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Sample records for hantaviruses northeastern argentina

  1. Rodent Abundance and Hantavirus Infection in Protected Area, East-Central Argentina

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    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Padula, Paula

    2018-01-01

    We captured 3 hantavirus rodent hosts in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Argentina, during 2007–2012. Hantavirus antibodies were found only in Akodon azarae grass mice, mainly in males and old animals. Higher abundance of this species was associated with warm and rainy weather and high water levels, which peaked after a strong El Niño event. PMID:29260665

  2. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

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    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Argentina, 1995–2008

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    Bellomo, Carla M.; Cacace, María Luisa; Suárez, Paola; Bogni, Liliana; Padula, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    We report a large case series of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina that was confirmed by laboratory restuls from 1995 through 2008. The geographic and temporal distribution of cases by age, sex, fatality rate, and risk factors for HPS was analyzed. A total of 710 cases were unequally distributed among 4 of the 5 Argentine regions. Different case-fatality rates were observed for each affected region, with a maximum rate of 40.5%. The male-to-female ratio for HPS case-patients was 3.7:1.0; the case-fatality rate was significantly higher for women. Agriculture-associated activities were most commonly reported as potential risk factors, especially among men of working age. Although HPS cases occurred predominantly in isolation, we identified 15 clusters in which strong relationships were observed between members, which suggests ongoing but limited person-to-person transmission. PMID:21122213

  4. Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina Hantavirus seroprevalence in rodents and human cases in southern Argentina

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    Edmundo Larrieu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de la cordillera andino patagónica. El virus Andes ha sido identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la factibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar nueva información sobre especies de roedores portadores de hantavirus en Argentina, su prevalencia de anticuerpos para hantavirus (período 1999-2001 y la relación del tamaño de las poblaciones de roedores y su seroprevalencia con la ocurrencia de casos humanos (período 1996-2001. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 3973 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo sherman en seis operativos efectuados entre octubre de 1999 y mayo de 2001. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos elaborados a partir de virus Andes. Una síntesis de los resultados indica 397 roedores capturados, con un éxito de trampeo del 10% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 1.0%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus y A. Olivaceus seropositivos y O. flavescens y C. Laucha potencialmente portadores de hantavirus Se registraron 6 casos humanos en el período 1993-1995 (correspondientes a estudios retrospectivos, 21 casos se notificaron en el período 1996-1998 y 6 en el período 1999-2001 Se analiza la correlación entre ocurrencia de casos humanos, seroprevalencia en roedores y éxito de trampeo.In the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have occurred in the region of the Patagonian Andean range. The Andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent Oligoryzomys

  5. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina

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    Olga V Suárez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+ results and two individuals with ELISA (-. Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests

  6. Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina Regional differences and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (an emerging and tropical disease in Argentina

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    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.Factors related to the characteristics of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina are described. Factors from different scientific fields converge to form the syndrome's analytical framework. Some of these factors are the history of spatial occupation, work and production structures, human migration patterns, ethnic composition, reservoir dynamics and its relationship to the different circulating viruses, and human behavior. Furthermore, the multiple factors are expressed in three ecological frameworks, associated with three different geographical regions of Argentina: 1 Northwest; 2 Central ("wet Pampa"; and 3 South Andean. In order to understand the actual causality of health or disease as an interaction of many factors, research on the primary biological, social, and environmental determinants of

  7. Expansión geográfica del síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en la Argentina: Informe del caso más austral Geographic expansion of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina: The southernest case report

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    Carla Bellomo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1995 se han informado más de 1000 casos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la Argentina, enfermedad grave y muchas veces fatal para los humanos. La mayoría de los casos fueron asociados al virus Andes (AND único hantavirus que ha sido informado como causante de transmisión persona a persona. Se han descrito varios linajes patogénicos del virus AND, de los cuales AND Sur, cuyo reservorio es el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, afecta a la región patagónica de Argentina y Chile. En el presente estudio se informan las manifestaciones clínicas y las características epidemiológicas de un caso de SPH. El objetivo fue describir la presentación clínica del caso, su entorno epidemiológico, el sitio probable de contagio, la variante viral implicada y su relación con los casos más cercanos notificados. Se realizó el seguimiento clínico, el diagnóstico serológico y molecular y la investigación epidemiológica, incluyendo un estudio de la población de roedores reservorios en las áreas involucradas. Se trató de una presentación clásica de SPH moderada, causada por el linaje viral AND sur y su secuencia nucleotídica se comparó con casos del sur argentino y chileno. El caso de hantavirus investigado resultó ser el más austral (48° 46´ 1.2´´ S; 70° 15´ 0´´ O notificado hasta el momento e involucró a una nueva provincia argentina.Since 1995 more than 1000 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS were reported in Argentina, a severe disease and often fatal to humans. Most cases were associated with Andes virus (AND that caused few events of person-to-person transmission. Several lineages of pathogenic AND viruses have been described, including AND South, hosted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus which affects the Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a HPS case. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation of the case, its

  8. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT IN NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA RECENT AND CURRENT STRUCTURE

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    Rodrigo A., Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the private returns on investment in education. Annual rates of return were estimated for the conglomerates in northeastern Argentina (NEA between the third term of 2003 and third term of 2009, using the basis of micro-data from the Permanent Household Survey (EPH. In yield estimation were proposed models for men and women to correct the sample bias problems evidenced in their low participation in the Economically Active Population (PEA. The results show a higher return to education for men than for women, a different yield in the agglomerate Posadas above average of NEA, a high penalty function in the informal economy sector (black work a direct relationship between company size and yields of men at the same time would bring report less volatility in its temporal evolution.

  9. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

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    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500

  10. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

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    Veronica Andreo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  11. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

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    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  12. Knowledge and practices about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a cluster of Japanese communities in Argentina Conocimientos y prácticas relacionados con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en un conglomerado de comunidades japonesas en Argentina

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    Kuniaki Suzuki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide information on hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS knowledge and practices among a cluster of the rural Japanese communities near La Plata in central Ar gentina, an area with confirmed HPS cases. Particular emphasis was placed on testing the hy pothesis that there would be differences between household use of HPS prevention measures based on the head-of-household's knowledge of HPS. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed in three sections: (1 household demographic char acteristics, (2 HPS knowledge, and (3 HPS preventive measures. Questionnaires were given to the household head or other adult representing the household at an HPS prevention semi nar sponsored by the Japanese Association of La Plata in February 2007. Total HPS knowl edge scores were dichotomized into high (equal to or more than the median knowledge score and low (less than the median. Differences between the two household groups were catego rized, according to the degree of HPS knowledge, and analyzed. RESULTS: The 86 households that responded accounted for about 72% of the total study households in the area. The median knowledge score of 5 (range: 0-9, of 10 divided the study households into two groups: high knowledge score group (n = 40 and low knowledge score group (n = 46. The findings suggest an association between a household's accurate HPS knowledge and its respective use of HPS preventive measures. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study have important implications for taking further steps toward improved HPS management and prevention strategies.OBJETIVOS: Documentar los conocimientos y las prácticas relacionadas con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en un conglomerado de comunidades rurales japonesas cerca de La Plata, en la parte central de Argentina, una zona con casos confirmados de SPH. Se hizo hincapié especial en probar la hipótesis de que habría diferencias en el empleo de medidas preventivas contra el SPH en los hogares según el

  13. Condiciones para la transmision del hantavirus en zona andina de Río negro, Argentina

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    Gabriel Talmon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.

  14. Treatment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-14

    femoral artery and vein. The bed is versity of New Mexico. . Antiviral therapy Ribavirin was tested for efficacy in HFRS patients in China nd shown to...Weis- senbacher, M.C., 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Possibility of person to person transmission. Medicina (B. Aires) 56, 709–711

  15. Interannual-to-multidecadal Hydroclimate Variability and its Sectoral Impacts in northeastern Argentina

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    Lovino, Miguel A.; Müller, Omar V.; Müller, Gabriela V.; Sgroi, Leandro C.; Baethgen, Walter E.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the relation between hydroclimate variability (precipitation, river discharge, temperature) and water resources, agriculture and human settlements at different time scales in northeastern Argentina. It also discusses the impacts on these productive and socio-economic sectors. The leading patterns of variability, their nonlinear trends, and cycles are identified by means of a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) complemented with a Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). Interannua...

  16. Spatial and temporal patterning of bank vole demography and the epidemiology of the Puumala hantavirus in northeastern France.

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    Augot, D; Sauvage, F; Boue, F; Bouloy, M; Artois, M; Demerson, J M; Combes, B; Coudrier, D; Zeller, H; Cliquet, F; Pontier, D

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological data from bank voles, Myodes glareolus, naturally infected by the hantavirus Puumala (PUUV) were collected by a capture-mark-recapture protocol from 2000 to 2002 in the French department of Ardennes. Four monitored trapping sites were established in two forests located in two cantons (Flize and Monthermé). We captured 912 bank voles corresponding to 557 different individuals during 8820 trapping nights for an overall trapping success of 10.34%. The average PUUV seroprevalence was 22.4%. Characteristics of the system reported in North European countries are confirmed in France. PUUV seroprevalence and abundance of rodents appeared weakly linked. Adult voles were more frequently antibody-positive, but no difference between sexes was established. Anti-PUUV seropositive voles were captured and high seroprevalence was observed from both forests, without human infection reported in Flize canton during the study. One site among the four exhibited peculiar infection dynamics, where vole weight and infection risk were negatively correlated.

  17. Hantavirus Infections

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    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  18. The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure (Crustacea: Ostracoda in northeastern Argentina

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    Analía R. Díaz

    Full Text Available The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure, 1858 is a typical representative of the Neotropical ostracod fauna that occupies lotic and lentic environments including temporary and permanent ponds. Up to the present, four species have been recorded in Argentina: C. iheringi (Sars, C. incisa (Claus and C. leuckarti (Claus, and C. symmetrica (Vávra. Temporary and permanent ponds of this region were sampled for ostracods, using a fine mesh net. Three species belonging to the genus Chlamydotheca were collected of which C. arcuata (Sars is recorded for first time for the Chacoan region. Limb morphology was studied under light microscope and line drawings were made using camera lucida. Valves were photographed under scanning electron microscope and redescriptions of C. arcuata and C. iheringi are provided and distributional aspects of the species sampled are discussed.

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  20. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of northeastern Argentina

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    Bar María Esther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90% Butia yatay (Mart. Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2% were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2. T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.

  1. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    William Marciel de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  2. Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Argentina

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    Marta I. Duré

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The niche overlap and resource partitioning were analyzed for five sympatric bufonids from Northeastern Argentina: Rhinella schneideri, R. bergi, R. fernandezae, R. granulosa, and Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis. The primary objectives were to analyze the diet and pattern of coexistence relative to the microhabitats among species. The bufonids, which are primarily terrestrial, exhibited a preference for small, hard prey such as formicids or coleopterans. The smallest species preferably consumed ants, while R. schneideri preferred beetles. Significant differences were detected for the diets of these five species. In addition, significant overlap in the trophic niche was noted for all species except between R. granulosa and R. schneideri. Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understandingthe community and for the development of conservation guidelines.

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

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    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is ...

  4. ON THE PRESENCE OF PYRAMIODONTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, MEGATHERIIDAE IN THE LATE MIOCENE OF NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA AND ITS BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

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    DIEGO BRANDONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  5. Hantaviroses Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Simão Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As hantaviroses constituem infecções zoonóticas amplamente distribuídas em todo o mundo. A febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal mostra-se endêmica na Ásia e Europa, acometendo milharea de pessoas anualmente. A síndrome cardiopulmonar pelo hantavírus, reconhecida como entidade clínica desde 1993, representa o protótipo das doenças emergentes e encontra-se distribuída em diversos países do continente americano, inclusive o Brasil. Ambas são transmitidas ao homem através da inalação de partículas virais eliminadas nas fezes e urina de roedores domésticos e silvestres. Trata-se de doenças sistêmicas febris que podem acometer vários órgãos, destacando-se o rim na febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal e os pulmões e o coração na síndrome cardiopulmonar. A taxa de letalidade da hantavirose americana alcança 50%. Diagnostica-se as hantaviroses através de provas sorológicas imunoenzimáticas ao identificar-se anticorpos específicos das classes IgM e IgG. Não há tratamento específico. Recomenda-se hidratação cuidadosa, indicação precoce de diálise nas formas renais e administração de drogas vasoativas nos períodos de hipotensão e choque. A administração de corticoesteróides e da ribavirina está sendo avaliada em estudos controlados. O número de casos dessas viroses tem crescido no Brasil ano a ano, e cumpre alertar os profissionais de saúde sobre a ocorrência dessas entidades nos vários estados do país, possibilitando diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado nos casos suspeitos da doença.Hantaviruses are zoonotic diseases that affect humans and have a worldwide distribution. The hemorrhagic fever associated with renal syndrome occurs endemically in the Asian and European continents affecting housauds of people every year. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, recognized as a clinical entity since 1993, represents the prototype of emerging diseases and is distributed in countries of the American

  6. Globally emerging hantaviruses: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. They are globally emerging pathogens as newer serotypes are routinely being reported. This review discusses hantavirus biology, clinical features and pathogenesis of hantavirus disease, its diagnostics, distribution and mammalian hosts. Hantavirus research in India is also summarised.

  7. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  9. Molecular characterization of trypanosomatid infections in wild howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Florencia Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by vectors is confined to the Americas, and the infection circulates in at least two broadly defined transmission cycles occurring in domestic and sylvatic habitats. This study sought to detect and characterize infection by T. cruzi and other trypanosomes using PCR strategies in blood samples from free-ranging howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in the northeastern Argentina. Blood samples were collected at four sites with variable levels of habitat modification by human activity. PCR was conducted using primers for kinetoplast DNA, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA of the trypanosomatid parasites. Ribosomal and satellite DNA fragments were sequenced to identify the trypanosomatid species and to characterize the discrete typing units (DTUs of T. cruzi. Overall, 46% (50/109 of the howlers were positive according to the kDNA-PCR assay, but only 7 of the howlers were positive according to the SatDNA-PCR protocol. We sequenced the amplicons of the satellite DNA obtained from five specimens, and the sequences were 99% and 100% similar to T. cruzi. A sequence typical of DTU T. cruzi I was found in one howler monkey from the “remote” site, while sequences compatible with DTUs II, V, and VI were found in howlers from the “remote”, “rural” and “village” sites. We detected 96% positive samples for RibDNA-PCR, 9 of which were sequenced and displayed 99% identity with Trypanosoma minasense, while none showed identity with T. cruzi. The results demonstrated the presence of T. cruzi and a species closely related to T. minasense in blood samples from free-ranging A. caraya, belonging to different T. cruzi DTUs circulating in these howler monkey populations. The results obtained in this study could help evaluate the role of A. caraya as a reservoir of T. cruzi in regions where Chagas disease is hyper-endemic and where the human-wildlife interface is increasing.

  10. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  11. Digenean fauna in raptors from northeastern Argentina, with the description of a new species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Fabiana B; Lunaschi, Lía I; Draghi, Regina

    2014-04-03

    The digenean fauna of six species of falconiform birds from northeastern Argentina is reported and a new species and several new hosts and geographical records are presented. Strigea proteolytica n. sp. (Strigeidae) is described from Buteogallus urubitinga and distinguished from their congeners by the combination of the following characters: plump body, conspicuous proteolytic gland, forebody with scarce vitelline glands, copulatory bursa with a well developed muscular ring (Ringnapf), and absence of true neck region in hindbody. Six previously known species are breifly described: Strigea falconis brasiliana Szidat, 1929 (Strigeidae) from Milvago chimachima and Caracara plancus; Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 from Buteogallus meridionalis; Tylodelphys brevis Drago & Lunaschi, 2008 and Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae) from Busarellus nigricollis; Spaniometra variolaris (Fuhrmann, 1904) (Cyclocoelidae) and Megalophallus deblocki Kostadinova, Vaucher & Gibson, 2006 (Microphallidae) from Rostrhamus sociabilis. Literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships is presented.

  12. Two Decades of Hantavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-29

    Dr. de St. Maurice, a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, discusses hantavirus.  Created: 6/29/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/29/2017.

  13. Evidences of the stability of magnetite in soil from Northeastern Argentina by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causevic, H.; Morras, H.; Mijovilovich, A.; Saragovi, C.

    2004-01-01

    In red soils from southern Brazil magnetite was reported to be pedogenically unstable, weathering to maghemite. However, in similar soils from northeastern Argentina magnetite was found in all size fractions. This finding motivates the mineralogical study of an Ultisol at different depths in order to understand the influence of anthropic and natural factors in the weathering of the magnetic minerals of these subtropical soils. The sand fraction of the B t22 horizon (105-155 cm depth) of a clayey red Ultisol from the subtropical forest of Misiones, Argentina, was studied by X-ray diffraction, saturation magnetization σ s , optical microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Saturation magnetization for the whole sand fraction (wsf), the non-magnetic sand fraction (nmsf) and the magnetic sand fraction (msf) are 10.79, 1.50 and 16.92 JT -1 kg -1 , respectively. Mainly quartz, ilmenite, Al-substituted hematite, goethite, maghemite and magnetite are found. Magnetite-maghemite contents are high, and magnetite is predominant in the msf. Results are compared with those from the upper B 1 horizon (10-35 cm depth) of the same soil in which a lower σ s(wsf) value, and higher values of σ s(msf) and of (σ s(msf) -σ s(wsf) ) were measured. These results confirm the stability of magnetite in this soil contrasting with other results on soils from neighbouring areas

  14. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  15. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of Argentina covers geography, the people, history and political conditions, government, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Argentina. In 1985, the population of Argentina was estimated to be 30.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.5%. The infant mortality rate is 34.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70.2 years. Argentina, which shares land borders with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is bounded by the Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans. Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominate in Argentina, but many trace their origins to British and West and East European ancestors. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring Latin American countries. The native Indian population, estimated to be 50,000, is concentrated in the peripheral provinces of the north, northwest, and south. What is now Argentina was discovered in 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan de Solia. The formal declaration of independence from Spain was made on July 9, 1816. In the late 19th century, 2 forces worked to create the modern Argentine nation: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and the integration of Argentina into the world economy. Argentina has impressive human and natural resources, but political conflict and uneven economic performance since World War II have impeded full realization of its considerable potential. Yet, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America. Among the reasons for the military coup of March 1976 was the deteriorating economy, caused by declining production and rampant inflation. Under the leadership of the Minister of the Economy, the military government focused attention on those immediate problems, and, in 1978, embarked on a new development strategy focusing on the establishment of a free market economy. There was little improvement in the economy, and a new economic plan was introduced in 1985 which has capped inflation by

  16. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  17. Diversity of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys, Rodentia) in the Northeastern wetlands from Argentina: mitochondrial phylogeny and chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Diego A; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Rossi, María Susana

    2012-06-01

    Tuco-tucos (small subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys) that inhabit sandy soils of the area under the influence of the second largest wetland of South America, in Northeastern Argentina (Corrientes province), are a complex of species and forms whose taxonomic status were not defined, nor are the evolutionary relationships among them. The tuco-tuco populations of this area exhibit one of the most ample grades of chromosomal variability within the genus. In order to analyze evolutionary relationships within the Corrientes group and its chromosomal variability, we completed the missing karyotypic information and performed a phylogenetic analysis. We obtained partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers: D-loop, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I. The Corrientes group was monophyletic and split into three main clades that grouped related karyomorphs. The phylogeny suggested an ancestral condition of the karyomorph with diploid number (2n) 70 and fundamental number (FN) 84 that has evolved mainly via reductions of the FN although amplifications occurred in certain lineages. We discuss the relationship between patterns of chromosomal variability and species and groups boundaries. From the three main clades the one named iberá exhibited a remarkable karyotypic homogeneity, and could be considered as an independent and cohesive evolutionary lineage. On the contrary, the former recognized species C. dorbignyi is a polyphyletic lineage and hence its systematic classification should be reviewed.

  18. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  19. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Fernandez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic. These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  20. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  1. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  2. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1997-01-01

    This article provides information on the energy resources, government, electricity supply, nuclear industry and fuel cycle of Argentina. About 12% of electric power produced is generated from nuclear power plants. The operating capacity, history and partial privatisation of the nuclear industry are covered, and fuel cycle facilities described. These include uranium mining and processing, enrichment, fuel fabrication and heavy water production. (UK)

  3. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Argentina: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, electricity, gas, coal), energy supplies (resources, power production, petroleum, natural gas), prices and tariffs, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (investments, agreements, projects). Energy data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  4. A new species of Physalaemus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Dario E; Pereyra, Martin O

    2018-02-27

    A new species of Physalaemus from Misiones province, Argentina, in the Atlantic forest domain is described. The new species is a member of the P. gracilis group, based on its phylogenetic position and the occurrence of a putative morphological synapomorphy (occurrence of an unpigmented median stripe on throat, chest, and/or abdomen). Physalaemus sp. nov. is characterized by a long advertisement call composed of non-pulsed notes with slightly descendant modulation, large size (mean SVL = 32.0 mm males, 34.0 mm females), slender body aspect, head longer than wide, supratympanic fold developed, an unpigmented median stripe on venter, medium sized inguinal glands, tarsal tubercle present, and supernumerary tubercles on hands and feet, which are character states that combined distinguish the new species from all the members of the genus. In this study, we provide its formal description based on external morphology, advertisement call, and 16S genetic distance. In addition, the distribution ranges for the new species and P. gracilis are revisited, the advertisement call of P. gracilis is redescribed, and a discussion about the available names which could be applicable to the new species is provided.

  5. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Rivas, P. C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales (Argentina); Desimoni, J., E-mail: desimoni@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    The activity concentrations of both natural ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th chains and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Moessbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contribution is lower, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of {sup 40}K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by {sup 238}U (60-92 Bq/kg) and {sup 232}Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of {sup 235}U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (L{sub D} = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was {sup 137}Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Moessbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the {sup 137}Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or with other iron species.

  6. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J.; Imbellone, P.; Rivas, P. C.; Desimoni, J.

    2011-11-01

    The activity concentrations of both natural (238U and 232Th chains and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Mössbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe3+ paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the α-Fe2O3 contribution is lower, Fe3O4 was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe3+ paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of 40K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by 238U (60-92 Bq/kg) and 232Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of 235U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (LD = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was 137Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Mössbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the 137Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe3O4 or with other iron species.

  7. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This report presents a brief overview of the socio-economic, energy and environmental context in which climate change mitigation actions in Argentina shall be inserted. To that end, the dynamic of the Argentine economic development, its influence on the energy system and environmental impacts is summarised. From the environmental standpoint, emphasis shall only be made on the impact of economic development patterns and energy policies on GHG emission. (au) 73 refs.

  8. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanis, S.; Ramberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    Argentina has embarked on an ambitious domestic nuclear research and energy program. The venture promises to provide the nation with the infrastructure to play an important role in the nuclear export market in the years ahead. Buenos Aires built its program on a foundation of international support and assistance that overlay an emerging sophisticated industrial and scientific establishment. The foreign contribution sensitized Argentina to opportunities in the global market. This paper reports that Argentina operates two heavy-water/natural uranium reactors, Atucha I and Embalse. Producing, respectively, 320 MW(e) and 600 MW(e), they supply roughly 10 percent of the country's electricity. With a capacity factor of 84 percent, Atucha I is among the best operated plants in the world. Plans call for a third, 745 MW(e) power plant, Atucha II, to go on line in the early 1990s. During this period, construction also may begin on three 300 MW(e) plants, although the country's foreign indebtedness plus cost overruns in earlier construction will place a heavy burden on these plans

  9. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that like so many other countries, Argentina is in the throes of privatization and restructuring of its economic programs. This has had a direct effect on the LPG industry. Argentina is a country with many natural resources. However, natural gas and crude, while present, are not in abundance. Imports of these and their associated products are needed to satisfy the growing need of the population from time to time. This is especially true with LPGs. Production of the fuel averages about 1 million tons, not enough to satisfy internal needs in the winter but enough to permit some exports in the summer to nearby Brazil. The Country's Congress approved a plan to sell-off or lease parts of the natural gas distribution network and other businesses of Gas del Estado. Subsequent new legislation has called for ten new natural gas distribution zones. Included in the sell-off is the company's propane distribution division. What is left of Gas del Estado and YPF will become a corporation in the true sense of the word. Stocks in YPF are to be sold to the public

  10. Puumala hantavirus infection in humans and in the reservoir host, Ardennes region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, F; Penalba, C; Vuillaume, P; Boue, F; Coudrier, D; Pontier, D; Artois, M

    2002-12-01

    We compared the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica cases, over a multi-annual population cycle, in northeastern France with the hantavirus serology for bank voles captured in the same area. We discuss hypotheses to explain the pattern of infection in both humans and rodents and their synchrony.

  11. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  12. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benedetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un diagnóstico ambiental de un sector de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina basado en el arbolado urbano de alineación. El arbolado constituye un componente fundamental de los paisajes artifi ciales ya que contribuye al aumento del confort y al mejoramiento de la calidad del medio. En este sentido, actúa como un factor moderador de las condiciones climáticas, la contaminación y la salud de la población. El municipio de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca tiene como proyecto la realización de inventarios del arbolado en los distintos barrios, para lograr optimizar la relación entre la cantidad de ejemplares arbóreos y la densidad poblacional. Es importante considerar la variedad de ejemplares en función del uso del suelo y de las características ambientales de cada sector. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un diseño metodológico para la elaboración del plano verde de la ciudad.

  13. [Nephropathy due to Puumala hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Hantavirus strains in East Africa related to Western African hantaviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2017), s. 278-280 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * East Africa * hantavirus * phylogeny * rodents Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  15. Description of the helminth communities of sympatric rodents (Muroidea: Cricetidae) from the Atlantic Forest in northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisse, Guillermo; Robles, María Del Rosario; Digiani, María Celina; Notarnicola, Juliana; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-10-17

    Taxonomic and ecological aspects of the helminths found in the assemblage of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae-Muroidea) of the Atlantic Forest in Argentina are studied in this paper. The following species Akodon montensis, Brucepattersonius sp. and Thaptomys nigrita (Tribe Akodontini), as well as, Euryoryzomys russatus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Sooretamys angouya (Tribe Oryzomyini) are analyzed. A complete taxonomic list with a total of 25 species of helminths, including Digenea (Dicrocoeliidae), Cestoda (Hymenolepididae) and Nematoda (Trichuridae, Capillariidae, Cooperidae, Helligmonellidae, Oxyuridae, and Onchocercidae) is provided. Twenty new host and locality records for Misiones, Argentina, are reported and the results of the ecological descriptors of component communities are given. The highest value of richness was observed for A. montensis (S=8) and E. russatus (S=7). The diversity index (H´) reached values between 1.03 and 1.39 in all rodents, with the exception of N. squamipes that reached 0.75. The equitability indeces with highest value were observed for T. nigrita and E. russatus. The Berger-Parker index of dominance was similar for all host species. The highest prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity values corresponded to Nippostrongylinae, followed by Syphacinii. This survey constitutes the report with the most diverse parasitic assemblage of rodents described for the Atlantic Forest ecoregion and for Argentina.

  16. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Petri de Odriozola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. OBJECTIVES We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. METHODS Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. RESULTS We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year; this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants. Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13% and 45-64 (38.83% year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB predominated (70.35% and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2 (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337 DG2/MB cases, with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0. The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  17. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola, Elisa Petri de; Quintana, Ana María; González, Victor; Pasetto, Roque Antonio; Utgés, María Eugenia; Bruzzone, Octavio Augusto; Arnaiz, María Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB) predominated (70.35%) and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2) (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337) DG2/MB cases), with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0). The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases). Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  18. A Nonfatal Case of Dobrava Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Combined with Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemsedin Dreshaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hantaviruses (HTNV, 22 are known as pathogenic for humans. HTNV can cause two clinical entities: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. In most countries of Eastern Europe as well as in Kosovo, HTNV infection is presented mainly as HFRS. Here, we report a 20-year-old man with HFRS and HCPS caused by Dobrava hantavirus strain, successfully treated in Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. In HFRS endemic areas, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome need to be evaluated for Dobrava hantavirus strain as a possible causative agent.

  19. Hantavirus Outbreak: The Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86

  20. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eHepojoki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability.

  1. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial ...

  2. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Lederer

    Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.

  3. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Tucumán province associated to an unexpected viral genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ciancaglini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region, reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case

  4. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.

    2001-06-01

    Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.

