will mainly depend on the precision in selection techniques, i.e. by dividing complex traits into their components, by improving environmental conditions for selection, and/or by sharpening the screening technique. Contrary to recombination breeding, mutation-induced variation does not fit a plan encompassing overall agronomic traits simultaneously. The progress has to go step by step. Thus, even more than in cross-breeding, it is important that accurately outlined objectives be set. Some characters, such as flower colour, can easily be defined while others, such as yield, may be more interdependent, calling for compromises difficult to foresee. The complexity of the latter category of traits is illustrated by the interaction pattern in relation to grain yield in cereals where both shoot and root are considered

  17. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This third issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional (Afra) training course on 'molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in traditional and neglected crops selected for improvement through mutation techniques' and seminar on 'mutation techniques and biotechnology for tropical and subtropical plant improvement in Asia and Pacific regions'. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  18. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  19. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  20. Mechanical design of the TIBER breeding shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, J.; Deutsch, L. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-04-01

    TIBER features a segmented shield assembly that provides the nuclear shielding for the superconducting toroidal field coils. In addition to its primary function, the shield also provides tritium breeding through the use of water coolant that contains 16 wt% dissolved lithium nitrate. Because the TIBER reactor need not provide electrical power, the coolant is maintained at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and low temperature (75/sup 0/C). The shield is made in several segments to facilitate assembly and allow for replacement of high heat flux components (divertor blades). The segments are designated as inboard, outboard, upper, lower, and divertor modules. In total, there are 96 separate modules in the machine, consisting of six different types. The design features of the different modules vary primarily depending on the thickness of the shield in a given location. The very thick outboard shield has a breeding zone in the inboard portion of the module, with a shielding zone behind it. The breeding zone consists of a stainless steel casing filled with beryllium spheres. The shielding zone consists of the same casing filled with steel spheres. Both of these zones have lithiated water circulated throughout to provide cooling and breeding. In zones with minimal thickness, tungsten alloys are used to achieve the required shielding. These alloys are incoprorated in subassemblies utilizing stainless steel casings surrounding blocks of tungsten heavy metal alloy. These are infiltrated with lead on final assembly to form a thermally continuous panel. Several of these panels are then assembled into an outer stainless steel case to form an inboard module. These modules also use the lithiated coolant. The details of the design are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  1. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation

  2. The ecology of cooperative breeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-06-01

    Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  4. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  5. Genetic diversity of dog breeds: within-breed diversity comparing genealogical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Verrier, E; Meriaux, J C; Rognon, X

    2009-06-01

    The genetic diversity of 61 dog breeds raised in France was investigated. Genealogical analyses were performed on the pedigree file of the French kennel club. A total of 1514 dogs were also genotyped using 21 microsatellite markers. For animals born from 2001 to 2005, the average coefficient of inbreeding ranged from 0.2% to 8.8% and the effective number of ancestors ranged from 9 to 209, according to the breed. The mean value of heterozygosity was 0.62 over all breeds (range 0.37-0.77). At the breed level, few correlations were found between genealogical and molecular parameters. Kinship coefficients and individual similarity estimators were, however, significantly correlated, with the best mean correlation being found for the Lynch & Ritland estimator (r = 0.43). According to both approaches, it was concluded that special efforts should be made to maintain diversity for three breeds, namely the Berger des Pyrénées, Braque Saint-Germain and Bull Terrier.

  6. Defining the breeding goal for a sheep breed including production and functional traits using market data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Rose, G; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G

    2017-11-16

    In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal. The estimated economic values of the traits revealed their economic impact on the definition of the breeding goal for the specified production system. Milk production and fertility had the highest economic values (€40.30 and €20.28 per standard genetic deviation (SDa)), while, mastitis only had a low negative value of -0.57 €/SDa. Therefore, breeding for clinical mastitis will have a minor impact on farm profitability because it affects a small proportion of the flock and has low additive variance. The production traits, which include milk production, prolificacy and milking speed, contributed most to the breeding goal (70.0%), but functional traits still had a considerable share (30.0%). The results of this study highlight the importance of the knowledge of economic values of traits in the design of a breeding program. It is also suggested that the production and functional traits under consideration can be categorized as those which can be efficiently treated through genetic improvement (e.g. milk production and fertility) while others would be better dealt with through managerial interventions (e.g. mastitis occurrence). Also, sub-clinical mastitis that affects a higher proportion of flocks could have a higher contribution to breeding goals.

  7. Effect on milk production of F1 crossbreds resulted from Alpine breed (♂ x Albanian local goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristaq Kume

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  8. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H; Enoeda, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  9. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  10. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  11. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  12. Ram and Buck Breeding Soundness Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TIBARY

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Male breeding soundness examination (BSE is an important component of sheep and goat farming. BSE is best performed 2 months before the breeding season and is based on clinical and physical examination as well as sperm abnormalities detection. Rams are classified based on physical examination and semen evaluation finding in one of 4 categories: Unsatisfactory, questionable, satisfactory, and excellent. The satisfactory rams will achieve good reproductive performance if joined to ewes at a ratio of 1:50 for 60 days. However exceptional rams are expected to achieve good reproductive performance at a ratio of 1 ram to 100 ewes. For Buck, scrotal circumference should be at least 25 cm for breeds weighing more than 40 kg. Buck is deemed satisfactory breeder if he passes the physical examination, and has an ejaculate with at least 50% progressively motile spermatozoa and less than 30% total sperm abnormalities. This paper reviews factors affecting fertility, sperm production and quality as well as libido and mating ability in the ram. Details of genital examination and semen evaluation and interpretation of results are discussed. Classification of rams according to their reproductive potential is presented. Specific recommendations, when available for the buck, are highlighted. The main genital diseases are presented. The most frequent culling reason for ram is epididymitis due to Brucella ovis. Systematic culling of rams with epididymitis improves flock lambing rates by 10 to 15%. Overall, the examination of the reproductive capacity in the ram and the buck is an important tool for improvement of flocks/herds fertility and prevention of contagious or hereditary diseases.

