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Sample records for hantavirus disease shenyang

  1. Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FIONAWANG

    2004-01-01

    Shenyang, the capital city of Liaoning Province has vowed to become the financial hub of the northeast by 2010. If the city succeeds in its ambitious plan of building itself up as the financial center of Northeast China,banking, insurance, stocks, shares and bonds business are set to witness robust growth with the opening of more branches and subsidiaries.

  2. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  3. Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening viral infection spread to humans by rodents. It has symptoms similar to influenza. ... Hantavirus is carried by rodents, especially deer mice. The virus is found in their urine and feces, but it does not make the animal sick. ...

  4. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gaweł, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-07-01

    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified.

  5. Hantavirus infections in The Netherlands: epidemiology and disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.G.M. Jordans; J.P.G. Clement; J.H.M. Nieuwenhuijs; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA serological survey for the prevalence of hantavirus infections in The Netherlands was carried out on > 10,000 sera, from selected human populations, and different feral and domestic animal species. Hantavirus-specific antibodies were found in about 1% of patients suspected of acute lep

  6. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  7. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Brocato, Rebecca L; Bell, Todd M; Schellhase, Christopher W; Mraz, Steven R; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2016-07-15

    Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract, alveolar macrophages are

  8. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  9. High Density Lipoprotein Phospholipids as a Marker of Coronary Heart Disease of Shen-Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping-qing (郭平清); LIN Qiu-cheng (林求诚); GUO Yin-geng (郭银庚); SHEN Zong-guo (沈宗国)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To seek a new biochemical index for diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD)of shen-Yang deficiency syndrom (CHD-SYD). Methods: Sixty-one patients with CHD were divided into 3 groups according to their TCM Syndrome type, 10 patients in the group without Xin-Qi deficiency (Group A), 25 in the group with Xin-Qi deficiency but without Shen-Yang deficiency (Group B) and 26 in the group both with Xin-Qi deficiency and Shen-Yang deficiency (Group C). Levels of 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid in urine (urinary 17-OHCS) per 24 hrs, and serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high density lipoprotein phospholipid (HDL-PL) in them were determined in synchrostep and compared with those in the control group of 23 healthy aged persons. urinary 17-OHCS per 24 hrs was taken as the diagnostic standard to screen a new index for diagnosis of Shen-Yang deficiency Syndrome, and preliminary appraisal to the index was made. Results: Serum HDL-PL in the CHD-SYD patients( Group C) was 616±157 mg/L, which was obviously lower than that in the patients of Group A and B. With low HDL-PL (<650 mg/L) used as the index to diagnose CHD-SYD, the sensitivity was 73%, the specificity 86% and the accuracy 80%. Conclusion: HDL-PL <650 mg/L could be adopted as an index for CHD-SYD diagnosis, which is simple and practical.

  10. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  11. Hantaviruses and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempa, B

    2009-06-01

    Most hantaviruses are rodent-borne emerging viruses. They cause two significant human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. Very recently, several novel hantaviruses with unknown pathogenic potential have been identified in Africa and in a variety of insectivores (shrews and a mole). Because there is very limited information available on the possible impact of climate change on all of these highly dangerous pathogens, it is timely to review this aspect of their epidemiology. It can reasonably be concluded that climate change should influence hantaviruses through impacts on the hantavirus reservoir host populations. We can anticipate changes in the size and frequency of hantavirus outbreaks, the spectrum of hantavirus species and geographical distribution (mediated by changes in population densities), and species composition and geographical distribution of their reservoir hosts. The early effects of global warming have already been observed in different geographical areas of Europe. Elevated average temperatures in West-Central Europe have been associated with more frequent Puumala hantavirus outbreaks, through high seed production (mast year) and high bank vole densities. On the other hand, warm winters in Scandinavia have led to a decline in vole populations as a result of the missing protective snow cover. Additional effects can be caused by increased intensity and frequency of extreme climatic events, or by changes in human behaviour leading to higher risk of human virus exposure. Regardless of the extent of climate change, it is difficult to predict the impact on hantavirus survival, emergence and epidemiology. Nevertheless, hantaviruses will undoubtedly remain a significant public health threat for several decades to come.

  12. Two Decades of Hantavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-29

    Dr. de St. Maurice, a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, discusses hantavirus.  Created: 6/29/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/29/2017.

  13. Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Salim; Guzmán, Camilo; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu

    2015-08-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. The viruses are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols of rodent excreta and secreta. Classic clinical hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurs in five phases: fever, hypotension, oliguria, polyuria, and convalescence. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe acute disease that is associated with respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. The diagnosis of hantavirus infections in humans is based on clinical and epidemiological information as well as laboratory tests. We review diagnosis for hantavirus infections based on serology, PCR, immunochemistry and virus culture.

  14. Modelling zoonotic diseases in humans: comparison of methods for hantavirus in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Because their distribution usually depends on the presence of more than one species, modelling zoonotic diseases in humans differs from modelling individual species distribution even though the data are similar in nature. Three approaches can be used to model spatial distributions recorded by points: based on presence/absence, presence/available or presence data. Here, we compared one or two of several existing methods for each of these approaches. Human cases of hantavirus infection reported by place of infection between 1991 and 1998 in Sweden were used as a case study. Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Europe, circulates among bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, it causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Logistic binomial regression and boosted regression trees were used to model presence and absence data. Presence and available sites (where the disease may occur) were modelled using cross-validated logistic regression. Finally, the ecological niche model MaxEnt, based on presence-only data, was used. In our study, logistic regression had the best predictive power, followed by boosted regression trees, MaxEnt and cross-validated logistic regression. It is also the most statistically reliable but requires absence data. The cross-validated method partly avoids the issue of absence data but requires fastidious calculations. MaxEnt accounts for non-linear responses but the estimators can be complex. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. PMID:22984887

  15. Hantaviroses Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Simão Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As hantaviroses constituem infecções zoonóticas amplamente distribuídas em todo o mundo. A febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal mostra-se endêmica na Ásia e Europa, acometendo milharea de pessoas anualmente. A síndrome cardiopulmonar pelo hantavírus, reconhecida como entidade clínica desde 1993, representa o protótipo das doenças emergentes e encontra-se distribuída em diversos países do continente americano, inclusive o Brasil. Ambas são transmitidas ao homem através da inalação de partículas virais eliminadas nas fezes e urina de roedores domésticos e silvestres. Trata-se de doenças sistêmicas febris que podem acometer vários órgãos, destacando-se o rim na febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal e os pulmões e o coração na síndrome cardiopulmonar. A taxa de letalidade da hantavirose americana alcança 50%. Diagnostica-se as hantaviroses através de provas sorológicas imunoenzimáticas ao identificar-se anticorpos específicos das classes IgM e IgG. Não há tratamento específico. Recomenda-se hidratação cuidadosa, indicação precoce de diálise nas formas renais e administração de drogas vasoativas nos períodos de hipotensão e choque. A administração de corticoesteróides e da ribavirina está sendo avaliada em estudos controlados. O número de casos dessas viroses tem crescido no Brasil ano a ano, e cumpre alertar os profissionais de saúde sobre a ocorrência dessas entidades nos vários estados do país, possibilitando diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado nos casos suspeitos da doença.Hantaviruses are zoonotic diseases that affect humans and have a worldwide distribution. The hemorrhagic fever associated with renal syndrome occurs endemically in the Asian and European continents affecting housauds of people every year. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, recognized as a clinical entity since 1993, represents the prototype of emerging diseases and is distributed in countries of the American

  16. Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Humans and Rodents to Hantaviruses and the Clinical Course of Hantaviral Disease in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Charbonnel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA allele 2 and IL-1β (-511 allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin. The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.

  17. Temporal trend and climate factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shenyang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaodong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an important infectious disease caused by different species of hantaviruses. As a rodent-borne disease with a seasonal distribution, external environmental factors including climate factors may play a significant role in its transmission. The city of Shenyang is one of the most seriously endemic areas for HFRS. Here, we characterized the dynamic temporal trend of HFRS, and identified climate-related risk factors and their roles in HFRS transmission in Shenyang, China. Methods The annual and monthly cumulative numbers of HFRS cases from 2004 to 2009 were calculated and plotted to show the annual and seasonal fluctuation in Shenyang. Cross-correlation and autocorrelation analyses were performed to detect the lagged effect of climate factors on HFRS transmission and the autocorrelation of monthly HFRS cases. Principal component analysis was constructed by using climate data from 2004 to 2009 to extract principal components of climate factors to reduce co-linearity. The extracted principal components and autocorrelation terms of monthly HFRS cases were added into a multiple regression model called principal components regression model (PCR to quantify the relationship between climate factors, autocorrelation terms and transmission of HFRS. The PCR model was compared to a general multiple regression model conducted only with climate factors as independent variables. Results A distinctly declining temporal trend of annual HFRS incidence was identified. HFRS cases were reported every month, and the two peak periods occurred in spring (March to May and winter (November to January, during which, nearly 75% of the HFRS cases were reported. Three principal components were extracted with a cumulative contribution rate of 86.06%. Component 1 represented MinRH0, MT1, RH1, and MWV1; component 2 represented RH2, MaxT3, and MAP3; and component 3 represented MaxT2, MAP2, and MWV2. The PCR model

  18. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  19. Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina Regional differences and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (an emerging and tropical disease in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.Factors related to the characteristics of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina are described. Factors from different scientific fields converge to form the syndrome's analytical framework. Some of these factors are the history of spatial occupation, work and production structures, human migration patterns, ethnic composition, reservoir dynamics and its relationship to the different circulating viruses, and human behavior. Furthermore, the multiple factors are expressed in three ecological frameworks, associated with three different geographical regions of Argentina: 1 Northwest; 2 Central ("wet Pampa"; and 3 South Andean. In order to understand the actual causality of health or disease as an interaction of many factors, research on the primary biological, social, and environmental determinants of

  20. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase G894T Polymorphism Associates with Disease Severity in Puumala Hantavirus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Koskela

    Full Text Available Hantavirus infections are characterized by both activation and dysfunction of the endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis whether the polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS G894T, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS G2087A, are associated with the severity of acute Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infection.Hospitalized patients (n = 172 with serologically verified PUUV infection were examined. Clinical and laboratory variables reflecting disease severity were determined. The polymorphisms of eNOS G894T (Glu298Asp, rs1799983 and iNOS G2087A (Ser608Leu, rs2297518 were genotyped.The rare eNOS G894T genotype was associated with the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. The non-carriers of G-allele (TT-homozygotes had higher maximum level of serum creatinine than the carriers of G-allele (GT-heterozygotes and GG-homozygotes; median 326, range 102-1041 vs. median 175, range 51-1499 μmol/l; p = 0.018, respectively. The length of hospital stay was longer in the non-carriers of G-allele than in G-allele carriers (median 8, range 3-14 vs. median 6, range 2-15 days; p = 0.032. The rare A-allele carriers (i.e. AA-homozygotes and GA-heterozygotes of iNOS G2087A had lower minimum systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the non-carriers of A-allele (median 110, range 74-170 vs.116, range 86-162 mmHg, p = 0.019, and median 68, range 40-90 vs. 72, range 48-100 mmHg; p = 0.003, respectively.Patients with the TT-homozygous genotype of eNOS G894T had more severe PUUV-induced AKI than the other genotypes. The eNOS G894T polymorphism may play role in the endothelial dysfunction observed during acute PUUV infection.

  1. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  2. Interferons Induce STAT1-Dependent Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator, a Pathogenicity Factor in Puumala Hantavirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Klingström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Åke; Julkunen, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2016-05-15

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that show various degrees of vasculopathy in humans. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of 2 fibrinolytic parameters, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its physiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV)-infected patients and in human microvascular endothelial cells. We detected strong upregulation of tPA in the acute phase of illness and in PUUV-infected macaques and found the tPA level to positively correlate with disease severity. The median levels of PAI-1 during the acute stage did not differ from those during the recovery phase. In concordance, hantaviruses induced tPA but not PAI-1 in microvascular endothelial cells, and the induction was demonstrated to be dependent on type I interferon. Importantly, type I and II interferons directly upregulated tPA through signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), which regulated tPA gene expression via a STAT1-responsive enhancer element. These results suggest that tPA may be a general factor in the immunological response to viruses.

  3. The evolution and emergence of hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Hantaviruses are a major class of zoonotic pathogens and cause a variety of severe diseases in humans. For most of the last 50 years rodents have been considered to be the primary hosts of hantaviruses, with hantavirus evolution thought to reflect a process of virus-rodent co-divergence over a time-scale of millions of years, with occasional spill-over into humans. However, recent discoveries have revealed that hantaviruses infect a more diverse range of mammalian hosts, particularly Chiroptera (bats) and Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), and that cross-species transmission at multiple scales has played an important role in hantavirus evolution. As a consequence, the evolution and emergence of hantaviruses is more complex than previously anticipated, and may serve as a realistic model for other viral groups.