  5. Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jörg; Canpolat, Alper Tunga; Türk, Ali; Ettinger, Jakob; Atmaca, Deniz; Akyar, Işın; Yücel, Serap; Arıkan, Ender; Uyar, Yavuz; Çağlayık, Dilek Y.; Kocagöz, Ayşe Sesin; Kaya, Ayşin; Kruger, Detlev H.

    2012-01-01

    We identified Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection in Turkey (from a strain related to hantavirus strains from nearby countries) in a patient who had severe symptoms leading to panhypopituitarism, but no known risk for hantavirus. Our findings emphasize the need for increased awareness of hantaviruses in the region and assessment of symptomatic persons without known risk factors for infection. PMID:22709722

  6. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  7. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  8. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  9. Detection of Brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of N gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Lázaro Moreli; Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity) and in all 9 blood samples (100% positi...

  10. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Levis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

  11. Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy infestation of rodents, call a pest control company. They have special cleanup equipment and methods. Alternative ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Assessment of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis and first report of natural infection with Leishmania braziliensis in two sigmodontines in northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María S; Fraschina, Jimena; Acardi, Soraya; Liotta, Domingo J; Lestani, Eduardo; Giuliani, Magalí; Busch, María; Salomón, O Daniel

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to the knowledge of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, we studied the small mammal community and its temporal and spatial association with phlebotominae, as well as small mammal infection by Leishmania spp. by PCR-RFLP analyses in an endemic area of northeastern Argentina. Ten small mammal samplings were conducted (2007-2009, 7506 Sherman trap nights and 422 cage trap nights). In two of these samplings, 16 capture stations each one consisting of a CDC light trap to capture phlebotominae, two to four Sherman traps and two cage traps were placed. We found co-occurrence of phlebotominae and small mammal captures in four stations, which were all the stations with small mammal captures and yielded 97% (2295 specimens, including 21 gravid females) of the total phlebotominae captures, suggesting that small mammals may provide a potential source of blood for phlebotominae females. One Didelphis albiventris and two Rattus rattus were associated with high captures of Nyssomyia whitmani, vector of L. braziliensis in the study area. The PCR-RFLP analyses confirm the presence of L. braziliensis in two sigmodontine small mammals (Akodon sp. and Euryoryzomys russatus) for the first time in Argentina, to our knowledge.

  13. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya of Northeastern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Morales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV, St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV, West Nile (WNV and Yellow Fever (YFV viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV and Ilheus virus (ILHV activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July-August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90 to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3, ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108. Monotypic (13/70, 19% and heterotypic (27/70, 39% patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33% monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health.

  14. Hantaviral proteins: structure, functions and role in hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalwa eMuyangwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS or in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. In the past few years, clinical cases of the hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins is critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins.

  15. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  16. Two Atypical Cases of Hantavirus Infections from Sri Lanka

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    N. D. B. Ehelepola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of hantaviruses resulting in two distinct illnesses. The Old World (Asia and Europe viruses give rise to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, and the New World (Americas viruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantavirus infections have very similar clinical pictures and epidemiology to leptospirosis. Here, we present two cases of hantavirus infections from Sri Lanka (in South Asia initially misdiagnosed as leptospirosis and later further investigated and diagnosed as hantavirus infections with serological confirmation of the diagnosis. They had clinical pictures of a combination of both HFRS and HPS as well as the involvement of the central nervous system. Hantavirus infections are rarely diagnosed in South Asia. Reports on such atypical clinical pictures of hantavirus infections are extremely rare. Having arrived at the correct diagnosis late/retrospectively, both these patients recovered notwithstanding being seriously ill, indicating adequate supportive therapy can save lives in such cases. The emergence of the hantavirus, an infection seriously affecting multiple organ systems with a high case fatality rate that is spread by aerosol and other routes, could become a serious public health issue in Sri Lanka.

  17. Hantavirus Immunology of Rodent Reservoirs: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  18. Detection of Brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of N gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

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    Marcos Lázaro Moreli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity and in all 9 blood samples (100% positivity by nested-PCR. The eight amplicons obtained by RT-PCR (P1, P3-P9, including one obtained by nested-PCR (P-2 and not obtained by RT-PCR, were sequenced and showed high homology (94.8% to 99.1% with the N gene of Araraquara hantavirus. Although the serologic method ELISA is the most appropriate test for HCPS diagnosis, the use of nested RT-PCR for hantavirus in Brazil would contribute to the diagnosis of acute hantavirus disease detecting viral genomes in patient specimens as well as initial genomic characterization of circulating hantaviruses.

  19. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  20. A non-fatal case of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into the UK (ex Panama), July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Barry; Jameson, Lisa J.; Bovill, Bego?a A.; Aarons, Emma J.; Clewlow, Jodie; Lumley, Sarah; Latham, Jennie; Jenkins, Megan H.; MacGowan, Alasdair P.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ahmed, Javeed; Brooks, Timothy J.; Hewson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Highlights ? Detection of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into Europe. ? Additional evidence that Choclo hantavirus is currently circulating and causing human disease in Panama. ? Novel diagnostic and sequencing assays for identifying cases of Choclo hantavirus infection.

  1. A new species of Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parasitizing Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata from northeastern Argentina Una especie nueva de Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parásita de Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata del noreste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae from a Spiny Lava Lizard, Tropidurus spinulosus, collected in Chaco Province, Argentina, is described. This is the second species of Mathevotaenia described from Neotropical reptiles. The new species is mainly characterized by having a relatively small strobila, 24 mm in total length, with about 100 craspedote proglottids, and 19-24 testes per proglottid. Among the South American species of Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis is most similar to the new species by having similar body length and number of testes, but the major differences between both species include the size of suckers, neck, proglottids, testes and egg capsules, and the shape of the genital atrium and ovary (with 10-13 lobules on each side in M. argentinensis,, and 4-7 lobules in M. chaquensis n. sp.. A key to the species of the South American members of the Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946 is presented.Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae es descrita parasitando al lagarto de los quebrachales, Tropidurus spinulosus, procedente de la Provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Esta es la segunda especie de Mathevotaenia descrita parasitando reptiles Neotropicales. La nueva especie está caracterizada principalmente por tener un estróbilo relativamente pequeño, 24 mm de largo, con aproximadamente 100 proglótides craspedotas y 19-24 testículos por proglótide. Entre las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis es la más semejante a la nueva especie por presentar similar longitud del cuerpo y número de testículos, pero difieren en el tamaño de las ventosas, cuello, proglótides, testículos y huevos. Además difieren en la forma del atrio genital y del ovario (10-13 lóbulos a cada lado enM. argentinensis vs. 4-7 lóbulos en M. chaquensis n. sp.. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

  2. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: a report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Lazaro Moreli; Vivaldo Gomes da Costa; Daiane Pereira da Silva Novaes; Enia Cristina Flor; Juliana Freitas Silva; Keila Rejane Guimarães Vilela; Cácia Régia de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.

  3. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lazaro Moreli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.

  4. Estimación del número de reproducibilidad basal para la leishmaniasis tegumentar americana en dos localidades del nordeste de la Provincia de Salta, Argentina Estimation of the basic reproducibility number for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in two sitesin northeastern Salta Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosales

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Un modelo matemático determinístico del tipo SIR para tres hospedadores es aplicado para analizar el proceso de transmisión de la leishmaniasis tegumentar americana, en las localidades Río Blanco y paraje Las Carmelitas, ubicadas en el Nordeste de la Provincia de Salta, Argentina, del mismo se deriva la expresión para el número de reproducibilidad basal Ro. Se implementa el modelo en ambiente MATLAB, en base a datos de las zonas endémicas se realizan simulaciones y se obtienen estimaciones numéricas de Ro. Para el caso de Río Blanco hemos obtenido el valor Ro = 4,689, mientras que para el paraje Las Carmelitas se obtuvo Ro = 1,948. Estudiando numéricamente el modelo también se estima la fuerza de infección, obteniendo para las localidades mencionadas 0,239 y 0,171 (unidad 1/año, respectivamente. Las simulaciones muestran que en la localidad de Río Blanco la fase endémica resulta más sostenida que la fase inter-epidémica presentada en el paraje Las Carmelitas. Las estimaciones obtenidas para estos parámetros epidemiológicos indican donde las instituciones del Ministerio de Salud Pública de la Provincia y de la Nación tendrán más dificultad para el control y la erradicación de la enfermedad.A SIR-type deterministic mathematical model for three hosts is applied to analyze the transmission process for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Río Blanco and Las Carmelitas, located in northeastern Salta Province, Argentina, and to derive the expression for the baseline reproducibility number Ro. The model is implemented in the MATLAB environment, and based on data from endemic areas, simulations are performed and numerical estimations of Ro are obtained. Río Blanco shows Ro = 4.689 and Las Carmelitas Ro = 1.948. By studying the model numerically, we also estimate the force of infection, namely 0.239 and 0.171 (unit 1/year, respectively. The simulations show that in Río Blanco, the endemic phase was more sustained than the inter

  5. Resistencia a antibióticos y epidemiología molecular de Shigella spp. en el nordeste argentino Antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of Shigella spp. in northeastern Argentina

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    Luis A. Merino

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas de muestras de heces en el nordeste argentino y caracterizarlas desde el punto de vista de su epidemiología molecular. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 132 aislamientos de Shigella spp. obtenidos de las heces de igual número de pacientes con diarrea que asistieron a diferentes laboratorios privados y estatales de las provincias del Chaco y Corrientes, Argentina, durante el período de 1998 a 2002. Cada cepa se caracterizó según su serotipo, su resistencia a 13 antibióticos individuales o combinados y su sensibilidad a las piocinas. A 52 cepas seleccionadas en función de sus perfiles de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se les determinaron la dotación plasmídica mediante lisis alcalina y las secuencias repetitivas palindrómicas extragénicas mediante la amplificación de segmentos repetitivos de ADN con la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (REP-RCP. Se aplicó la prueba de ji al cuadrado para comparar proporciones. El nivel de significación estadística fue de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Shigella flexneri fue la especie más frecuente (78%, seguida de S. sonnei (22%. En general, la resistencia de S. flexneri a los antibióticos estudiados fue mayor que la de S. sonnei y esta diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa (P OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antibiotic resistance of strains of Shigella spp. isolated from feces samples from northeastern Argentina and to characterize the strains in terms of their molecular epidemiology. METHODS: We studied 132 isolates of Shigella spp. obtained from feces samples from 132 patients with diarrhea who were seen at various private and public laboratories in the Argentine provinces of Chaco and Corrientes during the period of 1998 to 2002. Each strain was characterized according to its serotype, its resistance to 13 individual or combination antibiotics, and its sensitivity to pyocins. With 52 strains selected in relation to their

  6. Serum Cytokine Profiles Differentiating Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

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    Svetlana F. Khaiboullina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus infection is an acute zoonosis that clinically manifests in two primary forms, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HFRS is endemic in Europe and Russia, where the mild form of the disease is prevalent in the Tatarstan region. HPS is endemic in Argentina, as well as other countries of North and South American. HFRS and HPS are usually acquired via the upper respiratory tract by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol. Although the pathogenesis of HFRS and HPS remains largely unknown, postmortem tissue studies have identified endothelial cells as the primary target of infection. Importantly, cell damage due to virus replication, or subsequent tissue repair, has not been documented. Since no single factor has been identified that explains the complexity of HFRS or HPS pathogenesis, it has been suggested that a cytokine storm may play a crucial role in the manifestation of both diseases. In order to identify potential serological markers that distinguish HFRS and HPS, serum samples collected during early and late phases of the disease were analyzed for 48 analytes using multiplex magnetic bead-based assays. Overall, serum cytokine profiles associated with HPS revealed a more pro-inflammatory milieu as compared to HFRS. Furthermore, HPS was strictly characterized by the upregulation of cytokine levels, in contrast to HFRS where cases were distinguished by a dichotomy in serum cytokine levels. The severe form of hantavirus zoonosis, HPS, was characterized by the upregulation of a higher number of cytokines than HFRS (40 vs 21. In general, our analysis indicates that, although HPS and HFRS share many characteristic features, there are distinct cytokine profiles for these diseases. These profiles suggest a strong activation of an innate immune and inflammatory responses are associated with HPS, relative to HFRS, as well as a robust activation of Th1-type immune responses. Finally, the results

  7. Estimation of main diversification time-points of hantaviruses using phylogenetic analyses of complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2017-04-02

    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

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    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  9. Bessel collocation approach for approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model

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    Suayip Yuzbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collocation method is introduced to find the approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model which is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method is based on the Bessel functions of the first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. This method converts Hantavirus infection model into a matrix equation in terms of the Bessel functions of first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. The matrix equation corresponds to a system of nonlinear equations with the unknown Bessel coefficients. The reliability and efficiency of the suggested scheme are demonstrated by numerical applications and all numerical calculations have been done by using a program written in Maple.

  10. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  11. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of Hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.G. Clement; P. McKenna; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Colson; T. Vervoort; G. van der Groen (Guido); H.W. Lee

    1995-01-01

    textabstractHantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the

  12. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...

  13. Novel hantavirus identified in European bat species Nyctalus noctula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Dufková, L.; Širmarová, J.; Salát, J.; Bartonička, T.; Klempa, B.; Pfaff, F.; Höper, D.; Hoffmann, B.; Ulrich, R. G.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, March (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hantavirus * Bat * Phylogenetic analysis * Emerging virus * Bat-borne virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases; Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  14. Hantaviruses in the Americas and Their Role as Emerging Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres-Pérez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The continued emergence and re-emergence of pathogens represent an ongoing, sometimes major, threat to populations. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae and their associated human diseases were considered to be confined to Eurasia, but the occurrence of an outbreak in 1993–94 in the southwestern United States led to a great increase in their study among virologists worldwide. Well over 40 hantaviral genotypes have been described, the large majority since 1993, and nearly half of them pathogenic for humans. Hantaviruses cause persistent infections in their reservoir hosts, and in the Americas, human disease is manifest as a cardiopulmonary compromise, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, with case-fatality ratios, for the most common viral serotypes, between 30% and 40%. Habitat disturbance and larger-scale ecological disturbances, perhaps including climate change, are among the factors that may have increased the human caseload of HCPS between 1993 and the present. We consider here the features that influence the structure of host population dynamics that may lead to viral outbreaks, as well as the macromolecular determinants of hantaviruses that have been regarded as having potential contribution to pathogenicity.

  15. Structure of the Hantavirus Nucleoprotein Provides Insights into the Mechanism of RNA Encapsidation

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    Daniel Olal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections.

  16. Climatology of hail in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Romina N.; Doyle, Moira; Barros, Vicente

    2012-10-01

    The annual cycle, annual and seasonal frequency and geographical distribution of hail in Argentina during the 1960-2008 period are examined. Eight regions covering the whole territory were defined based on the correlation of the mean annual hail frequency between all weather stations. Regions lying between 30° and 40°S as well as those dominated by mountains present the highest hail frequencies in Argentina. The eastern and coastal areas of the country experience hail events mainly during springtime but they may start in late winter and continue through the beginning of summer. Events in western and central Argentina also predominate in spring but the maximum frequencies are observed during summer months. Trends in the annual number of hail events calculated for each region indicate that events in northwestern and northeastern Argentina have been increasing as well as in southern Patagonia. On the other hand, in central Argentina, southern Buenos Aires-La Pampa, northern Buenos Aires-Litoral and northern Patagonia trends are negative and statistically significant in the first two regions, basically by the decrease of events during spring and summer.

  17. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Francis A. Ennis; Masanori Terajima

    2011-01-01

    We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell ...

  18. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  19. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  20. What Do We Know about How Hantaviruses Interact with Their Different Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ermonval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes.

  1. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

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    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  2. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-08

    Hantaviruses (Family Bunyaviridae) are the etiological agents responsible for a spectrum of illnesses referred to collectively as hemorrhagic fever with...seropositives without chronic disease, one was admitted for severe preeclampsia , one for a psychiatric disorder, and three for complications from their...there was a marked difference between seropositives and seronegatives in the presumed etiology of renal disease (Table 7, Appendix 2). Seropositives had

  3. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  4. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

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    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha. More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  5. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in an urban area in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Mato Grosso (MT has the highest number of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases. Our study aimed to identify anti-hantavirus antibodies in the sera of patients from Sinop, MT, presenting with acute febrile illness. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for 198 sera samples assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was conducted. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins G (IgGs against the hantavirus nucleoprotein were found in 13.6% of the tested sera. No sample had immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to hantavirus. Seropositivity occurred mainly in female residents in urban areas who worked around the household. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest circulation of hantavirus in Sinop.

  6. Seropositivity diagnosis for hantavirus in Jataí, Goiás State, Brazil

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    Marcos Lázaro Moreli

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Emerging diseases are of great interest, especially those associated with high mortality rates such as hantaviruses. We aimed to conduct a seroepidemiological survey to determine the levels of hantavirus infection. METHODS: In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies. RESULTS: Of the 429 samples collected, seropositivity of 3.9% to anti-hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG was observed (CI 95%: 2.3-5.7. Moreover, in three cases, immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected, of which two were diagnosed as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the considerable occurrence of previous hantavirus infections, highlighting occurrences from sub-clinical cases to HCPS.

  7. Detection of Puumala hantavirus antigen in human intestine during acute hantavirus infection.

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    Joerg Latus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Puumala virus (PUUV is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE, caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of

  8. [Increase of Hantavirus infections in France, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H

    2005-02-01

    Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

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    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  10. Argentina; Argentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Argentina: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, electricity, gas, coal), energy supplies (resources, power production, petroleum, natural gas), prices and tariffs, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (investments, agreements, projects). Energy data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  11. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

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    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  12. Tula hantavirus NSs protein accumulates in the perinuclear area in infected and transfected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi Maria; Djupsjöbacka, Janica; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The small RNA segment of some hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) encodes two proteins: the nucleocapsid protein and, in an overlapping reading frame, a non-structural (NSs) protein. The hantavirus NSs protein, like those of orthobunya- and phleboviruses, counteracts host innate immunity. Here, for the first time, the NSs protein of a hantavirus (Tula virus) has been observed in infected cells and shown to localize in the perinuclear area. Transiently expressed NSs protein showed similar localization, although the kinetics was slightly different, suggesting that to reach its proper location in the infected cell, the NSs protein does not have to cooperate with other viral proteins.

  13. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  14. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  15. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  16. Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.

  17. Hantavirus-induced disruption of the endothelial barrier: Neutrophils are on the payroll

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    Günther eSchönrich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suita-ble treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of han-taviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro with-out causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the lat-est developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutro-phils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.

  18. Hantavirus-induced disruption of the endothelial barrier: neutrophils are on the payroll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Günther; Krüger, Detlev H; Raftery, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suitable treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of hantaviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro without causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the latest developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutrophils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.

  19. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

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    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  20. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D’Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging v...

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (rio Mamore virus) in the peruvian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani, Enrique; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. biólogo.; García, María P.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. tecnólogo médico.; Miraval, María L.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Valencia, Pedro; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Quino, Alberto H.; Hospital Regional de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico intensivista.; Álvarez, Carlos; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Donaires, Luis F.; Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analy...

  2. Hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins self-assemble into virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera.

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  4. Multiple Co-infections of Rodents with Hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170

  5. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  6. Study of hantavirus infection in captive breed colonies of wild rodents

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    RC Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of New World hantaviruses. The mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. Considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potencial risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 speciemens of Thrichomys spp. (Echimyidae and 17 speciemens of Nectomys squamipes (Sigmodontinae from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections. Blood samples were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Andes nucleocapsid antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Additionally, serum samples from workers previously exposed to wild rodents, in the laboratories where the study was conducted, were also tested by ELISA to investigate prevalence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. All blood samples were negative for hantavirus antibodies. Although these results suggest that those rodent's colonies are hantavirus free, the work emphasizes the need for hantavirus serological monitoring in wild colonized rodents and secure handling potentially infected rodents as important biosafety measures.

  7. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

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    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.

  8. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil

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    MENDES Wellington S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of the municipality of Anajatuba, state of Maranhão. Two other suspected cases from the same region are also described. The confirmed case involved a previously healthy young woman who died with signs and symptoms of acute respiratory insufficiency 5 days after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. The patient was a student who was helping her parents with work in the fields; it was a habit of the family to store rice inside the house. The suspected cases involved two first-degree relatives working as field hands who died of acute respiratory insufficiency 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. Both stored rice and corn inside their home. People living in the region reported massive infestations with rats in the woods and fields.

  10. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

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    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.

  11. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

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    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  12. Highly differentiated, resting gn-specific memory CD8+ T cells persist years after infection by andes hantavirus.

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    Tobias Manigold

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In man, infection with South American Andes virus (ANDV causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. HCPS due to ANDV is endemic in Southern Chile and much of Argentina and increasing numbers of cases are reported all over South America. A case-fatality rate of about 36% together with the absence of successful antiviral therapies urge the development of a vaccine. Although T-cell responses were shown to be critically involved in immunity to hantaviruses in mouse models, no data are available on the magnitude, specificity and longevity of ANDV-specific memory T-cell responses in patients. Using sets of overlapping peptides in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays, we herein show in 78 Chilean convalescent patients that Gn-derived epitopes were immunodominant as compared to those from the N- and Gc-proteins. Furthermore, while the relative contribution of the N-specific response significantly declined over time, Gn-specific responses remained readily detectable ex vivo up to 13 years after the acute infection. Tetramer analysis further showed that up to 16.8% of all circulating CD3(+CD8(+ T cells were specific for the single HLA-B*3501-restricted epitope Gn(465-473 years after the acute infection. Remarkably, Gn(465-473-specific cells readily secreted IFN-gamma, granzyme B and TNF-alpha but not IL-2 upon stimulation and showed a 'revertant' CD45RA(+CD27(-CD28(-CCR7(-CD127(- effector memory phenotype, thereby resembling a phenotype seen in other latent virus infections. Most intriguingly, titers of neutralizing antibodies increased over time in 10/17 individuals months to years after the acute infection and independently of whether they were residents of endemic areas or not. Thus, our data suggest intrinsic, latent antigenic stimulation of Gn-specific T-cells. However, it remains a major task for future studies to proof this hypothesis by determination of viral antigen in convalescent patients. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether Gn-specific T

  13. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778

  14. Equilibrium and kinetics of Sin Nombre hantavirus binding at DAF/CD55 functionalized bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian

    2014-03-10

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)₂-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24-30 nM; k(on) ~ 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, k(off) ~ 0.0045 s⁻¹). The bivalent (DAF)₂-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (K(d) = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors.

  15. Expression of a hantavirus N protein and its efficacy as antigen in immune assays

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    L.T.M. Figueiredo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has been recognized as an important public heath problem. Five hantaviruses associated with HCPS are currently known in Brazil: Juquitiba, Araraquara, Laguna Negra-like, Castelo dos Sonhos, and Anajatuba viruses. The laboratory diagnosis of HCPS is routinely carried out by the detection of anti-hantavirus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. The present study describes the expression of the N protein of a hantavirus detected in the blood sample of an HCPS patient. The entire S segment of the virus was amplified and found to be 1858 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1287 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 429 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence described here showed a high identity with the N protein gene of Araraquara virus. The entire N protein was expressed using the vector pET200D and the Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The expression of the recombinant protein was confirmed by the detection of a 52-kDa protein by Western blot using a pool of human sera obtained from HCPS patients, and by specific IgG detection in five serum samples of HCPS patients tested by ELISA. These results suggest that the recombinant N protein could be used as an antigen for the serological screening of hantavirus infection.

  16. Two cases of Hantavirus infection in Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever endemic region

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    Mustafa Sünbül

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome

  17. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL ESTUDIO DE SITIOS DEL PERIODO COLONIAL EN EL NORDESTE ARGENTINO: FUERTE SANCTI SPIRITUS (1527-1529 Y SANTA FE LA VIEJA (1573-1660 / Strategies for the study of the colonial period sites in northeastern Argentina: Sancti Spiritus Fort

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    Gabriel Cocco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-AR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 coloniales de la región del Nordeste Argentino. Se toman dos casos de estudio, el fuerte Sancti Spiritus (1527-1529 y Santa Fe la Vieja (1573-1660; ubicados temporalmente en el inicio de la colonización española en Sudamérica y espacialmente sobre la llanura aluvial del Paraná. Los sitios representan dos etapas del colonialismo español y se vinculan a través de su historia, de la materialidad de sus construcciones y de los artefactos, de la[1] procedencia de quienes los ocuparon, del contexto cultural y natural donde fueron emplazados. Se hace una síntesis de la trayectoria seguida en la investigación de ambos asentamientos y se las compara con el fin de realizar algunas consideraciones acerca de las estrategias para el estudio de sitios históricos en esta región.   Palabras clave: asentamientos españoles del siglo XVI; cuenca del Paraná; trayectorias de investigación; métodos de excavación.   Abstract This paper deals with the strategies of archaeological research carried out in colonial sites in the region of the Northeastern Argentina. We considered two cases of study, the Sancti Spiritus Fort (1527-1529 and Santa Fe La Vieja (1573-1660; both enclaves are located temporarily in the beginning of the Spanish colonization in South America and spatially on the alluvial plain of the Paraná River. These sites represent two stages of Spanish colonialism and they are linked through its history, the materiality of their constructions, archaeological artifacts, and the origin of those who occupied these settlements; even we consider their cultural and natural contexts. This work is an overview of the trajectory followed in the study of both settlements and we compare them in order to take into account some considerations about the analytical and methodological strategies for the study of historical sites in this region.   Keywords: Spanish settlement of 16

  18. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

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    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  19. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.

  20. [The role of natural environment in spreading of hantavirus--model of the correlation between host, pathogen and human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.

  1. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypophysitis after Puumala hantavirus infection

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    Marlene Tarvainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infection causes nephropathia epidemica (NE, a relatively mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Hypophyseal haemorrhage and hypopituitarism have been described in case reports on patients with acute NE. Chronic hypopituitarism diagnosed months or years after the acute illness has also been reported, without any signs of a haemorrhagic aetiology. The mechanisms leading to the late-onset hormonal defects remain unknown. Here, we present a case of NE-associated autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypopituitarism presumably due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Thyroid peroxidase antibody seroconversion occurred between 6 and 12 months, and ovarian as well as glutamate decarboxylase antibodies were found 18 months after acute NE. Brain MRI revealed an atrophic adenohypophysis with a heterogeneous, low signal intensity compatible with a sequela of hypophysitis. The patient developed central (or mixed central and peripheral hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, all requiring hormonal replacement therapy. This case report suggests that late-onset hormonal defects after PUUV infection may develop by an autoimmune mechanism. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by prospective studies with sufficient numbers of patients.

  2. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome clinical findings: evaluating a surveillance case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Macneil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E

    2012-05-01

    Clinical cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be challenging to differentiate from other acute respiratory diseases, which can lead to delays in diagnosis, treatment, and disease reporting. Rapid onset of severe disease occurs, at times before diagnostic test results are available. This study's objective was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients that would indicate HPS to aid in detection and reporting. Test results of blood samples from U.S. patients suspected of having HPS submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1998-2010 were reviewed. Patient information collected by case report forms was compared between HPS-confirmed and test-negative patients. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for individual clinical findings and combinations of variables. Of 567 patients included, 36% were HPS-confirmed. Thrombocytopenia, chest x-rays with suggestive signs, and receiving supplemental oxygenation were highly sensitive (>95%), while elevated hematocrit was highly specific (83%) in detecting HPS. Combinations that maximized sensitivity required the presence of thrombocytopenia. Using a national sample of suspect patients, we found that thrombocytopenia was a highly sensitive indicator of HPS and should be included in surveillance definitions for suspected HPS. Using a sensitive suspect case definition to identify potential HPS patients that are confirmed by highly specific diagnostic testing will ensure accurate reporting of this disease.

  3. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J; McKenna, P; Groen, J; Osterhaus, A; Colson, P; Vervoort, T; van der Groen, G; Lee, H W

    1995-01-01

    Hantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the milder European form of HTV-illness, otherwise known as Nephropathia epidemica (NE). This variant may be recognized by the sudden onset of fever, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and sometimes by ophthalmologic complications. The symptomatology is rather aspecific and diagnosis can only be confirmed by serologic tests, of which the best option nowadays seems to be: screening by IgG EIA, followed by IgM confirmation with a mu-capture EIA test. Some of the tests described allow an evaluation of the causative serotype or even the moment of infection. Next to the "classic" serologic assays for detection of specific viral antibodies, we describe briefly our own experience with newer tests such as "high density particle agglutination" and "line immuno assay". Polymerase chain reaction for viral RNA genome typing and immunohistochemical colouring of the viral antigen in tissues seem to offer promising alternatives for the immediate future.