  13. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  15. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author).

  16. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author)

  17. Present state and problems of mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, A. (Agrartudomanyi Egyetem, Goedoelloe (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The major achievements and problems of mutation breeding are discussed according to recent international references. Examples for the production of microorganism resistant tobacco, maize, cabbage, disease resistant sugar cane and some freeze resistant plants are listed. Special opportunities offered by mutation to increase photosynthesis and to improve yields are discussed. The significance of the new techniques to produce induced mutants by means of tissue cultures, to fix N/sub 2/ for leguminosae and to affect the activities of N/sub 2/ fixing microorganisms is emphasized.

  18. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  19. Nuclear reactor for breeding 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohanan, C.S.; Jones, D.H.; Raab, H.F. Jr.; Radkowsky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A light-water-cooled nuclear reactor capable of breeding 233 U for use in a light-water breeder reactor includes physically separated regions containing 235 U fissile material and 238 U fertile material and 232 Th fertile material and 239 Pu fissile material, if available. Preferably the 235 U fissile material and 238 U fertile material are contained in longitudinally movable seed regions and the 239 Pu fissile material and 232 Th fertile material are contained in blanket regions surrounding the seed regions. 1 claim, 5 figures

  20. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  1. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    These last six months, the Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division (NAFA/AGE) implemented five Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) and one Consultants Meeting for a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Molecular tools for quality improvement in vegetatively propagated crops including banana and cassava' (8-11 November 2004, Vienna). Other salient points were the training courses we implemented this semester in the framework of different Technical Cooperation (TC) projects.Details about these activities inside this Newsletter

  2. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  3. Population structure of Pacific Common Eiders breeding in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.; Flint, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study the migration routes and wintering areas of two allopatric breeding populations of Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) in Alaska: the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and the western Beaufort Sea coast. Only 6% (2 of 36) of females wintered within the wintering area of the other breeding population. Both breeding populations wintered in the closest available ice-free habitat, perhaps to minimize migratory distance. Two Beaufort Sea females wintered in areas used by Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta females, implying potential gene flow among breeding areas. Yet, we conclude that these two populations are largely geographically isolated throughout the annual cycle and the environmental factors influencing survival and reproduction likely differ between these groups of birds. Thus, regardless of the potential gene flow among breeding populations, we suggest that birds from these two breeding areas should be managed as separate populations. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  4. Avian cooperative breeding: Old hypotheses and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, R G; Cockburn, A; Mulder, R A

    1990-12-01

    In cooperatively breeding birds, individuals that appear capable of reproducing on their own may instead assist others with their breeding efforts. Research into avian cooperative breeding has attempted to reconcile the apparent altruism of this behaviour with maximization of inclusive fitness. Most explanations of cooperative breeding have suggested that philopatry is enforced by ecological constraints, such as a shortage of resources critical to breeding. Non-dispersers may then benefit both directly and indirectly from contributing at the nest. Recent research has shown that such benefits may be sufficient to promote philopatry, without the need for ecological constraints, and emphasizes that consideration of both costs and benefits of philopatry is essential for a comprehensive approach to the problem. The growing body of data from long-term studies of different species should combine with an improved phylogenetic perspective on cooperative breeding, to provide a useful base for future comparative analyses and experimentation. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined...... concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts...... the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third...

  6. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  7. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats) are widespread in the tropics and are important to the subsistence, economic and social livelihoods of a large human population in these areas. The aim of this thesis was to identify the breeding objectives for tropical small ruminants, and to develop

  8. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... 1The Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Pig Breeding and Production, ul. Wolynska 33,. 60-637 ... ZS x D had significantly higher share of meat cuts in comparison with purebred fatteners ZS and crossbred fatteners ZS x (ZS x D). ... Proximate composition of diets. Item. Diet. Starter. Grower.

  9. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multi.breed beef herd under intensive management. A.G. Paterson, G.O. .... also the use of Kamar heat detectors have met with limited success under the .... of the positive relation- ship between lactational stress and post partum anoestrus t4.

  11. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  12. Cisgenesis strongly improves introgression breeding and induced translocation breeding of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two ways for genetic improvement in classical plant breeding: crossing and mutation. Plant varieties can also be improved through genetic modification; however, the present GMO regulations are based on risk assessments with the transgenes coming from non-crossable species. Nowadays, DNA

  13. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing in the National Beef Performance Testing Scheme (1980-1985), was investigated by means of a computer simulation program. Simulation runs were ... developments and computer-based genetic evaluation, the potential for greater ..... 1988), while composite and SangalZebu breed types have superior adaptive capacity.

  14. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible....

  15. PUBLIC SECTOR PLANT BREEDING IN A PRIVATIZING WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Thirtle, Colin G.; Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Heisey, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private act...

  16. Sustainable apple breedings needs sustainable marketing and management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and rising cost levels for high tech breeding methods entire programmes are nowadays urged to...

  17. Simulated breeding with QU-GENE graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Adrian; Chapman, Scott; Dieters, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Comparing the efficiencies of breeding methods with field experiments is a costly, long-term process. QU-GENE is a highly flexible genetic and breeding simulation platform capable of simulating the performance of a range of different breeding strategies and for a continuum of genetic models ranging from simple to complex. In this chapter we describe some of the basic mechanics behind the QU-GENE user interface and give a simplified example of how it works.