  4. [Hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  5. Hantavirus Regulation of Type I Interferon Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Matthys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses primarily infect human endothelial cells (ECs and cause two highly lethal human diseases. Early addition of Type I interferon (IFN to ECs blocks hantavirus replication and thus for hantaviruses to be pathogenic they need to prevent early interferon induction. PHV replication is blocked in human ECs, but not inhibited in IFN deficient VeroE6 cells and consistent with this, infecting ECs with PHV results in the early induction of IFNβ and an array of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs. In contrast, ANDV, HTNV, NY-1V and TULV hantaviruses, inhibit early ISG induction and successfully replicate within human ECs. Hantavirus inhibition of IFN responses has been attributed to several viral proteins including regulation by the Gn proteins cytoplasmic tail (Gn-T. The Gn-T interferes with the formation of STING-TBK1-TRAF3 complexes required for IRF3 activation and IFN induction, while the PHV Gn-T fails to alter this complex or regulate IFN induction. These findings indicate that interfering with early IFN induction is necessary for hantaviruses to replicate in human ECs, and suggest that additional determinants are required for hantaviruses to be pathogenic. The mechanism by which Gn-Ts disrupt IFN signaling is likely to reveal potential therapeutic interventions and suggest protein targets for attenuating hantaviruses.

  6. Hantavirus interferon regulation and virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackow, Erich R; Dalrymple, Nadine A; Cimica, Velasco; Matthys, Valery; Gorbunova, Elena; Gavrilovskaya, Irina

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses predominantly replicate in primary human endothelial cells and cause 2 diseases characterized by altered barrier functions of vascular endothelium. Most hantaviruses restrict the early induction of interferon-β (IFNβ) and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) within human endothelial cells to permit their successful replication. PHV fails to regulate IFN induction within human endothelial cells which self-limits PHV replication and its potential as a human pathogen. These findings, and the altered regulation of endothelial cell barrier functions by pathogenic hantaviruses, suggest that virulence is determined by the ability of hantaviruses to alter key signaling pathways within human endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that the Gn protein from ANDV, but not PHV, inhibits TBK1 directed ISRE, kB and IFNβ induction through virulence determinants in the Gn cytoplasmic tail (GnT) that inhibit TBK1 directed IRF3 phosphorylation. Further studies indicate that in response to hypoxia induced VEGF, ANDV infection enhances the permeability and adherens junction internalization of microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. These hypoxia/VEGF directed responses are rapamycin sensitive and directed by mTOR signaling pathways. These results demonstrate the presence of at least two hantavirus virulence determinants that act on endothelial cell signaling pathways: one that regulates antiviral IFN signaling responses, and a second that enhances normal hypoxia-VEGF-mTOR signaling pathways to facilitate endothelial cell permeability. These findings suggest signaling pathways as potential targets for therapeutic regulation of vascular deficits that contribute to hantavirus diseases and viral protein targets for attenuating pathogenic hantaviruses.

  7. Watch Soccer Matches in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Shenyang lies on the north bank of Hun River(called as snenshui in ancient times) and so it gets its name.Shenyang is not only the Capital city of LiaoningPrivince,but the largest city of Northeast China with the largest railroad hub and airport across the region.

  8. Hantaviral proteins: structure, functions and role in hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalwa eMuyangwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS or in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. In the past few years, clinical cases of the hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins is critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins.

  9. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease.

  10. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Robbin Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The first confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Manitoba was diagnosed in 1999. To define better the risk of exposure to hantaviruses in this area, the clinical features and epidemiological factors pertaining to this case were described, and a serological survey of rodents collected near the patient's residence was undertaken. Small mammals were collected using live traps, were anesthetized via inhalation of isoflurane and were bled. Human and mouse serologies were undertaken using an ELISA to detect hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M antibodies. In addition, a full medical and epidemiological assessment, as well as individual risk factor and exposure analysis, were conducted. A 27-year-old Manitoba woman presented with severe respiratory distress and diffuse bilateral air space disease radiologically. Despite extremely aggressive measures, including mechanical ventilation, antibiotics, fluid management and inotropic support, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died 8 h after admission. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was confirmed by the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies to the Sin Nombre virus (SNV in her sera and by the demonstration of SNV genomic sequences in her lung tissue. Exposure to hantavirus likely occurred in and around the home or in the rural area in which she resided. A total of 252 small mammals, primarily deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, were collected from 17 different sites at or near where the patient lived. Antibodies to SNV were detected in 28 of 244 (11.5% deer mice, which were collected within 9 km of the residence of the fatal case, indicating that these rodents are a significant reservoir for SNV in this area.

  11. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chandy; P Abraham; G Sridharan

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus, is the only indigenous isolate from India, isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  12. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Information General Hantavirus Technical/Clinical Information Ecology Virology Airborne Transmission HPS Technical/Clinical Information Clinical Manifestation Treatment Histopathology Pathology/ Pathogenesis Diagnostics ...

  13. Hantavirus in Indian Country: The First Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Hantavirus, caused due to close contact with mice in a dwelling, first emerged in the spring of 1993 on the Navajo Reservation and although it is by no means an Indian disease, there are four times as many cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) among non-Indians. Inadequate rural housing, especially common in western Indian Country,…

  14. Tula hantavirus infection in immunocompromised host, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelená, Hana; Mrázek, Jakub; Kuhn, Tomáš

    2013-11-01

    We report molecular evidence of Tula hantavirus as an etiologic agent of pulmonary-renal syndrome in an immunocompromised patient. Acute hantavirus infection was confirmed by using serologic and molecular methods. Sequencing revealed Tula virus genome RNA in the patient's blood. This case shows that Tula virus can cause serious disease in humans.

  15. Hantavirus immunology of rodent reservoirs: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-03-14

    Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  16. Environmental Variables Associated with Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Small Rodent Species in Two National Parks in the Paraná Delta, Argentina: Implications for Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, María Victoria; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe zoonotic disease caused by hantaviruses hosted in various rodents species. In Argentina, its transmission to humans has been associated to exposure during activities such as farming, recreation, and tourism which are carried out in wild and rural areas. The aim of this study was to analyze the macro- and micro-habitat use and spatio-temporal variation of small sylvan rodents in Pre Delta and Islas de Santa Fe national parks, located in an HPS-endemic area of Argentina. Rodent communities were studied at six sites: two islands, a riparian forest, an inland forest, a marsh, and the margins of a pond. A total of 453 individuals of five species were captured with a trapping effort of 9471 trap-nights. Maximum species richness was found at the marsh and the pond margin sites. Abundance of rodents was influenced by flooding events. Two hantavirus reservoirs, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Akodon azarae, were identified in the area. O. flavescens was captured in every habitat, but it was dominant in Islas de Santa Fe National Park where its abundance was strongly influenced by flooding. A. azarae was captured in every habitat except on the islands. A. azarae behaved as a generalist species at a micro-habitat scale in every habitat of Pre Delta National Park except for the marsh where it selected patches with low vegetation height. Based on these results, several disease prevention measures, including the use of rodent-proof containers for food, and keeping the grass short in the camp site, are proposed in order to reduce the risk to visitors and residents of contracting HPS.

  17. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Disner, Geonildo Rodrigo; Boff, Everton; Machado, Aline Rafaela da Silva Rodrigues; Padua, Michelly de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Miranda, Gustavo Borba de

    2012-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity), with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  18. INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SHENYANG CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-yu

    2003-01-01

    Industrial transformation represents a unique economic phenomenon in China's regional economy,and old industrial city reconstruction has long been a key problem that affects state security. As a typical old indus-trial city in China, Shenyang established its heavy industrial city position in the First Five-year Plan period (1953-1957), and this industrial structure has been consolidated for a long time. After 1978, Shenyang began its long last-ing industrial reconstruction in an all-round way by 3 main initiatives including restructuring economic system, up-grading traditional industrial technology and developing high-tech industry. In the end of the 1990s, it could be I-dentified that remarkable structural changes took place in city economy at large as well as individual industrial sec-tor. According to the GDP proportion change, Shenyang is on the way to a high level industrial structure. The sec-ondary industry also engendered significant shifting as smelting and textile industry declined sharply but IT industry increased largely. Although the ratio of the heavy industry to the light industry changed periodically, the heavy in-dustrial output value most time kept a high proportion over 60% of the gross industrial output value in the past five decades. Shenyang has favorable conditions for developing equipment manufacturing industry, but it should carry out the program by establishing its leading role in urban economy plan, building "Theme Industrial Parks", improv-ing Tiexi Industrial Zone, removing any kind of system barrier, enlarging private and other ownerships economy and improving technology, marketing and management by IT application. In response to economy globalization,Shenyang needs to expand the cooperation worldwide and improve the cohesion with surrounding cities.

  19. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pooja R.; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27688634

  20. Hantavirus infection and habitat associations among rodent populations in agroecosystems of Panama: implications for human disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Aníbal G; Armién, Blas; Koster, Frederick; Pascale, Juan M; Avila, Mario; Gonzalez, Publio; de la Cruz, Manuel; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Gracia, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian; Lee, Sang-Joon; Yates, Terry L; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which is caused by infection with Choclo virus, is uncommon in Panama, yet seropositivity among rural residents is as high as 60%. To clarify the environmental risk factors favoring rodent-to-human transmission, we tested serum from 3,067 rodents captured over a five-year period for antibodies against recombinant N protein of hantavirus by enzyme immunoassay and strip immunoblot. Among 220 seropositive rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, the reservoir of Choclo virus, had the highest overall seroprevalence (23.5%); more abundant rodents (Zygodontomys brevicauda and Sigmodon hirsutus) had lower seroprevalences. In the mixed (combined modern and traditional) productive agroecosystem, the highest seroprevalence was among O. fulvescens captured in residences and in crops grown within 40 meters of a residence, with significantly lower seroprevalence in adjacent pasture and non-productive vegetation. Thus, crop habitats may serve as refugia for invasion into adjacent human residences and suggests several interventions to reduce human infection.

  1. [Prognostic factors in hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    The hantaviruses classified in Hantavirus genus of Bunyaviridae family, may cause two different types of clinical conditions, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Mortality may reach up to 40% in these infections. Hantavirus subtypes (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Dobrava, etc) with different virulences represent one of the most significant factors affecting the mortality. Additionally, many other factors including age, gender, humoral immune response, genetic factors, patient's clinical and laboratory findings, transfusion, mechanical ventilation requirement, antiviral treatment and immunotherapy administered to the patient are prognostically important. Increasing age had an unfavorable effect on mortality. While the disease is commonly observed in the male gender, mortality rate is higher in the female gender. The higher the emergent neutralizing antibody response, the virus spread, the number of the infected cells and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated injury will be lower. The requirement for dialysis is reported to be higher with a poorer prognosis in individuals with HLA-B8, -DR3, -DQ2 alleles, and those with HLA-B27 allele usually experience a milder clinical course. Clinically, the risk of mortality increases in patients with multiple, central nervous system hemorrhage, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and secondary infection. The presence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the requirement for mechanical ventilation, the presence of dyspnea and hemoconcentration in HPS are reported to be the most important prognostic factors associated with death. The correlation of severity and the transfusion requirement with mortality was demonstrated. High serum levels of white blood cells, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine phophokinase (CPK), C-reactive protein (CRP), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer and INR (International

  2. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  3. Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buceta, J.; Escudero, C.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-02-01

    Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.

  4. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Information General Hantavirus Technical/Clinical Information Ecology Virology Airborne Transmission HPS Technical/Clinical Information Clinical Manifestation Treatment Histopathology Pathology/ Pathogenesis Diagnostics ...

  5. Can hantavirus infections be predicted on admission to hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Selçuk; Çağlayık, Dilek Yağcı; Uyar, Yavuz; Yılmaz, Hava; Engin, Aynur; Öngürü, Pınar; Yılmaz, Gurdal; Köksal, Iftihar

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors which contribute to diagnosis of hantavirus infection. One hundred patients from rural areas hospitalized with a preliminary diagnosis of hantavirus infection from different hospitals in Turkey were investigated. Hantavirus infection was confirmed in 20 patients (Group 1) using immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays at the Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Hantaviruses were not detected in the serum of the remaining 80 patients, other infectious and non-infectious diseases being diagnosed in this group (Group 2). Patients' demographic characteristics and clinical and laboratory data on admission were examined and compared between the two groups. Fever, proteinuria, hematuria, lethargy-weakness, and nausea-vomiting were the most frequent symptoms and findings in Group 1, seen in almost all patients. Proteinuria, hematuria, muscle pain, diarrhea/abdominal pain, hypotension, shock, and sweating were observed at significantly higher levels in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher, but serum platelet counts were lower in Group 1 patients. Area beneath the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate the discriminative ability of various laboratory values to identify patients with hantavirus infection. This analysis revealed that, serum CRP had a 100% negative predictive value, whilst, platelet, and creatinine had 75% and 70% positive predictive values for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection. In summary, laboratory markers used in clinical practice are of great importance predicting hantavirus infections.

  6. Gastrointestinal Tract As Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Witkowski

    2017-09-01

    hantaviruses, meaning a new association of virus and disease. These findings have impact on current textbook knowledge and bring many implications for hantavirus epidemiology and outbreak prevention measures.

  7. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-03-10

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  8. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha. More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  9. Hantavirus-infection confers resistance to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawon Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome (HCPS; also called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, both human diseases with high case-fatality rates. Endothelial cells are the main targets for hantaviruses. An intriguing observation in patients with HFRS and HCPS is that on one hand the virus infection leads to strong activation of CD8 T cells and NK cells, on the other hand no obvious destruction of infected endothelial cells is observed. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy by showing that hantavirus-infected endothelial cells are protected from cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated induction of apoptosis. When dissecting potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon, we discovered that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein inhibits the enzymatic activity of both granzyme B and caspase 3. This provides a tentative explanation for the hantavirus-mediated block of cytotoxic granule-mediated apoptosis-induction, and hence the protection of infected cells from cytotoxic lymphocytes. These findings may explain why infected endothelial cells in hantavirus-infected patients are not destroyed by the strong cytotoxic lymphocyte response.