  4. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

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    Shannon L Taylor

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII, prekallikrein (PK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK. Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation

  5. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radosa, L.; Schlegel, M.; Gebauer, P.; Ansorge, H.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, M.; Mošanský, L.; Fričová, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Groschup, M. H.; Krüger, D. H.; Ulrich, R. G.; Klempa, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2013), s. 403-410 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * shrew Sorex minutus * Asikkala virus * Cental Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  6. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  7. Molecular evolution of Puumala hantavirus in Fennoscandia: phylogenetic analysis of strains from two recolonization routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Kari; Hänninen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Like other members of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, Puumala virus (PUUV) is thought to be co-evolving with its natural host, the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. To gain insight into the evolutionary history of PUUV in northern Europe during the last post-glacial period, we h...

  8. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

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    Francis A. Ennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions and protection (vaccine design which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses.

  9. Drotrecogin alpha (activated) in two patients with the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McDermid, Robert C; Gibney, RT Noel; Brisebois, Ronald J; Skjodt, Neil M

    2006-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive ...

  10. Differential Regulation of PAI-1 in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)–1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.

  11. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba Regina

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations.

  12. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  13. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  14. Formosa: tierra prometida-tierra arrasada. La Argentina de los márgenes (1884-1955)

    OpenAIRE

    Girbal Blacha, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    In times of Modern Argentina (1880 -1930) marginality is part of the agro- export model; structured around Buenos Aires port and the Pampas livestock-cereal, the recipient of massive immigration, growing urbanization and foreign investment concentration. Marginality does not always mean isolation. This is the case of Argentinean Gran Chaco situated in northeastern Argentina, crossed by 3 railways and major waterways, which communicate with the powerful metropolitan littoral. Formosa, borderin...

  15. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  16. Argentina's nuclear red herring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with Argentina's nuclear power programme over the last 30 years, including the country's efforts to be nuclear independent of the United States, as well as its aspirations to be a nuclear supplier to latin America. The latter policy on economic, rather than military grounds for nuclear weapons, has led to Argentina's decision to build a uranian enrichment plant. (U.K.)

  17. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  18. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore Virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Álvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH). La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realiz...

  19. Muleshoe Virus and Other Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine or Sigmodontine Rodents in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N B; Richter, Martin H; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2017-10-01

    The broad objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of Muleshoe virus and other hantaviruses associated with cricetid rodents in Texas. Anti-hantavirus antibody was found in 38 (3.2%) of 1171 neotomine rodents and 6 (1.8%) of 332 sigmodontine rodents from 10 Texas counties; hantaviral RNA was detected in 23 (71.9%) of 32 antibody-positive rodents. Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from northern Texas; Bayou virus, three Texas marsh oryzomys (Oryzomys texensis) from the Gulf Coast; Limestone Canyon virus, five brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) from western Texas; and Sin Nombre virus-five Texas mice (P. attwateri), one Lacey's white-ankled deer mouse (P. laceianus), four white-footed mice (P. leucopus), and one fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens) from northern, central, or southern Texas. The results of this study together with the results of a previous study revealed that Muleshoe virus, perhaps in association with S. hispidus, is distributed across northern Texas. Finally, the results of Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene sequences and pairwise comparisons of complete GPC (amino acid) sequences strengthened support for the notion that Muleshoe virus is distinct from Black Creek Canal virus, Bayou virus, and all other species included in the Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus.

  20. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. LDC nuclear power: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweedale, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Argentina's 31-year-old nuclear research and power program makes it a Third World leader and the preeminent Latin American country. Easily accessible uranium fuels the heavy water reactor, Atucha I, which provides 10% of the country's electric power. Atucha II and III are under construction. Several domestic and international factors combined to make Argentina's program succeed, but achieving fuel-cycle independence and the capacity to divert fissionable material to military uses is a cause for some concern. 60 references

  2. Hantavirus del nuevo mundo: Ecología y epidemiología de un virus emergente en latinoamérica The New-World Hantaviruses: Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Puerta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus son un grupo de patógenos emergentes (familia Bunyaviridae; género Hantavirus identificados como agentes etiológicos de la Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal (FHSR en Europa y Asia y el Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en las Américas. La FHSR está relacionada con roedores de las subfamilias Murinae y Arvicolinae y el SCPH con roedores de las subfamilias Sigmodontinae y Arvicolinae. Desde la identificación del SCPH en los EE.UU. en 1993, muchos casos de SCPH y un número cada vez mayor de hantavirus y sus roedores reservorios han sido identificados en Centro y Sud América. Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado diferencias notables en las seroprevalencias de anticuerpos en humanos y roedores reservorios que oscilan entre el 1% y más del 40%. Hasta ahora han sido notificados en toda América más de 1500 casos de SCPH y aproximadamente más de 15 variantes de hantavirus genética y serológicamente distintos asociados a roedores sigmodontinos. Las formas clínicas leves-autolimitadas, moderadas y graves de la enfermedad, los antecedentes de transmisión persona a persona y una incidencia mayor de manifestaciones clínicas extrapulmonares que se diferencian de la enfermedad clásica descrita por primera vez en EE.UU., son aspectos importantes sobre la epidemiología de los hantavirus y el SCPH en Latinoamérica; sin embargo, la historia completa de los hantavirus está aún por escribirse, debido a la naturaleza dinámica de estos virus y sus patologías, y a la complejidad de los factores que intervienen en su aparición, establecimiento y diseminación en poblaciones humanas y animales. Latinoamérica continúa representando la porción del continente con una oportunidad única y desafiante para el estudio de la relación de los hantavirus con sus huéspedes reservorios naturales y las interacciones virus-roedor-humano. Probablemente más hantavirus podrían ser descritos en el futuro, y ser

  3. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  4. Using Geographic Information System-based Ecologic Niche Models to Forecast the Risk of Hantavirus Infection in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991

  5. A case-control study after a hantavirus infection outbreak in the south of Belgium: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loock, F; Thomas, I; Clement, J; Ghoos, S; Colson, P

    1999-04-01

    Puumala is the most common hantavirus serotype in Europe and is spread mainly by the red bank vole. Between 1 July 1992 and 31 January 1994, an outbreak of Puumala virus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE) occurred in the Belgian Ardennes. Serologically confirmed cases (n = 41) were compared with two groups of asymptomatic seronegative controls. Risks identified included sighting of living rodents, exposure to rodent droppings, and trapping rodents during the 4 weeks preceding onset of symptoms. Activities during this 4-week period that presented the greatest risk were woodcutting, reopening of a nonaerated room, and strenuous physical effort. This is the first case-control study on risk factors for NE in Europe. In comparison with the American form of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which is spread by deer mice, professional activity appears to be a more important risk factor for acquisition of hantavirus in Europe.

  6. Building a Species Conservation Strategy for the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina in the context of yellow fever outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario Santiago; Oklander, Luciana Inés; Kowalewski, Martín M.; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Goenaga, Silvina; Martinez, Mariela; Moreno, Eduardo S.; Lestani, Eduardo; Desbiez, Arnaud L.J.; Miller, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) is endemic to South America’s Atlantic Forest, with a small population extending into the northern portion of Misiones province in northeastern Argentina. In 2012, the species was classified as Critically Endangered in Argentina due to its highly restricted distribution, low population density and dramatic declines from recent Yellow Fever outbreaks. In March 2013, we organized an international workshop in Misiones to evaluate population st...

  7. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guardado-Calvo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single "fusion loop". We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal "tail" that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens.

  8. Helosis (Balanophoraceae en Argentina Helosis (Balanophoraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fontana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Argentina Helosis cayennensis (Swartz Sprengel var. cayennensis en base a colecciones hechas por los autores en la Isla argentina de Apipé Grande, Ituzaingó, provincia de Corrientes. Se describe e ilustra la especie, el desarrollo de la planta y su estado de conservación. Esta cita de Helosis corresponde a un género nuevo para la flora argentina.Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis is reported for the first time for Argentina. The species is described and ilustrated. Developement and ecology are also given. Helosis is also a new generic record for Argentina.

  9. Tula and Puumala hantavirus NSs ORFs are functional and the products inhibit activation of the interferon-beta promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Kirsi M; Kaukinen, Pasi; Minskaya, Ekaterina S; Plyusnina, Angelina; Vapalahti, Olli; Elliott, Richard M; Weber, Friedemann; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2007-10-01

    The S RNA genome segment of hantaviruses carried by Arvicolinae and Sigmodontinae rodents encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein and has an overlapping (+1) open reading frame (ORF) for a putative nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to determine whether the ORF is functional. A protein corresponding to the predicted size of Tula virus (TULV) NSs was detected using coupled in vitro transcription and translation from a cloned S segment cDNA, and a protein corresponding to the predicted size of Puumala virus (PUUV) NSs was detected in infected cells by Western blotting with an anti-peptide serum. The activities of the interferon beta (IFN-beta) promoter, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)- and interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) responsive promoters, were inhibited in COS-7 cells transiently expressing TULV or PUUV NSs. Also IFN-beta mRNA levels in IFN-competent MRC5 cells either infected with TULV or transiently expressing NSs were decreased. These data demonstrate that Tula and Puumala hantaviruses have a functional NSs ORF. The findings may explain why the NSs ORF has been preserved in the genome of most hantaviruses during their long evolution and why hantavirus-infected cells secrete relatively low levels of IFNs. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  11. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  12. Complete genome characterisation and phylogenetic position of Tigray hantavirus from the Ethiopian white-footed mouse, Stenocephalemys albipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Těšíková, Jana; Meheretu, Y.; Čížková, Dagmar; Bryjová, Anna; Leirs, H.; Bryja, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, November (2016), s. 242-245 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * Murinae * Ethiopia * High throughput sequencing * Genomics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  13. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  14. Radiation vulcanization in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenaz, Guillermo W.; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    1999-01-01

    The possibilities of using in Argentina the radiation process to vulcanize natural latex are analyzed. Experimental studies to define the irradiation conditions have been carried out and the preliminary elaboration of an irradiation device that includes the chemical reactor has been started. (author)

  15. El IDRC en Argentina

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    comercio capaces de sostener el crecimiento y reducir la pobreza. ... Rosario, en Argentina, se ha convertido en un ejemplo internacional para la agricultura urbana gracias a la ... para evaluar los riesgos y beneficios de esta tecnología para ...

  16. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  17. A rapid method for infectivity titration of Andes hantavirus using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High Prevalence of Tula Hantavirus in Common Voles in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Miriam; de Vries, Ankje; van Roon, Annika; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke; Rockx, Barry

    2017-03-01

    Tula virus (TULV) is a zoonotic hantavirus. Knowledge about TULV in the Netherlands is very scarce. Therefore in 2014, 49 common voles (Microtus arvalis) from a region in the south of the Netherlands, and in 2015, 241 common voles from regions in the north of the Netherlands were tested with the TULV quantitative RT-PCR. In the southern region, prevalence of TULV was 41% (20/49). In the northern regions, prevalence ranged from 12% (4/34) to 45% (17/38). Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the regions fall within different clusters. Voles from the south were also tested on-site for the presence of hantavirus antibodies, but serology results were poorly associated with qRT-PCR results. These findings suggest that TULV may be more widespread than previously thought. No human TULV cases have been reported thus far in the Netherlands, but differentiation between infection by TULV or the closely related Puumala virus is not made in humans in the Netherlands, thus cases may be misdiagnosed.

  19. Landscape genetics highlights the role of bank vole metapopulation dynamics in the epidemiology of Puumala hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Chaval, Y; Xuéreb, A; Ribas Salvador, A; Poulle, M-L; Voutilainen, L; Henttonen, H; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J F

    2011-09-01

    Rodent host dynamics and dispersal are thought to be critical for hantavirus epidemiology as they determine pathogen persistence and transmission within and between host populations. We used landscape genetics to investigate how the population dynamics of the bank vole Myodes glareolus, the host of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), vary with forest fragmentation and influence PUUV epidemiology. We sampled vole populations within the Ardennes, a French PUUV endemic area. We inferred demographic features such as population size, isolation and migration with regard to landscape configuration. We next analysed the influence of M. glareolus population dynamics on PUUV spatial distribution. Our results revealed that the global metapopulation dynamics of bank voles were strongly shaped by landscape features, including suitable patch size and connectivity. Large effective size in forest might therefore contribute to the higher observed levels of PUUV prevalence. By contrast, populations from hedge networks highly suffered from genetic drift and appeared strongly isolated from all other populations. This might result in high probabilities of local extinction for both M. glareolus and PUUV. Besides, we detected signatures of asymmetric bank vole migration from forests to hedges. These movements were likely to sustain PUUV in fragmented landscapes. In conclusion, our study provided arguments in favour of source-sink dynamics shaping PUUV persistence and spread in heterogeneous, Western European temperate landscapes. It illustrated the potential contribution of landscape genetics to the understanding of the epidemiological processes occurring at this local scale. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.

  1. Argentina set for privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buyers are lining up for Argentina's two big state-controlled petrochemical groups, Buenos Aires-based Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM) and Petroquimica Bahia Blance (PBB). However, feedstock supply contracts with government-owned oil group Yacientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPG) and gas group Gas del Estado hold the key to both sales. Shell Compania Argentina Petroleo SA (CAPSA), Perez Companc, and Global Petroleum have already bought PGM tender documentation. Shell says it will bid for PGM if the feedstock contract with YPF is acceptable. In addition to price and volume, Shell says the length is critical; it wants a 15-year deal, but would settle for 11. YPF initially sought a five-year contract. PGM, which produces 300,000 m.t./year of aromatics, plus oxo alcohols, methanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether, has sales of $150 million/year

  2. Crisis cambiaria en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Féliz, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    El análisis de la articulación entre el proceso de valorización exitosa de capital y la tendencia a la desvalorización de las mercancías se aplica a una de las manifestaciones de la crisis argentina: la devaluación del peso. Se estudia la relación entre la determinación del tipo de cambio y la valorización del capital. Se discuten las tendencias concretas de la economía argentina en la década de 1990 y se muestra cómo la devaluación de 2001-2002 fue producto necesario del propio proceso de va...

  3. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  4. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  5. First record of Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) in Argentina and notes on its natural history in Misiones province

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo; Copperi, Maria Sofia; Schwerdt, Leonela Vanesa; Pompozzi, Gabriel Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    This is the first record for the tarantula Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural history is provided. Fil: Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico la Plata. Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (i); Argentina. Universidad Nacional de ...

  6. Argentina [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, R.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne geophysical surveys developed in Argentina are described. They have got more than 500.000 km 2 acquiring data for U, Th, K and total background activity. Other types of published data are also mentioned (satellite imagery, seismic hazard, climate, soil distributions, etc.). The availability of maps with the abundances of elements analyzed at the country and also at laboratories from Canada is described, as well as data of analysis of several elements at two study areas proposed at the outset of the project. The availability of process rate data and epidemiological data is also explained. Argentina intended fully to participate in the CRP at the outset of the project. Due, however, to external resource constraints imposed on the participating organization (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), the level of participation had to be significantly reduced. Nonetheless, in the first period of the CRP, Argentina undertook to collate existing geological and geochemical information within the country, and began to define potential areas for site specific natural systems safety indicator studies. (author)

  7. de la sociedad argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Galeano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre un período de la historia argentina en el cual la "mirada médica", a través de un grupo de prestigiosos intelectuales, se convirtió en una clave de interpretación de la sociedad argentina. El análisis gira en torno a la obra de uno de los médicos higienistas más influyentes, José María Ramos Mejía, deteniéndose especialmente en su libro más famoso: Las multitudes argentinas (1899. La hipótesis principal que recorre el texto es la siguiente: la medicalización de la sociedad, acentuada luego de las epidemias de cólera y fiebre amarilla de mediados del siglo XIX, ofreció a las elites públicas la posibilidad de construir dominios legítimos de intervención estatal. Intromisiones del Estado en la vida privada que, además de ser algo resistidas por la población, entraban en tensión con los principios teóricos del liberalismo que los propios miembros de la elite defendían.

  8. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  9. Mapas de riesgo para Hantavirus en el Parque Nacional Conguillío, sur de Chile Hantavirus risk maps for Conguillío National Park, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS MUÑOZ-PEDREROS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo de infección con Hantavirus depende de factores, que determinan una probabilidad de contagio con los reservorios, tales como: (a la estructura vegetacional y el uso del suelo como un escenario primario, donde los factores específicos de composición, estructura y densidad de la vegetación detallan elementos relacionados con el habitat de los reservorios. (b La existencia de poblaciones de roedores reservorio. (c Establecimientos humanos, como disponibilidad y densidad de caminos, áreas habitadas o de presencia humana (e.g., casas, bodegas. Estos tres factores, habitat (probabilidad de ocurrencia del reservorio, roedores seropositivos (peligro de contagio y humanos (población expuesta, conjugados, proporcionan los elementos de juicio necesarios para establecer el riesgo. Es importante considerar que estos factores tienen una dinámica de cambio estacional durante el año y modificaciones ambientales naturales y antrópicas. Así, buscamos comprender el riesgo a que está sometido el ser humano en el espacio rural. Los modelos espaciales corresponden a representaciones de la realidad observada en un área determinada y condicionada a diversos factores geográficos, topográficos, biológicos, climáticos, etc. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer sectores potenciales de riesgo al hantavirus en un parque nacional de la IX Región de Chile empleando cartas temáticas de variables ambientales en un Sistema de Información Geográfica para analizar fotografías aéreas mediante fotointerpretación, transferencia, digitalización y manejo de base de datos gráfica y alfanumérica, validada en terreno. La capa vectorial fue "rasterizada" con un tamaño de pixel de 50 m. El mapa de riesgo se construyó utilizando un modelo aditivo de capas mediante el uso del software Model Builder 1.0, extensión de Arc View 3.2. La base del procedimiento fue el proceso de "overlay" aritmético, que sobrepone las capas adicionando los términos de

  10. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2017-05-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)

  11. Drotrecogin Alpha (Activated in Two Patients with the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C McDermid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated (DAA for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive medications were required for a maximum of 52 h, whereas creatinine levels and platelet counts normalized within seven to nine days. Given the similar presentations of HCPS and bacterial septic shock, empirical DAA therapy will likely be initiated before a definitive diagnosis of HCPS is made. Further observations of DAA in HCPS seem warranted.

  12. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson; Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS; Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto; Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP; Universidade Federal do Parana; Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo; Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)

  13. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença de conhecimento relativamente recente e freqüentemente fatal, apresentando-se como síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. No Brasil, desde o primeiro surto, relatado em novembro/dezembro de 1993, em Juquitiba, 226 casos já foram registrados pela Fundação Nacional da Saúde. A doença afeta indivíduos previamente hígidos, apresentando-se com pródromo febril e sintomas semelhantes aos de um resfriado comum, podendo rapidamente evoluir para edema pulmonar, insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque. A hemoconcentração e a plaquetopenia são comuns da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus, e o quadro radiológico típico é de um infiltrado intersticial bilateral difuso, que progride rapidamente para consolidações alveolares, paralelamente à piora do quadro clínico. A mortalidade inicial era em torno de 75% e declinou para aproximadamente 35%, nos últimos anos. Os pacientes que sobrevivem geralmente recuperam-se completamente, cerca de uma semana após o estabelecimento do quadro respiratório. O agente causal, não reconhecido até há pouco, foi identificado como um hantavírus, cujo reservatório natural são animais roedores da família Muridae, subfamília Sigmodontinae. O tratamento específico antiviral ainda não é bem estabelecido, estando em estudo a eficácia de ribavirina. Cuidados de terapia intensiva como ventilação mecânica e monitoramento hemodinâmico invasivo são necessários nas formas mais graves da doença. Essas medidas, se instituídas precocemente, podem melhorar o prognóstico e a sobrevida dos pacientes com síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus.Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by

  14. Argentina: a mature urbanization pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofman, A B

    1985-02-01

    "This article describes the historical development of Argentina's cities, pointing out the traditional dominance of the 'centre-litoral' region and...[of] Buenos Aires. Recent trends such as the population increase in the southern region are described and demographic trends are related to economic developments. The article concludes by examining Argentina's contemporary urban patterns, including the current low rate of urbanization." excerpt

  15. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (Virus Río Mamoré en la Amazonía Peruana Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore Virus in the Peruvian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Casapía

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH. La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realizó análisis filogenético del fragmento de genoma viral y la evaluación histopatológica. Ambos pacientes evolucionaron a síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto y estado de choque refractario. Un paciente falleció y el otro se recuperó a los doce díasHantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation. The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later

  17. RERTR activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Pasqualini, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has been an active participant of the RERTR program since 1978. An important milestone of the Argentinean RERTR program was the development and manufacturing at industrial scale of U 3 O 8 dispersed fuel and its subsequent application to the conversion of the RA-3 reactor core to LEU fuel. More recently, our activities were focused on the development of U 3 Si 2 fuel with a density of 4.8 gU/cm 3 and the improvement of the manufacturing process of this type of fuel. The program to qualify CNEA as a supplier U 3 Si 2 dispersed fuels is scheduled to finalize by mid 2003. To hasten this program the main research reactor of Argentina, the RA3, raised its power from 5 MW to 8 Mw in October this year. This is an intermediate step in the program to increase RA-3 power to 10 MW Currently, one of the main objectives is to develop and qualify the technology for the production of high-density LEU fuel elements using U-Mo alloy. An original way to produce U-Mo powder (the HMD process) was developed and its being upgraded to plant scale production. Another significant progress was the development of LEU targets for the production of 99 Mo, in the form of miniplates prepared with dispersed LEU U-Al x . The shipment to USA of 207 MTR spent fuels containing US origin highly enriched uranium, successfully carried out in the end of 2000, is another remarkable achievement of the Argentinean RERTR program. This activity was carried out in the framework of the United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuels were fabricated in Argentina and used in the RA-3 reactor from 1968 to 1987. The inventory of the shipped HEU spent fuel consisted in 166 standard assemblies and 41 control assemblies. (author)

  18. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  19. Activities with Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) responded to the need to redirect resources from weapons production to environmental restoration and waste management by establishing the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to this office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. Now in its eight year, EM's mission has three central facets: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of waste from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental cleanup. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industries meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas

  20. QUBIC in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, B.; Harari, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Medina, M. C.; Romero, G. E.; Qubic Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    QUBIC (QU Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology) is an experimental cosmology project to measure the modes in the polarization of the cosmic background radiation (CBR), the fossil relic that reveals the properties at the Universe 380,000 years after the Planck Era. Discovery of the CBR in 1964 and measurement of tiny temperature anisotropies in 1992 were major breakthroughs in our understanding of the Universe. The next challenge is to measure the polarization of the CBR accurately enough to detect modes that would reveal the existence of primordial gravitational waves produced in the first stages of the Planck Era and probe inflation theory, that assumes an accelerated expansion during the first seconds. The mode signal is however extremely weak and its measurement requires complex instruments. The QUBIC collaboration has developed the concept of interferometric bolometry, that brings together the sensitivity of bolometric detectors with the control of systematic effects provided by interferometry. QUBIC is an international collaboration involving several universities and laboratories in France, Italy, United Kingdom and USA. Recently, Argentina has suggested Alto Chorrillo (Salta), as candidate site for the installation of the experiment, next to the LLAMA site. Here we describe the scientific objectives and the main features of the experiment and we detail the process through which the international collaboration decided to install in Argentina its first module as well as the challenges for our country in this project.

  1. RERTR activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; De La Fuente, M.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Perez, A.; Piazza, A.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has been involved in the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program since 1978. The most relevant milestones of the program, regarding fuel R and D activities, were the development and manufacturing at industrial scale of U 3 O 8 dispersed fuel assemblies and the conversion of the RA-3 reactor core to LEU fuel. More recently, the activities were focused in the development of high density U 3 Si 2 fuel with a density of 4.8 gU/cm 3 and the improvement of the manufacturing process of U 3 Si 2 powder. Currently one of the main objectives is to develop and qualify the technology for the production of high-density LEU fuel elements using U-Mo alloy. Several alternative ways to obtain U-Mo powder are under development with the aim of evaluating plant scale production and costs. To boost this program the main research reactor of Argentina, the RA-3, will be upgraded to 10 MW early in 2001 and the hot cells at the Ezeiza Atomic Center are fully operational after important investments. Significant progresses were also carried out in the development of LEU targets for the production of Mo 99 . Experimental work has demonstrated the feasibility of the manufacturing and radiochemical processing of miniplate targets prepared with dispersed UAl x , maintaining the geometry and the alkaline processing of the HEU targets used so far. (author)

  2. Population structure in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Muzzio

    Full Text Available We analyzed 391 samples from 12 Argentinian populations from the Center-West, East and North-West regions with the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip v1.0 (HumanExome-12v1-A. We did Principal Components analysis to infer patterns of populational divergence and migrations. We identified proportions and patterns of European, African and Native American ancestry and found a correlation between distance to Buenos Aires and proportion of Native American ancestry, where the highest proportion corresponds to the Northernmost populations, which is also the furthest from the Argentinian capital. Most of the European sources are from a South European origin, matching historical records, and we see two different Native American components, one that spreads all over Argentina and another specifically Andean. The highest percentages of African ancestry were in the Center West of Argentina, where the old trade routes took the slaves from Buenos Aires to Chile and Peru. Subcontinentaly, sources of this African component are represented by both West Africa and groups influenced by the Bantu expansion, the second slightly higher than the first, unlike North America and the Caribbean, where the main source is West Africa. This is reasonable, considering that a large proportion of the ships arriving at the Southern Hemisphere came from Mozambique, Loango and Angola.

  3. KARAKTERISTIK LINGKUNGAN DAN ASPEK SOSIAL DEMOGRAFI DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI HANTAVIRUS DI WILAYAH PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK DAN SUNDA KELAPA, JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study on hantavirus infection diseases in the area of Tanjung Priok and Sunda Kelapa Harbours has been conducted in the year of 1997; Considering a harbour may become a very potential port d'antre of diseases between islands, regions and countries. Hantavirus infection is well known as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, cause by some species of genus Hantavirus and transmitted to human by air droplet contaminated by urine, saliva or faeces of infected rodents. This is toreport a part of the study which is stress on sociocultural aspects, especially character of demography and community perceptions to hantavirus infection diseases. The data were collected by interviewing using questionaires and field observations. Sample population were household (HH while family members above 13 year of age including head of HH (Kepala Rumah Tangga were chosen as individual respondents and become analitical units. In total the number of samples were 113 HH, consisting 58 HH in Kelurahan Koja and 55 HH in Kelurahan Ancol. The number of individual respondents were 410 people. The results showed that most of respondents work as a labor in the harbours. In general they have low level formal education, mostly only elementary school graduated. The relatively low of their formal education they have might influence their wrong perceptions to any disease. The wrong community perceptions in the two areas mistaken hantavirus infection diseases with typhoid diseases.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Puumala virus strains from Central Europe highlights the need for a full-genome perspective on hantavirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Róbert; Radosa, Lukáš; Ličková, Martina; Sláviková, Monika; Heroldová, Marta; Stanko, Michal; Pejčoch, Milan; Osterberg, Anja; Laenen, Lies; Schex, Susanne; Ulrich, Rainer G; Essbauer, Sandra; Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is the medically most important hantavirus in Central and Western Europe. In this study, a total of 523 bank voles (408 from Germany, 72 from Slovakia, and 43 from Czech Republic) collected between the years 2007-2012 were analyzed for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Partial PUUV genome segment sequences were obtained from 51 voles. Phylogenetic analyses of all three genome segments showed that the newfound strains cluster with other Central and Western European PUUV strains. The new sequences from Šumava (Bohemian Forest), Czech Republic, are most closely related to the strains from the neighboring Bavarian Forest, a known hantavirus disease outbreak region. Interestingly, the Slovak strains clustered with the sequences from Bohemian and Bavarian Forests only in the M but not S segment analyses. This well-supported topological incongruence suggests a segment reassortment event or, as we analyzed only partial sequences, homologous recombination. Our data highlight the necessity of sequencing all three hantavirus genome segments and of a broader bank vole screening not only in recognized endemic foci but also in regions with no reported human hantavirus disease cases.