  18. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel Roy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  1. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid.

  2. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  3. Introduction and Breeding of Rhododendrons in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratovičs Rihards

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons are relatively new beautiful ornamental plants in Latvia forming an essential part of public and private gardens, although they were introduced in Latvian territory already during the first half of 19th century. Rhododendrons deserve their immense popularity due to the diversity of their habitat, size and type of blossoms and leaves and their flowering season. There are about 1000 rhododendron species in the wild up to now whereas breeders in various countries have created more than 30 000 cultivars. Intensive rhododendrons introduction and acclimatization in Latvia started in 1957 when Rihards Kondratovičs, at the time director of the Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, started his research on the introduction and acclimatization of rhododendrons. Winterhardiness of about 400 wild species in Latvia was tested and 76 species were found to be suitable. Following the development of an extensive collection of wild rhododendron species and cultivars, the Rhododendron Breeding and Experimental Nursery “Babīte”, University of Latvia, was established at 1980 and the active breeding of new winterhardy cultivars was started. In 2017, the collection of outdoor rhododendrons of the University of Latvia consists of 76 species and 265 cultivars, including 109 cultivars bred in Latvia by Professor Rihards Kondratovičs.

  4. Induced mutations in pomoid trees breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Faysal

    1986-01-01

    Induction of mutations in fruit trees by ionizing radiation complements a cross-breeding program. The objectives are: 1) the improvements of methods of induction, identification and selection of useful mutations, and 2) the initiation of useful mutations either for immediate use as improved cultivars or as a parent material for conventional cross-breeding. The induction of mutants in pomoid fruits, with special emphasis on apple, was realized by gamma-ray treatment of dormant scions subsequently propagated on a rootstoch in the nursery. The aim was to obtain compacts, presuming the feasibility of selecting compact shoots formed by the irradiated scions in the first vegetative generation and also assuming that chance of finding (e.g. fruit mutants) would be thus increased rather than lessened. Selection was carried out on one-season old shoots, formed on the same material for two or three seasons, by using a cut-back at the end of the first and second season. The procedure was highly effective. Moderate exposures, resulting in 60% survival gave high mutation frequencies. Buds 6-10 on the primary shoot gave higher frequencies of recognizable mutations than either buds 1-5 or 11-15. Preliminary results seem to indicate that, at least in some apple cultivars, there is opportunity to obtain compact growth types with good biological characteristics. 8 refs. (author)

  5. Low technology high tritium breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    The main function of this low technology blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for INTOR operation with minimum first wall coverage. The INTOR first wall, blanket, and shield are constrained by the dimensions of the reference design and the protection criteria required for different reactor components and dose equivalent after shutdown in the reactor hall. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions and the proper temperature for power generation can be sacrificed to achieve the highest possible tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and developments and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. A set of blanket evaluation criteria has been used to compare possible blanket concepts. Six areas: performance, operating requirements, impact on reactor design and operation, safety and environmental impact, technology assessment, and cost have been defined for the evaluation process. A water-cooled blanket was developed to operate with a low temperature and pressure. The developed blanket contains a 24 cm of beryllium and 6 cm of solid breeder both with a 0.8 density factor. This blanket provides a local tritium breeding ratio of ∼2.0. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which eliminates the tritium buildup in the water by permeation and reduces the changes for water-breeder interaction. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  6. Examination of alternative nuclear breeding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, D.J.; Augenstein, B.W.; Mooz, W.E.; Sher, P.A.

    1978-07-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the economics of using external source neutrons (provided by a DT fusion device or by a high-energy accelerator providing a proton or deuteron particle beam) for breeding fissile fuel, and compares these costs with those of the most intensively investigated reactor breeder (or internal neutron source breeder), the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A simple evaluation model is used that calculates the net present discounted value, using a 10 percent discount rate of the cost to satisfy a specific demand for electricity over the period to 2050. Present discounted values of costs are estimated for four energy technologies: the uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR), the LMFBR, the fusion hybrid breeder, and the accelerator-driven breeder. The latter two technologies produce fissile fuel which is then consumed in ordinary converter reactors. The discounted costs to produce electrical energy using the three breeding technologies to satisfy this demand are calculated and compared to a standard or base case where the LWR satisfies the demand. The cost differences between the base case and the three alternatives are compared to estimate the savings possible over the LWR base case. The conclusion is that the fusion hybrid breeder and the accelerator breeder, given our present information about the various technologies, promise to be competitive with reactor-based breeders such as the LMFBR and offer a number of qualitative advantages as well

  7. Breeding of hexaploid triticale for drought resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Щипак

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analysis of hexaploid triticale breeding process for drought resistance through the use of systemic ecological tests in contrasting conditions. Methods. Dialectical, field, laboratory and statistical ones. Results. Medium-grown (‘Amos’, ‘Nikanor’, ‘Rarytet’, ‘Yaroslava’ and low-stem (‘HAD 69’, ‘HAD 86’, ‘HAD 110’, ‘Timofei’ multiline varieties of winter and alternate hexaploid triticale were developed with higher adaptability, potential yield of 9–12 tons per ha and high bread-making properties. Among the most drought resistant genotypes, such varieties as ‘Amos’, ‘Buket’, ‘Harne’, ‘Markiian’, ‘Kharroza’, ‘Shalanda’, ‘Nicanor’ and ‘Yaroslava’ showed high values of yield, plasticity and stability. Conclusions. The use of interspecific hybridization instead of intergeneric one in hexaploid triticale breeding, together with systemic testing of the hybrid material in contrasting agro-ecological zones, ensured the creation of multiline competitive varieties with an optimal combination of yield and adaptive properties