  10. Hantavirus-infection confers resistance to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shawon; Braun, Monika; Tischler, Nicole D; Stoltz, Malin; Sundström, Karin B; Björkström, Niklas K; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Klingström, Jonas

    2013-03-01

    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome (HCPS; also called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)), both human diseases with high case-fatality rates. Endothelial cells are the main targets for hantaviruses. An intriguing observation in patients with HFRS and HCPS is that on one hand the virus infection leads to strong activation of CD8 T cells and NK cells, on the other hand no obvious destruction of infected endothelial cells is observed. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy by showing that hantavirus-infected endothelial cells are protected from cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated induction of apoptosis. When dissecting potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon, we discovered that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein inhibits the enzymatic activity of both granzyme B and caspase 3. This provides a tentative explanation for the hantavirus-mediated block of cytotoxic granule-mediated apoptosis-induction, and hence the protection of infected cells from cytotoxic lymphocytes. These findings may explain why infected endothelial cells in hantavirus-infected patients are not destroyed by the strong cytotoxic lymphocyte response.

  11. Hantavirus reservoirs: current status with an emphasis on data from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-04-29

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80 genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  12. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Anti-hantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of RTqPCR as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RTqPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients and improve other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission. PMID:26508102

  13. Hantavirus infection suppresses thrombospondin-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells in a strain-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana F Khaiboullina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus infection is associated with two frequently fatal diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. The pathogenesis of hantavirus infection is complex and not fully understood; however, it is believed to involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1 is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in regulating blood homeostasis. Hyperresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli has also been associated with defects in the THBS1 gene. Our data suggest that hantavirus infection of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC suppress the accumulation of THBS1 in the extracellular matrix. Additionally, this suppression is dependent on virus replication, implying a direct mechanism of action. Our data also imply that the pathogenic Andes and Hantaan strains inhibit THBS1 expression while the non-pathogenic Prospect Hill strain showed little inhibition. These observations suggest that a dysregulation of THBS1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection.

  14. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  15. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

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    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  16. Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Bojovic, Bojana; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2006-06-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkan Peninsula. An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred in 2002 in Serbia and Montenegro. The epidemiologic characteristics and genetic relatedness of Dobrava/Belgrade virus strains responsible for most cases are described.

  17. Analysis on Summer Precipitation Efficiency in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze summer precipitation efficiency in Shenyang.[Method] By using the method which estimated the cloud water resource,based on the vertical accumulated liquid water content which was observed by "QFW-1 dual-channel microwave radiometer" and the rain intensity data which had 1min interval and were inverted by "particle laser-based optical measurement" (Parsivel),the precipitation efficiency in Shenyang area during July-August,2007 was analyzed.[Result] When the rain inte...

  18. Uncovering the mysteries of hantavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2013-08-01

    Hantaviruses are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect many species of rodents, shrews, moles and bats. Infection in these reservoir hosts is almost asymptomatic, but some rodent-borne hantaviruses also infect humans, causing either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this Review, we discuss the basic molecular properties and cell biology of hantaviruses and offer an overview of virus-induced pathology, in particular vascular leakage and immunopathology.

  19. Viral load of patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Carla María; Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2015-11-01

    Hantavirus causes severe illness including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and often death. At present, there is no specific treatment available. The hantavirus pathogenesis is not well understood, but most likely both virus-mediated and host-mediated mechanisms, are involved. The aim of this study was to correlate viral load in samples of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and hantavirus infected individuals, with clinical epidemiological parameters and disease outcome. The variables that could potentially be related with viral load were analyzed. The retrospective study included 73 cases or household contacts, with different clinical evolution. Viral load was measured by reverse-transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. There was no statistically significant association between blood viral RNA levels and severity of disease. However, viral load was inversely correlated with IgG response in a statistically significant manner. The level of viral RNA was significantly higher in patients infected with Andes virus South lineage, and was markedly low in persons infected with Laguna Negra virus. These results suggest that the infecting viral genotype is associated with disease severity, and that high viral load is associated with a low specific IgG response. Sex, age and disease severity were not related with viral load. Further investigations increasing strikingly the number of cases and also limiting the variables to be studied are necessary.

  20. TREASURES AT THE SHENYANG PALACE MUSEUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shenyang Palace Museum was established in 1926,and became a museum of history and art based on the former imperial palace.It houses treasures,palace articles and historical and cultural artifacts originally collected by the Qing Court.These include Ming

  1. Molecular characterization of two hantavirus strains from different rattus species in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Relus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hantaviruses cause human disease in endemic regions around the world. Outbreaks of hantaviral diseases have been associated with changes in rodent population density and adaptation to human settlements leading to their proliferation in close proximity to human dwellings. In a parallel study initiated to determine the prevalence of pathogens in Singapore's wild rodent population, 1206 rodents were trapped and screened. The findings established a hantavirus seroprevalence of 34%. This paper describes the molecular characterization of hantaviruses from Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi, the predominant rodents caught in urban Singapore. Methodology Pan-hanta RT-PCR performed on samples of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi indicated that 27 (2.24% of the animals were positive. sequence analysis of the S and M segments established that two different hantavirus strains circulate in the rodent population of Singapore. Notably, the hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus clusters with other Asian Seoul virus sequences, while the virus strains found in Rattus tanezumi had the highest sequence similarity to the Serang virus from Rattus tanezumi in Indonesia, followed by Cambodian hantavirus isolates and the Thailand virus isolated from Bandicota indica. Conclusions Sequence analysis of the S and M segments of hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus (Seoul virus strain Singapore and Rattus tanezumi (Serang virus strain Jurong TJK/06 revealed that two genetically different hantavirus strains were found in rodents of Singapore. Evidently, together with Serang, Cambodian and Thailand virus the Jurong virus forms a distinct phylogroup. Interestingly, these highly similar virus strains have been identified in different rodent hosts. Further studies are underway to analyze the public health significance of finding hantavirus strains in Singapore rodents.

  2. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

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    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  3. Serologic survey on hantavirus in blood donors from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections.

  4. Hantavirus-induced disruption of the endothelial barrier: Neutrophils are on the payroll

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    Günther eSchönrich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suita-ble treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of han-taviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro with-out causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the lat-est developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutro-phils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.

  5. Hantavirus-induced pathogenesis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Lidija; Raftery, Martin J; Voigt, Sebastian; Kühl, Anja A; Kilic, Ergin; Kurth, Andreas; Witkowski, Peter; Hofmann, Jörg; Nitsche, Andreas; Schaade, Lars; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2015-06-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans. Clinical observations suggest that human immune components contribute to hantavirus-induced pathology. To address this issue we generated mice with a humanized immune system. Hantavirus infection of these animals resulted in systemic infection associated with weight loss, decreased activity, ruffled fur and inflammatory infiltrates of lung tissue. Intriguingly, after infection, humanized mice harbouring human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted human CD8+ T cells started to lose weight earlier (day 10) than HLA class I-negative humanized mice (day 15). Moreover, in these mice the number of human platelets dropped by 77 % whereas the number of murine platelets did not change, illustrating how differences between rodent and human haemato-lymphoid systems may contribute to disease development. To our knowledge this is the first description of a humanized mouse model of hantavirus infection, and our results indicate a role for human immune cells in hantaviral pathogenesis.

  6. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys.

  7. Experimental evidence for reduced rodent diversity causing increased hantavirus prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Suzán

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have become a major global environmental problem with important public health, economic, and political consequences. The etiologic agents of most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and anthropogenic environmental changes that affect wildlife communities are increasingly implicated in disease emergence and spread. Although increased disease incidence has been correlated with biodiversity loss for several zoonoses, experimental tests in these systems are lacking. We manipulated small-mammal biodiversity by removing non-reservoir species in replicated field plots in Panama, where zoonotic hantaviruses are endemic. Both infection prevalence of hantaviruses in wild reservoir (rodent populations and reservoir population density increased where small-mammal species diversity was reduced. Regardless of other variables that affect the prevalence of directly transmitted infections in natural communities, high biodiversity is important in reducing transmission of zoonotic pathogens among wildlife hosts. Our results have wide applications in both conservation biology and infectious disease management.

  8. Serosurvey of pathogenic hantaviruses among forestry workers in Hungary

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    Miklós Oldal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to survey the prevalence of human hantavirus infections among forestry workers, who are considered a risk population for contracting the disease. Sera collected from volunteers were tested for antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV and Puumala (PUUV viruses. Material and Methods: For serological analyses, full capsid proteins of DOBV and PUUV viruses were produced in a bacterial expression system, while Ni-resin was used for protein purification. Samples were screened for anti-hantavirus antibodies by ELISA, results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: A total of 835 samples collected from 750 males and 85 females were tested by indirect ELISA and positive test results were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of the 45 ELISA-reactive samples, 38 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The regional distribution of seropositive individuals was as follows: 1.9% (2/107 in the Danube-Tisza Plateau (Great Plains, 3.1% (10/321 in the Southern Transdanubian region, 5.2% (13/248 in the Northern Transdanubian, and 8.2% (13/159 in the North Hungarian Mountains. Conclusions: Our data show marked geographic differences in seroprevalence of pathogenic hantaviruses within Hungary, indicating elevated exposure to hantavirus infections in some areas.

  9. The first established focus of hantavirus infection in Poland, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Anna; Heyman, Paul; Knap, Józef Piotr; Burzyński, Waldemar; Witas, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The first hantavirus infection outbreak in Poland (with different seroetiology) was identified between August-December 2007. Thirteen cases were reported in southeast Poland: 12 cases in the Carpathians bordering with northeast Slovakia, mainly in the forested areas of the Bieszczady mountains, and one case approximately 100-120 kilometres north from the others, in the adjacent Sub-Carpathian region. Four additional cases of past infection were identified retrospectively, based on the presence of the hantavirus specific IgG antibodies. Thus, the total number of infections identified in this area amounts to 17. Most probably, this number does not constitute the real hantavirus participation in the infections in this area. Considerable evidence for the probable participation of Dobrava virus (10 cases out of 17) and Puumala virus (3 cases out of 17) in the hantavirus diseases has been revealed. There were no fatal infections. However, out of 13 symptomatic cases, major HFRS clinical manifestations were observed in 10 cases and a typical nephropathia epidemica in the next 3 cases. Haemorrhagic diathesis was observed in 9 patients. Five patients underwent haemodialysis treatment due to acute renal failure. One, a female patient, haemodialysed in 10th week of gravidity, managed to maintain pregnancy and remains under interdisciplinary care.

  10. Hantavirus infection mimicking leptospirosis: how long are we going to rely on clinical suspicion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, Niroshana Jathum; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Bandaranayaka, Anoma Kumari; Priyankara, Sumudu; Vinetz, Joshep M

    2014-08-13

    Hantavirus infections and leptospirosis can have similar clinical and epidemiological features. We present here a case study of a young farmer with fever during the post-flood leptospirosis outbreak in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, in 2011. He presented with a classical clinical picture of leptospirosis and was managed and notified as a case of leptospirosis. Retrospective analysis of a stored serum sample confirmed acute hantavirus infection. Diagnosis of newly identified or emerging infectious diseases such as hantavirus infection is challenging due to the lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries. This case highlights the need for improving diagnostic facilities, educating medical staff, and conducting population-based prospective studies on hantavirus infections in Sri Lanka.

  11. Twenty-year summary of surveillance for human hantavirus infections, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Rollin, Pierre E

    2013-12-01

    In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.

  12. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase

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    Sylvia Rothenberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses.

  13. [Estimation of Shenyang urban forest green biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-fu; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Gui-ling; Xu, Wen-duo

    2007-06-01

    Based on ARC/GIS and by using the method of "planar biomass estimation", the green biomass (GB) of Shenyang urban forests was measured. The results demonstrated that the GB per unit area was the highest (3.86 m2.m(-2)) in landscape and relaxation forest, and the lowest (2.27 m2.m(-2)) in ecological and public welfare forest. The GB per unit area in urban forest distribution area was 2.99 m2.m(-2), and that of the whole Shenyang urban area was 0.25 m2.m(-2). The total GB of Shenyang urban forests was about 1.13 x 10(8) m2, among which, subordinated forest, ecological and public welfare forest, landscape and relaxation forest, road forest, and production and management forest accounted for 36.64% , 23.99% , 19.38% , 16.20% and 3.79%, with their GB being 4. 15 x 10(7), 2.72 x 10(7), 2.20 x 10(7), 1.84 x 10(7) and 0.43 x 10(7) m2, respectively. The precision of the method "planar biomass estimation" was 91.81% (alpha = 0.05) by credit test.

  14. β2 integrin mediates hantavirus-induced release of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Martin J; Lalwani, Pritesh; Krautkrӓmer, Ellen; Peters, Thorsten; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Krüger, Renate; Hofmann, Jörg; Seeger, Karl; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2014-06-30

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are emerging human pathogens that cause severe human disease. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, as hantaviruses replicate in endothelial and epithelial cells without causing any cytopathic effect. We demonstrate that hantaviruses strongly stimulated neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Hantavirus infection induced high systemic levels of circulating NETs in patients and this systemic NET overflow was accompanied by production of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. Analysis of the responsible mechanism using neutrophils from β2 null mice identified β2 integrin receptors as a master switch for NET induction. Further experiments suggested that β2 integrin receptors such as complement receptor 3 (CR3) and 4 (CR4) may act as novel hantavirus entry receptors. Using adenoviruses, we confirmed that viral interaction with β2 integrin induced strong NET formation. Collectively, β2 integrin-mediated systemic NET overflow is a novel viral mechanism of immunopathology that may be responsible for characteristic aspects of hantavirus-associated disease such as kidney and lung damage.