  5. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Ruben Calabrese

    1999-01-01

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  6. History of radiobiology in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Radiobiology is a multidisciplinary science dealing with ionising radiation effects on biological material. The history of Radiobiology begins in Germany and France around 1886. Radiobiology was introduced in Argentina in 1926 at the Institute of Oncology Angel H. Roffo as a biomedical research branch. Later on in 1957 was incorporated at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina as a result of the newly started nuclear activities in Argentina. Prior that time no Radiobiology research existed in Argentina. To fill this need a Project to create new laboratories was elaborated by the CNEA. New laboratories in Radiobiodosimetry, Cellular Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Radiomicrobiology, Genetics and Somatic Effects were created. Human resources on different areas of Radiobiology were formed with the assistance of IAEA. With professional and technical personnel specialized in Radiobiology at the beginning of the 1970 decade, the transference of fundamental and applied research to others laboratories started. (author)

  7. The health crisis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The health crisis in Argentina is part of the larger crisis that has resulted from a collapse in the country's economic and political systems. After a brief review of the country's history over the last century, from international success story to economic failure, the author explains the health crisis in particular and the social crisis in general in terms of failed neoliberal policies imposed on Argentina by the United States and International Monetary Fund through the mediation of the country's political class.

  8. Operating practical experience at Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quihillalt, Oscar

    1997-01-01

    Operating experiences of Atucha-1 and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants were discussed in this work. The technical and economic aspects, such as reliability, availability, personnel training, operating costs, prices and market, which exercise influence upon Argentina nuclear energy policy, mainly on the power electric generation by nuclear power plants were considered. Finally the current status of the nucleoelectric sector in Argentina and forecasting were analysed

  9. Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be

  10. Clinical characterization of two severe cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS caused by hantaviruses Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade genotype Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Krautkrämer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hantavirus disease belongs to the emerging infections. The clinical picture and severity of infections differ between hantavirus species and may even vary between hantavirus genotypes. The mechanisms that lead to the broad variance of severity in infected patients are not completely understood. Host- and virus-specific factors are considered. Case presentation We analyzed severe cases of hantavirus disease in two young women. The first case was caused by Puumala virus (PUUV infection in Germany; the second case describes the infection with Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV in Russia. Symptoms, laboratory parameters and cytokine levels were analyzed and compared between the two patients. Serological and sequence analysis revealed that PUUV was the infecting agent for the German patient and the infection of the Russian patient was caused by Dobrava-Belgrade virus genotype Sochi (DOBV-Sochi. The symptoms in the initial phase of the diseases did not differ noticeably between both patients. However, deterioration of laboratory parameter values was prolonged and stronger in DOBV-Sochi than in PUUV infection. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs, known to be responsible for endothelial repair, were mobilized in both infections. Striking differences were observed in the temporal course and level of cytokine upregulation. Levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1α were increased in both infections; but, sustained and more pronounced elevation was observed in DOBV-Sochi infection. Conclusions Severe hantavirus disease caused by different hantavirus species did not differ in the general symptoms and clinical characteristics. However, we observed a prolonged clinical course and a late and enhanced mobilization of cytokines in DOBV-Sochi infection. The differences in cytokine deregulation may contribute to the observed variation in the clinical course.

  11. Root proliferation in native perennial grasses of arid Patagonia, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanina A. TORRES; Mara M. MUJICA; Sandra S. BAIONI; Jos ENTO; Mara N. FIORETTI; Guillermo TUCAT; Carlos A. BUSSO; Oscar A. MONTENEGRO; Leticia ITHURRART; Hugo D. GIORGETTI; Gustavo RODRGUEZ; Diego BENTIVEGNA; Roberto E. BREVEDAN; Osvaldo A. FERNNDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Pappophorum vaginatum is the most abundant C4 perennial grass desirable to livestock in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. We hypothesized that (1) defoliation reduce net primary productivity, and root length density and weight in the native species, and (2) root net primary productivity, and root length density and weight, are greater in P. vaginatum than in the other, less desirable, native species (i.e., Aristida spegazzinii, A. subulata and Sporobolus cryptandrus). Plants of all species were either exposed or not to a severe defoliation twice a year during two growing seasons. Root proliferation was measured using the cylinder method. Cylindrical, iron structures, wrapped up using nylon mesh, were buried diagonally from the periphery to the center on individual plants. These structures, initially filled with soil without any organic residue, were dug up from the soil on 25 April 2008, after two successive defoliations in mid-spring 2007. During the second growing season (2008-2009), cylinders were destructively harvested on 4 April 2009, after one or two defoliations in mid-and/or late-spring, respectively. Roots grown into the cylinders were obtained after washing the soil manually. Defoliation during two successive years did reduce the study variables only after plants of all species were defoliated twice, which supported the first hypothesis. The greater root net primary productivity, root length den-sity and weight in P. vaginatum than in the other native species, in support of the second hypothesis, could help to explain its greater abundance in rangelands of Argentina.

  12. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  13. Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea Carus, 1863: Distribution extension in Argentina and new Anura and Ophidia hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunaschi, L. I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites in ophidians andanurans from northeastern Argentina. Specimens of the snakes Eunectes notaeus, Hydrodynastes gigas, Micrurus corallinus,Philodryas sp. and Sibynomorphus sp., and the anurans Rhinella schneideri, Phyllomedusa azurea and Leptodactylus latranswere examined. Twelve digenean species were identified: Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958, Catadiscus dolichocotyle(Cohn, 1903, Catadiscus uruguayensis Freitas & Lent, 1939, Choledocystus elegans (Travassos, 1926, Gorgoderina parvicavaTravassos, 1922, Haplometroides buccicola Odhner, 1911, Heterodiplostomum lanceolatum Dubois, 1936, Infidum similisTravassos, 1916, Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819, Plagiorchis luehei (Travassos, 1927, Telorchis clava (Diesing, 1850and Travtrema stenocotyle (Cohn, 1902. New host species and/or new locality records from Argentina are presented.

  14. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Northeastern states sharpen biomass focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Wood energy use in the northeastern region of the USA currently replaces an estimated annual equivalent of 45--50 million barrels of oil. Including municipal wastes and recovered methane emissions for regional landfills, total biomass contribution to the energy economy is over 70 million barrels of oil equivalent annually. A reasonable consensus suggests wood alone could replace the equivalent of over 300 million barrels of oil each year on a sustainable basis over the next two decades. Beyond energy security, over 60,000 total jobs are now provided in the region by the wood energy industry. Over 375,000 total jobs could be generated by the wood energy industry, about 65,000 in the harvesting, transportation, and end-use operations of the wood energy industry. Biomass producers must be committed to sustainable development by necessity. Sound forest management practices that keep residual stand damage from wood harvesting to a minimum can create positive impacts on the region's forest. When combined with a balanced energy policy, the conditional use of wood energy can play a modest, but significant, role in reducing air emissions. Depletion of traditional energy resources creates open-quotes bubbleclose quotes benefits which will be exhausted after a generation. Sustainable development of biomass can create inexhaustible wealth for generations, and does not pose the risk of sudden ecological disruption. While the choice between policy options is not mutually exclusive, the interrelationship between energy security, economic growth and environmental quality clearly favors biomass. The environmental benefits and the economic growth impacts of biobased products produced by the northeastern states are considerable. The 11 states located in the northeastern USA should intensify their efforts to work with industry and investors to expand markets for industrial biobased products, either produced from local feedstocks or manufactured by companies operating in the region

  16. Cases of Clinically Proven Hantavirus Infection with a Pulmonary Syndrome among Pregnant Women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. An

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: For nearly a decade, a disease likely to have been misdiagnosed was observed in pregnant women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It caused the rapid decline and death of patients, with about 45% mortality rate. The disease was suspected to be caused by a virus of the HVP (Hantavirus family, and clinical studies were conducted to ascertain. Methods: As no system for registration of such cases had been maintained, researchers developed a questionnaire with indicators chiefly based on relevant literature. All the women admitted exhibiting the symptoms listed were covered by the study. Results: Among the 16 cases identified from September to December 2008, ten survived; 80% belonged to the indigenous ethnic group; 80% were housewives. Most (90% were between 16 and 34 weeks’ pregnancy, 24.5 weeks on average. Almost all of them experienced labored breathing and abnormally high body temperature. About 75% of the women lived in the vicinity of rodents’ habitats, and about half of them could have been in direct contact with the aerosolized rodent excreta. Conclusions: Researchers believe that those women exposed to the excreta were cases of HPS. In practice, the surgical removal of the fetus proved to be the most efficient treatment. However, the medical community has a growing concern about patients with HPV being misdiagnosed and the related difficulties in diagnosing and treating them.

  17. Puumala hantavirus infections in bank vole populations: host and virus dynamics in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Daniela; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Imholt, Christian; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Eccard, Jana A; Jacob, Jens

    2017-02-28

    In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies. We demonstrated that fluctuation of PUUV seroprevalence is dependent not only on multi-annual but also on seasonal dynamics of rodent host abundance. Moreover, PUUV infection might affect host fitness, because seropositive individuals survived better from spring to summer than uninfected bank voles. Individual space use was independent of PUUV infections. Our study provides robust estimations of relevant patterns and processes of the dynamics of PUUV and its rodent host in Central Europe, which are highly important for the future development of predictive models for human hantavirus infection risk.

  18. Norm survey in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, Analia Cecilia; Gnoni, Gabriela Alejandra; Truppa, W.

    2008-01-01

    The oil and gas industry, which is especially significant in Argentina, is one industry that concentrates natural radionuclides during its processes. In addition, there are a few underground mines under development, where radon levels may be high. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) carried out a project with the objective of evaluating NORM, mainly in these types of industries. Eight facilities were characterized, three related to the gas industry, four related to the oil industry and a survey of radon gas in a gold underground mine. First, background measurements were made and then a screening survey was carried out to detect values above background. Of the values obtained, 57% were in the background range, 19% were below 2 μSv/h, 15% were in the range 2-10 μSv/h and 9% were above 10 μSv/h. Some values were as high as 400 μSv/h. The annual effective doses were estimated to be in the range 0.02-1.6 mSv/a. Samples were taken and later analysed by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation and fluorimetry. It was confirmed that the main radionuclides involved in the oil and gas extraction process are 226 Ra and 228 Ra. The radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were above the exemption values established by the International Basic Safety Standards. Elevated radon levels were detected in gas facilities and in the gold mine under development. The values obtained in gas facilities showed that radon concentrates in the ethane and propane flows. As the flows in the gas industry are confined, it does not mean an exposure during normal operation. In the case of the gold mine, the values detected were informed to the pertinent authorities as well as the facility in order to take actions to reduce concentrations below the action levels. Finally, protective measures to reduce occupational doses in the cleaning and maintenance processes were suggested, as well as for storage of NORM-contaminated items. (author)

  19. Coleópteros acuáticos de lagunas situadas en el noroeste de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera from ponds in the northwest of Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Gomez Lutz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad de coleópteros acuáticos del NE argentino. Los sitios de muestreo corresponden a dos lagunas permanentes ubicadas en el departamento Capital de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Los muestreos fueron realizados desde octubre de 2010 a marzo de 2011. En total, 107 especies de coleópteros, incluidas en 40 géneros y ocho familias fueron registradas: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Noteridae, Dryopidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Limnichidae y Scirtidae. La especie Berosus hamatus Knisch es un nuevo registro para la Argentina. Dos familias (Haliplidae y Dryopidae, cuatro géneros (Haliplus Latreille; Pelonomus Erichson, Onopelmus Spangler, Phaenonotum Sharp y 14 especies son citados por primera vez para la provincia de Corrientes.This study aims to improve the knowledge of aquatic Coleoptera biodiversity in northeastern Argentina. The sampling sites correspond to two permanent ponds located in the department Capital of Corrientes Province, Argentina. The samples were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. A total of 107 species of beetles, including 40 genera and 8 families were recorded: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Noteridae, Dryopidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Limnichidae and Scirtidae. Berosus hamatus Knisch is a new record for Argentina. Two families (Haliplidae and Dryopidae, four genera (Haliplus Latreille; Pelonomus Erichson, Onopelmus Spangler, Phaenonotum Sharp and 14 species are cited for the first time for Corrientes Province.

  20. Coccocypselum pulchellum (Rubiaceae, nuevo registro para Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L. Cabral

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita Coccocypselum pulchellum por primera vez para Argentina, en Predio Guaraní, Misiones. Esta es la tercera especie de Coccocypselum registrada para la flora de Argentina junto con C. hasslerianum y C. lanceolatum. Se incluyen descripciones, ilustraciones y una clave para reconocer las tres especies argentinas de Coccocypselum.

  1. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-05

    Comercio Internacional, Y Culto, Comunicado de la Cancillería Argentina, September 11, 2008. 43 A. Rebossio, "Fernández Acusa al FBI de Desestablizar...Argentina," El País (Madrid), September 13, 2008. 44 “Argentina Slams Witness in Cash Suitcase Scandal,” Associated Press Newswires, November 4, 2008

  2. Nuclear Activities in Argentina, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, J.C.; Ferreri, J.C.; Clausse, A.; Clausse, A.; Clausse, A.; Ordonez, J.P.; Mazzantini, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Argentina are restarted. After almost two decades of near stagnation, the governments political decision of August 2006 regarding electrical energy production, considered the nuclear option as a valid one to solve the problems of the growing demand of electrical energy. This decision triggered again the activities related to the finalization of the third nuclear power reactor (Atucha-II), now actively progressing, the construction of a prototype of the CAREM integral advanced reactor, the life extension of the Embalse CANDU nuclear power plant (NPP) and the studies for the emplacement of a fourth NPP in an appropriate site. In all those years of near stagnation, there were notable exceptions related to the design and construction of experimental and radioisotope production reactors, led by INVAP, a state-owned industry, which exported its production. The accompanying industries of nuclear fuel elements production also remained active, given the demand of the two active NPPs. Meanwhile, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina continued the efforts on research and development that were at the base of the technological achievements of the nuclear activities in Argentina. Nuclear safety studies associated with Atucha II and Embalse NPPs and radiological safety were also a substantive part of the continued efforts by Nucleo-Electrica de Argentina SA and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina

  3. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  4. The Andes hantavirus NSs protein is expressed from the viral small mRNA by a leaky scanning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism.

  5. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en población infantil. Chile: Regiones IX y X. 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    SOZA C., GUILLERMO; LORCA O., PEDRO; PUEBLA M., SERGIO; WENZEL M., MARISOL; NAVARRETE C., MARITZA; VILLAGRA C., ELIECER; MORA R., JUDITH; LEVIS C., SILVANA; AVILES A., GABRIELA

    2000-01-01

    El síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH) ha estado presente en Chile desde 1993 y ha sido detectado desde 1997 en la IX Región. Es una grave zoonosis con alta mortalidad, que afecta a gente joven incluyendo niños. Se ha estimado oportuno dar a conocer nuestra experiencia en la atención de 6 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos en las unidades de Cuidados Intensivos y Aislamiento en el Hospital Regional de Temuco, entre enero de 1998 y enero de 2000 mediante un estudio descriptivo de la experienc...

  6. Zunehmend mehr Hantavirus-Infektionen: Hinweise zu Vorsichtsmaßnahmen für Ornithologen und Feldbiologen

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are transmitted to humans by infected rodents via faeces, urine or bites and cause severe illness. In Europe the most common disease is the nephropathia epidemica. Man can be infected by inhaling viruses in contaminated aerosols or soil particles. There has been a obvious increase of case numbers in Germany in 2007: more than 1660 cases where recorded by the Robert-Koch-Institut (vs. 72 in 2006 and 448 in 2005). Mostly working men where concerned. 60 % of all patients had to be t...

  7. Country watch. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, P

    1994-01-01

    The Argentine Network of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ANW) provides general information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), assistance in assessing medications through state and private services, and information concerning and referrals to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and governmental social services to low income women who have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Workshops allow the women to become more active on their own behalf and contribute to the reorientation of health and social services to better meet their needs. Due to the stigma attached to AIDS in Argentina, ANW works to ensure the human rights of these women through participation in the Ministry of Interior Programme against Discrimination and in public events that inform the community about the concerns of HIV positive women with regard to discrimination. A bulletin provides scientific and medical information, news on activities, model advocacy and policy statements, and addresses of support agencies. Contributions are accepted from all HIV positive women. In order to reach isolated cases outside of the capital, links are maintained with other AIDS organizations in the nation.

  8. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba-Stonehouse, V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  9. Pampa Húmeda, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor C. Di Leo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR es importante como variable de entrada de energía en diversos procesos biológicos y su evaluación temporal tiene particular interés en el monitoreo de cultivos. Los datos de reflectancia espectral, obtenidos mediante sensores remotos, son adecuados para proporcionar observaciones de fenómenos que se relacionan con aspectos ecofisiológicos de las cubiertas vegetales, incluyendo a la productividad primaria neta (NPP. Ésta constituye una de las pocas fuentes de información acerca de los procesos del ciclo del carbono en escalas regionales o globales. La NPP se relaciona con la eficiencia del uso de la luz a través de la radiación fotosintéticamente activa absorbida (APAR y representa un indicador agroecológico de utilidad para valorar la utilización productiva del territorio. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un aporte metodológico a la agroecología, mediante las caracterizaciones de la NPP y la APAR, en tres situaciones geográficas y productivas de la Pampa Húmeda, Argentina.

  10. Crisis de la prensa Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rey Lennon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La magnitud de la crisis económica Argentina es enorme y difícil saber hasta cuando se extenderá, agravada por una situación política frágil. La actual recesión ha hecho caer la inversión publicitaria a los niveles más bajos de los últimos años. De 1997 al 2001 la circulación de la prensa Argentina cayó en el 36 por ciento. El riesgo en Argentina es la eventual extranjerización de casi todos los medios de comunicación.

  11. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil Inquérito sorológico retrospectivo das infecções por hantavirus no município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.INTRODUÇÃO: Infecções graves por hantavírus têm obtido crescente atenção das autoridades da saúde pública da Eurásia e Américas. De 1993 a 2010, o Brasil reportou 1.300 casos de síndrome pulmonar cardiovascular por hantavírus (SPCVH com, aproximadamente, 80 deles no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo com taxa de fatalidade de 48%. O vírus Araraquara é o agente etiológico da SPCVH nessa região. Considerando que nas Am

  12. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  13. Landscape and regional environmental analysis of the spatial distribution of hantavirus human cases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Brigitte Zeimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although Southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast and the Netherlands should be kept under watch.Conclusions: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area; the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently.

  14. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  15. Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN BELMAR-LUCERO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct

  16. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  17. Yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events following extensive immunization in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscayart, Cristián; Carrega, María Eugenia Pérez; Sagradini, Sandra; Gentile, Angela; Stecher, Daniel; Orduna, Tomás; Bentancourt, Silvia; Jiménez, Salvador García; Flynn, Luis Pedro; Arce, Gabriel Pirán; Uboldi, María Andrea; Bugna, Laura; Morales, María Alejandra; Digilio, Clara; Fabbri, Cintia; Enría, Delia; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2014-03-05

    As a consequence of YF outbreaks that hit Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in 2008-2009, a significant demand for YF vaccination was subsequently observed in Argentina, a country where the usual vaccine recommendations are restricted to provinces that border Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The goal of this paper is to describe the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against YF in Argentina during the outbreak in the northeastern province of Misiones, which occurred from January 2008 to January 2009. During this time, a total of nine cases were reported, almost two million doses of vaccine were administered, and a total of 165 AEFI were reported from different provinces. Case study analyses were performed using two AEFI classifications. Forty-nine events were classified as related to the YF vaccine (24 serious and 1 fatal case), and 12 events were classified as inconclusive. As the use of the YF 17D vaccine can be a challenge to health systems of countries with different endemicity patterns, a careful clinical and epidemiological evaluation should be performed before its prescription to minimize serious adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nuclear Energy Stakeholders in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadano, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Mr Gadano, Undersecretary for Nuclear Energy, Argentina spoke from the perspective of a country looking forward to becoming a member of the NEA. He reviewed the place of nuclear energy in his country's energy mix and called attention to its role in positively addressing the global challenges of climate change and energy security. Mr Gadano also described the federal system which governs Argentina. Drawing on his expertise as a lawmaker and nuclear regulator but also as an academic sociologist, he stressed that reaching agreement on siting initiatives for example requires a sustainable relation with stakeholders, including regional governments. This is important because in the end, 'the best project is the one you can finish'

  20. Public information activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector

    1998-01-01

    This is a presentation involving a description of the main guidelines and conditions under which nuclear activities have been performed in Argentina, both concerning the autonomous development for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and with regard to the way in which the community was informed of the attained levels. The particulars of each approach are shown as to delineate historical evolution as a function of the various stages of technological development. (author)

  1. The energy sector in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article first outlines that Argentina produces an important part of its hydrocarbon consumption and comment various aspects of this production: hydrocarbons are at the heart of the Argentinian energetic model; conventional hydrocarbon reserves are however decreasing; the public operator remains the main actor even though the market is opened to multinational companies. The article then describes the crisis faced by this energetic model: the energy balance is now a burden; the increasing unbalance between production and consumption can be explained by supply-related as well as demand-related factors; authorities must intervene on hydrocarbon prices and subsidize the oil price on the domestic market. It appears that the future for hydrocarbons in Argentina relies on non-conventional hydrocarbons. Bio-fuels, a key sector of the Argentinian economy, are a matter of trade dispute with the EU and the USA. Apart from hydroelectricity (some new projects are planned), renewable energies are very few developed in Argentina. Appendices propose a graph of the distribution of energy consumption among the different sources, a map indicating locations of the main exploited hydrocarbon deposits, a presentation of mechanisms implemented to subsidize hydrocarbon production

  2. Ongoing spillover of Hantaan and Gou hantaviruses from rodents is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During 1974-2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974-1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.

  3. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  4. Reply to Comment Clement et al.: (Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We acknowledge Clement and colleagues for their comments [1] on our paper [2]. We agree that many controversies are being discussed by the hantavirus community, particularly surrounding the interpretation of serological results and the designation of new species and strains. Within this setting, we are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the key factual and methodological points raised by Clements et al. [...

  5. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  6. Communications received from Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document reproduces the Joint Statement on Nuclear Policy signed by the President of Argentina and the President of Brazil on 29 November 1988 at Ezeiza, Argentina, concerning the decision of the two countries to undertake a joint fast breeder reactor project

  7. Mida õpetab Argentina finantskriis? / Karsten Staehr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Staehr, Karsten, 1962-

    2002-01-01

    Norra majandusanalüütik kirjeldab Argentina majanduspoliitikat, analüüsib tehtud vigu ning hoiatab avatud majandusega Eestit võimalike tulevaste välisshokkide eest. Diagramm: SKP kasv ja üleüldine riigieelarve tasakaal 1991-2001 Argentinas

  8. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  9. The triplet repeats of the Sin Nombre hantavirus 5' untranslated region are sufficient in cis for nucleocapsid-mediated translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mohammad A; Panganiban, Antonito T

    2010-09-01

    Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) can replace the cellular cap-binding complex, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), to mediate translation initiation. Although N can augment translation initiation of nonviral mRNA, initiation of viral mRNA by N is superior. All members of the Bunyaviridae family, including the species of the hantavirus genus, express either three or four primary mRNAs from their tripartite negative-sense genomes. The 5' ends of the mRNAs contain nonviral heterologous oligonucleotides that originate from endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular mRNA during the process of cap snatching. In the hantaviruses these caps terminate with a 3' G residue followed by nucleotides arising from the viral template. Further, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNA uniformly contains, near the 5' end, either two or three copies of the triplet repeat sequence, UAGUAG or UAGUAGUAG. Through analysis of a panel of mutants with mutations in the viral UTR, we found that the sequence GUAGUAG is sufficient for preferential N-mediated translation initiation and for high-affinity binding of N to the UTR. This heptanucleotide sequence is present in viral mRNA containing either two or three copies of the triplet repeat.

  10. Greenstone: uso actual en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fushimi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características e historia del software para crear y gestionar bibliotecas digitales Greenstone, desarrollado inicialmente por la Universidad de Waikato, Nueva Zelandia en 1997. En primer lugar, se describe la comunidad de usuarios a nivel global, focalizando en el uso actual que el software ha alcanzado en Argentina: la cantidad de implementaciones disponibles, su evolución, el tipo, tamaño y variedad de los desarrollos existentes, así como su aplicación a la gestión de repositorios digitales de ciencia y tecnología en el ámbito de las instituciones científicas, tecnológicas y de educación superior en Argentina. En segundo lugar, se detallan las acciones llevadas a cabo a partir de la creación del Centro Nacional de Promoción de Greenstone en Argentina en 2009. Datos recabados en encuestas realizadas permitieron observar que las razones predominantes para elegir esta plataforma fueron, entre otras, su facilidad de instalación y configuración, su bajo nivel de requerimiento tecnológico, la generalizada escasez de recursos humanos dedicados a esta actividad, y la complejidad que presentaban los softwares alternativos existentes en ese momento. A lo largo de estos 8 años, tanto los repositorios digitales como los sistemas que los soportan evolucionaron drásticamente, modificando el escenario actual. Paralelamente, en 2016 la nueva versión mayor de Greenstone implementó una reingeniería completa del software para su adaptación a las tecnologías en uso: XML, XSLT, Web-services y Java. Como consecuencia de esto, la comunidad de desarrollo local se plantea nuevos desafíos para la migración de las bibliotecas digitales y repositorios implementados con versiones anteriores.

  11. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  12. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  13. Seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia y Chikungunya en población indígena del municipio de Tuchín, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Barrera

    Full Text Available Introducción: La vigilancia de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores es importante para establecer medidas de control en salud pública. Las poblaciones indígenas de Córdoba viven en condiciones geoclimáticas que favorecen la presencia de vectores que podrían permitir la diseminación y aparición de hantavirosis, rickettsiosis y fiebre por el virus Chikungunya. Objetivo: Establecer la seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia sp. y Chikungunya en la población indígena de Tuchín, Córdoba. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 190 individuos del resguardo indígena del municipio de Tuchín; el muestreo fue realizado entre agosto y diciembre del 2012. La detección de anticuerpos IgG contra Hantavirus se llevó a cabo con la prueba IgG DxSelectTM (Focus Technologies, EL1600G, California, EE. UU., anticuerpos IgG contra Rickettsia sp. se determinaron por inmunofluorescencia indirecta y se realizó detección de anticuerpos IgG contra el virus Chikungunya mediante ELISA de captura (Nova-Tec, inmunodiagnostica GmbH, CHIG0590, Alemania. Resultados: De 190 sueros analizados, el 5,2% (10/190 fueron positivos para Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebre manchada, para Hantavirus 7 de 87 (8% fueron positivos y no se encontraron positivos para Chikungunya. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p = 0,05 entre los seropositivos de Hantavirus y Rickettsia sp. para las variables género, edad y ocupación. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos demuestran exposición previa a Rickettsia sp. y a Hantavirus en la población indígena de Tuchín. Los resultados pueden ser útiles para establecer una alerta sobre estas fiebres hemorrágicas. Aunque no se hallaron seropositivos para Chikungunya, este fue el primer trabajo de vigilancia epidemiológica realizado en Colombia sobre este virus.

  14. Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marylee

    The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

  15. reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. T r o p ic a l D is e a s e r e s e a r c h l a b o r a. To r y, K h o ... research and capacity building collaboration in Southeast Asia. Eco EID is ...

  16. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  17. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  18. Sistema de salud de Argentina The health system of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belló

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS, que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll

  19. Argentina to fully privatize state owned YPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion

  20. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  1. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2011-02-08

    Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus--helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not previously identified. Moreover, our

  2. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  3. Measured radon inside housings the Republic Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.; Arnaud, M.; Lopez, F.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    They have been measured the radon concentration in houses in different city's in Argentina Republic. For they were used it as method mensuration detectors appearances nuclear detecting electrets and detectors based on the adsorption radon in activated carbon

  4. Nuclear Data in Argentina (1992 -1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricabarra, G. H.

    1993-03-01

    A progress report of nuclear data research in Argentina is given for the years 1992/1993, including the WIMS nuclear data library update project, and measurements and evaluations of selected neutron induced nuclear reactions. (author)

  5. Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Juan

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation, titled "Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State," proposes a new understanding of the dictatorship novels of Ricardo Piglia, Juan José Saer, and Manuel Puig grounded in their shared appropriation from popular crime fiction. Across the 1940's, 50's, and 60's, a wide range of popular crime fiction was translated, written, theorized, printed and reprinted in Argentina, and these popular genres grew steadily in readership, visibility, and cultural legitimacy....

  6. Update on women in physics in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudny, Vera; Lagorio, Cecilia; Frechero, Marisa; Tamarit, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Data collected 10 years ago in Argentina concluded that women in physics were underrepresented in many instances and that a "crystal ceiling" was firmly in place. We have collected updated data for several indicators and compared them with those obtained 10 years ago. Although there is not a clear conclusion to be drawn from this comparison, we try to explain the results within the framework of the changes in scientific policies in Argentina.