  8. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  9. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    There have been a number of important events related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months. The joint FAO/IAEA RCMs on 'Molecular characterization of mutated genes controlling important traits for seed crop improvement' and 'Mutational analysis of root characters in annual food plants related to plant performance' were held in June, in Krakow, Poland. It was the third RCM of the CRP on crop plant genomics and the second in the CRP on root systems. More than 40 scientists from twenty countries participated in the meeting. Significant progress was achieved in presented projects of diverse areas of both CRPs. Although genomics and root genetics are methodologically among the most rapidly developing disciplines, the participants successfully tried to follow the latest developments. The Consultants Meeting on 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' was also held in June, in Vienna. Physical mapping technologies provide new tools for the rapid advancement of breeding programs and are highly applicable to neglected crops in developing countries. Furthermore, they open new opportunities for developing modern approaches to plant improvement research. Consultants recommended the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Project dealing with application of these new technologies to breeding programmes with the use of induced mutations for crop improvement. It is expected that the new CRP will be initiated this year. In close collaboration with EU COST 851 'Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement' project we started with preparation and editing of a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A manual'. More than 40 manuscripts were collected, reviewed by a team of EU COST 851 experts and are now in the final editing phase. Similarly, we finished editorial work on publishing the training material from the FAO/IAEA Training

  10. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    There have been a number of important events related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months. The joint FAO/IAEA RCMs on 'Molecular characterization of mutated genes controlling important traits for seed crop improvement' and 'Mutational analysis of root characters in annual food plants related to plant performance' were held in June, in Krakow, Poland. It was the third RCM of the CRP on crop plant genomics and the second in the CRP on root systems. More than 40 scientists from twenty countries participated in the meeting. Significant progress was achieved in presented projects of diverse areas of both CRPs. Although genomics and root genetics are methodologically among the most rapidly developing disciplines, the participants successfully tried to follow the latest developments. The Consultants Meeting on 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' was also held in June, in Vienna. Physical mapping technologies provide new tools for the rapid advancement of breeding programs and are highly applicable to neglected crops in developing countries. Furthermore, they open new opportunities for developing modern approaches to plant improvement research. Consultants recommended the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Project dealing with application of these new technologies to breeding programmes with the use of induced mutations for crop improvement. It is expected that the new CRP will be initiated this year. In close collaboration with EU COST 851 'Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement' project we started with preparation and editing of a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A manual'. More than 40 manuscripts were collected, reviewed by a team of EU COST 851 experts and are now in the final editing phase. Similarly, we finished editorial work on publishing the training material from the FAO/IAEA Training

  11. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the final two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding with particular objectives and the methodology of mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the first two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding in particular countries and crop-specific mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Conventional breeding strategies to enhance the sustainability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional breeding strategies to enhance the sustainability of Musa biodiversity conservation for endemic cultivars. M Pillay, R Ssebuliba, J Hartman, D Vuylsteke, D Talengera, W Tushemereirwe ...

  14. Will genomic selection be a practical method for plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2012-11-01

    Genomic selection or genome-wide selection (GS) has been highlighted as a new approach for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in recent years. GS is a form of MAS that selects favourable individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values. Previous studies have suggested the utility of GS, especially for capturing small-effect quantitative trait loci, but GS has not become a popular methodology in the field of plant breeding, possibly because there is insufficient information available on GS for practical use. In this review, GS is discussed from a practical breeding viewpoint. Statistical approaches employed in GS are briefly described, before the recent progress in GS studies is surveyed. GS practices in plant breeding are then reviewed before future prospects are discussed. Statistical concepts used in GS are discussed with genetic models and variance decomposition, heritability, breeding value and linear model. Recent progress in GS studies is reviewed with a focus on empirical studies. For the practice of GS in plant breeding, several specific points are discussed including linkage disequilibrium, feature of populations and genotyped markers and breeding scheme. Currently, GS is not perfect, but it is a potent, attractive and valuable approach for plant breeding. This method will be integrated into many practical breeding programmes in the near future with further advances and the maturing of its theory.

  15. Clinical and histological challenge in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alopecia: female androgenetic alopecia, telogen effluvium and alopecia areata - part I Desafio clínico e histológico no diagnóstico diferencial de alopecia difusa: alopecia androgenética, eflúvio telógeno e alopecia areata - parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Werner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse androgenetic alopecia (female pattern hair loss, telogen effluvium, and diffuse alopecia areata may have similar clinical manifestations. Subtle details on physical examination and dermoscopy of the scalp may help to identify those disorders. The authors present a practical discussion on how to approach the patient with diffuse alopecia, considering clinical history, physical examination, and dermoscopic findings. If the diagnosis remains unclear after a careful analysis of the clinical signs, a scalp biopsy may help to distinguish between the three diseases. In this first part of our study, an objective review of female androgenetic alopecia is presented and the most important histological changes are discussed.Alopecia androgenética difusa (alopecia de padrão feminino, eflúvio telógeno e alopecia areata difusa podem ter apresentações clínicas similares. Detalhes sutis no exame físico e na dermatoscopia do couro cabeludo podem ser úteis no diagnóstico diferencial e interferir na conduta e resultados terapêuticos. Os autores apresentam uma discussão prática de como abordar a paciente com alopecia difusa considerando dados da história clínica, exame físico e dermatoscópico. Quando a dúvida persistir após uma análise cuidadosa dos aspectos clínicos, uma biópsia de couro cabeludo pode permitir a distinção entre as três doenças. Nesta primeira parte, a alopecia androgenética de padrão feminino é abordada em maior detalhe e se faz uma revisão objetiva das principais alterações microscópicas observadas.