  15. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the pu...

  16. Novel Insights on Hantavirus Evolution: The Dichotomy in Evolutionary Pressures Acting on Different Hantavirus Segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Sankar

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are important emerging zoonotic pathogens. The current understanding of hantavirus evolution is complicated by the lack of consensus on co-divergence of hantaviruses with their animal hosts. In addition, hantaviruses have long-term associations with their reservoir hosts. Analyzing the relative abundance of dinucleotides may shed new light on hantavirus evolution. We studied the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the evolutionary pressures shaping different hantavirus segments.A total of 118 sequences were analyzed; this includes 51 sequences of the S segment, 43 sequences of the M segment and 23 sequences of the L segment. The relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC, codon usage biases were analyzed. Standard methods were used to investigate the relative roles of mutational pressure and translational selection on the three hantavirus segments.All three segments of hantaviruses are CpG depleted. Mutational pressure is the predominant evolutionary force leading to CpG depletion among hantaviruses. Interestingly, the S segment of hantaviruses is GpU depleted and in contrast to CpG depletion, the depletion of GpU dinucleotides from the S segment is driven by translational selection. Our findings also suggest that mutational pressure is the primary evolutionary pressure acting on the S and the M segments of hantaviruses. While translational selection plays a key role in shaping the evolution of the L segment. Our findings highlight how different evolutionary pressures may contribute disproportionally to the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. These findings provide new insights on the current understanding of hantavirus evolution.There is a dichotomy among evolutionary pressures shaping a the relative abundance of different dinucleotides in hantavirus genomes b the evolution of the three hantavirus segments.

  17. Novel Insights on Hantavirus Evolution: The Dichotomy in Evolutionary Pressures Acting on Different Hantavirus Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sathish; Upadhyay, Mohita; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Vadivel, Kumaran; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Vivekanandan, Perumal; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging zoonotic pathogens. The current understanding of hantavirus evolution is complicated by the lack of consensus on co-divergence of hantaviruses with their animal hosts. In addition, hantaviruses have long-term associations with their reservoir hosts. Analyzing the relative abundance of dinucleotides may shed new light on hantavirus evolution. We studied the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the evolutionary pressures shaping different hantavirus segments. A total of 118 sequences were analyzed; this includes 51 sequences of the S segment, 43 sequences of the M segment and 23 sequences of the L segment. The relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), codon usage biases were analyzed. Standard methods were used to investigate the relative roles of mutational pressure and translational selection on the three hantavirus segments. All three segments of hantaviruses are CpG depleted. Mutational pressure is the predominant evolutionary force leading to CpG depletion among hantaviruses. Interestingly, the S segment of hantaviruses is GpU depleted and in contrast to CpG depletion, the depletion of GpU dinucleotides from the S segment is driven by translational selection. Our findings also suggest that mutational pressure is the primary evolutionary pressure acting on the S and the M segments of hantaviruses. While translational selection plays a key role in shaping the evolution of the L segment. Our findings highlight how different evolutionary pressures may contribute disproportionally to the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. These findings provide new insights on the current understanding of hantavirus evolution. There is a dichotomy among evolutionary pressures shaping a) the relative abundance of different dinucleotides in hantavirus genomes b) the evolution of the three hantavirus segments.

  18. Reported Cases of HPS (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Information General Hantavirus Technical/Clinical Information Ecology Virology Airborne Transmission HPS Technical/Clinical Information Clinical Manifestation Treatment Histopathology Pathology/ Pathogenesis Diagnostics ...

  19. Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Information General Hantavirus Technical/Clinical Information Ecology Virology Airborne Transmission HPS Technical/Clinical Information Clinical Manifestation Treatment Histopathology Pathology/ Pathogenesis Diagnostics ...

  20. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Information General Hantavirus Technical/Clinical Information Ecology Virology Airborne Transmission HPS Technical/Clinical Information Clinical Manifestation Treatment Histopathology Pathology/ Pathogenesis Diagnostics ...

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Montgomery

    Full Text Available We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1% of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  2. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  3. Analysis on Relation Measuring and Development Innovation Path of Tourism Economy in Shenyang Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang; ZHAO; Xiangye; SONG

    2014-01-01

    This article firstly measures the tourism economy relations in Shenyang Economic Zone,and summarizes the spatial structure of tourism economy in Shenyang Economic Zone. The results show that Shenyang is in the central position and its tourism resource has obvious advantages. Finally,this paper provides the development innovation path of tourism economy in Shenyang Economic Zone.

  4. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  5. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jussi eHepojoki; Antti eVaheri; Tomas eStrandin

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial ...

  6. Treatment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-14

    Clinical syndrome Hantaviruses cause a spectrum of vascular-leak syndromes n humans ranging from proteinuria to pulmonary edema and rank hemorrhage...of fatal illness. The illness is haracterized by fever and vascular leakage resulting in noncar- iogenic pulmonary edema followed in severe cases by...cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) o emphasize the important role of cardiogenic shock; among ospitalized patients, death almost invariably results from

  7. Human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Reimerink, Johan; Harms, Margriet; Bakker, Jacinta; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schimmer, Barbara; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-12-01

    We report the recent epidemiology and estimated seroprevalence of human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands. Sixty-two cases were reported during December 2008-December 2013. The estimated seroprevalence in the screened municipalities in 2006-2007 was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%-2.3%). Findings suggest that hantavirus infections are underdiagnosed in the Netherlands.

  8. Discovery of hantaviruses in bats and insectivores and the evolution of the genus Hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). From the period 1964-2006 almost all hantaviruses had been identified in rodents, with the exception of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) isolated from shrews sampled in India. As a consequence, rodents were considered as the natural reservoir hosts. However, over the past seven years, most of the newly found hantavirus genotypes have been from either shrews or moles. Remarkably, in recent years divergent hantaviruses have also been identified in bats sampled from both Africa and Asia. All these data indicate that hantaviruses have a broad range of natural reservoir hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the available sequences of hantaviruses suggest that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Although rodent hantaviruses cluster according to whether their hosts are members of the Murinae and Cricetidae, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, indicating that cross-species transmission events have occurred at all taxonomic levels. In sum, both cross-species transmission and co-divergence have produced the high genetic diversity of hantaviruses described to date.

  9. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Taylor

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII, prekallikrein (PK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK. Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation

  10. [Hantavirus as important emerging agents in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoño, Andrés F; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-01-01

    The dawning of the 20th century was marked by the emergence of new infectious disease agents and the appearance of others previously thought controlled. Both phenomena were possibly connected with ecological disturbances that led to the recognition of a dramatic climate change, of which the effects are only now becoming noticeable. Among the variety of agents to be considered, the many new viruses stand out, not only for their numerical proliferation, but also for their genetic versatility. It is this quality that provides them dexterity for evolving new strategies and adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Recently, some of the most ubiquitous and well-publicized viral agents in the American continents have been the rodent-borne viruses, and among these are the hantaviruses, etiological agents of pulmonary syndromes. Approximately 18 hantaviruses (belonging to the family Bunyaviridae), have been discovered in South America during the last 20 years, and although most of them cause persistent infections and subclinical infections in wild rodents (particularly members of the subfamily Sigmodontinae) and humans respectively; some others might also be highly lethal for humans. The goal herein is to review the state of the art regarding general aspects of hantaviruses and the diseases they cause around the world, highlighting the most recent findings in Colombia. Finally, the many unanswered questions will be recognized and highlighted concerning clinical importance and socio-economic impact of these agents on quality of public health in Colombia.

  11. Hantavirus infections in Europe and their impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Voutilainen, Liina; Mustonen, Jukka; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped tri-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses each carried by a specific rodent or insectivore host species. Several different hantaviruses known to infect humans circulate in Europe. The most common is Puumala (PUUV) carried by the bank vole; another two important, genetically closely related ones are Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) and Saaremaa viruses (SAAV) carried by Apodemus mice (species names follow the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses nomenclature). Of the two hantaviral diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome, the European viruses cause only HFRS: DOBV with often severe symptoms and a high case fatality rate, and PUUV and SAAV more often mild disease. More than 10,000 HFRS cases are diagnosed annually in Europe and in increasing numbers. Whether this is because of increasing recognition by the medical community or due to environmental factors such as climate change, or both, is not known. Nevertheless, in large areas of Europe, the population has a considerable seroprevalence but only relatively few HFRS cases are reported. Moreover, no epidemiological data are available from many countries. We know now that cardiac, pulmonary, ocular and hormonal disorders are, besides renal changes, common during the acute stage of PUUV and DOBV infection. About 5% of hospitalized PUUV and 16%-48% of DOBV patients require dialysis and some prolonged intensive-care treatment. Although PUUV-HFRS has a low case fatality rate, complications and long-term hormonal, renal, and cardiovascular consequences commonly occur. No vaccine or specific therapy is in general use in Europe. We conclude that hantaviruses have a significant impact on public health in Europe.

  12. New ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Martin; Handermann, Michaela; Bahr, Udo; Rensch, Baldur; Müller, Sandra; Kehm, Roland; Muranyi, Walter; Darai, Gholamreza

    2005-03-01

    In the last decades a significant number of so far unknown or underestimated pathogens have emerged as fundamental health hazards of the human population despite intensive research and exceptional efforts of modern medicine to embank and eradicate infectious diseases. Almost all incidents caused by such emerging pathogens could be ascribed to agents that are zoonotic or expanded their host range and crossed species barriers. Many different factors influence the status of a pathogen to remain unnoticed or evolves into a worldwide threat. The ability of an infectious agent to adapt to changing environmental conditions and variations in human behavior, population development, nutrition, education, social, and health status are relevant factors affecting the correlation between pathogen and host. Hantaviruses belong to the emerging pathogens having gained more and more attention in the last decades. These viruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are grouped into a separate genus known as Hantavirus. The serotypes Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Puumala (PUU), and Dobrava (DOB) virus predominantly cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a disease characterized by renal failure, hemorrhages, and shock. In the recent past, many hantavirus isolates have been identified and classified in hitherto unaffected geographic regions in the New World (North, Middle, and South America) with characteristic features affecting the lungs of infected individuals and causing an acute pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus outbreaks in the United States of America at the beginning of the 10th decade of the last century fundamentally changed our knowledge about the appearance of the hantavirus specific clinical picture, mortality, origin, and transmission route in human beings. The hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was first recognized in 1993 in the Four Corners Region of the United States and had a lethality of more than 50%. Although the causative virus was first termed in

  13. Second external quality assurance study for the serological diagnosis of hantaviruses in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are endemic throughout the world and hosted by rodents and insectivores. Two human zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, are caused by hantaviruses and case fatality rates have reached 12% for HFRS and 50% for HPS in some outbreaks. Symptomatic hantavirus infections in Europe are summarised as HFRS mainly due to Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade and Saaremaa virus. While HFRS has an overall low incidence in Europe, the number of cases varies from 100 per year in all Eastern and Southern Europe up to 1,000 per year only in Finland. To assess the quality of hantavirus diagnostics, the European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases (ENIVD organised a first external quality assurance (EQA in 2002. The purpose of this second EQA study is to collect updated information on the efficiency and accurateness of hantavirus serological methods applied by expert laboratories. A serum panel of 14 samples was sent to 28 participants in Europe of which 27 sent results. Performance in hantavirus diagnosis varied not only on the method used but also on the laboratories and the subclass of antibodies tested. Commercial and in-house assays performed almost equally. Enzyme immunoassays were mainly used but did not show the best performances while immunoblot assays were the less employed and showed overall better performances. IgM antibodies were not detected in 61% of the positive IgM samples and IgM detection was not performed by 7% of the laboratories indicating a risk of overlooking acute infections in patients. Uneven performances using the same method is indicating that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols.

  14. Hantavirus testing in small mammal populations of northcentral New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Foxx, T. [and others

    1995-07-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993 and 1994, the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, primarily for ecological risk assessment (ecorisk) studies. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico, EST also collected blood samples from captured animals for use in determining seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region due to the recent outbreak of this virus in the four-comers region of the Southwest. The deer mouse was the most commonly captured species during the tripping sessions. Other species sampled included harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus), long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). The team collected blood samples from tripped animals following CDC`s suggested guidelines. Results of the 1993 and 1994 hantavirus testing identified a total overall seroprevalence of approximately 5.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence rates were found in deer mice seri (3--6%), but results on several species were inconclusive; further studies will be necessary, to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  15. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  16. The effect of habitat fragmentation and species diversity loss on hantavirus prevalence in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzán, Gerardo; Marcé, Erika; Giermakowski, J Tomasz; Armién, Blas; Pascale, Juan; Mills, James; Ceballos, Gerardo; Gómez, Andres; Aguirre, A Alonso; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Armién, Anibal; Parmenter, Robert; Yates, Terry

    2008-12-01

    Habitat fragmentation and diversity loss due to increased conversion of natural habitats to agricultural uses influence the distribution and abundance of wildlife species and thus may change the ecology of pathogen transmission. We used hantaviruses in Panama as a research model to determine whether anthropogenic environmental change is associated with changes in the dynamics of viral transmission. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether hantavirus infection was correlated with spatial attributes of the landscape at both large and small scales or whether these changes are mediated by changes in community composition. When analyzed at coarse spatial scales, hantavirus reservoirs were more commonly found in disturbed habitats and edge habitats than in forested areas. At local scales, reservoir species dominance was significantly correlated with the slope of the terrain. To evaluate the effect of small-mammal diversity loss on infection dynamics, we implemented an experiment with selective species removal at experimental sites. Seroprevalence of hantavirus was higher in the community of small mammals and increased through time in the experimental sites. The higher seroprevalence in experimental plots suggests that greater diversity likely reduces encounter rates between infected and susceptible hosts. Our studies suggest that habitat loss and fragmentation and species diversity loss are altering hantavirus infection dynamics in Panama. Our work represents a multidisciplinary approach toward disease research that includes biodiversity concerns such as environmental change and degradation, human settlement patterns, and the ecology of host and nonhost species, work that may be especially important in tropical countries.