  7. Update on women in physics in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Brudny, Vera Leonor; Lagorio, Cecilia; Frechero, Marisa Alejandra; Tamarit, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Data collected 10 years ago in Argentina concluded that women in physics were underrepresented in many instances and that a “crystal ceiling” was firmly in place. We have collected updated data for several indicators and compared them with those obtained 10 years ago. Although there is not a clear conclusion to be drawn from this comparison, we try to explain the results within the framework of the changes in scientific policies in Argentina. Fil: Brudny, Vera Leonor. Universidad de Buenos...

  8. China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,China and Argentina have agreed to further enhance mutual trust and their strategic partnership as the two emerging economies are playing an increasingly important role in the world arena.“China will work with Argentina to strengthen strategic mutual trust,expand cooperation and coordination within multilateral frameworks in order to promote bilateral ties and benefit the two peoples,” Vice President Xi Jinping told Argentine Foreign Minister Hector Timerman on September 9.

  9. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  10. An Energy Overview of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Argentina. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  11. Nuclear security standard: Argentina approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet Duran, Stella M.; Rodriguez, Carlos E.; Menossi, Sergio A.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.

    2007-01-01

    Argentina has a comprehensive regulatory system designed to assure the security and safety of radioactive sources, which has been in place for more than fifty years. In 1989 the Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission created the 'Council of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations' (CAPFMIN). This Council published in 1992 a Physical Protection Standard based on a deep and careful analysis of INFCIRC 225/Rev.2 including topics like 'sabotage scenario'. Since then, the world's scenario has changed, and some concepts like 'design basis threat', 'detection, delay and response', 'performance approach and prescriptive approach', have been applied to the design of physical protection systems in facilities other than nuclear installations. In Argentina, radioactive sources are widely used in medical and industrial applications with more than 1,600 facilities controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in spanish ARN). During 2005, measures like 'access control', 'timely detection of intruder', 'background checks', and 'security plan', were required by ARN for implementation in facilities with radioactive sources. To 'close the cycle' the next step is to produce a regulatory standard based on the operational experience acquired during 2005. ARN has developed a set of criteria for including them in a new standard on security of radioactive materials. Besides, a specific Regulatory Guide is being prepared to help licensees of facilities in design a security system and to fulfill the 'Design of Security System Questionnaire'. The present paper describes the proposed Standard on Security of Radioactive Sources and the draft of the Nuclear Security Regulatory Guidance, based on our regulatory experience and the latest international recommendations. (author)

  12. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Fernández Zambón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad industrial, de cualquier época, tiene una gran importancia para el hombre, pues al igual que el resto de los procesos económicos, es el reflejo del accionar cotidiano de la sociedad sobre el espacio. Considerando esto, el presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar al patrimonio industrial como recurso para organizar rutas turísticas que permitan en algunos casos recuperar espacios industriales abandonados o usar establecimientos industriales en funcionamiento pero que pueden incorporarse a este tipo de desarrollo turístico. La creación de rutas turísticas puede permitir la reactivación de las economías locales, por constituirse en definitiva en una nueva actividad económica. Para lograr esto es necesario articular el sector público y el privado. De esta forma es posible, a través de la creación de rutas turísticas del patrimonio industrial, generar un desarrollo turístico local sustentable.

  13. Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus during a complete population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Razzauti

    Full Text Available Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3% were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1 nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2 the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3 some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4 frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious and new transient variants are continually generated; 5 reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6 prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7 reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes.

  14. Prone Position Ventilation Used during a Transfer as a Bridge to Ecmo Therapy in Hantavirus-Induced Severe Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cornejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transport of critically ill patients is a complex issue. We present a case using prone positioning as a bridge to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, performed by a critical retrieval team from a university hospital. Case Report. A 28-year-old male developed fever, progressive respiratory failure, and shock. He was admitted to ICU from a public hospital, and mechanical ventilation was begun, but clinical response was not adequate. ECMO was deemed necessary due to severe respiratory failure and severe shock. A critical retrieval team of our center was assembled to attempt transfer. Prone positioning was employed to stabilize and transfer the patient, after risk-benefit assessment. Once in our hospital, ECMO was useful to resolve shock and pulmonary edema secondary to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Finally, he was discharged with normal functioning. Conclusion. This case exemplifies the relevance of a retrieval team and bridge therapy. Prone positioning improves oxygenation and is safe to perform as transport if performed by a trained team as in this case. Preparation and organization is necessary to improve outcomes, using teams and organized networks. Catastrophic respiratory failure and shock should not be contraindications to transferring patients, but it must be done with an experienced team.

  15. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor G, A.; Fernandes M, S.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  17. Argentina chiama Italia: Friuli risponde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Serafin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the migratory waves from Friuli which, from the 1870s up to the post-World War II years, extensively moved towards Argentina, settling in the areas around the cities of Santa Fe, Cordoba, Entre Ríos, Chaco and Buenos Aires, but reaching also regions as far away as Patagonia. The accurate and well diffused net of the Fogolār Furlan, besides its function as friendly society, also provides to the promulgation of ancient traditions and mores among the new generations, transmitting on to them the cultural, linguistic and ethnic memory of the motherland. Epistles, tales, novels and poems form a paideia which is thus constantly being enlivened, eveng among those who assumed Argentinian nationality or were born in the country. Of utmost interest is, therefore, the resulting literary corpus, representing as it does a renewed search for identity in the form of a dialogue with the world, extending itself well beyond the contingency of boundaries and transmitting the universal essence of logos.

  18. An amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis B virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldmacher, Astrid; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Borisova, Galina; Berriman, John A.; Roseman, Alan M.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Fischer, Jan; Musema, Shamil; Gelderblom, Hans R.; Lundkvist, Aake; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Krueger, Detlev H.; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains

  19. The nuclear research centre at Bariloche, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriata, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear research centre at Bariloche (CAB) is one of the four centres under the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA). The research programme of CAB addresses various issues like nuclear reactor development, nuclear fuel and fuel cycle, applications of radioisotopes and radiation, and waste management. There is also a basic nuclear science component. The human resource development in the areas of physics and nuclear engineering is done in an associated Balseiro Institute which has undergraduate and graduate programmes as well as doctoral and postdoctoral research. The Centre interacts well with the society and provides services in the nuclear area. It has a close interaction with the nuclear sector of Argentina as also with many international organisations. Regulatory control over the Centre is carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina. (author)

  20. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months

  1. Communications received from Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The document reproduces the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy signed by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil on 30 November 1985, the Protocol on Nuclear Co-operation between Argentina and Brazil signed on 10 December 1986, the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy signed by the two Presidents on 10 December 1986, the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy signed by the two Presidents on 17 July 1987 and the Joint Declaration on Nuclear Policy (IPERO Declaration) signed by the two Presidents on 8 April 1988

  2. Operating practical experience at Argentina; Experiencia practica operativa en la Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quihillalt, Oscar [Nucleoelectria Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    Operating experiences of Atucha-1 and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants were discussed in this work. The technical and economic aspects, such as reliability, availability, personnel training, operating costs, prices and market, which exercise influence upon Argentina nuclear energy policy, mainly on the power electric generation by nuclear power plants were considered. Finally the current status of the nucleoelectric sector in Argentina and forecasting were analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Brysk, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition of 1994 out-of-print Stanford University Press study of human rights protest, social change, and democratization in Argentina.  A symbolic politics analysis of the truth commission, trials, and policy reform in Latin America's most sweeping transition of the 1980's.

  4. Argentina - Women Weaving Equitable Gender Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political, and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18 percent and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58 percent in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living the poverty line and impacting in a disproportionate manner the most vulnerable and poverty stricken fami...

  5. Agua potable y saneamiento en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Auge, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo fue presentado originalmente en el Foro Regional del Agua, con el título “Problemática del Acceso al Agua Potable y al Saneamiento en Argentina”. Dicho foro, organizado por la Defensoría del Pueblo de la Nación Argentina, se desarrolló en Córdoba, en mayo del 2007.

  6. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  7. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  8. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  9. Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...

  10. Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Las Bayas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking

  12. [Adult mortality differentials in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofman, R

    1994-06-01

    Adult mortality differentials in Argentina are estimated and analyzed using data from the National Social Security Administration. The study of adult mortality has attracted little attention in developing countries because of the scarcity of reliable statistics and the greater importance assigned to demographic phenomena traditionally associated with development, such as infant mortality and fertility. A sample of 39,421 records of retired persons surviving as of June 30, 1988, was analyzed by age, sex, region of residence, relative amount of pension, and social security fund of membership prior to the consolidation of the system in 1967. The thirteen former funds were grouped into the five categories of government, commerce, industry, self-employed, and other, which were assumed to be proxies for the activity sector in which the individual spent his active life. The sample is not representative of the Argentine population, since it excludes the lowest and highest socioeconomic strata and overrepresents men and urban residents. It is, however, believed to be adequate for explaining mortality differentials for most of the population covered by the social security system. The study methodology was based on the technique of logistic analysis and on the use of regional model life tables developed by Coale and others. To evaluate the effect of the study variables on the probability of dying, a regression model of maximal verisimilitude was estimated. The model relates the logit of the probability of death between ages 65 and 95 to the available explanatory variables, including their possible interactions. Life tables were constructed by sex, region of residence, previous pension fund, and income. As a test of external consistency, a model including only age and sex as explanatory variables was constructed using the methodology. The results confirmed consistency between the estimated values and other published estimates. A significant conclusion of the study was that

  13. Dictyostelids living in the soils of the Atlantic forest, Iguazú region, Misiones, Argentina: description of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C

    2007-01-01

    Thirteen new species and varieties of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (csm) were isolated from soils of the Atlantic Subtropical Rain Forest at the Iguazú Falls, Northeastern Misiones Province, Argentina. Seven new species are described herein, one of them is a Polysphondylium, while the rest of the species belong to the genus Dictyostelium. Also, six taxa are new varieties of Dictyostelium and Acytostelium, which will be reported later. Fourteen Northern Hemisphere (Tikal) species have also been isolated from Iguazú soils, some of them new records for Southern South America. This csm community, when compared with others from forests of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly Tikal, Guatemala, give some insight into a possibly different evolutionary history and/or natural selection in the two areas.

  14. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  15. Tropical spastic paraparesis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. de Castro Costa

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten possible cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará are presented. They show the typical symptoms and signs of TSP consisting of weakness of the lower limbs, spastic gait, hiperreflexia, bladder dysfunction and variable signs of posterior columns impairment. The laboratory examinations excluded other compressive, infective, degenerative or demyelinating lesions of their spinal cord. Our patients age ranged from 21 to 59 years, all were of black origin and all were of lower social class. There was a slight preponderance of females. An etiological implication of a retrovirus (HTLV-I has been shown for TSP, but for lack of technical conditions we could not determine it in our patients, and that stands as our subsequent step in those and further cases.

  16. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Lastra Marcelo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Andes virus (ANDV, a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9 that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC. Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs

  17. Clinical application of RT-nested PCR integrated with RFLP in Hantavirus detection and genotyping: a prospective study in Shandong Province, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Xi; Zhao, Zhong-Tang; Cao, Wu-Chun; Xu, Xiao-Qun; Suo, Ji-Jiang; Xing, Yu-Bin; Jia, Ning; Du, Ming-Mei; Liu, Bo-Wei; Yao, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of applying RT-nested PCR along with RFLP as a method for diagnosis and genotypic differentiation of Hantavirus in the acute-stage sera of HFRS patients as compared to the ELISA technique. A prospective study of patients with suspected HFRS patients was carried out. Sera were collected for serological evaluation by ELISA and RT-nested PCR testing. Primers were selected from the published sequence of the S segment of HTNV strain 76-118 and SEOV strain SR-11, which made it possible to obtain an amplicon of 403 bp by RT-nested PCR. The genotypic differentiations of the RT-nested PCR amplicons were carried out by RFLP. Sequence analyses of the amplicons were used to confirm the accuracy of the results obtained by RFLP. Of the 48 acute-stage sera from suspected HFRS patients, 35 were ELISA-positive while 41 were positive by RT-nested PCR. With Hind III and Hinf I, RFLP profiles of the RT-nested PCR amplicons of the 41 positive sera exhibited two patterns. 33 had RFLP profiles similar to the reference strain R22, and thus belonged to the SEOV type. The other 8 samples which were collected during October-December had RFLP profiles similar to the reference strain 76-118, and thus belonged to the HTNV type. Sequence phylogenetic analysis of RT-nested PCR amplicons revealed sdp1, sdp2 YXL-2008, and sdp3 as close relatives of HTNV strain 76-118, while sdp22 and sdp37 as close relatives of SEOV strain Z37 and strain R22 located in two separate clusters in the phylogenetic tree. These results were identical to those acquired by RFLP. RT-nested PCR integrated with RFLP was a rapid, simple, accurate method for detecting and differentiating the genotypes of Hantavirus in the acute-stage sera of suspected HFRS patients. In Shandong province, the main genotypes of Hantavirus belonged to the SEOV types, while the HTNV types were observed during the autumn-winter season.

  18. Spatial prediction and validation of zoonotic hazard through micro-habitat properties: where does Puumala hantavirus hole - up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Magnusson, Magnus; Evander, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger; Ecke, Frauke

    2017-07-26

    To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly. We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry. We validated the models in an independent study area approx. 200 km away by predicting seasonal presence of infected bank voles in a five-year-period (2007-2010 and 2015). The distribution of PUUV-infected voles varied seasonally and inter-annually. In spring, micro-habitat variables related to cover and food availability in forests predicted both bank vole and infected bank vole presence. In fall, the presence of PUUV-infected voles was generally restricted to spruce forests where cover was abundant, despite the broad landscape distribution of bank voles in general. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in distribution between infected and uninfected hosts in fall, was related to higher survival of PUUV and/or PUUV-infected voles in the environment, especially where cover is plentiful. Moist and mesic old spruce forests, with abundant cover such as large holes and bilberry shrubs, also providing food, were most likely to harbor infected bank voles. The models developed using long-term and spatially extensive data can be extrapolated to other areas in northern Fennoscandia. To predict the hazard of directly transmitted zoonoses in areas with unknown risk status, models based on micro-habitat variables and developed through machine learning techniques in

  19. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  20. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  1. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  2. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  3. Temporal variation in individual factors associated with hantavirus infection in bank voles during an epizootic: implications for Puumala virus transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersago, Katrien; Verhagen, Ron; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-06-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), the causal agent of nephropathia epidemica in humans, is one of the many hantaviruses included in the list of emerging pathogens. Hantavirus infection is not distributed evenly among PUUV reservoir hosts (i.e., bank voles [Myodes glareolus]). Besides environmental factors and local population features, individual characteristics play an important role in vole PUUV infection risk. Identifying the relative importance of these individual characteristics can provide crucial information on PUUV transmission processes. In the present study, bank voles were monitored during the nephropathia epidemica outbreak of 2005 in Belgium. Vole sera were tested for presence of immunoglobulin G against PUUV, and a logistic mixed model was built to investigate the temporal variation in individual characteristics and their relative importance to PUUV infection risk in bank voles. Relative risk calculations for individual vole characteristics related to PUUV infection in the reservoir host show that reproductive activity dominates infection risk. The gender effect is only found in reproductively active voles, where reproductively active males have the highest infection risk. Results also revealed a clear seasonal variation in the importance of reproductive activity linked to PUUV infection. In contrast to the main effect found in other trapping sessions, no difference in infection risk ratio was found between reproductively active and nonactive voles in the spring period. Combined with increased infection risk for the reproductively nonactive group at that time, these results indicate a shift in the transmission process due to changes in bank vole behavior, physiology, or climate conditions. Hence, our results suggest that mathematical models should take into account seasonal shifts in transmission mechanisms. When these results are combined with the seasonal changes in population structure during the epizootic period, we identify vole reproductive activity and

  4. Biodiversity information system of the national parks administration of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Lizarraga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Biodiversity Information System (BIS of the National Parks Administration of Argentina (NPA was launched in 2002, with the support of the Global Environmental Fund (GEF through the Biodiversity Conservation Project in Argentina. The BIS consists of a set of thematic databases and Geographic Information System (GIS set to support management decisions, and to provide information to the general public on the national protected areas of Argentina. Currently, the BIS-NPA progr...

  5. Argentina : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, North and Central America ... Sujet: WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION, POLITICS, POLITICAL LEADERSHIP, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER ... Sujet: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY.

  6. Argentina : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LEGISLATION, ACCESS TO ... SERVICES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender ... Région: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Lebanon, Malawi, Viet Nam.

  7. Argentina : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... INNOVATIONS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Internet, TEACHING AIDS, ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and ... Sujet: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, Civil society, HEALTH SYSTEM, Evaluation.

  8. LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DEL GENERO SICYOS (CUCURBITACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia las especies del género Sicyos que viven dentro del territorio de la República Argentina; señalando que hasta el presente se han hallado seis. Luego de una diagnosis del género, suministra una clave, descripciones y figuras de cada una de ellas, a fin de facilitar su reconocimiento. Las especies estudiadas son S. malvifolius Griseb., S. polyacanthus Cogn., S. Odanellii Mart.-Crov., S. Kunthii Cogn. (nuevo habitante para la flora argentina, S. Warmingii Cogn, S. Warmingii Cogn. var. longispina Mart.-Crov. (nueva variedad y S. ignarus Mart.-Crov. (especie nueva para la ciencia.

  9. La migracion internacional en Argentina hacia 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Calvelo

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los principales lineamientos de la migración internacional en Argentina hacia el año 2010, con detenimiento en el período 2000-2010. En el caso de la inmigración no nativa se basa en información de los censos nacionales de población 2001 y 2010. En el caso de la migración internacional de la población nativa de Argentina el análisis se sustenta en información de censos extranjeros hasta la ronda 2000 y en otras fuentes de datos de los principales países de destino hasta 2010 (Estados Unidos y España.

  10. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.; Bruno, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author) [es

  11. Spent fuel management of NPPs in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, D.E.; Lee Gonzalez, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    There are two Nuclear Power Plants in operation in Argentina: 'Atucha I' (unique PHWR design) in operation since 1974, and 'Embalse' (typical Candu reactor) which started operation in 1984. Both NPPs are operated by 'Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A' which is responsible for the management and interim storage of spent fuel till the end of the operative life of the plants. A third NPP, 'Atucha II' is under construction, with a similar design of Atucha I. The legislative framework establishes that after final shutdown of a NPP the spent fuel will be transferred to the 'National Atomic Energy Commission', which is also responsible for the decommissioning of the Plants. In Atucha I, the spent fuel is stored underwater, until another option is implemented meanwhile in Embalse the spent fuel is stored during six years in pools and then it is moved to a dry storage. A decision about the fuel cycle back-end strategy will be taken before year 2030. (authors)

  12. Cultural Diversity: "Reports from Brazil and Argentina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tells two experiences of projects carried through in schools of basic education whose thematic it was the work with the cultural diversity, the valuation of other cultures and reflections on the proper culture The work was carried through in two schools: one in the state of São Paulo, the city of Rio Claro where as the thematic one worked was the Hip-Hop and cultural manifestations local Brazilians the second in the capital of a Argentina province, in the city of Paraná where it worked the contact and the relation enter the cultural manifestations of Brazil and Argentina The central objective of this work was to think ways that could lead to the construction of a school that it considered the differences and the learning that happens when these (the differences they are in relation.

  13. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  15. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Recalde

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, ...

  16. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  17. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    votes after a campaign that emphasized firm opposition to the military government and verbal attacks on the trade union leadership of the PJ...legal pro- cedures that were designed especially for these cases. The trials were open to the public, evidence would be taken verbal - ly instead of...1981,144-45. Terrera, Guillermo Alfredo. Geopolitica Argentina: Poblacion, fronteras, comunicaciones , antropologia. Buenos Aires: Edi- torial Plus

  18. Memories of the armed struggle in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Pasquali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and develops some of the edges on working of the guerrilla that emerge in the memories of the former militants of the armed organizations in Argentina. Beginig from this journey we will have access to the registration that one has presently on it, which will allows us to establish part of the subjective environment of the moment, the main characters consideration of the activism and their significance in the general context of the militancy.

  19. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando O. Riera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years. The predicted candidemia annual incidence is 2193 cases, with 50% occurring in the ICU. At a 6% prevalence rate, an estimated 593,695 women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Invasive aspergillosis is relatively common because of high smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD rates, with 268 cases in immunocompromised patients and another 1938 in the 168,000 COPD patients admitted to hospital. Asthma is also common, affecting 14% of adults, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS are major problems. An estimated 432 cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM—90% of them in AIDS patients—and 1177 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP occur each year. The estimated annual case number of disseminated histoplasmosis is 404 in AIDS patients, almost as frequent as CM. Paracoccidioidomycosis annual incidence is estimated at 219, and coccidioidomycosis at 16 cases. At least 881,023 people (>2.01% in Argentina are affected by a serious fungal disease annually, with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  20. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  1. Where is Argentina going in geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mange, J

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of geothermal exploration and development in Argentina. Methodical efforts to inventory the geothermal resources of the country were begun in 1974. The Commission set itself the task of locating the geothermal anomalies and then selecting particular anomalies for intensive exploration in order to confirm or discard the possibilities of exploiting the resource. The known principal anomalies are listed and the two selected for intensive exploration are indicated. (JSR)

  2. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  3. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-01-01

    Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...

  4. About the Triple A. Argentina 1973 - 1976

    OpenAIRE

    Rostica, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    On May 25, 1973, Peronism returned to govern Argentina after about two decades of prohibition and political persecution. After its establishment, certain crimes began to be signed with “AAA”. The Triple A adopted the particularity of disappearing with the coup on March 24 1976. Why could this organization only exist in a democracy erected in the middle of two military dictatorships? Why did it exist during the very wished Peronist government? The article offers an approach to the Triple A, th...

  5. Acute intermittent porphyria in Argentina: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Batlle, Alcira; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death.

  6. La letteratura italiana tradotta in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cattoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In due secoli di storia della letteratura argentina, lo sviluppo della letteratura italiana tradotta è in stretto rapporto con i propositi pedagogici o estetici determinati dal contesto culturale dei diversi momenti storici. In linea di massima, è possibile affermare che, dalla conformazione dello Stato nazionale e durante i primi decenni del XX secolo, la traduzione letteraria mirava ad ampliare l’orizzonte culturale di un lettore che si consolidava al ritmo della fiammante nazione. Nelle fasi successive e in stretto rapporto con la politica culturale portata avanti da Victoria Ocampo a partire dal 1931 tramite la rivista Sur e il suo posteriore progetto editoriale, la traduzione è stata soprattutto una pratica di scrittura che ebbe un’influenza decisiva nell’ordito della letteratura nazionale favorendo il suo rinnovo e incentivando le versioni di traduttori argentini. Fu questa un’apertura che favorì, durante la seconda metà del secolo, nel contesto della ricezione della letteratura universale, l’ingresso della letteratura italiana in Argentina. Il presente lavoro tratta in maniera sistematica, ma provvisoria, il panorama della letteratura italiana tradotta in Argentina. Lo scopo principale comporta il registro dei momenti più fecondi e l’interpretazione degli esiti ottenuti nei confronti della traduzione nel sistema letterario nazionale.

  7. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  8. Paleoenvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Navidi Izad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Palaeonvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan, is envisaged based on 69 samples studied palynologically. Diverse and well-preserved palynofloras, viz., miospores, dinoflagellate cysts, foraminiferal test linings, acritarchs, wood debris (plant tissue and Amorphous Organic Matters (AOM occur in the material examined. The presence of relatively abundant proximate dinoflagellates and ±laevigate acritarchs in the lower part of the section studied implies sedimentation in a turbulent shallow environment. However, occurrence in the upper part of the section of abundant chorate dinoflagellates as well as notable proportion of blade-shaped to equal dimensional opaque palynomacerals seem to signify marine incursion and accumulation in an open marine setting. In most of the samples examined, prevalence of transparent AOM denotes a low oxygenated environment and slow rate of accumulation. Moreover, incidence of three palynofacies types (II, IV, VI in the pertinent material also corroborates a shallow low oxygenated environment with low sedimentation rate which gradually deepened upward in the section.

  9. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae in Northeastern Argentina: with remarks on population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Patricia Carnevali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size from 1m². In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m² and 1 411 ind/m². The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21% in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273. We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL was similar.

  10. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae in Northeastern Argentina: with remarks on population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Patricia Carnevali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size from 1m². In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m² and 1 411 ind/m². The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21% in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273. We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL was similar.Los crustáceos decápodos de agua dulce son un componente importante de la cadena trófica, pero poco se sabe sobre la dieta de las especies que viven en aguas tropicales. Nosotros estudiamos la ecología alimentaria del camarón Pseudopalaemon bouvieri y la estructura de su población en dos áreas diferentes con seis lagunas, con una diferente composición y abundancia de macrófitas acuáticas. En cada sitio poblado con macrófitas, se tomaron 18 muestras con una red manual (1mm de tamaño de malla de 1m². En laboratorio, se midió la longitud de cefalotórax de los camarones y se determinó el sexo. Asimismo, fueron examinados un total de 208 estómagos para determinar su alimentación. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la abundancia de la población varió entre 10 ind/m² y 1 411 ind/ m². La longitud de cefalotórax osciló entre 6 y 21mm, y la razón macho:hembra varió entre 0.3 y 1.0, con una mayor proporción de hembras ovígeras (21% en el área 1 que en el área 2. P. bouvieri es omnívoro y su alimentación se basa principalmente en algas, restos de plantas, protozoos, rotíferos, Oligochaeta, crustáceos, Insecta, detrito y otros ítems. El análisis del contenido estomacal no reveló ninguna diferencia significativa en la dieta entre juveniles y adultos, y los machos y hembras de ambas áreas consumieron una dieta similar (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.8273. Nosotros concluimos que los ítems alimentarios consumidos por los camarones y la amplitud de nicho fueron similares entre las dos áreas, aunque la proporción de ítems consumidos varió entre lagunas de ambas áreas. La densidad de P. bouvieri fue diferente entre áreas, pero el tamaño del cefalotórax (CL fue similar.

  11. Unfolding the Knowledge and Power Dynamics of the "Farmers-Rural Extensionists" Interface in North-Eastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, the knowledge dynamics of the farmer-rural extensionist' interface were explored from extensionists' perspective with the aim of understanding the matchmaking processes between supply and demand of extension services at the micro-level. Design/methodology/approach: Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  12. Dissolved organic carbon in water fluxes of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in northeastern Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Tesón; Víctor H Conzonno; Marcelo F Arturi; Jorge L Frangi

    2014-01-01

    Water fluxes in tree plantations and other ecosystems carry dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provided by atmospheric inputs, autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms and from the lysis of dead material. These compounds may be colorless or provide a yellow-to-brown color to water and may also absorb visible light due to the presence of chromophores in the chemical...

  13. Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and Paraguay, Pampas and Chaco Regions ... End Date. April 1, 2015 ... Argentina, South America, Paraguay, North and Central America ... IDRC is now accepting applications for this year's IDRC Doctoral Research Awards (IDRA). ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  14. Argentina v globalizačních procesech

    OpenAIRE

    Chervets, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    The process of globalization is a very important issue these days. This work will describe the process of globalization in Argentina, especially its economic aspect (foreign direct investments, export and import of goods and services, migration of labor force). I will also mention the history of its development and Argentina's membership in most important international and regional organizations.

  15. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  16. All projects related to Argentina | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Americas, Argentina, South America. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 995,000.00. Youth Smoking in Stressed Environments : Determinants and Resiliency (Argentina, Colombia, Palestine). Project. Numerous studies have shown that the earlier an individual starts smoking, the harder it is to give it up.

  17. Unemployment Assistance and Transition to Employment in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Iturriza (Ana); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn 2001-02, Argentina experienced a wrenching economic crisis. Plan Jefes, implemented in May 2002, was Argentina's institutional response to the increases in unemployment and poverty triggered by the crisis. The program provided a social safety net and appears to have successfully

  18. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  19. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  20. Diccionario del español de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Haensch, Günther

    2000-01-01

    Diccionario del español de Argentina : español de Argentina - español de España / Günther Haensch ; Reinhold Werner. Madrid : Gredos, 2000. - LI, 729 S. - (Diccionarios contrastivos del español de América)

  1. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  2. 1 Estudio Sectorial Sector lácteo de Argentina

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resumen: La producción de leche y productos lácteos conforma en Argentina un importante complejo productivo, de larga trayectoria histórica y gran impacto económico y social. En Argentina, esta industria conforma un oligopolio diferenciado en el que coexisten unas pocas grandes empresas nacionales y ...