  16. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Implementation of a new CRP on Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality, organization of mutant germplasm database and repository, implementation of new TC projects and activation of work on molecular characterization of Musa putative germplasm as well as sequencing of BAC clones were the major activities of our sub-Programme on Plant Breeding and Genetics during the last six months. A lot of work has been concentrated on organizing a mutant germplasm repository. The first collections of rice and linseed mutants have already arrived and their descriptions have been introduced into the mutated germplasm database. We found this activity especially important to stimulate exchange of crop germplasm among plant breeders. Similarly there is an urgent need to collect mutants of various crops as necessary material for functional genomics and germplasm enhancement. Nevertheless, many crop research institutes are initiating large-scale mutation programmes with the use of their own plant material. To help them in selecting the mutagen, doses and mutation treatment procedure, we published the third issue of Mutation Breeding Newsletter Index of No. 21-44. The Index is also available through our website http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d2/index.html. The numerous requests for issues of the Mutation Breeding Newsletter already received from various countries indicate the value of this 80-page index for plant breeders and research institutes. We were invited to present the activities, achievements and trends of our sub-Programme at two very important, international meetings: The International Conference on the Status of Plant and Animal Genome Research, known as the Plant and Animal Genome (PAG XI), and The International Congress on 'In the Wake of the Double Helix - From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution'. At this last meeting, an initiative was taken to organize the Crop Root Research

  17. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  18. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  19. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The most important event related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months was the 2nd FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on 'Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers' which was held at Seibersdorf, 4-29 November 2002. In addition to basic molecular and marker techniques, which were also a subject of the first training course last year, fluorescence in situ hybridisation methods were included in the teaching and demonstration programme. As we informed you in the last edition of this Newsletter, a laboratory manual was published with detailed protocols on molecular markers techniques entitled 'Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A Manual'. (IAEA Training Course Series No. 19). (available for free distribution under conditions provided on page 11 of this Newsletter). We have also finished editing a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A Manual.' This book was prepared in close collaboration with EU COST 851 activities. Ken Kasha (Canada), Brian Forster (UK) and lwona Szarejko (Poland) helped to edit more than 40 protocols for doubled haploid production in at least 23 crop species. The preparation of this manual reflects our our interest in the development and application of this technology for crop improvement. Two CRPs and numerous Technical Co-operation projects greatly contributed to the development of doubled haploid methods and also to implementation of this technology in crop improvement programmes of many countries. Numerous other important activities have been undertaken by the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme during the last 6 months. A consultants meeting on 'Low cost technology in plant tissue culture' was held in Vienna and its results will be summarized in the form of an IAEA-TECDOC which is now in the final stage of preparation. In addition to the implementation of five Co-ordinated Research Projects, nine workshops and national or regional

  20. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  1. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  2. Adult sex ratios and their implications for cooperative breeding in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Székely, Tamás; Long, Xiaoyan; Kingma, Sjouke Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is a form of breeding system where in addition to a core breeding pair, one or more usually non-breeding individuals provide offspring care. Cooperative breeding is widespread in birds, but its origin and maintenance in contemporary populations are debated. Although deviations

  3. [Diprosopus in calves of different breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Beineke, A; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-04-01

    Three calves of the breeds German Holstein, German Angus and German Fleckvieh from three farms were born showing different forms of facial duplication. Two calves were classified as diprosopus with tetraophthalmus and in one calf a partial duplication of the forehead with a third nostril was observed. Further relatives of these affected calves or animals in the same herds were not affected by diprosopus. The calves with diprosopus were examined by means of clinical and pathological-anatomical methods. The increased occurrence of twin births and inbreeding could be of importance for the observed congenital anomaly, whereas conception early in life and conception during the winter months of the mothers of the affected calves are unlikely as reasons for the observed congenital anomaly of these calves. Even if the cases of diprosopus showed no increased frequency by paternal half sib groups, it is likely that diprosopus is genetically influenced and a larger number of genes may determine the phenotype.

  4. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  5. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author)

  6. NOTE - Program R: applications in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for so-called free, or open source software for data analysis as well as the appeal to use it isgreat. An public domain software that has become extremely well-known, with ever-increasing numbers of fans and even coworkers, is Environment R, or simply R. R is extremely useful for data analysis and manipulation in view of a range of tools alreadyimplemented. Also, R is not simply a statistical program, because, by its easy on using internal functions and also creating new ones,statistical procedures applied to data can also be created, manipulated, evaluated and interpreted. R contains numerous libraries(or packages, some already included in the default setting. This course will focus on the application of R in statistical analyses inplant breeding. Explanations on the use of various commands and functions will be illustrated with examples, to facilitate theinterpretation and adaptation to other similar problems.

  7. Development of Radiation Breeding Technology of Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongil; Park, J. H.; Song, B. S.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. J.; Yang, H. Y.

    2013-01-15

    Macroalgae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the macroalgae is just beginning and the study on radiation effect and radiation breeding technology was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the macroalgae Porphyra was investigated for the development of new mutant strains. Prphyra was successively cultivated in the laboratory chamber with optimized growth condition. Also, the radiation sensitivity of Porphyra was determined. To develop the mutant strain, irradiated Porphyra strains were screened for better growth and higher resistance against oxidative stress. The selected Porphyra was further cultivated in ocean site. Also, several genes from mutant Porphyra was heterologous expressed and studied for its dunctionality. This results can provide mutation technology of macroalgae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement.