  17. Clinical course and long-term outcome of hantavirus-associated nephropathia epidemica, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latus, Joerg; Schwab, Matthias; Tacconelli, Evelina; Pieper, Friedrich-Michael; Wegener, Daniel; Dippon, Juergen; Müller, Simon; Zakim, David; Segerer, Stephan; Kitterer, Daniel; Priwitzer, Martin; Mezger, Barbara; Walter-Frank, Birgit; Corea, Angela; Wiedenmann, Albrecht; Brockmann, Stefan; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Human infection with Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Central Europe, causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a disease characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. To determine the clinical phenotype of hantavirus-infected patients and their long-term outcome and humoral immunity to PUUV, we conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 patients in Germany with clinically and serologically confirmed hantavirus-associated NE during 2001-2012. Prominent clinical findings during acute NE were fever and back/limb pain, and 88% of the patients had acute kidney injury. At follow-up (7-35 mo), all patients had detectable hantavirus-specific IgG; 8.5% had persistent IgM; 25% had hematuria; 23% had hypertension (new diagnosis for 67%); and 7% had proteinuria. NE-associated hypertension and proteinuria do not appear to have long-term consequences, but NE-associated hematuria may. All patients in this study had hantavirus-specific IgG up to years after the infection.

  18. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miša Korva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus, A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino, M. glareolus (Puumala virus, S. areanus (Seewis virus,M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus. Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas.

  19. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.

  20. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Report of the First Canadian Paediatric Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita E Lee

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS was first recognized as a severe respiratory illness transmitted through rodent excreta in the southwestern United States in 1993. As of November 1997, 175 cases have been reported in the United States. The mortality rate of this disease has been reported to be as high as 52% in the United States, and the majority of the cases (94% involved adults. Twenty-one cases have been recognized in Canada. This paper describes the first Canadian paediatric case and discusses some of the clinical features of this disease.

  1. Effects of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, C.; Buceta, J.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-12-01

    We study the spread of Hantavirus over a host population of deer mice using a population dynamics model. We show that taking into account the internal fluctuations in the mouse population due to its discrete character strongly alters the behavior of the system. In addition to the familiar transition present in the deterministic model, the inclusion of internal fluctuations leads to the emergence of an additional deterministically hidden transition. We determine parameter values that lead to maximal propagation of the disease and discuss some implications for disease prevention policies.

  2. Signs and Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Due to the ... urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents. Early Symptoms Early symptoms include fatigue, fever and muscle aches, ...

  3. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Suárez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+ results and two individuals with ELISA (-. Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests

  4. Serological diagnosis with recombinant N antigen for hantavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are causative agents of two rodent-borne zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Serological examinations to detect hantavirus antibodies have been most widely used for surveillance among humans and rodent reservoirs. Here, we will review antigenic structure of nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses and application of recombinant N protein as diagnostic antigen for screening and serotyping.

  5. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  6. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats.

  7. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential (n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) (p rodent populations in Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  8. Discovery of hantaviruses and of the Hantavirus genus: personal and historical perspectives of the Presidents of the International Society of Hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Wang; Vaheri, Antti; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2014-07-17

    We three authors, the two past presidents (HWL and AV) and the current president (CSS) of the International Society for Hantaviruses (ISH) have attended most of the nine International Conferences on HFRS, HPS and Hantaviruses (Table 1). These conferences have provided a forum for a synergistic group of clinicians, basic researchers, mammalogists, epidemiologists and ecologists to share their expertise and interests in all aspects of hantavirus research. Much of what is now hantavirus dogma was only conjecture when HWL organized the first conference in Seoul, Korea in 1989. Herein, we provide our reflections on key events in hantavirus research. As we come from distinct areas of the world and have had individual historical experiences, we certainly have our own geocentric opinions about the key events. Nevertheless, we agree that the discovery of hantaviruses has taken an interesting and unpredictable track to where we are today.

  9. Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.

  10. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo A; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan C; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Antihantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase, while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RT-qPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients, and improving other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission.

  11. Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein C from a Hantavirus in the Post-fusion Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willensky, Shmuel; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Tischler, Nicole D.; Dessau, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of glycoprotein C (GC) from Puumala virus (PUUV), a representative member of the Hantavirus genus. The crystal structure shows GC as the membrane fusion effector of PUUV and it presents a class II membrane fusion protein fold. Furthermore, GC was crystallized in its post-fusion trimeric conformation that until now had been observed only in Flavi- and Togaviridae family members. The PUUV GC structure together with our functional data provides intriguing evolutionary and mechanistic insights into class II membrane fusion proteins and reveals new targets for membrane fusion inhibitors against these important pathogens. PMID:27783673

  12. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Maria; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Prado, Amanda; Pardini, Renata; D´Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993–2012) and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature), landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane), and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index). We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest). In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk), and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks. PMID:27780250

  13. Identification of hantavirus infection by Western blot assay and TaqMan PCR in patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldal, Miklós; Németh, Viktória; Madai, Mónika; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Péterfi, Zoltán; Sebők, Judit; Wittmann, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2014-06-01

    Hantaviruses, one of the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers, represent a considerable healthcare threat. In Hungary, Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) are the main circulating hantavirus species, responsible for the clinical picture known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that may be accompanied by acute kidney injury (AKI), requiring hospitalization with occasionally prolonged recovery phase. A total of 20 patient sera were collected over a 2-year period from persons hospitalized with AKI, displaying clinical signs and laboratory findings directly suggestive for hantavirus infection. Samples were tested using an immunoblot assay, based on complete viral nucleocapsid proteins to detect patients' IgM and IgG antibodies against DOBV and PUUV. In parallel, all specimens were also tested by 1-step real-time TaqMan reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to confirm infection and to determine the causative hantavirus genotype. We present here the first Hungarian clinical study spanning across 2 years and dedicated specifically to assess acute kidney injuries, in the context of hantavirus prevalence.

  14. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in the New, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Old World: paradi(se)gm lost or regained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan; Maes, Piet; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-07-17

    Since the first clinical description in 1994 of the so-called "Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome" (HPS) as a "newly recognized disease", hantavirus infections have always been characterized as presenting in two distinct syndromes, the so-called "Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome" (HFRS) in the Old World, with the kidney as main target organ, in contrast to HPS in the New World, with the lung as main target organ. However, European literature mentions already since 1934 a mostly milder local HFRS form, aptly named "nephropathia epidemica" (NE), and caused by the prototype European hantavirus species Puumala virus (PUUV). Several NE reports dating from the 1980s and early 1990s described already non-cardiogenic HPS-like lung involvement, prior to any kidney involvement, and increasing evidence is now mounting that a considerable clinical overlap exists between HPS and HFRS. Moreover, growing immunologic insights point to common pathologic mechanisms, leading to capillary hyperpermeability, the cardinal feature of all hantavirus infections, both of the New and Old World. It is now perhaps time to reconsider the paradigm of two "different" syndromes caused by viruses of the same Hantavirus genus in the same Bunyaviridae family, and to agree on a common, more logical disease denomination, such as simply and briefly "Hantavirus fever".

  15. Shenyang Lce and Snow Festival:Quick Before It Melts!—— For ice sculptures, go to Harbin; for snow sculptures, Shenyang is the place.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILIKUN

    2004-01-01

    THE Shenyang Ice and Snow Festival has been makingits name as awinter holiday destination for the past seven years, having learned much from its sister city's international Sapporo Snow Festival. The 2005 Sheny ang Ice and Snow Festival runs from January 15 to 21 at Shenyang Qipan Mountain International Scenery and Tourism Development Zone, China's biggest ski resort.

  16. Arenaviruses and hantaviruses: from epidemiology and genomics to antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, R N; Coutard, B; Baronti, C; Canard, B; Nougairede, A; Frangeul, A; Morin, B; Jamal, S; Schmidt, C L; Hilgenfeld, R; Klempa, B; de Lamballerie, X

    2011-05-01

    The arenaviruses and hantaviruses are segmented genome RNA viruses that are hosted by rodents. Due to their association with rodents, they are globally widespread and can infect humans via direct or indirect routes of transmission, causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, despite their obvious and emerging importance as pathogens, there are currently no effective antiviral drugs (except ribavirin which proved effective against Lassa virus) with which to treat humans infected by any of these viruses. The EU-funded VIZIER project (Comparative Structural Genomics of Viral Enzymes Involved in Replication) was instigated with an ultimate view of contributing to the development of antiviral therapies for RNA viruses, including the arenaviruses and bunyaviruses. This review highlights some of the major features of the arenaviruses and hantaviruses that have been investigated during recent years. After describing their classification and epidemiology, we review progress in understanding the genomics as well as the structure and function of replicative enzymes achieved under the VIZIER program and the development of new disease control strategies.

  17. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a highly endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R C; Sant'ana, M M; Guterres, A; Fernandes, J; Hillesheim, N L F K; Lucini, C; Gomes, R; Lamas, C; Bochner, R; Zeccer, S; DE Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the most frequently reported fatal rodent-borne disease in Brazil, with the majority of cases occurring in Santa Catarina. We analysed the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data of the 251 confirmed cases of HPS in Santa Catarina in 1999-2011. The number of cases ranged from 10 to 47 per year, with the highest incidences in 2004-2006. Gastrointestinal tract manifestations were found in >60% of the cases, potentially confounding diagnosis and leading to inappropriate therapy. Dyspnoea, acute respiratory failure, renal failure, increased serum creatinine and urea levels, increased haematocrits and the presence of pulmonary interstitial infiltrate were significantly more common in HPS patients who died. In addition, we demonstrated that the six cases from the midwest region of the state were associated with Juquitiba virus genotype. The case-fatality rate in this region, 19·2%, was lower than that recorded for other mesoregions. In the multivariate analysis increase of serum creatinine and urea was associated with death by HPS. Our findings help elucidate the epidemiology of HPS in Brazil, where mast seeding of bamboo can trigger rodent population eruptions and subsequent human HPS outbreaks. We also emphasize the need for molecular confirmation of the hantavirus genotype of human cases for a better understanding of the mortality-related factors associated with HPS cases in Brazil.

  18. Hantavirus Infection in the Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    diagnosis of acute renal failure. Patient’s fluid input and output were closely regulated, and his con- dition improved gradually without dialysis...Vizjak A. Hantavirus nephropathy . J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1653–8. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2007091022 Address for correspondence: Tinatin Kuchuloria

  19. KARAKTERISTIK LINGKUNGAN DAN ASPEK SOSIAL DEMOGRAFI DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI HANTAVIRUS DI WILAYAH PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK DAN SUNDA KELAPA, JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study on hantavirus infection diseases in the area of Tanjung Priok and Sunda Kelapa Harbours has been conducted in the year of 1997; Considering a harbour may become a very potential port d'antre of diseases between islands, regions and countries. Hantavirus infection is well known as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, cause by some species of genus Hantavirus and transmitted to human by air droplet contaminated by urine, saliva or faeces of infected rodents. This is toreport a part of the study which is stress on sociocultural aspects, especially character of demography and community perceptions to hantavirus infection diseases. The data were collected by interviewing using questionaires and field observations. Sample population were household (HH while family members above 13 year of age including head of HH (Kepala Rumah Tangga were chosen as individual respondents and become analitical units. In total the number of samples were 113 HH, consisting 58 HH in Kelurahan Koja and 55 HH in Kelurahan Ancol. The number of individual respondents were 410 people. The results showed that most of respondents work as a labor in the harbours. In general they have low level formal education, mostly only elementary school graduated. The relatively low of their formal education they have might influence their wrong perceptions to any disease. The wrong community perceptions in the two areas mistaken hantavirus infection diseases with typhoid diseases.

  20. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific.

  1. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in precipitation from Shenyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; DONG GuangHui; JIN YiHe; SASAKI Kazuaki; SAITO Norimitsu; SATO Itaru; TSUDA Shuji; NAKAYAMA Shoji F

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in precipitation collected from Shenyang, China were determined. Snow samples were collected in the snow event on March 4, 2007 from 34 sites involving both the urban and suburban areas in Shenyang. The snowmelt was preconcentrated by solid phase extraction and analyzed using LC-MS method. Measurable amounts of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) were found in precipitation samples from Shenyang, demonstrating that wet deposition is one possible pathway for the removing of the selected PFAS chemicals from atmosphere. Major PFAS detected were PFOS (<0.38-51 ng/L), PFOA (0.82-13 ng/L) and PFHpA (0.76-11 ng/L), with their mean concentration of 5.4, 3.3 and 2.9 ng/L, respectively. Other PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at much lower frequency or below the limit of detection in all the samples. The work presented here offers some basis for the investigation on the environmental behavior and the evaluation of human exposure to PFAS.