  3. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  4. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  5. CALYPTRANTHES TRICONA (MYRTACEAE, NUEVA CITA PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Calyptranthes tricona D. Legrand (Myrtaceae es reportada por primera vez para la Argentina.  Se incluyen una descripción y una ilustración. Se presenta un clave para la identificación de las especies argentinas de Calyptranthes se da. Se discuten algunas observaciones sobre la nomenclatura C.concinna DC.

  6. La familia Cyatheaceae (Pteridophyta en Argentina The family Cyatheaceae (Pteridophyta in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J Marquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Cyatheaceae comprende alrededor de 500 especies de helechos arborescentes. Su distribución es pantropical y en Argentina se encuentra representada por 4 especies, reunidas en los géneros Alsophila y Cyathea: A. setosa, A. odonelliana, C. atrovirens y C. delgadii. En este trabajo se presenta una actualización de la información disponible hasta el momento referente a estas especies. Se exponen microfotografías de las esporas, que presentan la superficie con lomos en Alsophila y con cordones en Cyathea. Se ilustran los indusios y escamas de la base de los pecíolos, que son de importancia fundamental para la diferenciación de las especies estudiadas. Asimismo se presenta un mapa de distribución y una clave de las especies que crecen en Argentina.The family Cyatheaceae comprises about 500 species of tree ferns. Their distribution is pantropical and in Argentina is represented by four species, grouped in genera Alsophila y Cyathea: A. setosa, A. odonelliana, C. atrovirens and C. delgadii. In this paper, an update of the available information of the mentioned species is presented. A key to diferentiate the species growing in Argentina, their descriptions and a distribution map are also given. Spores are ridged in Alsophila and with rodlets in Cyathea. Indusia and scales of petiole basis are also illustrated.

  7. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to

  8. Warm Water Pathways in the Northeastern North Atlantic ACCE RAFOS Float Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furey, Heather

    2001-01-01

    ...). The RAFOS float component of ACCE, entitled "Warm Water Pathways and Intergyre Exchange in the Northeastern North Atlantic", was designed to measure the warm water currents entering the northeastern...

  9. [TULA HANTAVIRUS IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, L N; Zaykovskaya, A V; Protopopova E K; Babkin, I V; Malyshev, B S; Tovpinets, N N; Evstafiev, I L

    2015-01-01

    Genetic evidence of the Tula virus (TULV) in Crimea region of Russia is presented. Based on the reverse transcription PCR and subsequent sequence analysis, a total of 4 RNA isolates of the TULV were identified from the tissue samples of the Altai voles Microtus obscurus captured in the Bakhchisaray district of the Republic Crimea. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-, M-, and L-segment sequences of the Crimean TULV strains showed that they formed distinct genetic lineage, Russia IV, in the TULV variant. New sequences were most closely related to the lineage Russia I sequences obtained from common vole (M. arvalis) captured in the Tula region in Central Russia

  10. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology How is HPS diagnosed? Diagnosing HPS in an individual who has only been infected for a few days is difficult, because early symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and fatigue are easily confused with influenza. ...

  11. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  12. Neoliberalism and political actors in contemporary Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Reynares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set out a critical reading of the literature on political neoliberal actors in Argentina. We consider that the concentration of these studies in the national level has to do with a definition of neoliberalism as a set of economical and structural macro politics. We propose to define neoliberalism as a technology of government that intends to hegemonize an “enterprise form” in different social spheres, articulating a symbolical framework in a contingent and contentious way. This insight allows analyzing neoliberal identification processes as heterogeneous trajectories with diverse geographic and temporal scopes.

  13. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN ARGENTINA: BACKGROUND AND QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism study and keeps on failing to provide data that allows for learning about the working conditions and the professional profile of the Argentinean journalists.

  14. NUEVAS CITAS DE ASCLEPIADACEAE PARA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Cáceres Moral

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies no mencionadas anteriormente de la Argentina son tratadas e ilustradas: Oxypetalum molle Hook. et Arn. y Oxypetalum ineanum Fourn. Oxypetalum appendieulatum Mart. et Zucc., Oxypetalum confusum Malme, Oxypetalum jörgensenii Meyer, Oxypetalum microphyllum Hook. et Arn., Oxypetalum pannosum Decaisne, Oxypetalum stipatum Malme, Funastrum flavum (Decaisne Malme y Blepharodon lineare (Decaisne Decaisne se registran por primera vez para la flora de Corrientes ..

  15. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  17. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  18. AHP 27: A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Bum ཚེ་རིང་འབུམ།

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsering Bum (b. 1985 describes his early life in Amdo in terms of dreams, herding, punishment from a lama, schooling experiences, attending a Kalachakra teaching, a lhatzi gathering, irrigation, his grandfather, archery, and other important moments and influences. Another incredible production from Kevin Stuart's Tibetan English students! Tsering Bum gives us a series of intricately woven vignettes of his childhood and adolescence in a small Tibetan village in Qinghai Province. A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood takes readers into the social and material culture of Tsering's family and fellow villagers. We begin with a home scene on the heated brick hyitsi 'bed', where the family sleeps, meals are taken, and guests are entertained. Through Tsering's writing we taste the noodles his mother makes by hand, know the life of the herders, meet ritualists who communicate with the mountain deity, visit a Kalachakra for blessings, experience an archery contest that ends in singing and drink, swim naked in cold mountain rivers, celebrate Losar, or Tibetan new year festival, visit a nomad festival, enter the transformative world of a county primary school, and hear the accounts of three deaths. The stories take us through a landscape of mountains, rivers, and grasslands to new worlds that for the narrator end with a kindled sense of global vision and self-worth. Mark Bender, Ohio State University I highly recommend this exciting new work. Tsering Bum's account of his life is a quick and pleasant read, full of insights into many aspects of contemporary Tibetan culture. From village rituals associated with death and archery contests to the challenges of modern schooling in rural areas, Tsering Bum leads us quickly through a narrative that links past and present to hopes for the future. Tibetan Buddhism and mountain pilgrimage play a limited but significant role in the story. As a historian, I was most interested in the chapter 'Grandpa' that recounts the

  19. Yugoslav teachers in Argentina 1939-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Banović Milesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present reports of Yugoslav teachers who held classes to immigrants in Argentina 1939-1944, organized by the government of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Teachers’ reports to Yugoslav Embassy in Buenos Aires testify of Kingdom of Yugoslavia efforts to oppose assimilation and promote and strengthen “Yugoslav national unity”. The reports also describe general social circumstances of Yugoslav immigrants, show various details from their everyday life and contain valuable data on numerous political, economic, social and cultural problems of this diaspora in Argentina and their relationship with motherland. We believe that archive materials presented in this paper opens numerous questions which could be topics of separate researches. Some of them could be the following: To which extent the teachers’ reports represented the actual situation and to which they were shaped to match policy and expectations of Kingdom of Yugoslavia? What was the actual influence of teachers to spreading the “national unity” among immigrants? Have their work left trace in Yugoslav diaspora and in which way? Beside all of the open issues, it is certain that teachers’ reports contain valuable data on immigrants’ everyday life, curriculum, schooling conditions, relationship with motherland, etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet portala "Pojmovnik srpske kulture"

  20. Basic data for uranium prospecting in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belluco, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Martinez, C.; Marinkeff, K.

    1977-01-01

    After dealing briefly with the geochemical cycle of uranium in the earth's crust, and indicating the principal conditions under which different types of deposits are formed, the paper goes on to determine the uraniferous are of mainland Argentina (approximately 900000 km 2 ). Since evidence for the presence of uranium and other radioactive elements in many parts of the country has long been available, an attempt was made to systemize the existing information and classify the uraniferous sites so as to determine their temporal, spatial and genetic relationships with the different containing rocks. In addition, a study was made of the factors which contribute to the concentration of uranium in rocks which are accessible to prospecting (litho-stratigraphy, geological history, mettallogenic cycles, etc.). On the basis of these studies and considering the regional geology of Argentina, 21 ''regional environments'' were defined with varying degrees of probability of containing uranium; these environments will be submitted to long-term regional prospecting studies. It was necessary, however, to make a further sub-division into more homogeneous units with more clearly graded levels of priority, with the result that there are 65 ''prospecting units''. Each of these units, in order of priority, will be subjected to systematic prospecting. Exploratory work on a suitable scale will be carried out in the ''uraniferous'' districts of the ''prospecting units''. The main features of Argentine geology relating to the likelihood of uranium occurrences are briefly described, and maps of the large geotechtonic areas and the ''regional environments'' are included. (author)

  1. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  2. Derechos humanos y sexualidad en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un panorama de la situación de los derechos que tienen que ver con la sexualidad, en la Argentina contemporánea. Basándose principalmente en la legislación positiva, se presenta en primer lugar una síntesis del sistema legal y político, resumiendo a continuación el proceso de inclusión de los derechos sexuales, sobre todo desde 1983, cuando se recuperó la democracia. Las temáticas abordadas son: igualdad civil y conyugalidad, orientación sexual e identidad de género, reproducción, aborto, violencia de género y violencia sexual, VIH/sida, y explotación y trabajo sexual. El artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre las principales deudas pendientes.This paper presents an overview of the situation concerning the rights related to sexuality in contemporary Argentina. Based specially on the positive legislation, it is primarily presented a synthesis of the legal and political system. Next, the paper summarizes the process of inclusion of the sexual rights, mainly since 1983, when democracy has been recovered. The following issues are addressed: civil equality and conjugality; sexual orientation and gender identity; reproduction; abortion; gender a sexual violence; HIV/Aids; and exploitation and sexual work. The paper ends with a consideration about the still remaining doubts.

  3. [The psychologists in Argentina. Quantitative data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M M

    1994-03-01

    A partial report from a study dealing with Psychology's current status in Argentina is presented. Pursuant to this preliminary study 36,128 psychologists have taken their degree at both State and private universities in Argentina--between 1956, when the first Department of Psychology was created, and 1992. So, over a 32.5-million population (as per the 1991 census), there is a psychologist every 897 inhabitants, or 111 psychologists every 100,000 inhabitants. According to psychologists' geographical distribution, the highest density is to be found in the capital city of Buenos Aires (one psychologist every 246 inhabitants) while the lowest density is to be found in the Province of Chaco (one psychologist every 17,465 inhabitants). During year 1993, a total of 26,726 students have been studying Psychology at the different Argentine universities: Of these, 6,858 have taken their Psychology degree during this academic year. A great majority of psychologists work in the clinical field, being Psychoanalysis their prominent theoretical orientation. Ladies psychologists supposedly account for 85% of the overall number of psychologists. Psychological Associations have 24,878 active psychologists recorded, of which a great majority work in the clinical field.

  4. Difilobotriasis humana en la Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fué detectar hospedadores humanos en la zona andino patagónica argentina, teniendo en cuenta las prácticas de pesca desportiva y la importancia de los salmónidos dentro de la zona. MATERIAL Y METODO: Entre 1986 y 1995 se implementaron Campañas de Información en los laboratorios de Análisis Clínicos de la región andinopatagónica argentina, destinadas a lograr una detección más eficiente de la difilobotriasis, a través de análisis coproparasitológicos. RESULTADOS: Adicionalmente, se confeccionaron planillas destinadas a recoger información sobre las características de la infección, del tratamiento y del paciente. Durante este período se detectaron 13 nuevos casos humanos, por identificación directa del parásito o por la presencia de huevos en materia fecal. Las características de las infecciones responden a las descriptas para el género Diphyllobothrium. CONCLUSIONES: En la región, los salmónidos son los peces predilectos en la pesca deportiva. Estos peces, frecuentemente parasitados con larvas, constituyen la principal fuente de contagio para el hombre al ser consumidos insuficientemente cocidos o ahumados en frío.

  5. Difilobotriasis humana en la Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Semenas

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fué detectar hospedadores humanos en la zona andino patagónica argentina, teniendo en cuenta las prácticas de pesca desportiva y la importancia de los salmónidos dentro de la zona. MATERIAL Y METODO: Entre 1986 y 1995 se implementaron Campañas de Información en los laboratorios de Análisis Clínicos de la región andinopatagónica argentina, destinadas a lograr una detección más eficiente de la difilobotriasis, a través de análisis coproparasitológicos. RESULTADOS: Adicionalmente, se confeccionaron planillas destinadas a recoger información sobre las características de la infección, del tratamiento y del paciente. Durante este período se detectaron 13 nuevos casos humanos, por identificación directa del parásito o por la presencia de huevos en materia fecal. Las características de las infecciones responden a las descriptas para el género Diphyllobothrium. CONCLUSIONES: En la región, los salmónidos son los peces predilectos en la pesca deportiva. Estos peces, frecuentemente parasitados con larvas, constituyen la principal fuente de contagio para el hombre al ser consumidos insuficientemente cocidos o ahumados en frío.

  6. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  7. Ten years of SLR production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Liu, W.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.

    2017-07-01

    SLR technique is a proved astro-geodetic art with a significant power to contribute to Earth and Space Sciences. Therefore, scientific applications of SLR System are able to perform multiple tasks in the fields of Astrometry, Geodesy and Geophysics. The results we show here were obtained from satellite observations made at SLR 7406 Station of Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The telescope was installed early on 2006, in concordance with an International Cooperation Agreement between Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this abstract we show the current research being done with ILRS 7406 station: Length of day (LOD) and Angular velocity of Earth Rotation, calculated weekly; Pole Motion. ILRS7406 is daily surveying Pole coordinates x and y; Tracking SLR to GNSS constellations. SLR System contributes to the adjustment and validation of satellite GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, and BEIDOU orbits. Our station is nowadays member of the new ITRF 2014 frame, and these past years has been one of the 3 highest producing SLR Stations on the ILRS net, composed of about 40 stations distributed all around the world. The obtained results during this first 10 years of experience are useful to enhance the traditional collaboration between OAFA and international services such as ILRS, IERS and NASA.

  8. Overview and perspectives for Open Access development in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and perspectives for development of the Open Access movement in Argentina, within the global and regional (Latin American context. It outlines the evolution and current state of initiatives around the two main approaches to Open Access, the golden and green roads. The main Open Access policies and support of OA movement by governments in Latin American region, and particularly in Argentina, are highlighted, while recent studies on publishing practices and authors’ positions regarding Open Access are presented. The paper concludes that the prospects for development of OA in Argentina, both through golden and green roads are favorable, with their strengths and shortcomings

  9. Conservation Priorities for Terrestrial Birds in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Jeffrey V. Wells

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Partners in Flight (PIF) bird-conservation planning process, we assessed breeding land bird species according to seven categories of population vulnerability to derive a priority species pool in each of 12 physiographic areas that overlap the northeastern U.S. We then grouped species into the following habitat-species suites: (1) boreal-mountaintop...

  10. Proceedings of the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Clifton E., Jr., eds. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and demographics, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure constraints, environmental attitudes and values, leisure...

  11. Are Northeastern U.S. forests vulnerable to extreme drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam P. Coble; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Z. Carter Berry; Katie A. Jennings; Cameron D. McIntire; John L. Campbell; Lindsey E. Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; Heidi Asbjornsen

    2017-01-01

    In the Northeastern U.S., drought is expected to increase in frequency over the next century, and therefore, the responses of trees to drought are important to understand. There is recent debate about whether land-use change or moisture availability is the primary driver of changes in forest species composition in this region. Some argue that fire suppression from the...

  12. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  13. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  14. Historical perspective on diameter-limit cutting in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Kelty; Anthony W. D' Amato; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2006-01-01

    The use of diameter-limit cutting and high-grading is currently a concern for long-term sustainability of forests in the Northeastern United States and surrounding areas. This paper reviews historical information about the kinds of harvesting used in this region from 1620 to 1950, to provide a context for current discussions. Throughout this period, most timber...

  15. Physical properties of 134 soils in six northeastern states

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. R. Eschner; B. O. Jones; R. C. Moyle

    1957-01-01

    From June 1954 to July 1955 the Vicksburg Infiltration Project collected and analyzed samples from 134 sites in six Northeastern States; the samples included 79 soil series and 114 soil types. This work was done to supply the U. S. Army with information needed for specialized research on military traffic ability. The basic data are herein presented because of their...

  16. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Maiduguri, North-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is on the increase worldwide including in many developing countries. There is no report on the magnitude of obesity among adults in Maiduguri, a major city in northeastern Nigeria. MATERIALS and METHODS: We selected a sample of 1650 men and women aged 15 years and ...

  17. Northeastern FIA Tree Taper Study: Current Status and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern unit of the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NE-FIA) is engaged in an ongoing project to develop regionwide tree taper equations. Sampling intensity is based on NE-FIA plot data and is stratified by species, diameter class, and height class. To date, modeling research has been aimed largely at evaluating existing model forms (and hybrids thereof...

  18. Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton E. Watts; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher

    2010-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover GIS applications and recreation resource quality, meanings and measurement of recreation, climate change and resource planning, youth and outdoor recreation, urban recreation challenges, outdoor recreation--trails, human dimensions of wildlife, leisure and...

  19. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris

    1958-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  20. Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Burns; K., comps. Robinson

    2007-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  1. Optimal tree-stem bucking of northeastern species of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Joseph McNeel

    2004-01-01

    An application of optimal tree-stem bucking to the northeastern tree species of China is reported. The bucking procedures used in this region are summarized, which are the basic guidelines for the optimal bucking design. The directed graph approach was adopted to generate the bucking patterns by using the network analysis labeling algorithm. A computer-based bucking...

  2. Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans G. Vogelsong; [Editor

    1998-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover recreation; protected areas and social science; water based recreation management studies; forest recreation management studies; outdoor recreation management studies; estimation of economic impact of recreation and tourism; place meaning and attachment; tourism studies;...

  3. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  5. Home births and postnatal practices in madagali, North.Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Home births are common in resource poor countries and postnatal practices vary from one community to the other. Objective: To determine the proportion of home births, reasons for home delivery, and evaluate postnatal practices in Madagali, north.eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  6. Essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. from Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Rabha, L.C.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Ghosh, A.C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The oil, which was obtained by the steam distn. of the fresh rhizomes of C. amada (Zingiberaceae) growing in the plain districts of Northeastern India, was investigated by GC/MS. Nine components (97.4%) were identified. Myrcene was the major (88.6%) component. [on SciFinder (R)

  7. Proceedings of the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc; Christine, comps. Vogt

    2008-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  8. Proceedings of the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, comp., ed. Murdy; ed. comp.

    2004-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover planning issues, communications and information, management presentations, service quality and outdoor recreation, recreation behavior, founders? forum, featured posters, tourism and the community, specialized recreation, recreation and the community, management issues in...

  9. Occurrence and geochemistry of Nafada Gypsum, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum deposits occur in numerous locations within the Senonian Fika Shale at Nafada, northeastern Nigeria. Geologic investigations at Baro Winde and Wuro Dabo mines indicate the occurrence of three varieties of gypsum namely, Balatino laminated, Alabaster and Satin Spar. These are interlayered within shale and ...

  10. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  11. Proceedings of the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; eds.

    2009-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  12. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  13. A century of lessons about water resources in northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Hornbeck; James N. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2001-01-01

    Water resources in forests of the northeastern United States have been a contentious issue throughout the 20th century. The Weeks Law of 1911 recognized the needs to protect water yield and quality, and stimulated long-term interest in the relationships between forests and water. Research has provided a clear understanding of the roles of forests in hydrologic and...

  14. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  15. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, do diagnóstico laboratorial e do tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus (SPCVH, é doença emergente com descrição crescente de casos no Brasil. Neste trabalho, estudou-se 8 casos confirmados da doença. Todos apresentaram febre e dispnéia. Taquicardia, astenia, hipotensão e estertoração pulmonar ocorreram em 75 a 87,5% dos casos. Plaquetopenia e hipoxemia ocorreram em 100% dos casos, hemoconcentração, leucocitose com desvio à esquerda e elevação de uréia e creatinina séricas em 75 a 87,5%. Assistência respiratória, hidratação endovenosa e utilização de aminas vasoativas foram as medidas utilizadas nos pacientes. Ressalta-se que o suporte ventilatório e cardiovascular deve ser precocemente instituído, preferencialmente em unidades de terapia intensiva, com precauções universais e respiratórias de isolamento. Deve-se ter cuidados com infusão excessiva de líquidos para não agravar o edema pulmonar. A mortalidade observada, de 50%, é elevada, deveu-se à gravidade da doença e ao comparecimento tardio para tratamento intensivo. Deve-se informar sobre a SPCVH aos profissionais de saúde, considerando que casos de SPCVH, provavelmente, vêm passando desapercebidos.

  16. Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus from Germany shows receptor usage and innate immunity induction consistent with the pathogenicity of the virus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Popugaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a European hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in humans with fatality rates of up to 12%. DOBV-associated clinical cases typically occur also in the northern part of Germany where the virus is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius. However, the causative agent responsible for human illness has not been previously isolated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on characterization of a novel cell culture isolate from Germany obtained from a lung tissue of "spillover" infected yellow necked mouse (A. flavicollis trapped near the city of Greifswald. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated close clustering of the new strain, designated Greifswald/Aa (GRW/Aa with the nucleotide sequence obtained from a northern German HFRS patient. The virus was effectively blocked by specific antibodies directed against β3 integrins and Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF indicating that the virus uses same receptors as the highly pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV. In addition, activation of selected innate immunity markers as interferon β and λ and antiviral protein MxA after viral infection of A549 cells was investigated and showed that the virus modulates the first-line antiviral response in a similar way as HTNV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our study reveals novel data on DOBV receptor usage and innate immunity induction in relationship to virus pathogenicity and underlines the potency of German DOBV strains to act as human pathogen.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Nephropathia Epidemica Incidence and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Rodent Hosts: Identification of the Main Environmental Factors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchatre-Leroy, E; Crespin, L; Boué, F; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2017-08-01

    In Europe, the increasing number of nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in humans, caused by Puumala virus carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), has triggered studies of environmental factors driving these infections. NE infections have been shown to occur in specific geographical areas characterized by environmental factors that influence the distribution and dynamics of host populations and virus persistence in the soil. Here, we review the influence of environmental conditions (including climate factors, food availability and habitat conditions) with respect to incidence in humans and seroprevalence in rodents, considering both direct and indirect transmission pathways. For each type of environmental factor, results and discrepancies between studies are presented and examined in the light of biological hypotheses. Overall, food availability and temperature appear to be the main drivers of host seroprevalence and NE incidence, but data quality and statistical approaches varied greatly among studies. We highlight the issues that now need to be addressed and suggest improvements for study design in regard to the current knowledge on hantavirus epidemiology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of Puumala hantavirus infection on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell hemostatic function: platelet interactions, increased tissue factor expression and fibrinolysis regulator release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Goeijenbier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.

  19. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina; Determinacion del fallout atmosferico en la Republica Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoba, A C; Lopez, F O; Bruno, H A

    1998-11-01

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author) 3 refs., 9 tabs. [Espanol] Con el proposito de estudiar la precipitacion radiactiva presente en la Republica Argentina, debido al ensayo de armas nucleares en la atmosfera realizadas en el pasado, se implemento el muestreo ambiental fuera de la zona de influencia de las instalaciones nucleares de la Argentina durante los anios 1996 y 1997. Se determinaron las concentraciones de cesio 137 y estroncio 90 en muestras de aire, deposito de material radiactivo (agua de lluvia), leche, dieta promedio de un individuo estandar y en alimentos varios. Se realizaron, durante el periodo mencionado, un total de 630 determinaciones radioquimicas sobre 325 muestras de las diferentes matrices mencionadas. Se presentan los niveles de concentracion de los radionucleidos analizados en las distintas matrices ambientales y se comparan los valores obtenidos en los monitoreos realizados durante el periodo 1960-1981. (autor)

  20. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Vadillo, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS), La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Zaytsev, O. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)]. E-mail: ozaytsev@ipn.mx; Morales-Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua (IMTA), Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15 degrees Celsius N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes 198 and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical variability of cyclone tracks, and that there were a considerable number of hurricane strikes along the Mexican coast. About 50% of the tropical cyclones formed turned north to northeast. It was rare that any passed further north than 30 degrees Celsius N in latitude because of the cold California Current. Hurricane tracks that affected the NE Pacific may be separated into 5 groups. We compared the historical record of the sea surface temperature (SST), related with the El Nino events with a data set of tropical cyclones, including frequency, intensity, trajectory, and duration. Although the statistical dependence between the frequencies of tropical cyclones of the most abundant categories, 1 and 2, over this region and SST data was not convincing, the percentage of high intensity hurricanes and hurricanes with a long life-time (greater than 12 days) was more during El Nino years than in non-El Nino years. [Spanish] La principal region de la formacion de ciclones en el oceano Pacifico Este es el Golfo de Tehuantepec, entre los 8 y los 15 grados Celsius N. En su fase inicial los ciclones se mueven hacia el oeste y el noroeste. El analisis historico de los ciclones que se han generado durante los ultimos 38 anos (de 1966 a 2004) muestra un promedio de 16.2 ciclones por ano, consistentes en 8.8 huracanes y 7.4 tormentas tropicales. El analisis muestra una gran variabilidad geografica en la trayectoria de los ciclones, de los cuales un gran numero impacta las

  1. Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lello, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    14 C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14 C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14 C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14 C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14 C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14 C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14 C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14 C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and

  2. Argentina's regulatory body: its communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, Pablo A.; Terigi, Gabriel E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. It must also advise the Executive on issues under its purview. The objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority is to establish, develop and enforce a regulatory system applicable to all nuclear activities carried out in Argentina. Two of the goals of this regulatory system are to provide an appropriate standard of protection for individuals against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and to maintain a reasonable degree of radiological and nuclear safety in the nuclear activities performed in Argentina. The responsibility of the radiation protection community in performing the tasks to accomplish this goals is twofold. On one hand, it must ensure a high technical quality in performing these functions. It must also provide information on its activities which has to be accurate, comprehensive and understandable. The way a society understands the concept of 'risk' needs to be kept in mind. Risk perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Cultural theory refers to theories of risk perception that focus on culture, rather than individual psychology as an explanation for differences in risk judgments. It is widely agreed that trust is a key factor in influencing people's perceptions of risk. It is understood there are two main ways trust may impact in risk perceptions: an activity is perceived as more risky if the people or agencies managing it are perceived as untrustworthy; and information presented by trusted sources is given more credibility than information from untrusted sources. One of the primary purposes of ARN's Communication Program is to provide a means whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities may communicate more readily with each other and the public and

  3. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzini, Alberto C.

    2001-01-01

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed

  4. All projects related to Argentina | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Financing, Equity and Poverty in Latin America ... Region: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa ... one of the most serious but least publicized public health problems in Latin America.

  5. Bolivia's gas heads for Brazil as Argentina waits - and watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.

    1998-01-01

    The first 1,800 km stretch of a 3,400 km natural gas pipeline from Bolivia to Brazil will start operating in December. First planned 50 years ago, the pipeline has long been expected to result in an immediate surge of gas use in Brazil. However, impending deep recession in Brazil makes this prospect less likely despite the power shortages which indicate the need for considerable gas imports. Initially, most Bolivian gas will flow through Brazil to Argentina. But gas production is expanding rapidly in Argentina and the supply contract with Bolivia ends in 1999. Plans are well advanced to build two gas lines into the south of the Brazil from Argentina. Ultimately, it is anticipated that Argentina, which has abundant reserves and a virtually saturated domestic market, will become the principal source of natural gas for Brazil. (UK)

  6. The regulatory control of radioactive sources in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojkind, Roberto Hector [Autoridade Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Argentina has been conducting nuclear activities for more than forty years, and as early as in 1956 established a Regulatory Authority. Procedures for compliance monitoring and enforcement have been in use in the regulatory control of radioactive sources, and regulatory standards and regulations had been set in Argentina, before the accident in Goiania. The conclusions drawn from that accident encouraged in Argentina the improvement of some regulatory procedures and helped to enhance the quality of the regulatory process. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control of spent radioactive sources has gradually increased, and enforcement actions to prevent radioactive sources ending up in the public domain improved. Some lessons learned in Argentina from the accident in Goiania and the main characteristics of an effective enforcement program helpful to prevent radiological accidents in industrial, medical, research and teaching uses of radioactive sources are presented. (author) 9 refs; e-mail: rrojkind at sede.arn.gov.br

  7. Argentina: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Argentina's restructuring of over $100 billion in defaulted bond debt in June 2005 demonstrated the country's emergence from its 2001-2002 economic crisis that had caused severe stress on the political system...