  8. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far

  9. Source driven breeding thermal power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misulovin, A.; Gilai, D.; Levin, P.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1978-03-01

    Improvements in the performance of fission power reactors made possible by designing them subcritical driven by D-T neutron sources are investigated. Light-water thermal systems are found to be most promising, neutronically and energetically, for the source driven mode of operation. The range of performance characteristics expected from breeding Light Water Hybrid Reactors (LWHR) is defined. Several promising types of LWHR blankets are identified. Options opened for the nuclear energy strategy by four types of the LWHRs are examined, and the potential contribution of these LWHRs to the nuclear energy economy are discussed. The power systems based on these LWHRs are found to enable a high utilization of the energy content of the uranium resources in all forms available - including depleted uranium and spent fuel from LWRs, while being free from the need for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation capabilities. (author)

  10. Melhoramento da videira Grape breeding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Almeida Santos Neto

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros trabalhos sôbre o melhoramento da videira no Brasil datam de 1895 e se devem a Pereira Barreto e seus colaboradores. Entre 1930 e 1940, em Amparo, Paulino Recch, Nicolau Martorano e Pedro Araujo, dedicaram-se ao melhoramento da videira obtendo espécimes de real valor. A partir de 1943, no Instituto Agronômico, a Seção de Viticultura vem desenvolvendo um programa traçado para prover a nossa viticultura de abundante material melhorado para múltiplas finalidades. Cogita-se da obtenção de variedades novas para porta-enxertos, para mesa, vinho, suco não fermentado e passa. Essas variedades devem apresentar características de adaptação e acomodação ao nosso meio ambiente ; resistência às moléstias e pragas, e ao apodrecimento ocasionado pelas chuvas ; boas características específicas para mesa, vinho e suco não fermentado (1 a 18. Para execução do programa foi utilizado o material existente nas coleções do Instituto Agronômico, e importado novo material das Américas do Norte e Central. Dos capítulos mais importantes, um que está sendo atacado é o da produção de uvas de mesa isentas de sementes, ou apirenas. Igual importância tem o referente às diferentes combinações com as variedades tropicais, principalmente Vitis gigas e V. tilixfolia. Os resultados até agora obtidos são animadores : o Instituto Agronômico já dispõe de novos porta-enxertos em estudo, novas variedades de mesa com características de grande valor, numerosas variedades para produção de bons vinhos, bem como outras que, combinadas em diferentes proporções, produzem excelente suco não fermentado. Os trabalhos prosseguem e, não sendo interrompidos, poderão trazer reais vantagens à viticultura nacional.Grape breeding, was first started in Brazil by Pereira Barreto in 1895. From 1930 to 1940, Paulino Reech, Nicolau Martorano, and Pedro Araujo, frorn. Amparo, São Paulo, did some breeding work with grapes and obtained several new

  11. Development of Radiation Breeding Technology of Macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongil; Park, J. H.; Song, B. S.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. J.; Yang, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Macroalgae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the macroalgae is just beginning and the study on radiation effect and radiation breeding technology was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the macroalgae Porphyra was investigated for the development of new mutant strains. Prphyra was successively cultivated in the laboratory chamber with optimized growth condition. Also, the radiation sensitivity of Porphyra was determined. To develop the mutant strain, irradiated Porphyra strains were screened for better growth and higher resistance against oxidative stress. The selected Porphyra was further cultivated in ocean site. Also, several genes from mutant Porphyra was heterologous expressed and studied for its dunctionality. This results can provide mutation technology of macroalgae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  12. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  13. Periclinal chimera technique: new plant breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakpetor, P M; Mohammed, H; Moreti, D; Nassar, N M A

    2017-09-21

    Plant interspecific periclinal chimeras are a mosaic formed by tissues from two species. They are manipulated here as an efficient plant breeding tool for cassava root yields. In this study, plants synthesized from two chimeras, designated as chimera 2 and chimera 4, were characterized morphologically and cytologically to unravel the origin of their tissue layers (L2 and L3). Root yield of the two chimeras was also evaluated. Chimera 2 that was developed from graft union between Manihot fortalezensis (F) as scion and M. esculenta (E) as rootstock and the same in chimera 4 was developed from grafting triploid cassava cultivar (2n = 54) (C) as scion and M. pohlii (P) (2n = 36) as rootstock. A new method of inducing interspecific chimeras without using hormones was also tested in this study. Five combinations between four cassava cultivars on one side and M. fortalezensis and an interspecific hybrid (M. glaziovii x M. esculenta) on the other side were experimented to determine compatibility between the parents. Wild species always gave L2 and L3, independent of being used as rootstock or scion. L3 is responsible for producing pericycle. Thus, its performance was different in each chimera due to specific epigenetic interaction. Of 48 grafts, it was obtained one chimera giving a percentage of 2.1% that is little lower than using hormones but much efficient to use. Chimera induction efficiency in this investigation was the same when using hormones. Thus, our new, less labor, and more cost-effective technique is as much efficient as hormones and is much potential to employ as an effective plant breeding method boosting cassava root yield.

  14. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, Pgeneration but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  15. Fitness consequences of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Burke, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested as the selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. Assessing the benefits accrued to individual males and females is crucial to understanding the sex-specific helping behavior observed in many cooperatively breeding species. We

  16. A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella

  17. Modeling growth from weaning to maturity in beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand growth trajectory and maturity differences between beef breeds, three models – Brody, spline, and quadratic – were fit to cow growth data, and resulting parameter estimates were evaluated for 3 breed categories – British, continental, and Brahman-influenced. The data were weight...