  2. Hantavirus del nuevo mundo: Ecología y epidemiología de un virus emergente en latinoamérica The New-World Hantaviruses: Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Puerta

    2006-08-01

    ían necesarios más datos para entender su diversidad y evolución.The hantaviruses are a group of emerging rodent-borne pathogens (family Bunyaviridae; Genus Hantavirus that are etiologic agents for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe and Asia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. HFRS is associated with rodents of the family Muridae, subfamilies Murinae and Arvicolinae; HPS is associated with rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. Since the identification of HCPS in USA in 1993, a large number of cases of HPS and an increasing number of hantaviruses and rodent reservoir hosts have been identified in Central and South America. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important differences in frequency of infection with hantaviruses in both human and rodent host populations. Antibody prevalences in rodent and human populations may vary from less than 1% to more than 40%. Currently, more than 1500 cases of HCPS have been reported and more than 15 genetically distinct variants of hantaviruses, all associated with sigmodontine rodents, have been identified throughout the Americas. Several characteristics distinguish Latin American HCPS cases from the classical HCPS described for the first time in the USA. These include a variation in severity of disease from moderate and self-limiting to severe, the demonstration of person-to-person transmission, and a somewhat higher incidence of extrapulmonary clinical manifestations in the South American form of HCPS. Nevertheless, our understanding of hantaviruses in the Americas is still far from complete. The factors involved in the dynamics of these viruses in nature, their establishment and transmission within host populations and from hosts to humans, and the variable pathology of these viruses in humans are complex. It is likely that more hantaviruses will be described in the future, and much more data will be required in order to describe the diversity and evolution of this group of pathogens

  3. Spatial spread of the Hantavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, José A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier

    2015-03-01

    The spatial propagation of Hantavirus-infected mice is considered a serious threat for public health. We analyze the spatial spread of the infected mice by including diffusion in the stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection recently proposed by Reinoso and de la Rubia [Phys. Rev. E 87, 042706 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.042706]. We consider a general scenario in which mice propagate in fronts from their refugia to the surroundings and find an expression for the speed of the front of infected mice. We also introduce a depletion time that measures the time scale for an appreciable impoverishment of the environment conditions and show how this new situation may change the spreading of the infection significantly.

  4. Laguna Negra Virus Infection Causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Turkish Hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, K; Scott, D; Safronetz, D; Brining, D L; Ebihara, H; Feldmann, H; LaCasse, R A

    2016-01-01

    Laguna Negra virus (LNV) is a New World hantavirus associated with severe and often fatal cardiopulmonary disease in humans, known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Five hamster species were evaluated for clinical and serologic responses following inoculation with 4 hantaviruses. Of the 5 hamster species, only Turkish hamsters infected with LNV demonstrated signs consistent with HPS and a fatality rate of 43%. Clinical manifestations in infected animals that succumbed to disease included severe and rapid onset of dyspnea, weight loss, leukopenia, and reduced thrombocyte numbers as compared to uninfected controls. Histopathologic examination revealed lung lesions that resemble the hallmarks of HPS in humans, including interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema, as well as generalized infection of endothelial cells and macrophages in major organ tissues. Histologic lesions corresponded to the presence of viral antigen in affected tissues. To date, there have been no small animal models available to study LNV infection and pathogenesis. The Turkish hamster model of LNV infection may be important in the study of LNV-induced HPS pathogenesis and development of disease treatment and prevention strategies.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns in the Hantavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, G.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a model of the infection of Hantavirus in deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, based on biological observations of the system in the North American Southwest. The results of the analysis shed light on relevant observations of the biological system, such as the sporadical disappearance of the infection, and the existence of foci or ``refugia'' that perform as reservoirs of the virus when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  6. Sympatry of 2 hantavirus strains, paraguay, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yong Kyu; Goodin, Douglas; Owen, Robert D; Koch, David; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2009-12-01

    To explore geographic and host-taxonomic patterns of hantaviruses in Paraguay, we established sampling sites in the Mbaracayu Biosphere Reserve. We detected Jabora virus and Itapua37/Juquitiba-related virus in locations approximately 20 m apart in different years, which suggested sympatry of 2 distinct hantaviruses.

  7. Serologic evidence for human hantavirus infection in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Oré, Roger M; Forshey, Brett M; Huaman, Alfredo; Villaran, Manuel V; Long, Kanya C; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Guevara, Carolina; Montgomery, Joel M; Alvarez, Carlos A; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Morrison, Amy C; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-08-01

    While human illness associated with hantavirus infection has been documented in many countries of South America, evidence for hantavirus transmission in Peru has been limited to the isolation of Rio Mamore virus from a pigmy mouse rat (Oligoryzomys microtis) in the Amazon city of Iquitos. To address the possibility of human hantavirus exposure in the region, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Iquitos from 2007 to 2010 for serological evidence of recent hantavirus infection. In addition, we conducted a serological survey for hantavirus-reactive IgG among healthy participants residing in Iquitos and rural areas surrounding the city. Through the febrile surveillance study, we identified 15 participants (0.3%; 15/5174) with IgM reactive to hantavirus (Andes virus) antigen, all with relatively mild, self-limited illness. From the cross-sectional serosurvey we found that 1.7% (36/2063) of residents of the Iquitos area had serum IgG reactive to one or more hantaviruses, with a higher prevalence in the urban population (2.2%, compared to 1.1% in rural areas). These results suggest that human infection with hantavirus has occurred in Peru.

  8. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Southern Chile, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-04-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995-2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate.

  9. Survey for antibody to hantaviruses in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Arellano, Iván; Suzán, Gerardo; León, Rita Flores; Jiménez, Ricardo Morales; Lacher, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Wild rodents (n=248) were trapped in two ecologically distinct sites at El Cielo Biosphere Reserve in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, during the summer of 2003. Samples from 199 individuals were tested for Hantavirus antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hantavirus antibodies to recombinant Sin Nombre virus nucleocapsid protein were found in seven rodents (3.5%) of a single species, Peromyscus levipes. Antibody-positive rodents were found only in the Cloud Forest site, which had lower rodent species diversity than the Tropical Subdecidous Forest site. Although the identity of the virus in P. levipes remains to be determined, our study provides further evidence that Hantavirus antibody-positive individuals are prevalent in the rodent fauna of Mexico. This is the first survey for Hantavirus antibodies in the rodent fauna of Tamaulipas and the first report of P. levipes as a potential host for a Hantavirus.

  10. Hantavirus infection among wild small mammals in Vellore, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, S; Ulrich, R G; Schlegel, M; Petraityte, R; Sasnauskas, K; Prakash, D J; Balraj, V; Abraham, P; Sridharan, G

    2013-08-01

    Wild indigenous small mammals including 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats, and house mice) and a shrew captured from multiple sites in Vellore, south India, were tested for serological and molecular evidence of hantavirus infection. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Hantaan virus (HTNV) antigen indicated hantavirus-reactive antibodies in 16 (19.3%) of 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats). Western blot (WB) using Thailand virus (THAIV) antigen confirmed hantavirus-reactive antibodies in nine of the 16 HTNV IFA-positive rodents. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of lung and kidney tissue of captured mammals resulted in the detection of partial S segment sequence in a bandicoot rat. This study complements our earlier reports on hantavirus epidemiology in south India and documents first laboratory evidence for rodent-associated hantaviruses in south India.

  11. Effectiveness of recorded messages to communicate the risk of acquiring hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predy, G; Carney, B; Edwards, J

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a recorded information line in communicating health risk during the emergence of a new disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), in the Edmonton area and to study the accuracy of recall of information about hantavirus among the general public. A random telephone survey of residents five months after a death from HPS had occurred. The number of residents who received their information from the recorded line was quite low (approximately 2%), and more people remembered receiving their information through the news media, particularly television (74%) and newspaper (57%). An information line by itself will not communicate risk effectively during an outbreak or other emergent health situation. However, an information line used in conjunction with news media proved effective in providing ongoing, accurate information and allaying public fears in a low-risk situation.

  12. 社区35岁以上人群慢性阻塞性肺疾病流行病学患病率及危险因素研究%Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Residents Aged 35 Years or Older in Communities of Shenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯刚; 韩宇; 蔡睿; 王秋月; 康健; 尹燕; 孙丽丽; 李久荣; 韩丹; 张明娜; 曹亮; 苏红见; 杨会兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解沈阳部分社区35岁以上人群慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)的患病率及危险因素,为COPD社区防治提供基础数据.方法 采用统一的流行病学调查表,以整群随机抽样的方法,对沈阳市中山社区和桂林社区35~80岁居民进行问卷调查,并进行体格检查和肺功能检测,取资料完整的2 194份问卷进行分析.结果 调查资料完整且肺功能检查合格的2 194例人群中,男903例,女1 291例,平均年龄为55.8岁.COPD 患病率为5.1%,其中男性患病率为6.5%,女性患病率为4.1%,男性患病率高于女性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).被调查人群的吸烟率为37.1%,男性吸烟率明显高于女性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).吸烟者中COPD的患病率为10.33%,显著高于非吸烟人群,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而COPD人群中吸烟率为75.0%.单因素分析结果显示:吸烟、年龄、低体质指数、6个月以上的燃煤应用史是COPD的可能危险因素,而良好的家庭收入和文化水平是COPD的保护因素.多元回归分析显示,吸烟和年龄是COPD的危险因素.结论 沈阳市部分社区35岁以上人群COPD患病率为5.1%,吸烟和年龄是COPD患病的主要危险因素.除了吸烟和年龄以外,低体质指数、6个月以上的燃煤应用史、经济状况和受教育程度也是COPD的可能危险因素.控烟、改善经济状况和提高文化素质将有利于COPD的社区防治.%Objective To investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases ( COPD ) among residents who were 35 years or above in parts of communities of Shenyang city, in order to provide the basis data to the community prevention and treatment of COPD. Methods Cluster - random - sampling was taken in performance of the epi-demiological questionnaire survey among people aged ranging from 35 to 80 years old from Guilin community and Zhongshan community of Shenyang city. All the subjects underwent spirometry

  13. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  14. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  15. Human Seroprevalence indicating Hantavirus Infections in Tropical Rainforests of Côte d´Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Witkowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d´Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing.Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687 and 2.4% (7/295, respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d´Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In Côte d´Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  16. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  17. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  18. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K.; Verhagen, R.; Servais, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Recently, human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE) due to Puumala virus infection in Europe have increased. Following the hypothesis that high reservoir host abundance induces higher transmission rates to humans, explanations for this altered epidemiology must be sought in factors that cause ba...

  19. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  20. Hantavirus Fever without Pulmonary Syndrome in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  1. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-08

    dissemination of a novel zoonosis by means of international shipping. Rat- borne hantaviruses were subsequently detected in the United States, and two isolates...misdiagnosed as influenza (Lee, 1988). The potential occurrence of HFRS in the United States was suspected shortly after it was determined that rodents...Ypersele de Strihou, C., Mery, J. P. 1989. Hantavirus- related acute interstitial nephritis in Western Europe. Expansion of a world-wide zoonosis

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease in Tiexi District of Shenyang from 2009 -2010%2009-2010年沈阳市铁西区手足口病流行特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永生

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握沈阳市铁西区手足口病发病强度和流行趋势,为制订预防控制措施提供准确依据.方法 利用描述流行病学方法分析该区手足口病疫情资料.结果 2009-2010年手足口病年均报告发病率为121.73/10万,各年度报告发病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);男性年均报告发病率为143.41/10万,女性年均报告发病率为100.12/10万(P<0.01),男女性别比为1.43:1;6-9月报告发病占病例总数83.93%,实验室诊断病例25例,其中EV71病毒感染占56%;散居儿童、幼托儿童2项职业报告手足口病病例数分别占病例总数的49.47%和46.57%,0~5岁年龄组占病例总数93.77%.结论 该区手足口病夏秋季发病高峰及职业高峰明显,呈典型的婴幼儿发病高峰.该区应加强组织领导,做好卫生宣教工作,提高预防控制意识和水平,加强疫情动态监测,有效控制疫情蔓延.%[Objective] To underetand the disease intensity and epidemic trend of the hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and provide accurate evidence for developing control measures. [Methods]Descriptive epidemiology was used analyze the epidemic data of HFMD. [Results] From 2009 to 2010, the average annual reported incidence of HFMD was 121.73/100 000, the difference of the annual reported incidence was statistically significant (P<0.01); the average annual incidence rate of male was 143.41/100 000, that of female was 100.12/100 000 (P<0.01), the gender ratio (male : female) wasl.43: 1; the reported incidence from June to September was 83.93%. EV71 infection accounted for 56% ; The reported incidence of HFMD among scattered children and young preschools children accounted for 49.47% and 46.57% of the total incidence, respectively. The age group of 0-5 years accounted for 93.77% , [Conclusion]The seasonal peak incidence in summer and autumn, occupational peak incidence of infants and young children are obviously observed in this district. It is necessary to

  3. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus)

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; DIAZ, FRANCISCO J.; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo; Fulhorst, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western ...

  4. Recent Evidence of Hantavirus Circulation in the American Tropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoya-Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaan virus was discovered in Korea during the 1970s while other similar viruses were later reported in Asia and Europe. There was no information about hantavirus human infection in the Americas until 1993 when an outbreak was described in the United States. This event promoted new studies to find hantaviruses in the Americas. At first, many studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay, while other Latin American countries began to report the presence of these agents towards the end of the 20th century. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. However there was an important outbreak in 2000 in Panama and some rare events have been described in Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Since hantaviruses have only recently emerged as a potential threat in the tropical zones of the Americas, this review compiles recent hantavirus reports in Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern region of South America. These studies have generated the discovery of new hantaviruses and could help to anticipate the presentation of possible future outbreaks in the region.