  8. Nuclear safeguards in Brazil and Argentina: 25 years of ABACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassenova, Togzhan

    2017-11-01

    As possessors of advanced nuclear technology, Brazil and Argentina bear special responsibility for helping the international community and neighbors in their region feel confident that their nuclear programs are peaceful, secure, and safe. Over the past 25 years, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) has played an indispensable role in strengthening such confidence by implementing nuclear safeguards in the two countries. Today, ABACC carries out safeguards inspections at a total of 76 nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. This article describes how Brazil and Argentina view trends in the global nonproliferation regime and international nuclear safeguards, and explains how these trends relate to unique challenges and opportunities facing Brazil, Argentina, and ABACC.

  9. Tributación del Sector Transporte en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Rezk

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo general es examinar la carga tributaria efectiva sobre los servicios y las inversiones en infraestructura en los sectores de actividad del Transporte de Carga Terrestre (por camión) y Aéreo en la Argentina.

  10. The heavy water production plant at Arroyito, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecabert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the construction of an industrial heavy water production plant (Planta Industrial de Agua Pesada, PIAP) in Argentina. The heavy water enrichment is based on a hydrogen/ammonia isotope exchange. (Auth.)

  11. Urban agriculture: Rosario, Argentina reaps the benefits | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Urban agriculture: Rosario, Argentina reaps the benefits ... Urban agriculture has become a permanent part of the city's fabric, ... The Global Roundtable of Chief Economists highlights global trends and best practices to help ...

  12. All projects related to Argentina | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Governance and Justice ... Region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay ... Program: Canada-Israel Health Research Program ... and Twitter are having a direct bearing on social inclusion and opportunity in many ...

  13. Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North West Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Augier, Lucrecia; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Lizondo, Marcelo; Argañaraz, Manuel; Willink, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is expanded to North West Argentina.

  14. All projects related to argentina | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Governance and Justice ... Region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health ... and Twitter are having a direct bearing on social inclusion and opportunity in many spheres of ...

  15. The regulatory control of radioactive sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkind, Roberto Hector

    1997-01-01

    Argentina has been conducting nuclear activities for more than forty years, and as early as in 1956 established a Regulatory Authority. Procedures for compliance monitoring and enforcement have been in use in the regulatory control of radioactive sources, and regulatory standards and regulations had been set in Argentina, before the accident in Goiania. The conclusions drawn from that accident encouraged in Argentina the improvement of some regulatory procedures and helped to enhance the quality of the regulatory process. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control of spent radioactive sources has gradually increased, and enforcement actions to prevent radioactive sources ending up in the public domain improved. Some lessons learned in Argentina from the accident in Goiania and the main characteristics of an effective enforcement program helpful to prevent radiological accidents in industrial, medical, research and teaching uses of radioactive sources are presented. (author)

  16. Aphanes arvensis (Rosaceae) en el extremo nordeste de la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Hildt; Héctor A. Keller

    2017-01-01

    Se menciona por primera vez para el nordeste argentino a una hierba adventicia en el nuevomundo. La especie es ilustrada mediante fotografías Fil: Hildt, Gustavo. Universidad Nacional de Misiones; Argentina Fil: Keller, Hector Alejandro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Nordeste. Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste (i); Argentina

  17. Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae: nueva cita para la Flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae es documentada como nueva cita genérica y específica para la Flora Argentina. La especie fue hallada en la ribera del Paraná, en el norte de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se incluye su sinonimia, descripción, comentarios sobre su distribución, hábitat, fenología, biología reproductiva, nombres vulgares, usos y observaciones.

  18. CROSSROADS BETWEEN EDUCATION POLICIES AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES MAINTENANCE IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Hecht

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Process of language shift is explained by many researchers since linguistic and anthropological perspectives. This area focuses on the correlations between social processes and changes in systems of use of a language. This article aims to address these issues. In particular, we analyze the links between educational-linguistic policy and the maintenance of the languages spoken in Argentina. In doing so, we explore this field taking into account the linguistic and educational policies implemented about indigenous languages in Argentina.

  19. Argentina's experience with parallel exchange markets: 1981-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Steven B. Kamin

    1991-01-01

    This paper surveys the development and operation of the parallel exchange market in Argentina during the 1980s, and evaluates its impact upon macroeconomic performance and policy. The historical evolution of Argentina's exchange market policies is reviewed in order to understand the government's motives for imposing exchange controls. The parallel exchange market engendered by these controls is then analyzed, and econometric methods are used to evaluate the behavior of the parallel exchange r...

  20. Sectorial analysis of nanotechnology companies in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Lau, Edgar Záyago; Carroza, Tomás; Appelbaum, Richard P.; Villa, Liliana; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we identify 37 companies that produce nano-enabled products in Argentina. We locate the products of these firms in terms of both their economic sector and position in a value chain. The research was done through a four-step methodology. Firstly, an inventory of firms was created. Secondly, the firms were classified by their economic sector, following the United Nations economic classification. Thirdly, the firms were located within a simple nanotechnology value chain. Finally, the products were classified according to their final destination, being either means of production or final consumer products. The results show that healthcare, cosmetics, and medicine is the most represented sector along the value chain, followed by electronics.

  1. Adequacy features of Nucleoelectrica Argentina Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, H [Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., Buenso Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) ATUCHA I (357 Mw, SIEMENS) and EMBALSE (648 Mw, CANDU), both of PHWR type, were owned and operated until August 94 by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA). Until that date, CNEA, the national agency for nuclear R and D, concentrated three activities or roles: Research, Nuclear Regulations and NPP Operation. Since August 1994 NPP`s are owned and operated by a state electrical company (Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A.) the nuclear utility supplying 15% of the national electrical generation demand. NASA is going to be privatized according to a recent national law regulating nuclear activities. The transition from a research agency to a commercial company requires the introduction of changes in the management of activities. Mention of these changes is limited to those relating to Safety.

  2. Evaluation of training activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda, Alejandro D.

    2003-01-01

    In Argentina, there are two NPPs in operation and one under construction. The personnel at the first NPP built, Atucha-1, were originally trained by the German experts, afterwards there were no serious problems while the plant was still new, but problems arose later, The training program organized locally was found to be 'frozen'. That is why experiences in evaluation of the training effectiveness will be of great help. The global training effectiveness are believed to be achieved if the following goals are reached: less number of non-planned shutdowns due to human errors; less number of correctives works in the equipment, when preventive tasks were performed on them; less dose to perform equipment maintenance; less time to perform equipment maintenance; shorter outages, with less dose; less number of personnel accidents; etc

  3. Researching quality of life in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Tonón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life considers at the same time objective and subjective circumstances of people life. In 1995 was created the International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS whose purposes are to promote and encourage research in the field of quality-of-life studies and provide an organization through which all academic and professional researchers interested in QOL studies may coordinate their efforts to advance the field of QOL studies within various disciplines. In the case of Argentina since 2004, the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora has organized the Research Program in Quality of life to develop different kind of projects about quality of life in different fields, trying to be considered by national institutions that decide public policies. 

  4. Health in Argentina under the Military Junta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermann, S; Escudero, J C

    1978-01-01

    The socioeconomic policies of Argentina's Military Junta, in power since March 1976, have led to a sharp impoverishment of the vast majority of the population. In the health sector, facilities which previously were public are being transferred to the private sector, and public hospitals formerly providing free services to the population now charge patients for the care received. As a necessary counterpart to these unpopular measures, a regime of terror has been waged against members of the health team--both those politically active and those considered potentially subversive, particularly the psychiatrists and workers in community health. Differences between the Argentinian situation and previous European fascist patterns are noted, and the possibility of use of the "Argentinian model" in other capitalist countries in crisis is discussed.

  5. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  6. MEMORIA Y CULTURA OBRERA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidad de Buenos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia tiene como objetivo rastrear la existencia de una cultura obrera izquierdista en el interior de la Argentina ha partir de testimonios de obreros, intelectuales y de militantes de izquierda. De esta manera, la Historia Oral como metodología de investigación nos proporcionará una herramienta indispensable para echar luz sobre este tema que ha sido hasta el momento descuidado. Para tal efecto, nos centraremos en ciudades del interior la provincia de Córdoba en la década de1930. A partir de los testimonios recogidos se analizarán los problemas de la memoria de sus protagonistas y su resignificación desde el presente, las nociones que tienen los protagonistas sobre la política, la cultura y la militancia sobre el período estudiado.

  7. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  8. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  9. MEDIOS, PROTESTA Y EXPERIENCIA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer algunas hipótesis acerca de los modos como se construyen los relatos sobre las protestas populares en Argentina. Para ello expongo los resultados de una etapa de la investigación en la cual se han confrontado el análisis discursivo de textos de medios de comunicación dedicados a la protesta con un corpus de entrevistas a los protagonistas de estas acciones. Los resultados de dicha confrontación muestran la existencia de dos formas distintas de operar sobre el devenir histórico relacionadas no sólo con la distintiva puntuación temporal de la secuencia de los hechos, sino también con los procesos de enmarcado valorativo y su colocación en una serie histórica.

  10. Adequacy features of Nucleoelectrica Argentina Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) ATUCHA I (357 Mw, SIEMENS) and EMBALSE (648 Mw, CANDU), both of PHWR type, were owned and operated until August 94 by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA). Until that date, CNEA, the national agency for nuclear R and D, concentrated three activities or roles: Research, Nuclear Regulations and NPP Operation. Since August 1994 NPP's are owned and operated by a state electrical company (Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A.) the nuclear utility supplying 15% of the national electrical generation demand. NASA is going to be privatized according to a recent national law regulating nuclear activities. The transition from a research agency to a commercial company requires the introduction of changes in the management of activities. Mention of these changes is limited to those relating to Safety

  11. The fourth nuclear power plant in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2017-01-15

    Since 2006 the nuclear sector in Argentina has aimed at recovering and strengthening its capabilities and facilities. Part of the challenge posed by this revival has been to also accompany the development of activities with a higher level of responsibility for safety and the environment. Among the strategic decisions taken in recent years, one main highlight is the construction of the nuclear power plant CAREM25 entirely with Argentine technology and design under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission. On February 4, 2015, the Ministry of Federal Planning and the National Energy Administration (NEA) signed the agreement for cooperation and construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ACP-1000 technology, developed in the Peoples Republic of China.

  12. About the Triple A. Argentina 1973 - 1976

    OpenAIRE

    Rostica, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    El 25 de mayo de 1973 el peronismo volvió a gobernar la Argentina tras aproximadamente dos décadas de proscripción y persecución política. Tras su establecimiento, ciertos crímenes comenzaron a ser firmados con “AAA”. La Triple A tuvo la particularidad de desaparecer con el golpe de Estado del 24 de marzo de 1976. ¿Por qué esta organización sólo pudo existir en una democracia erigida en medio de dos dictaduras militares? ¿Por qué existió durante el tan anhelado gobierno peronista? El artículo...

  13. Mirror Coronograph for Argentina (MICA). Primera Luz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Epple, A.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    En Julio de 1997 se terminó con la primera parte de la instalación del ``Coronógrafo de Espejo para la Argentina'' en la estación de altura Carlos U. Cesco (El Leoncito), gracias al esfuerzo de la gente del Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie (Alemania), del OAFA y del IAFE. Dicho coronógrafo forma parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. El propósito del mismo, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares y terrestres, es contribuir a un mejor entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Para ello, ya está observando la corona de emisión en el verde (Fe XIV), rojo (Fe X) y Hα entre 1.05 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente. El diseño del instrumento, el cual fuera ya presentado en esta misma reunión en La Plata en 1996, es esencialmente similar al del telescopio LASCO-C1 a bordo del Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). La adquisición de datos se realiza con un CCD de 1280x1024 pixels, codificando en 12 bits, pudiendo ser el mismo operado en forma remota. En esta reunión presentaremos algunas de las observaciones realizadas durante la puesta a punto del instrumento en el período julio-setiembre de 1997. Asimismo expondremos cómo y por qué sus resultados complementarán a los de su par en el espacio.

  14. Argentina: Camino del desendeudamiento. 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Nemiña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza las transformaciones de la política financiera en la Argentina durante el período 1991-2011. Para ello, se estudian las principales acciones del Estado orientadas a enfrentar la problemática de la deuda pública y el financiamiento, así como las relaciones establecidas con el sector financiero y el FMI. La evolución de la política financiera argentina resalta uno de los contrapuntos más sobresalientes entre el período de la convertibilidad vigente hasta 2001 y la etapa posterior. El régimen de convertibilidad implicó el sostenimiento de una moneda nacional sobrevaluada, la cual determinó el progresivo incremento de la deuda pública y alentó el proceso de financiarización de la economía. En cambio, el régimen de la posconvertibilidad, apoyado en el mantenimiento de un tipo de cambio competitivo junto al superávit fiscal y comercial, ha contribuido a promover la actividad productiva por sobre la financiera. Esto, junto a la reestructuración de la deuda, ha permitido sostener un proceso de reducción gradual del endeudamiento público en términos relativos, liberando recursos para fomentar el mercado interno. Consecuentemente, con posterioridad a 2002 se observa una erosión de la capacidad de condicionamiento estructural sobre la dinámica del crecimiento de los acreedores, el FMI, y el sector financiero en general, en simultáneo con la obtención de mayores grados de autonomía financiera por parte del Gobierno Nacional. Finalmente, se analizan los desafíos que impone la crisis internacional a la continuación de este sendero.

  15. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Canoba, A.; Czerniczyniec, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a- 1. (Bq.m -3 ) -1 , which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m -3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  16. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina; Las multiples aplicaciones de la tecnologia nuclear en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini, Alberto C [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa de Radioisotopos y Aplicaciones

    2001-07-01

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed.

  17. A Tenebrionid beetle's dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, Germán H; Flores, Gustavo E; Román, Nicolás Martínez; Podestá, Darío; Mazzanti, Renato; Miyashiro, Lidia

    2013-12-18

    The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005-2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET). The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/). Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina), also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT

  18. Environmental suitability for Lutzomyia longipalpis in a subtropical city with a recently established visceral leishmaniasis transmission cycle, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrozpe, Pablo; Lamattina, Daniela; Santini, María Soledad; Araujo, Analía Vanesa; Utgés, María Eugenia; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic disease in northeastern Argentina including the Corrientes province, where the presence of the vector and canine cases of VL were recently confirmed in December 2008. The objective of this study was to assess the modelling of micro- and macro-habitat variables to evaluate the urban environmental suitability for the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis presence and abundance in an urban scenario. Sampling of 45 sites distributed throughout Corrientes city (Argentina) was carried out using REDILA-BL minilight traps in December 2013. The sampled specimens were identified according to methods described by Galati (2003). The analysis of variables derived from the processing of satellite images (macro-habitat variables) and from the entomological sampling and surveys (micro-habitat variables) was performed using the statistical software R. Three generalised linear models were constructed composed of micro- and macro-habitat variables to explain the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lu. longipalpis and one composed of micro-habitat variables to explain the occurrence of the vector. A total of 609 phlebotominae belonging to five species were collected, of which 56% were Lu. longipalpis. In addition, the presence of Nyssomyia neivai and Migonemya migonei, which are vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis, were also documented and represented 34.81% and 6.74% of the collections, respectively. The explanatory variable normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) described the abundance distribution, whereas the presence of farmyard animals was important for explaining both the abundance and the occurrence of the vector. The results contribute to the identification of variables that can be used to establish priority areas for entomological surveillance and provide an efficient transfer tool for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases.

  19. Hyperiid amphipods around the seamounts and islands off northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Sampaio de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Data collected on large-scale surveys around the seamounts and islands off northeastern Brazil provide information on the hyperiid amphipod populations. Thirty-six species were identified. Most of the species belong to the Infraorder Physocephalata, representing 21 genera and 13 families. Thirteen species (Vibilia australis, L. latissimus, L. macrophthalmus, L. schizogeneios, Phronima atlantica, Phrosina semilunata, Primno brevidens, Eupronoe minuta, Oxycephalus clause, Rhabdosoma whitei, Amphithyrus bispinosus, Leptocotis tenuirostris and Tetrathyrus forcipatus have not previously been recorded in this region. The spatial distribution of the hyperiid amphipods was very patchy. Each area of these amounts and islands off northeastern Brazil has different oceanographic features and can be characterised by a clearly defined group of most abundant species.

  20. Opisthorchiasis in Northeastern Thailand: Effect of local environment and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchiasis is a kind of trematode infection. This parasitic infestation is a chronic hepatobiliary tract infection and can cause chronic irritation that will finally lead to cholangiocarcinoma. It is highly endemic in northeastern region of Thailand and contributes to many cholangiocarcinoma cases annually. The attempt to control the disease becomes a national policy. However, the sanitation becomes a major underlying factor leading to infection and meanwhile, the poverty and low education of the local people become an important concern. In this opinion, the authors discuss the effect of local environment and culture on opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand. Due to the pattern change of local environment, global warming and globalization, the dynamicity can be observed.

  1. Optimization of Northeastern Region First-Graders’ Adaptation to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Yakimchuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the adaptation of the children in the northeastern region of Russia to school. In the article the influence of the extreme environmental conditions on the health of the children living in the Magadan region, which is an additional factor influencing the success of the child’s adaptation to the changing conditions of life, is proven; the recommendations to optimize the process of adaptation that enhance the adaptive opportunities of first-graders are provided.

  2. Northeastern conifer research: Multiple species and multiple values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; John C. Brissette; Richard W. Judd

    2014-01-01

    The northern conifer, or spruce-fir, forest of the northeastern USA and adjacent Canada has had a defining influence on the economy and culture of the region. The same can be said of the USDA Forest Service’s research in this forest, which began more than 100 years ago. Forest Service research has evolved since that time in response to changes in the needs and...

  3. Bryophytes as indicators of radiocesium deposition in northeastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Nimis, P.L.; Bolognini, G.; Padovani, R.; Usco, A.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of moss carpets growing in forest vegetation have been used to map radioactive fallout in northeastern Italy. The main factors affecting data variability are the inclination of the carpets, water absorbing power, and their thickness. The best suited bioindicator proved to be Ctenidium molluscum. The results indicate that these carpets were able to intercept most of the radiocesium deposited after the Chernobyl accident, and that the removal half-time in the survey area is of circa 46 months

  4. New Geothermal Prospect in North-Eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Rimi, Abdelkrim; Correia, António; Carneiro, Júlio; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine; Lucazeau, Francis; Boughriba, Mimoun; Barkaoui, Alae Eddine

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal data has been indicating promising potentialities in the north-eastern Morocco. This paperpresents new temperature data, recently recorded in water borehole located in the Berkane and Oujda areas. Generally, the observed temperature gradients are rather high. One hole near Berkane, revealed an average geothermal gradient of more than 110 ºC/km at depths greater than 300 m. This result confirms the geothermal gradient estimated in a mining borehole located about 30 km west ...

  5. Opisthorchiasis in Northeastern Thailand: Effect of local environment and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a kind of trematode infection. This parasitic infestation is a chronic hepatobiliary tract infection and can cause chronic irritation that will finally lead to cholangiocarcinoma. It is highly endemic in northeastern region of Thailand and contributes to many cholangiocarcinoma cases annually. The attempt to control the disease becomes a national policy. However, the sanitation becomes a major underlying factor leading to infection and meanwhile, the poverty ...

  6. Study of Water Quality in Rural Regions of Northeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Nazemi; Jaber Yeganeh; Shima Mohammad Khani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Providing Safe drinking water is a prime concerninany community. This analytical study was carried out to evaluate the microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of northeastern Iran. Methods: The water microbial quality was determined in all villages (a population of 53047 people), in 3 rounds and based on 3 measurements, i.e. Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and Heterotrophic Plate Count. Census method was used for studying water distribution system too. Results: Re...

  7. Geophysical survey at archaeological sites in northeastern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mateiciucová, Inna; Milo, Peter; Tencer, Tomáš; Vlach, Marek

    2011-01-01

    From August 25 to September 4, 2008, geophysical surveys were carried out at the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tell- and non-tell settlements in the Khabur region in Northeastern Syria (Syrian-Polish-Czech expedition) (Fig. 1). Four sites were prospected: Tell Arbid Abyad, Tell Arbid (West-hill), Khirbet Shane, Khirbet Bezi. The Scintrex Navmag SM-5 – Caesium Magnetometer was used for the measurement of the vertical gradient of the local magnetic field. The measurement resoluti...

  8. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  9. A Argentina depois da conversibilidade: um caso de novo-desenvolvimentismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moreira Cunha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the economic recovery in post-Convertibility Argentina. We try to identify if there are evidences to support the suggestion that Argentina could be an example of the so-called "new developmentalism".

  10. The culture of milk in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aguirre

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the culture of milk and it includes both the micro social aspects of household consumption and the economic macro aspects related to milk production and their market and the welfare distribution in public policies against poverty. The hypothesis is that in Argentina there is a real culture of milk, which gives meaning to consumption, and marks the different income groups within society, as well as their gender and age. But since approximately 20 years ago, in accordance with the restructuring of the dairy industrial complex, that culture of milk has been changing, and its most outstanding features are the following: abandonment of milk as the emblematic food for children and its extension to the adult “formal” consumption; milk is no longer the knowledge of women and becomes the knowledge of experts; increase in milk consumption (dairy products in general as food gets feminine, infantile, medicated, globalised and segmented.Este artículo sobre la cultura de la leche analiza los aspectos microsociales del consumo en el hogar y los aspectos macro de la economía que hacen a la industria lactea y al mercado junto a la distribución asistencial del estado en los programas contra la pobreza. La hipótesis es que en Argentina existe una verdadera cultura de la leche, que da sentido al consumo, marcando con el alimento los diferentes sectores de ingreso de la sociedad, los géneros y las edades. Pero desde hace aproximadamente 20 años, en consonancia con la reconversión del complejo industrial lácteo, esta cultura de la leche esta cambiando, se describen sus aspectos mas salientes tales como : el abandono de la leche como alimento emblemático de los niños y su extensión al consumo “formal” adulto ; deja de ser un alimento rutinario cuyo saber usar residía en las mujeres y su uso pase a ser cosa de especialistas ; a medida se feminiza, infantiliza, medicaliza, globaliza y segmenta la alimentación en general

  11. Human papillomavirus cervical infection in Guarani Indians from the rainforest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Sergio Andrés; Picconi, María Alejandra; Zinovich, Jorge Bruno; Nardari, Wanda; Mampaey, Mariana; Badano, Inés; Di Lello, Federico; Galuppo, Juan Antonio; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Teyssie, Angélica Rita

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection in women from the South American Guarani Indian tribe located in the rain forest of Misiones, north-eastern Argentina; a region with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma. A cross-sectional cytological and HPV screening of sexually active Guarani women from nine Indian settlements was conducted. Demographic data, information about sexual behavior, and gynaecological history were recorded. Fresh cervical specimens from 239 patients were collected, of which 207 were included in this study. Cytology and microbiological detection were carried out by the Papanicolaou and Gram stain methods, respectively. HPV detection and typing were analyzed by PCR and RFLP. Pap smears in 96% of all patients showed an inflammatory pattern. A possible etiologic agent was found in 58% of cases: 52% Trichomonas vaginalis, 35% Gardnerella vaginalis and 13% Candida sp. Seven cases had cytological changes compatible with Low Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (LGSIL), one with High Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) and one in situ cervical cancer. The prevalence for generic HPV infection was 64% (133/207). Genotyping gave a 26% prevalence for HPV types 16/18, 13% for types 6/11 and 30% for other types, with nine mixed infections. This work reports for the first time the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in Guarani women. Nearly all Guarani women had some grade of cervical disease. Generic HPV infection prevalence was elevated (64%), with predominance of high risk types 16/18. A large variety of viral types was detected, including high to intermediate risk types not found previously in the region.

  12. Precious metal-bearing epithermal deposits in western Patagonia (NE Lago Fontana region), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchini, Mabel Elena; Etcheverry, Ricardo Oscar; de Barrio, Raúl Ernesto; Recio Hernández, Clemente

    2013-04-01

    Precious metal-bearing quartz veins occur at the northeastern sector of the Lago Fontana region in southwestern Argentina, within the context of the Andean continental magmatic arc environment. The deposits and their associated alteration zones are spatially related to a Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism represented by silicic dikes and hypabyssal intrusions, and hosted by a Late Jurassic to Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence. The veins and related veinlets crop out discontinuously, in general terms in a NW-SE belt. The primary vein mineral assemblage is composed mostly of pyrite ± galena ± chalcopyrite > hematite ± arsenopyrite in silica gangue minerals. Chemical analyses of grab samples from selected quartz veins show as much as 5.7 ppm Au and 224 ppm Ag, as well as elevated Pb, Cu, and Zn. Hydrothermal fluids caused an innermost silicification and adularia-sericite alteration assemblage, and an external propylitic halo. Sulfur isotope values measured for sulfides (δSS from -1.90 to +1.56‰), and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes measured on quartz crystals and extracted primary fluid inclusion waters (δOO = -2.85 to +5.40‰; δDO = -106.0 to -103.4‰) indicate that mineralization probably formed from magmatic fluids, which were mixed with meteoric waters. Also, fluid inclusion data from quartz veins point out that these fluids had low salinity (1.7-4.2 wt% NaCl equiv.), and temperatures of homogenization between 180 and 325 °C. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical features for mineralized surface exposures indicate a typical adularia-sericite, low sulfidation epithermal system in the Lago Fontana area that represents a promising target for further exploration programs.

  13. A pilot programme for the detection of neonatal hypothyroidism in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmasch, M.; Fontana, O.; Velazquez, B.; Straface, R.

    1986-01-01

    The CNEA (Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission) is engaged in a pilot programme with a view to adapting the procedures used in the developing countries, demonstrating the clinical value of mass-scale detection and transferring the methodology developed to medical care centres, where its application could be extended to cover the whole population. For this purpose, the authors selected six zones in Argentina with different geographical and epidemiological characteristics: (1) Greater Buenos Aires, with its stable local population, plus a contribution from the population migrating from within the country; (2) a maritime zone; (3) a north-eastern zone: midland and lowland; (4) a north-western zone; (5) a western zone; (6) a south-western zone; the three last provinces of the Cordillera are classed as endemic goitre zones. The method of detection selected was radioimmunoassay of human thyrotrophic hormone (TSH) in whole blood samples absorbed on paper, using commercial kits designed for neonatal measurement. Statistical studies were made to optimize the time of extraction of the blood sample with allowance for the fact that in the countryside discharge of the new-born child from the hospital frequently occurs within 24 hours. A major percentage of new-born children with suspicious TSH values due to perinatal pathology, through lack of pre-natal care, was observed in the population lacking resources and health insurance. In order to facilitate the follow-up of the hypothyroid children the measurement of thyroid hormones in serum using the RIA laboratories available in each of the regions was initiated. As a result, the pilot programme has brought to light 11 hypothyroids out of the 14,574 new-born babies studied; a very high incidence was observed in the endemic goitre zones

  14. Emplacement, petrological and magnetic susceptibility characteristics of diverse magmatic epidote-bearing granitoid rocks in Brazil, Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, A. N.; Toselli, A. J.; Saavedra, J.; Parada, M. A.; Ferreira, V. P.

    1999-03-01

    Magmatic epidote (mEp)-bearing granitoids from five Neoproterozoic tectonostratigraphic terranes in Northeastern (NE) Brazil, Early Palaeozoic calc-alkalic granitoids in Northwestern (NW) Argentina and from three batholiths in Chile have been studied. The elongated shape of some of these plutons suggests that magmas filled fractures and that dyking was probably the major mechanism of emplacement. Textures reveal that, in many cases, epidote underwent partial dissolution by host magma and, in these cases, may have survived dissolution by relatively rapid upward transport by the host magma. In plutons where such a mechanism is not evident, unevenly distributed epidote at outcrop scale is armoured by biotite or near-solidus K-feldspar aggregates, which probably grew much faster than epidote dissolution, preventing complete resorption of epidote by the melt. Al-in-hornblende barometry indicates that, in most cases, amphibole crystallized at P≥5 kbar. Kyanite-bearing thermal aureoles surrounding plutons that intruded low-grade metamorphic rocks in NE Brazil support pluton emplacement at intermediate to high pressure. mEp show overall chemical variation from 20 to 30 mol% (mole percent) pistacite (Ps) and can be grouped into two compositional ranges: Ps 20-24 and Ps 27-30. The highest Ps contents are in epidotes of plutons in which hornblende solidified under Pcorrosion of individual epidote crystals included in plagioclase in high-K calc-alkalic granitoids in NE Brazil, emplaced at 5-7 kbar pressure, yielded estimates of magma transport rate from 70 to 350 m year -1. Most of these plutons lack Fe-Ti oxide minerals and Fe +3 is mostly associated with the epidote structure. Consequently, magnetic susceptibility (MS) in the Neoproterozoic granitoids in NE Brazil, as well as Early Palaeozoic plutons in Argentina and Late Palaeozoic plutons in Chile, is usually low (3.0×10 -3 SI, typical of magnetite-series granitoids crystallized under higher oxygen fugacity. In NE

  15. Response to state comments on the revised draft northeastern regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the States of the Northeastern Region on the revised draft Northeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Northeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Northeastern State comments on both the revised draft Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  16. Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands : Case studies on water management issues in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Morabito, J.A.; Rebori, G.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina parts of the country have problems encountered from too much water or suffer serious water shortages. The Humid Pampas encounter an increased rainfall since the 1970’s. In Mendoza Province water resources are limited and all the water from the rivers is used for agriculture, drinking

  17. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... ;D=APHIS-2010-0032. The first commenter acknowledged Argentina's history of successful Medfly control...] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Southern and Central Oases in the southern half of Mendoza Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for...