  18. Breeding objectives for Angus and Charolais specialized sire lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding indigenous cows to terminal sires may facilitate production of calves in the emerging sector that better meet commercial feedlot requirements. ... On average, relative emphasis given to breeding values for survival, direct weaning weight, postweaning daily gain, postweaning daily feed intake, dressing percent, and ...

  19. Food abundance explains the breeding season of a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of breeding in birds is a life-history trait that generally depends on food availability, but other factors may play a role, particularly in tropical areas where food availability is less seasonal than in temperate or polar areas. We studied the factors affecting the breeding season of the Crab Plover Dromas ardeola, ...

  20. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  1. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved breeding strategy by anther culture ... more efficient in pure line selection rather than the hete- .... Regional and productivity tests showed that Huapei 8 had .... Large-scale production of wheat and triticale double.

  2. Heritability and intertrait correlations in breeding subpopulations of jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1985-01-01

    Twenty breeding populations of jack pine were established in 1979 and 1980 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Four populations were index populations and were each established at 4 locations by research cooperators. Sixteen populations were applied breeding populations and were established at single locations by public and private cooperators. Combined analysis of...

  3. Practical breeding of cottonwood in the north-central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl A. Mohn

    1973-01-01

    More than 20 years ago Scott Pauley (1949) designated the genus Populus as the "guinea pig of forest-tree breeding. This designation is still appropriate as evidenced by the steady, almost overwhelming, stream of publications related to the genetics and breeding of poplars. A good indication of the scope and depth of genetic work with poplars...

  4. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  5. Some factors itilluencing the breeding season of Praomys natalensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a demographic study of Praomys nata/ensis in an agricultural area on the Rhodesian highveld, a preliminary investigation was carried out into some of the factors which might be of importance in determining the timing of its breeding season. Information on breeding and nutrition was obtained by both live and ...

  6. Breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Folkertsma, I.; Velde, van der M.; Komdeur, J.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the effect of environmental variables on reproductive success of tropical raptors is often constrained by the lack of information on breeding biology. We provide the first detailed information of the breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur

  7. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six

  8. Application of biotechnology in genetics and breeding of tall fescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Ye Hongxia; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2008-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schred.) is an important lawn and pasture grass in agriculture, animal husbandy and lawn industry. The historical and present situations of tall fescue breeding were briefly introduced, and advances in the researches of molecular biology and germplasm enhancement by biotechnology in tall fescue were reviewed in the paper, which would provide the references for tall fescue breeding by biotechnology. (authors)

  9. Breeding in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows how different strategies have been combined to establish the basis of a strategic breeding programme in bambara groundnut. The paper also illustrates the use of landraces in the bambara groundnut breeding programme, as an example of the contribution that landraces can make to increasing ...

  10. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  11. Hematological and male hormonal profile of two cattle breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline data on the hematology of White Fulani and Muturu breeds of Cattle have been reported. However, very few documented studies have been carried out with regards to the reproductive hormonal profile of these breeds. Satisfactory reproductive performance is important to effective management and production as a ...

  12. Spatial distribution of potential and positive Aedes aegypti breeding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elías Cuartas

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The spatial relationship between positive and potential A. aegypti breeding sites both indoors and outdoors is dynamic and highly sensitive to the characteristics of each territory. Knowing how positive and potential breeding sites are distributed contributes to the prioritization of resources and actions in vector control programs.

  13. Potentials of molecular based breeding to enhance drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of plant to sustain itself in limited water conditions is crucial in the world of agriculture. To breed for drought tolerance in wheat, it is essential to clearly understand drought tolerant mechanisms. Conventional breeding is time consuming and labor intensive being inefficient with low heritability traits like drought ...

  14. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting. Yushi Gao. 1,2#. , Yunjie Tu. 1,2. , Haibin Tong. 1. , Kehua Wang. 1. , Xiujun Tang. 1 and Kuanwei Chen. 1. 1 Institute of Poultry, Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China, Yangzhou, 225003, Jiangsu, China.

  15. Lateral patellar luxation in nine small breed dogs | Dona | Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to describe the clinical features, the management and the outcome of nine small breed dogs affected with lateral patella luxation referred during the period between January 2010 and December 2014. Patellar luxations were classified according to: breed, age, sex, weight, and grade of ...

  16. Predicting Breeding Values in Animals by Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaoren, B; Janss, L L G; Kadarmideen, H N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...

  17. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified

  18. Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and ...

  19. Territoriality, breeding biology and vocalisations of the Crimson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on aspects of the territoriality, breeding success and vocal behaviour of Crimson-breasted Shrikes Laniarus atrococcineus at a study site in the Nylsvley district, South Africa. Their mean territory size was c. 12ha. Breeding success was very low, with only one nestling fledging from 13 clutches.

  20. Factors affecting the breeding success of the African Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of this study note the potential conservation dilemma resulting from an invasive species improving the conservation status of a Red-listed species, and encourage the implementation of restricted sites in high-quality habitats with high breeding pair densities. Keywords: breeding ecology, fledging success, ...

  1. breeding Red-and-yellow Barbets Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Table 1), but it was not possible to ascertain whether it was always the exact same pair breeding. Table 1. Breeding activity of Red-and-yellow Barbets from a single nest in south- eastern Sudan in 2005. Date. Brood No. Nesting activity. Fledging date. No. of Fledglings. Observed post-fledging. 11 Feb. 1 feeding young.