  5. Kinship, dispersal and hantavirus transmission in bank and common voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Galan, M; Gauffre, B; Morand, S; Henttonen, H; Laakkonen, J; Voutilainen, L; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J-F

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the main emerging infectious agents in Europe. Their mode of transmission in natura is still not well known. In particular, social features and behaviours could be crucial for understanding the persistence and the spread of hantaviruses in rodent populations. Here, we investigated the importance of kinclustering and dispersal in hantavirus transmission by combining a fine-scale spatiotemporal survey (4 km2) and a population genetics approach. Two specific host-hantavirus systems were identified and monitored: the bank vole Myodes, earlier Clethrionomys glareolus--Puumala virus and the common vole Microtus arvalis--Tula virus. Sex, age and landscape characteristics significantly influenced the spatial distribution of infections in voles. The absence of temporal stability in the spatial distributions of viruses suggested that dispersal is likely to play a role in virus propagation. Analysing vole kinship from microsatellite markers, we found that infected voles were more closely related to each other than non-infected ones. Winter kin-clustering, shared colonies within matrilineages or delayed dispersal could explain this pattern. These two last results hold, whatever the host-hantavirus system considered. This supports the roles of relatedness and dispersal as general features for hantavirus transmission.

  6. Hantavirus infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDuring the Korean war between 1951-1953, an epidemic occurred among United Nations sanctioned military troops, characterized by fever, haemorrhages, shock and renal failure with a case fatality rate of up to 15%. This disease became known as Korean haemorrhagic fever [Smadel, 1951;

  7. Hantavirus infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDuring the Korean war between 1951-1953, an epidemic occurred among United Nations sanctioned military troops, characterized by fever, haemorrhages, shock and renal failure with a case fatality rate of up to 15%. This disease became known as Korean haemorrhagic fever [Smadel, 1951; Earle

  8. Hantavirus infection prevalence in wild rodents and human anti-hantavirus serological profiles from different geographic areas of South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Sonia M; Delfraro, Adriana; de Borba, Luana; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Stella, Vanessa; de Araujo, Marina R; Carstensen, Suzana; Rubio, Giselia; Maron, Angela; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N

    2012-08-01

    Paraná state presents the fourth highest number of accumulated cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil. To map the risk areas for hantavirus transmission we carried out a study based on rodent trapping and determined the anti-hantavirus seroprevalence in these animals and in the inhabitants of these localities. Overall seroprevalence in rodents and humans were 2.5% and 2.4%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the seropositive rodents were genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that hantaviruses from rodent samples cluster with Araucária (Juquitiba-like) or Jaborá hantavirus genotypes. The Jaborá strain was identified in Akodon serrensis and Akodon montensis, whereas the Araucária strain was detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, A. montensis, and Akodon paranaensis, with the latter species being identified for the first time as a natural host. These findings expose the complex relationships between virus and reservoirs in Brazil, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and human epidemiology.

  9. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H.M. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, J.D. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China)]. E-mail: wang-jinda@163.com; Zhang, X.L. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China)

    2006-11-15

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mg kg{sup -1}). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure. - Children were exposed to soil lead and the exposure was assessed by bioaccessibility using in vitro digestion model in a modified version.

  10. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  11. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, M E; Resa, A J; Barclay, C M; Calanni, L; Samengo, L; Martinez, L; Padula, P J; Pini, N; Lasala, M B; Elsner, B; Enria, D A

    2000-01-01

    Andes virus was identified in 1995 as the etiologic agent of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in Southern Argentina. We describe herein the main clinical characteristics of 25 HPS confirmed cases acquired in this area between 1993 and September 1999. The mean age was 34 years (range 11-70), with 72% males. Clinical characteristics were similar to those previously reported for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) cases. However, in this group of patients we also observed conjuntival injection in 10/25 (42%), facial flushing in 8/25 (33%), pharyngeal congestion in 7/25 (29%) and petechiae in 3/25 (12%). On the other hand, BUN was increased in 83% of cases (mean 0.77 g/l range 0.31-2.01). Mean serum creatinine concentration was 26.8 mg/l (range: 8.1-110 mg/l) with serum creatinine being higher than 20 mg/l in 8/15 patients (53%). Urinalysis was abnormal in 12/12 cases and was characterized by presence of proteins, red blood cells and granular casts. Aminotransferases were increased in 90% of cases with levels 5-10 times over normal values in 50% of cases. Serum creatine kinase concentration was elevated in 11/14 cases. Two patients required hemodialysis. Case fatality rate was 44% (11/25) and 10 of these cases died among the first 10 days of illness. Mononuclear myocarditis was observed in two cases, a finding that has not been reported for SNV cases. During the 1996 HPS outbreak in Southern Argentina due to Andes virus, there were epidemiological and molecular evidences of person-to-person transmission, a feature not previously shown for other members of the hantavirus genus. These data would also be indicative of some distinctive clinical characteristics of HPS caused by Andes virus, with more frequent renal involvement than in SNV cases.

  12. A construção do conhecimento do indivíduo no processo de sensibilização-conscientização -ação sobre a hantavirose e a oportunidade para o controle e a prevenção de zoonoses emergentes: a experiência da hantavirose em Santa Catarina/Brasil The construction of the individual's knowledge in the process of sensitization-awareness raising-action about hantavirus disease and the opportunity to control and prevent emerging zoonoses: the experience of hantavirus disease in Santa Catarina/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Andreatta Carvalho Schmidt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a trajetória da descoberta da Hantavirose no estado de Santa Catarina, no Município de Seara, no ano de 2000. Uma investigação epidemiológica dessa primeira ocorrência proveu dados e informações para pesquisa realizada a posteriori. O estudo realizado teve o intuito de analisar a Hantavirose como caso específico de doença emergente, relacionando-a com as suas condições de surgimento, passíveis de intervenção. Por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com atores envolvidos na investigação, foram identificados aspectos relevantes para práticas da Saúde Pública. O pequeno aproveitamento dos dados de uma investigação epidemiológica; o pouco investimento em ações preventivas pelo Estado após a emergência; e a impessoalidade dos profissionais de saúde envolvidos a contribuir para a responsabilização dos indivíduos afetados constituíram elementos indicativos de que não há orientação e controle de forma contínua ou mesmo um auxílio real aos indivíduos/comunidades necessitadas. Dessa forma é praticamente impossível que as ações sanitárias sejam bem-sucedidas. Conclui-se que o Programa de Saúde na Família, de estratégia dinâmica e participativa, é um dos elementos fundamentais no processo de construção do conhecimento de cada indivíduo com importância inegável nas orientações diante da emergência da Hantavirose. Paralelo ao programa faz-se necessária a elaboração de projetos educacionais direcionados às escolas e de um cronograma de palestras para as associações de bairros, visando um processo de sensibilização - conscientização-ação no auto-cuidado, em caráter permanente e não somente por ocasião de epidemias.This article describes the path of the discovery of Hantavirus disease in the state of Santa Catarina, where the first case occurred in the Municipal district of Seara in 2000. This occurrence provided data used in the present study. The main objective of

  13. T Cells Are Not Required for Pathogenesis in the Syrian Hamster Model of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In hamsters, ANDV causes a respiratory distress syndrome closely resembling human HPS. The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, T cell immunopathology has been implicated on the basis of circumstantial and corollary evidence. Here, we show that following ANDV challenge, hamster T cell activation corresponds with the onset of disease. However, treatment with cyclophosphamide or specific T cell depletion does not impact the course of disease or alter the number of surviving animals, despite significant reductions in T cell number. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that T cells are not required for hantavirus pathogenesis in the hamster model of human HPS. Depletion of T cells from Syrian hamsters did not significantly influence early events in disease progression. Moreover, these data argue for a mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular permeability that does not involve T cell immunopathology. PMID:21775442

  14. Estimation of main diversification time-points of hantaviruses using phylogenetic analyses of complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2017-04-02

    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hantavirus testing in rodents of north-central New Mexico 1993-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Salisbury, M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993, 1994, and 1995 the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations using live capture-recapture methods in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, to determine seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region. EST used trapping grids in 1993 and 1994 and used trapping webs in 1995. Grids were 120 m x 120 m (400 ft x 400 ft) with 144 trap stations at each grid. Three webs consisting of 148 traps each were used in 1995. Trapping took place over 4 to 8 consecutive nights. Programs CAPTURE and Distance were used to determine density estimates for grids and webs, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control and the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The 1994 and 1995 samples were analyzed by the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most commonly captured species at all locations except one site where voles (Microtus spp.) were the most commonly captured species. Other species sampled included: harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), shrews (Sorex spp.), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). Results of the 1993, 1994, and 1995 testing identified a total overall seroprevalence rate among deer mice of approximately 5.5%, 4.2%, and 0%, respectively. Several other species tested positive for the hantavirus but it is uncertain if it is Sin Nombre virus. Further studies will be necessary to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in males than females. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  16. [Nephropathia epidemica caused by Puumala hantavirus infection: a case report from the outpatient sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosshammer, D; Reichert, E; Reichert, W

    2010-12-01

    A 42-year-old man without pre-existing health problems presented to his family practitioner in Baden-Württemberg with fever (up to 39˚ C for two days), headache, abdominal pain, back pain and aching limbs. Ten days before, he had done heavy gardening work. He felt diffuse pain on abdominal palpation. The physical examination of the skin, lymph nodes, the heart, the lungs and the oral mucosa was unremarkable. Erythrocytes, leukocytes and sporadic bacteria were found in the urine. Urine test strip analysis gave a threefold positive result for protein. The blood test revealed in an elevated C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, elevated creatinine and thrombocytopenia. Enlarged kidneys and an enlarged spleen were found on ultra sound examination. IgG and IgM tested for Hantavirus infection were detected by IFA (Immunofluorescence antibody assay) and by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The blood tests had returned to normal by 15 days after onset of the fever which had persisted for 7 days. Oliguria and/or anuria did not occur. After three weeks of illness, the blood pressure was found to be at hypertensive levels and the patient was treated with antihypertensive drugs. A history of gardening work (exposure to rodents) and nonspecific symptoms (like headache and fever), in combination with elevated serum creatinine and thrombocytopenia, should raise the suspicion of nephropathia epidemica (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) caused by hantavirus infection. As sequelae of hantavirus infection may persist, patients should subsequently be followed for clinical and laboratory evidence of renal disease. Hospitalization is not generally warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  18. Evaluation of habitat requirements of small rodents and effectiveness of an ecologically-based management in a hantavirus-endemic natural protected area in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, María Victoria; García Erize, Francisco; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe cardio pulmonary disease transmitted to humans by sylvan rodents found in natural and rural environments. Disease transmission is closely linked to the ecology of animal reservoirs and abiotic factors such as habitat characteristics, season or climatic conditions. The main goals of this research were: to determine the biotic and abiotic factors affecting richness and abundance of rodent species at different spatial scales, to evaluate different methodologies for studying population of small rodents, and to describe and analyze an ecologically-based rodent management experience in a highly touristic area. A 4-year study of small rodent ecology was conducted between April 2007 and August 2011 in the most relevant habitats of El Palmar National Park, Argentina. Management involved a wide range of control and prevention measures, including poisoning, culling and habitat modification. A total of 172 individuals of 5 species were captured with a trapping effort of 13 860 traps-nights (1.24 individuals/100 traps-nights). Five rodent species were captured, including 2 hantavirus-host species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon azarae. Oligoryzomys nigripes, host of a hantavirus that is pathogenic in humans, was the most abundant species and the only one found in all the studied habitats. Our results are inconsistent with the dilution effect hypothesis. The present study demonstrates that sylvan rodent species, including the hantavirus-host species, have distinct local habitat selection and temporal variation patterns in abundance, which may influence the risk of human exposure to hantavirus and may have practical implications for disease transmission as well as for reservoir management.

  19. Síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (Virus Río Mamoré en la Amazonía Peruana Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore Virus in the Peruvian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Casapía

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH. La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realizó análisis filogenético del fragmento de genoma viral y la evaluación histopatológica. Ambos pacientes evolucionaron a síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto y estado de choque refractario. Un paciente falleció y el otro se recuperó a los doce díasHantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation. The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later

  20. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  1. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  2. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Mucker, Eric M; Brocato, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  3. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  4. Microhabitat characteristics of Akodon montensis, a reservoir for hantavirus, and hantaviral seroprevalence in an Atlantic forest site in eastern Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Douglas G; Paige, Robert; Owen, Robert D; Ghimire, Kabita; Koch, David E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2009-06-01

    Hantaviruses may cause serious disease when transmitted to humans by their rodent hosts. Since their emergence in the Americas in 1993, there have been extensive efforts to understand the role of environmental factors on the presence of these viruses in their host rodent populations. HPS outbreaks have been linked to precipitation, but climatic factors alone have not been sufficient to predict the spatial-temporal dynamics of the environment-reservoir-virus system. Using a series of mark-recapture sampling sites located at the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, an Atlantic Forest site in eastern Paraguay, we investigated the hypothesis that microhabitat might also influence the prevalence of Jaborá hantavirus within populations of its reservoir species, Akodon montensis. Seven trapping sessions were conducted during 2005-2006 at four sites chosen to capture variable microhabitat conditions within the study site. Analysis of microhabitat preferences showed that A. montensis preferred areas with little forest overstory and denser vegetation cover on and near the ground. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the microhabitat occupied by antibody-positive vs antibody-negative rodents, indicating that microhabitats with greater overstory cover may promote transmission and maintenance of hantavirus in A. montensis.