  18. 76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... acknowledged Argentina's history of successful Medfly control efforts, but stated that APHIS should not relax...] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments AGENCY: Animal and Plant... received a request from the Government of Argentina to recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for...

  19. Economy-wide impacts of biofuels in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Chisari, Omar O.; Romero, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is one of the world's largest biodiesel producers and the largest exporter, using soybeans as feedstock. Using a computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents the biofuel industry, this study carries out several simulations on two sets of issues: (i) international markets for biofuel and feedstock, such as an increase in prices of soybean, soybean oil, and biodiesel, and (ii) domestic policies related to biofuels, such as an introduction of biofuel mandates. Both sets of issues can have important consequences to the Argentinean economy. The simulations indicate that increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstocks would increase Argentina's gross domestic product and social welfare. Increases in international prices of ethanol and corn also can benefit Argentina, but to a lesser extent. The domestic mandates for biofuels, however, would cause small losses in economic output and social welfare because they divert part of biodiesel and feedstock from exports to lower-return domestic consumption. An increase in the export tax on either feedstock or biodiesel also would lead to a reduction in gross domestic product and social welfare, although government revenue would rise. - Highlights: ► Argentina is one of the largest biodiesel producer and exporter using soybeans. ► Economy-wide impacts are assessed using a CGE model for Argentina. ► Policies simulated are feedstock and biodiesel price change, and domestic mandates. ► Increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstock benefit the country. ► Domestic mandates for biofuels cause small losses in economic output

  20. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedadesy las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espacio. Son movimientos queentienden lo individual y lo colectivo como vinculados entre sí. Hay mucho en común entre la experiencia en la Argentina y las prácticas eideas anarquistas. Eso no significa que los que están creando nuevas relaciones y comunidades en la Argentina sean anarquistas. Lo que este artículo intenta hacer es basarse en las experiencias de los movimientos sociales argentinos para iniciar una reflexión sobre lasprácticas e ideas que los anarquistas pueden prestar a los distintos movimientos y comunidades autónomas; y, a su vez, sobre lo que los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina puede dar a las ideas y prácticas anarquistas.

  1. Discussion of oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Oil pollution in Argentina, at the port of Comodora Rivadavia showed signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked ''tideline'' of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the intertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recreational area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil.

  2. El MERCOSUR y la Realidad Argentina 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Agramunt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Argentina está creciendo fuertemente pero no logra trasladar similar tendencia a sus relaciones comerciales con el exterior. Su competitividad internacional, medida a partir de las capacidades de sus empresas para sostener o ganar mercados internacionales, no es similar a la de otros países del MERCOSUR y por el contrario pierde ventajas a medida que pasan los años. El proceso integrador del MERCOSUR no es causa de dicho debilitamiento sino que, por el contrario y como lo demuestra el desarrollo de otros países del bloque, puede ser un factor crítico para ayudar a mejorar la creación de comercio. Sin embargo, el bloque está sufriendo tensiones que le impiden crecer y consolidarse más y mejor a lo largo de los años. Esta situación afecta al país, ya que se le restan posibilidades de aprovechar dicha ventaja como lo supo hacer en las primeras etapas por medio del efecto de “desvío de comercio”. Los esfuerzos cotidianos de los hombres de negocios para hacer posible un MERCOSUR más fuerte y con menos tensiones, a partir de acciones continuas y permanentes, deben ser acompañados por acciones políticas en igual sentido y resolución pronta y justa de las tensiones internas

  3. Status of RERTR activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Pasqualini, E.; Echenique, P.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H.

    2003-01-01

    CNEA, the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina, has defined development and fabrication activities related with the main fields of the RERTR program. This includes the qualification of high-density fuels for research reactors, the production of radioisotopes from LEU targets and the reduction of the HEU inventory. This paper continues previous presentations in past RERTR meetings and summarizes the main activities performed in these fields during 2002- 2003 and future works. The main part of the CNEA U 3 Si 2 Qualification Program will be completed within this year. The irradiation of the first fuel element was finished and the activities are mainly focused on its PIE works. Regarding the UMo field, development works to provide support for fuel plate fabrication process and to improve understanding of UMo-Al interaction are on progress. Depending on the results of the fuel plate fabrication setup, the manufacturing of full size FE for UMo qualification program could take place during 2004. A program related with the UMo monolithic fuel is also in progress. In the radioisotopes field LEU targets have replaced HEU-Al alloy targets for routine Mo-99 production since November 2002. CNEA approach to minimize the Argentine HEU inventory is also presented (author)

  4. [Insulin and diabetes control in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Costa Gil, José E; Faingold, María C; Litwak, León; Fuente, Graciela V

    2013-01-01

    As in the rest of the world, there is a significant gap between scientific knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus and the daily practice outcome, in Argentina. Inadequate diabetes control combined with associated cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for an elevated morbid-mortality incidence and the consequent raise in the socioeconomic burden. Some of the factors leading to this situation are the late diagnosis of the disease, the clinical "inertia" (reluctance to prescribe insulin) and the poor education given to the health care team as well as the persons with diabetes. The implementation of a national diabetologic education program targeting health care providers, the persons with diabetes and their families, could contribute to optimize the appropriate insulin prescription, and consequently improve their life quality, while reducing the disease socioeconomic burden. In order to optimize the education program's strategy outcome, insulinization cabinets should be incorporated, the participation of all health systems (public health, social security and private health insurance companies), the media, health sciences, schools and the pharmaceutical industry are needed.

  5. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  6. Argentina's chemical makers seek government support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, F.

    1993-01-01

    Argentina's chemical industry association, Camara de la Industria Quimica y Petroquimica (CIQYP; Buenos Aires), has started negotiations with the government aiming to stem industry-wide losses, which reached $236 million during the past 18 months. CIQYP blames the poor performance on worldwide over-supply and falling prices, which have curbed exports, and low tariffs, which have spurred imports. It is calling for higher import tariffs and export incentives. The talks will also focus on a possible bond issue that would support companies willing to restructure and modernize operations. The main factor hindering competitiveness is what CIQYP president Alejandro Achaval calls Argentinean cost, including high energy costs, high provincial and federal taxes, and high financing charges. Since 1988, the industry has cut prices by 30%, formed mergers and joint ventures, closed 11 plants and started five new ones, slashed the workforce by 27%, and engaged in the government's privatization program. Meanwhile, plans to privatize 64% of aromatics producer Petroquimica General Mosconi(PGM) were derailed when potential bidders Diamond Shamrock, Shell, and Perez Companc refused for the second time to make offers on February 2. Jorge Olazabal, planning secretary of the Ministry of Defense, says PGM will be put up for sale again by March

  7. El derecho del autor asalariado en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto H. L. Arduino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El autor contratado bajo relación de dependencia laboral en la Argentina no se encuentra regulado en la legislación sobre derecho de autor. La ley número 11723 no contempla la figura, y la reforma de la ley número 25.036 en su art. 2 solo hace referencia a los programas de computación realizados en virtud de un contrato laboral. No obstante, la ley de patentes número 24481 modificada por ley número 24572, ha regulado la cuestión de los derechos de explotación de patentes de invención, mediando relación contractual. Asimismo se ha regulado en ley número 20.744 lo relativo a las invenciones del trabajador. En la ley de patentes de invención se regula la situación del inventor contratado o asalariado. El derecho laboral y la propiedad intelectual en general, y en particular el derecho de autor son de naturaleza diversa y tienen regulaciones específicas con principios jurídicos propios. Por ello, se abordará cada temática desde su generalidad a fin de arribar al tratamiento del problema planteado.

  8. docentes de escuelas públicas argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lía Kornblit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los datos de una encuesta a docentes de escuelas públicas de Argentina que realizaron el curso virtual dictado por el Programa de Educación Sexual Integral del Ministerio de Educación. El objetivo fue analizar las opiniones, creencias y actitudes de los docentes sobre temas relacionados a la sexualidad, el derecho al aborto, la diversidad sexual, la equidad de género y el género y la sexualidad. La muestra del estudio estuvo compuesta por 585 docentes. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron métodos multivariantes. Los resultados muestran que los estereotipos relacionados con el sexismo y la diversidad sexual varían considerablemente en cuanto a su repre- sentación estadística según las regiones del país. Por lo tanto, el mapa de las con- cepciones de los docentes sobre estos temas muestra una marcada heterogeneidad según regiones geográficas.

  9. Deep geological disposal research in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninci Martinez, Carlos A.; Ferreyra, Raul E.; Vullien, Alicia R.; Elena, Oscar; Lopez, Luis E.; Maloberti, Alejandro; Nievas, Humberto O.; Reyes, Nancy C.; Zarco, Juan J.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Maset, Elvira R.; Jolivet, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    Argentina shall require a deep geological repository for the final disposal of radioactive wastes, mainly high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel produced at two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. In the period 1980-1990 the first part of feasibility studies and a basic engineering project for a radioactive high level waste repository were performed. From the geological point of view it was based on the study of granitic rocks. The area of Sierra del Medio, Province of Chubut, was selected to carry out detailed geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies. Nevertheless, by the end of the eighties the project was socially rejected and CNEA decided to stop it at the beginning of the nineties. That decision was strongly linked with the little attention paid to social communication issues. Government authorities were under a strong pressure from social groups which demanded the interruption of the project, due to lack of information and the fear it generated. The lesson learned was: social communication activities shall be carried out very carefully in order to advance in the final disposal of HLW at deep geological repositories (author)

  10. [Governance of PHC development in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto; Yavich, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Describing the development of PHC policy as promoted by Rosario Municipality (Argentina). A case-study was carried out during 2007 and 2008. Data was collected from secondary and primary sources (interviews, organisational census and observations). PHC development stages were identified by recognising the social norms which produced institutional change and transformation in municipal health services structure and health care and management models. The prevailing modes of governance in each stage were reconognised and characterised (clan, hierarchy and/or incentives). Four stages were identified between 1990 and 2008: 1990-1995/hierarchical mode: primary health care level organisation autonomied from hospitals. 1995-2000/ clan mode: developing of participatory managerial boards and community participation. 2000-2004/ clan mode: maturation of the "PHC movement" in competition with hospitals. 2004-2008/ clan-hierarchical mode: "movement's" crisis and constructions of norms tending towards enhancing an integrated network. Strengthening and empowering first-level health-care produced innovation favouring: the consolidation of a "PHC movement" having strong social commitment and improved services performance. The clan governance mode (regulating collective action via voluntary adhesion to shared values) was crucial for developing PHC between 1995 and 2004. Later on, the movement's fragmentation and the challenges of integrating the health system required developing hierarchical regulation mechanisms to complement the governance clan mode regulation.

  11. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  12. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  13. Natural radionuclides in drinking water in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, A.M.; Palacios, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of natural uranium and 226 Ra have been analyzed in over 300 drinking water samples taken from different locations in Argentina. 226 Ra was determined by 222 Rn emanation and liquid scintillation counting, and natural uranium by a fluorimetric procedure. Values ranging from 0.03 to 24 μg.l -1 of natural uranium and from 0.06 to 50 μg.l -1 , were measured on drinking water samples taken from tap water systems and private wells, respectively. Concentrations up to 15 mBq.l -1 and to 22 mBq.l -1 of 226 Ra were found in drinking water samples taken from tap water systems and private wells, respectively. These values are compared with the reference values accepted for drinking water. Based on the water intake rate, the age distribution and the measured concentrations, an annual collective effective dose of 1.9 man Sv and an individual committed effective dose of 0.49 μSv.y -1 were calculated for the city of Buenos Aires adult inhabitants, for the ingestion of both natural radionuclides analyzed in drinking water. (author)

  14. Observatorios de Desarrollo Territorial Sustentable Mendoza, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elina Gudiño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El observatorio de Desarrollo territorial Sustentable para Mendoza, Argentina surge en el marco de la ley 8051/09 de Ordenamiento Territorial y Usos del Suelo. Se trata de una herramienta de comunicación para la validación y el monitoreo de indicadores, políticas, planes, programas y proyectos de índole territorial. El marco teórico-metodológico se sustenta en los principios del ordenamiento territorial y el enfoque de sistemas complejos adaptativos. La estructura se diseña en una plataforma tecnológica que permite estandarizar datos, sistematizar información, construir indicadores territoriales y publicar cartografía. Una vez logrado el prototipo, se conforma “Red Territorio” como modelo de gestión que permite interactuar entre instituciones del sector público, privado, científico y ONG. Actualmente, se está trabajando en la vinculación con las instituciones que formarán parte de la experiencia piloto de Red territorio y en el ajuste de la plataforma informática que le dará sustento.

  15. Medical response to radiation emergencies in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.; Dubner, Diana L.; Michelin, Severino C.; Vazquez, M.; Demayo, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although radiation accidents are not frequent, the increasing use of radioisotopes in medicine and industry increases the likelihood of such accidental situations. Additionally, risks posed by the malevolent use of radiation sources have been highlighted during the last few years. In this context, the enhancement of national capabilities for medical assistance of victims in radiation emergencies becomes relevant. This communication describes the organization of medical response to radiation emergencies existing in Argentina. A three-level system for medical response has been developed: pre-hospital response given on-site by local emergency services, assistance provided by emergency departments of local general hospitals and central reference hospitals for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, cutaneous radiation syndrome and internal contamination. An education and training program is regularly executed at the three levels, including theoretical background as well as practical training. Guidelines and protocols for medical handling of victims have been elaborated and implemented. Research and development of new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries are promoted by ARN in close collaboration with physicians belonging to reference hospitals. (author)

  16. el sistema de salud en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Abramovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the new disparities and inequities which emerged from the health reforms in Argentina form the 1990´s, it appears the need to guarantee the health as a right. As a consequence, an important judicial activism begins to unfold in order to achieve greater guarantees in matters of health. Here, judicial activism refers to the strategic use of the law courts by organizations dedicated to the struggle of public interest and to the use of the law courts by private individuals to channel the complaints against the State or against health service providing companies. At present, both the Supreme National Court of Justice and the lower courts have dealt with an important number of cases related to the right to health. In the cases selected in this article, we analyze the type of conflict and the judicial answer, together with the possible effects of certain court decisions about the rules that govern the health system as finally conformed

  17. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province. We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and together with Bipalium kewense are the only 2 species of exotic terrestrial planarians so far recorded in Argentina.La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea se registra para el centro este de Argentina (provincia de Buenos Aires, en ambientes antropizados. Los ejemplares encontrados presentan las características de la especie registrada en otras regiones, con una superficie dorsal azulada y una hilera medio dorsal amarilla, y ojos formando una hilera alrededor del extremo anterior, agrupados lateralmente. Es la primera vez que se cita dicha especie en la Región Neotropical, y junto a Bipalium kewense son las únicas planarias terrestres exóticas registradas en Argentina.

  18. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and container productivity measured using pupal and Stegomyia indices in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Weinberg, D; Coto, H D; Gaspe, M S; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with approximately 2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65-84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline.

  19. Biotechnology in Argentina: New products, new multilateral challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M. Donadio Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 20 years ago, a public-private alliance has transformed Argentina into a remarkable global actor in developing biotechnological products for food and renewable energies. This strategic alliance resulted in the boosting of scientific knowledge, the extension of the production boundary, the expansion of international trade and the creation of the conditions for an integral development. Furthermore, given the characteristics of biotechnology as a new phenomenon, wto has become the field within where a number of disputes take place, disputes which not only controvert trade issues, but also the State’s limits to design and apply public policies on the matter at issue. As a consequence, the present article seeks to, on the one hand, describe how Argentina built its public policy on Biotechnology and, on the other hand, analyze the challenges that Argentina faces within the multilateral trade system

  20. Tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios universitarios en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Agazzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es una investigación descriptiva que pretende conocer las tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios en las bibliotecas universitarias argentinas, abordando el tema desde la perspectiva de las competencias laborales y el actual perfil del bibliotecario universitario. Mediante la utilización de un cuestionario enviado a las direcciones de e-mail de bibliotecas universitarias argentinas se compilaron datos sobre las tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios en esas instituciones. A través de este proceso también se compilaron datos relacionados con las tareas de comunicación vía e-mail por parte de las bibliotecas universitarias argentinas.

  1. The regulatory control of radioactive sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkind, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Argentina has been conducting nuclear activities for more than forty years, and had established a Regulatory Authority as early as in 1956. Procedures for compliance monitoring and enforcement have been in use in the regulatory control of radioactive sources, and regulatory standards and regulations were in force in Argentina before the accident in Goiania. The conclusions drawn from the Goiania accident encouraged the Argentine authorities to improve some regulatory procedures and helped to enhance the quality of the regulatory process. As a result, the effectiveness of the control of spent radioactive sources has gradually increased, and enforcement actions to prevent radioactive sources ending up in the public domain have improved. Lessons learned in Argentina from the accident in Goiania are presented as well as the main characteristics of an effective enforcement programme to prevent radiological accidents when radioactive sources are used for industrial, medical, research and teaching purposes. (author)

  2. Tribulations and achievements: the early history of Olympism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century, modern sport had enchanted the people of Argentina. At that time the nation enjoyed a remarkable degree of economic prosperity and embarked on increasing political democratization. These circumstances, along with the fact that the nation was represented from the beginning, in 1894, on the International Olympic Committee seemed to favour Argentina as the spearhead of the diffusion of Olympism throughout South America. However, the country only enjoyed its first official Olympic participation in the Paris Games of 1924 - a few months after the establishment of the Argentine Olympic Committee. This essay explores the reception and diffusion of Olympism in Argentina. It reveals a process of gradual adoption including conflicting views on the relationship between the state and sport, several attempts at institutionalization, international misunderstandings and the role of politics and class.

  3. Psychotherapy in Argentina: a clinical case from an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Beatriz

    2007-08-01

    The article describes psychotherapy practice in Argentina. It outlines the main features of training and regulation of clinical psychologists. A brief description of the main treatment approaches and the major current challenges is presented. Subsequently it delineates the probable treatment locations and options for a 30-year-old woman, Mrs. A, seeking psychological help in Argentina. The case is then considered from an integrative perspective starting with the intake process, which includes a comprehensive pretreatment assessment followed by the treatment plan. Its course is described as composed of four stages: (1) psychoeducational initial intervention, (2) psychotherapy for symptom alleviation, (3) marital treatment, and (4) psychoeducational final intervention. Posttreatment evaluation and possible outcome and prognosis are presented, as well as factors that might prevent improvement. The article ends with a hopeful view of the future role of psychotherapy in Argentina. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Brasil, Argentina e América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE trabalho discute alguns aspectos da evolução econômica recente do Brasil, da Argentina e de outros países da América do Sul. Tendências econômicas e intelectuais perigosas, tais como a "globalização", o chamado Consenso de Washington, a dolarização e as negociações da Alca (Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, perderam ímpeto e a América do Sul está se movendo gradualmente na direção de um posicionamento mais independente na condução das suas política econômicas e internacionais. As mudanças foram muito mais significativas na Argentina do que no Brasil e isso se tornou fonte de alguma tensão entre os dois principais países sul-americanos. Não obstante, uma aliança estratégica entre Argentina e Brasil continua sendo a pedra angular da integração da América do Sul.THIS PAPER discusses some aspects of the recent economic evolution of Brazil, Argentina and other South American countries. Dangerous economic and intellectual trends, such as "globalization", the so-called Washington Consensus, dollarization, and FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, have lost momentum and South America is moving gradually towards a more independent stance in the conduct of its economic and foreign policies. Changes have been much more significant in Argentina than in Brazil and this has become a source of some tension between the two major South American countries. Nevertheless, a strategic alliance between Argentina and Brazil remains the corner stone of South American integration.

  5. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarupe, A; Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Kienast, M; Larsen, A; Stiebel, C; Rambeaud, M; Venturini, M C

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum). This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  6. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maité MASCIOCCHI; Jacqueline R. BEGGS; James M. CARPENTER; Juan C. CORLEY

    2010-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  7. First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Masciocchi, Maité; Beggs, Jacqueline R.; Carpenter, James M.; Corley, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  8. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité MASCIOCCHI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.

  9. Redefining the public sphere: self-managed schools in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Feldfeber, Myriam

    2003-01-01

    El Proyecto de las Escuelas Experimentales o Autogestionadas de la Provincia de San Luis adquiere sentido en el marco de la denominada Transformación Educativa y de las políticas desarrolladas en las últimas décadas en Argentina, que, al igual que en gran parte de los países latinoamericanos, han estado orientadas por discursos y prácticas tendientes a legitimar un nuevo modelo económico, social, político, cultural y educativo. La reforma educativa argentina de la década del '90 puede analiza...

  10. Forensic population data for 20 STR loci in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Borosky, Alicia; Toscanini, Ulises; Gómez, Andrea; Parolin, María Laura; Basso, Nestor Guillermo; Vullo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In order to provide useful information of forensic interest for the new markers included in the PowerPlex1 21 System (Promega Corp, USA), namely D1S1656, D6S1043 and D12S391, a population study was conducted in a sample of 907 unrelated healthy individuals from Argentina. Samples were randomly chosen from routine paternity testing. Blood samples or buccal swabs were collected after informed consent, taken from individuals of different urban populations from 7 provinces of Argentina: 464 indiv...

  11. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedades y las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espaci...

  12. A new genus of Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    ROIG-JUÑENT, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    Los Platynini constituyen un grupo de carábidos distribuidos ampliamente en América del Sur, existiendo la mayor diversidad de especies en las regiones tropicales de altura de Los Andes. En la Argentina y Chile, la mayoría de las especies de Platynini se hallan distribuidas en áreas extracordilleranas, conociéndose pocos datos para la región Andina. A partir de recolecciones realizadas en la Precordillera y Cordillera de los Andes en Mendoza (Argentina), se hallaron ejemplares pertenecientes ...

  13. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dellarupe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum. This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  14. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Argentina is a predominantly lowland area of 2,789,240 square kilometers. The capital is Buenos Aires. The entire length of Argentina is bordered on the west by the Andes Mountains. Tile Northwest Andes-Piedmont region consists of deep valleys containing salt basins and volcanoes, and is an earthquake zone. Patagonia, in the south, is essentially an arid region of windy plateaus and valleys. The southern Andes are narrower and lower than the northern Andes and in the extreme south contain glaciers and ice fields. The east-central plain (Pampa) of Argentina has dry and humid sectors and contains most of the population. The largest rivers are chiefly in the northeast, many having only seasonal flow. There has been extensive surface and subsurface exploration for uranium in Argentina for over 20 years. Although most of the work has been performed by the CNEA, advisors from the U.S. and from the IAEA have also taken part. Private industry has been involved, but apparently only on a small scale. In the OECD report of 1970, it was stated that 400,000 square kilometers of Argentina appear very favorable for uranium while an additional 900,000 square kilometers offer fair possibilities. Uranium exploration to date suggests that sandstones of Permian and Cretaceous ages exposed in Western Argentina in the Cordillera are very promising for discovery of new deposits. Past CNEA estimates have indicated that there is considerable hope for new discoveries in those areas where reserves are now known. In addition to the known uraniferous provinces which are indeed favorable for further exploration, there are several other large areas that warrant attention. There are, for example, in the Santa Cruz area of about 15,500 square kilometers Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments with favorable facies for uranium deposition. In the Patagonia Cordillera, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sediments are of interest for prospecting, These rocks contain carbonaceous material and have been

  15. Regional safeguards arrangements: The Argentina-Brazil experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.; Gonzales, H.L.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Vicens, H.

    1997-01-01

    A Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material (SCCC) was established by Argentina and Brazil in July 1992. It is a full scope safeguard's system in both countries. The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was created to apply the SCCC. The main elements of the SCCC are presented. The main safeguards' procedures are described. A brief discussion of the inspection methodology and its impact for facility operators is performed. The safeguard's implementation from the operator's point of view is commented, taking as example a fuel fabrication plant in Argentina and a uranium enrichment plant in Brazil. (author)

  16. Cultivos transgénicos en Argentina : mitos y realidades

    OpenAIRE

    Cantamutto, Miguel; Poverene, Mónica

    2003-01-01

    Cantamutto, M., Poverene, M. (2003). Cultivos transgénicos en Argentina: mitos y realidades. Redes, 10(20), 171-181. La producción creciente de cultivos transgénicos en la Argentina es observada con preocupación por la población debido a que aparecen cada vez más voces planteando dudas y amenazas acerca de las consecuencias del uso de esta tecnología, que incluso se atribuye a oscuras manipulaciones políticas. ¿Tienen fundamento esos conceptos? ¿A qué aspectos del uso de organismos genétic...

  17. Education and Dictatorship in Argentina 1976-1983

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Carolina

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo señala aspectos generales del autodenominado “Proceso” acaecido en Argentina (1976-1983). Se ofrecen evidencias de censura e imposición autoritaria en el sistema educativo. Asimismo, se explicitan elementos constitutivos de la educación personalizada perennialista y de la pedagogía de los valores que fue adoptada durante aquellos años. This article indicates general aspects of the self-styled "Process" occurred in Argentina (1976-1983). Evidence of censorship and authoritar...

  18. The other immigration to Argentina: the case of Adolf Eichmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cwik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolf Eichmann llegó a la Argentina como otros 500 Nazis forajidos a través de una red de traficantes ilegales de migrantes entre 1945 y 1955. Esta red fue el resuldado del interés de la República de Argentina, la Cruz Roja, la Caritas y el Vaticano por un lado y por el otro los delincuentes. Eichmann la cara de la ‘banalidad del mal’, como Hannah Arendt escribió en su libro “Eichmann en Jerusalén: un estudio sobre la banalidad del mal”(2ª. edición, traducción de Carlos Ribalta, Barcelona, Lumen, 1999 tuvo bastantes problemas para integrarse en la sociedad argentina y por ende, fracasó. Adolf Eichmann nacido en 1906 en Solingen/Alemania personificó un caractér típico de la sociedad en la posguerra austriaca-alemana, lo que hizo que fracasara en su vida laboral varias veces durante los veintes y los inicios de los treinta del siglo XX.Palabras Clave: Adolf Eichmann;  Holocausto; Tráfico Ilegal de Migrantes; Inmigración en Argentina; Peronismo; Tribunales Internacionales. La otra inmigración a Argentina: El caso de Adolf EichmannAbstractAdolf Eichmann arrived to Argentina along with other 500 runaway Nazis thorugh a smuggling network between 1945 and 1955. This network was the result of the interest shown by the The Republic of Argentina, the Red Cross, Caritas and the Vatican in one hand; in the other, the criminals of war. Eichmann, the face of Hanna Arendt’s t “Banality of Evil” had numerous troubles to integrate to argentinian society, failing as a result.Adolf Eichmann, born in 1906 in Solingen, Germany, personified a typical Austrian-german postwar character, a fact that conduced to his laboral failure in the twentys and early thirties of the twentieth century.Keywords:Adolf Eichmann; Holocaust; Nazi Criminals; Trafficking of migrants; Post War Period; Immigration to Argentina; Peronism; Mossad; International Tribunal. 

  19. Two new species of Psectrascelis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. FLORES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies del género Psectrascelis Solier (Pimeliinae: Nycteliini del oeste de Argentina, P. argentina sp. nov. a gran altitud en la Precordillera de San Juan y P. telteca sp. nov. en la llanura de Mendoza, y se las incluye en la clave mas reciente del género. Se proveen datos sobre la distribución y el hábitat, así como fotografías de los adultos y pronotos y dibujos de los genitalia masculinos.

  20. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)