  2. Applying Mendelian rules in rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the most important sources of edible oil, raw material for industry, as well as feed. The yield and quality of rapeseed have significantly been improved in recent decades as a result of intensive breeding and optimized production technology. The application of Mendel's rules in introducing monogenic traits has also contributed to success in rapeseed breeding. Rule 1, which refers to the uniformity of F1 generation, is now the basis of widespread development of rapeseed hybrids. Rule 2, dealing with genetic segregation in the F2 generation, is the basis for understanding the process of breeding lines. Rule 3, regarding the independent segregation of genes and traits, while exempting linked traits, is the basis of combining different desirable properties by selection. In the last few decades, the systematic use of Mendel's rules has contributed to the improvement of many properties of rapeseed, including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, yield and seed quality. Particular progress has been made in breeding for resistance to diseases, including the identification of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. The next objective of rapeseed breeding is to create varieties with improved tolerance to environmental stress (e.g. frost, heat, and drought. Based on Mendel's rules, classical breeding methods and the latest developments in the field of molecular genetics and breeding, future progress is expected in the field of rapeseed breeding with an emphasis on polygenic, quantitative traits such as biomass, seed, and oil yield.

  3. Birds choose long-term partners years before breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Pair bonds can provide social benefits to long-term monogamous species alongside their benefits for reproduction. However, little is known about when these bonds form, in particular how long they are present before breeding. Previous studies of pair formation in long-term monogamous birds have been rather data-limited, but for many migratory birds they report pair formation on the wintering grounds. We provide the first systematic investigation of prebreeding association patterns of long-term monogamous pairs by examining entire life histories based on tracking data of migratory whooping cranes, Grus americana. We found that a substantial portion (62%) of breeding pairs started associating at least 12 months before first breeding, with 16 of 58 breeding pairs beginning to associate over 2 years before first breeding. For most pairs, these associations with future breeding partners also became unique and distinguishable from association patterns with nonpartner individuals 12 months before first breeding. In addition, 60% of pair associations began before at least one partner had reached nominal sexual maturity. Most pairs began associating in the late spring upon arrival at the summer grounds, while associations beginning at other times of the year were rare. Patterns in the associations of pairs prior to breeding can point to the potential benefits of prebreeding relationships, for instance providing support in competitive interactions or increasing partner familiarity.

  4. Characterisation of White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Bauchi state between January, and July, 1997 to characterize White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds. Thirty animals of both sexes from each breed were randomly selected from fifteen farms/herds. Observations were carried out on both quantitative and qualitative characters. Sokoto ...

  5. Breeding ecology of the Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of breeding ecology is required for many conservation interventions. The Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi, endemic to the island of Praslin, is vulnerable to extinction. We aimed to improve understanding of C. barklyi breeding ecology to aid conservation planning. We present the results of four years of ...

  6. Breeding distribution and ecology of the threatened Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Madagascar Plover Charadrius thoracicus is a threatened wader endemic to Madagascar. We report the first detailed study of its distribution and breeding ecology. Madagascar Plovers breed on the west coast of Madagascar between the Mahavavy delta in the north and Fort-Dauphin in the south-east. Between 2002 ...

  7. Optimisation of selective breeding program for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimise the selective breeding program for Nile tilapia in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Two breeding schemes, the “classic” BLUP scheme following the GIFT method (with pair mating) and a rotational mating scheme with own performance selection and

  8. First breeding records for Damara Terns and density of other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum is a small coastal-nesting seabird that breeds in the Namib Desert, with a stronghold in Namibia. About 125 pairs are known from scattered localities in South Africa, and there are suggestions that it breeds in the northern end of the Namib in Angola. During a three-day survey in ...

  9. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of

  10. Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting breeding bird diversity and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.G. Tilghman

    1987-01-01

    Breeding bird communities were studied in 32 forest islands surrounded by urban development. These isolated woodlands in Springfield, Massachusetts, provided breeding habitats for a wider variety of birds (77 species) than previously described for other urban habitats (e.g. four times as many species as found in urban residential areas in the same city in a...

  11. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  12. Genomic breeding value prediction:methods and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Animal breeding faces one of the most significant changes of the past decades – the implementation of genomic selection. Genomic selection uses dense marker maps to predict the breeding value of animals with reported accuracies that are up to 0.31 higher than those of pedigree indexes, without the

  13. Breed traceability of buffalo meat using microsatellite genotyping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Bheemashankar H; Fairoze, Md Nadeem; Girish, P S; Karabasanavar, Nagappa; Rudresh, B H

    2017-02-01

    Although buffalo has emerged as a major meat producing animal in Asia, major research on breed traceability has so far been focused on cattle (beef). This research gap on buffalo breed traceability has impelled development and validation of buffalo breed traceability using a set of eight microsatellite (STR) markers in seven Indian buffalo breeds (Bhadawari, Jaffaarabadi, Murrah, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri and Surti). Probability of sharing same profile by two individuals at a specific locus was computed considering different STR numbers, allele pooling in breed and population. Match probabilities per breed were considered and six most polymorphic loci were genotyped. Out of eight microsatellite markers studied, markers CSSMO47, DRB3 and CSSM060 were found most polymorphic. Developed technique was validated with known and unknown, blood and meat samples; wherein, samples were genetically traced in 24 out of 25 samples tested. Results of this study showed potential applications of the methodology and encourage other researchers to address the problem of buffalo traceability so as to create a world-wide archive of breed specific genotypes. This work is the first report of breed traceability of buffalo meat utilizing microsatellite genotyping technique.

  14. Molecular genetic analysis of the Chinese Erhualian pig breed | Yue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chinese Erhualian is one of the most prolific pig breeds in the world, but it is in danger of being replaced by other exotic pig breeds because of its slow growth rate and high fat content in the body. To obtain some genetic information for conservation, we analysed the Erhualian pigs by using a PCR-RFLP for the ...

  15. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  16. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  17. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  18. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  19. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  20. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.