  5. Preliminary selection and evaluation of the binding of aptamers against a Hantavirus antigen using fluorescence spectroscopy and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missailidis, Sotiris; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia Martins; Guterres, Alexandro; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; de Godoy, Daniela Tupy; Lemos, Elba

    2015-12-01

    In this study we have aimed to develop novel aptamers against the Hantavirus nucleoprotein N, a valid antigen already used in the Hantavirus reference laboratory of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Such aptamers, if they are found to bind with high affinity and specificity for the selected hantavirus antigen, they could be translated into novel diagnostic assays with the ability to provide early detection for hantaviroses and their related disease syndromes. In a preliminary screening, we have managed to identify three aptamer species. We have analyzed a short and a long version of these aptamer using fluorescence spectroscopy and modelled their binding. We have identified Stern-Volmer constants for the selected aptamers, which have shown affinity for their target, with a different binding between the short and the long versions of them. Short aptamers have shown to have a higher Stern-Volmer constant and the ability to potentially bind to more than one binding site on the antigen. The information provided by the spectroscopic screening has been invaluable in allowing us to define candidates for further development into diagnostic assays.

  6. Retrieval of AOD and PM2.5 Concentrations over Urban Areas of Shenyang City using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important part in the Earth's radiation balance as well as global climate change, aerosols also have very important impact on environment as well as human and other organisms' health, PM2.5 and other small particle aerosols, can enter bronchi directly, thus causing bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, asthma and so on.Detection of AOD by satellite and remote sensing is currently one of the hotest issues , diffierent from the traditional monitoring method, this method has much more advantanges, for emample wide area coverage, fast and convenient etc. So it is possible for people to know the regional changes of AOD real time over large area. Now, detection aerosol by RS technology has reached a high level in marine and dense vegetation land areas, but result is not ideal for urban areas, the higher surface reflectance in urban areas is a bottleneck of AOD retrieval. Focus on the high surface reflectance and low accuracy of the AOD products of urban areas, this paper propose an algorithm coupled with surface reflectance to get red band surface reflectance, based on Dens Dark Vegetation algorithm and geometrical optics model theory, to distinguish urban reflectivity from other targets. Considering the appropriate aerosol model which adapt to season and other proper parameters, this paper uses 6S model to establish look-up table, thus retrieve AOD for urban as well as other high reflectance areas. This paper take Shenyang region as pilot area, then retrieve the AOD and PM2.5 concentration of Shenyang in 2015 based on MODIS data, thus get 1km resolution distribution map, and then analyzed the results in spatial, intensity and temporal. At last, real-time monitoring data from the ground monitor station is used to verify the outcome, the results have good accuracy and the the correlation reached 0.9004 when the weather is sunny. The research shows that this algorithm has relatively higher precision and certain universality. This method has

  7. Could hantavirus circulation superpose areas of highly endemic vaccinia virus outbreaks? A retrospective seroepidemiological study in State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliane de Souza Trindade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hantavirus infections have been described in several regions in Brazil through seroepidemiological studies. Usually, populations are associated with rural and wild environment mainly due to close contact to species of Sigmodontinae rodents, considered hantavirus reservoirs. Methods A retrospective serosurvey was conducted to access the hantavirus seroprevalence in people living in regions affected by bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Results Sera from 53 patients were analyzed and none of them presented anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. Conclusions This study presents an opportunity to analyze seronegativity despite close and recurrent contact with known hantavirus reservoirs. Aspects of hantavirus and bovine vaccinia emergence are also discussed.

  8. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of Hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.G. Clement; P. McKenna; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Colson; T. Vervoort; G. van der Groen (Guido); H.W. Lee

    1995-01-01

    textabstractHantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the m

  9. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  10. Reporting Hantavirus: A Study of Intercultural Environmental Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, JoAnn M.

    A study examined media coverage of hantavirus in three Southwestern regional newspapers, including interviews with journalists and sources involved in the coverage, and implications of the media's portrayal of Navajo culture. Content review of regional coverage--67 articles in three regional newspapers were reviewed in the first year of a new…

  11. Population ecology of hantavirus rodent hosts in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H B V; Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S

    2014-08-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts.

  12. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak, Brazil, December 2009-January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Ana Cláudia Pereira; Atanaka dos Santos, Marina; Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Via, Alba Valéria Gomes de Melo; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the Sobradinho Indian settlement of the Kayabí ethnic group in northern Mato Grosso during December 2009-January 2010. We conducted a retrospective study to clarify the outbreak's epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. Results suggest a relationship between the outbreak and deforestation and farming expansion in indigenous areas.

  13. Hantavirus nephropathy as a pseudo-import pathology from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, R; Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M; Pourkarim, M R; Maes, P; Clement, J

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hantavirus infection (nephropathia epidemica) diagnosed in a Belgian backpacker returning from a trekking expedition in Ecuador, after likely heavy exposure to rodents. Because of epidemiological inconsistency, molecular investigation was performed and revealed a Puumala infection acquired during very limited exposure in Belgium upon return.

  14. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  15. Rodent-borne hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim; Cosson, Jean François; Chaval, Yannick; Herbreteau, Vincent; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Lundqvist, Ake; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Morand, Serge; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detected in several rodent species (Bandicota indica, B. savilei, Maxomys surifer, Mus caroli, M. cookii, Rattus exulans, R. nitidius, R. norvegicus, and R. tanezumi). When site seroprevalence was compared with site species richness, seropositive animals were found more frequently at sites with lower species richness. In order to confirm which hantavirus species were present, a subset of samples was also subjected to RT-PCR. Hantaviral RNA was detected at a single site from each country. Sequencing confirmed the presence of two hantavirus species, Thailand and Seoul viruses, including one sample (from Lao PDR) representing a highly divergent strain of Seoul virus. This is the first molecular evidence of hantavirus in Lao PDR and the first reported L segment sequence data for Thailand virus.

  16. Structure of the Hantavirus Nucleoprotein Provides Insights into the Mechanism of RNA Encapsidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olal, Daniel; Daumke, Oliver

    2016-03-08

    Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N) of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections.

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  18. Hantavirus infections among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Jonathan J; Fritz, Curtis L; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P; Vugia, Duc J

    2014-03-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (phantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice.

  19. Adenovirus Vectors Expressing Hantavirus Proteins Protect Hamsters against Lethal Challenge with Andes Virus ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Hantaviruses infect humans following aerosolization from rodent feces and urine, producing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Due to the high rates of mortality and lack of therapies, vaccines are urgently needed. Nonreplicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors that express Andes hantavirus (ANDV) nucleocapsid protein (AdN) or glycoproteins (AdGN and AdGC) were constructed. Ad vectors were tested for their ability to protect Syrian hamsters from a lethal ANDV infe...

  20. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  1. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  2. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Soraya S; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Morais, Michelle S S; Prado, Nidiane D R; Barros, Marcos L; Koishi, Andrea C; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A C A; Gonçalves, Giselle M; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stabeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus

  3. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  4. Technical Characteristics of the Construction ofQinhuangdao-Shenyang Passenger Special Line and the Inspiration for High-speed Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    jinShouhua; ChenXiufang

    2004-01-01

    In this article,the features of design and cionstruction of Qinhuangdao-Shenyang passenger special line in railroad foundation,tracks,and bridges are described as the reference in high-speed railway construction.

  5. Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O

  6. Climate Changes and Countermeasures for Meteorological Disasters during Production Period in Vegetable Greenhouse in Northern Shenyang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the climate changes and countermeasures for meteorological disasters during production period in vegetable greenhouse in northern Shenyang. [Method] By dint of local climate data in recent 38 years and using the conventional method of mathematical statistics, the climate changes and countermeasures for meteorological disasters during production period in vegetable greenhouse in northern Shenyang were expounded. [Result] In general, the sunshine condition in new area of Sheny...

  7. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Report of Four Alberta Cases

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    Ameeta E Singh

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Alberta cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are reported. Three cases required intensive care, with one experiencing a fulminant course resulting in death. A fourth case with milder illness was identified after epidemiological investigations. Ribavirin was used in one patient who experienced a successful outcome. A recent open label trial has not supported the efficacy of this drug. The epidemiology of Peromyscus maniculatus, the primary rodent host, and the clinical features of this syndrome are summarized.

  8. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Knap, Józef P; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Samples of 30 dead small mammals each were collected on area 'A' located in eastern Poland which is exposed to flooding by the Vistula river, and on the area 'B', also located in eastern Poland but not exposed to flooding. Kidneys and livers of the mammals were examined by the PCR and nested PCR methods for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Out of 7 species of small mammals examined, the presence of hantaviruses was detected in 4 of them. Hantavirus prevalence was low in Apodemus agrarius (2.6%), the most numerous mammal species, whereas in the remaining 3 positive species (Microtus agrestis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus) this was 12.5-100%. The presence of hantaviruses was detected only in the animals found on area 'A' exposed to flooding, and their prevalence was statistically greater compared to area 'B' not exposed to flooding (16.7% vs. 0%, p=0.0345). The overall positivity of the examined small mammals population from the areas 'A' and 'B' was 8.3%. The sequence analysis of the samples positive for hantavirus proved that the amplified products showed 77-86% homology with the L segment sequence of hantavirus Fusong-Mf-731 isolated from Microtus fortis in China. The presented study is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in small mammals from eastern Poland, and the first to demonstrate the significant relationship between flooding and the prevalence of hantaviruses in small mammals.

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  10. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome

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    Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença de conhecimento relativamente recente e freqüentemente fatal, apresentando-se como síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. No Brasil, desde o primeiro surto, relatado em novembro/dezembro de 1993, em Juquitiba, 226 casos já foram registrados pela Fundação Nacional da Saúde. A doença afeta indivíduos previamente hígidos, apresentando-se com pródromo febril e sintomas semelhantes aos de um resfriado comum, podendo rapidamente evoluir para edema pulmonar, insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque. A hemoconcentração e a plaquetopenia são comuns da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus, e o quadro radiológico típico é de um infiltrado intersticial bilateral difuso, que progride rapidamente para consolidações alveolares, paralelamente à piora do quadro clínico. A mortalidade inicial era em torno de 75% e declinou para aproximadamente 35%, nos últimos anos. Os pacientes que sobrevivem geralmente recuperam-se completamente, cerca de uma semana após o estabelecimento do quadro respiratório. O agente causal, não reconhecido até há pouco, foi identificado como um hantavírus, cujo reservatório natural são animais roedores da família Muridae, subfamília Sigmodontinae. O tratamento específico antiviral ainda não é bem estabelecido, estando em estudo a eficácia de ribavirina. Cuidados de terapia intensiva como ventilação mecânica e monitoramento hemodinâmico invasivo são necessários nas formas mais graves da doença. Essas medidas, se instituídas precocemente, podem melhorar o prognóstico e a sobrevida dos pacientes com síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus.Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by

  11. Genetic evidence of hantavirus infections in wild rodents from northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Andres F; Díaz, Francisco J; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-06-01

    This report builds on recent serological evidence for the presence of hantavirus in northern Colombia by providing sequence-specific and phylogenetic data of hantavirus infections in wild rodents. From August 2007 to August 2008, 354 rodent specimens representing four families were collected in the northwestern Antioquia region of Colombia. Antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus and Maciel virus antigens by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were found in 15 of 109 (14%) Cherries cane rats (Zygodontomys cherriei), the only sigmodontinae rodents captured. Lung tissue samples from 11 of the 15 seropositive rodents were RT-polymerase chain reaction positive for hantavirus RNA, using primers for the S and M genome segments. Eight of these amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses indicated RNA of a hantavirus closely related to Calabazo virus, previously found in Panama. This is the first report of the genetic characterization of a hantavirus in rodents in Colombia.

  12. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus: aspectos clínicos de uma doença emergente no sudeste brasileiro Pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome due to hantavirus: clinical aspects of an emerging disease in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelse Mazzoni Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é doença causada pela aspiração de aerossóis dos dejetos de roedores silvestres contaminados por vírus da família Bunyaviridae. Estudamos manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais de 70 casos ocorridos de 1998 a 2007 na região de Ribeirão Preto, SP. A freqüência de sintomas foi dispnéia (87%, febre (81%, tosse (44%, cefaléia (34%, taquicardia (81%, hipotensão arterial (56%, hipóxia (49%, acidose metabólica (57%, linfocitopenia (51%, hematócrito >45% (70%, leucocitose com desvio à esquerda (67%, creatinina (51% e uréia (42% séricas elevadas. A letalidade (54,3% ocorreu principalmente no 4o dia. Insuficiência respiratória, hipotensão arterial e choque ocorreu 24-48 horas; o hematócrito elevado e a plaquetopenia são sinais fortemente sugestivos da doença. A hipótese diagnóstica de pneumonia atípica associada a bom prognóstico (p:0,0136; a infusão hídrica >2.000ml e hipotensão arterial associadas a mau prognóstico (p:0,0286 e p:0,0453.Pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome due to hantavirus is a disease caused by inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of wild rodents contaminated by viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. We studied the clinical and laboratory manifestations of 70 cases that occurred in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, between 1998 and 2007. The frequency of symptoms was as follows: dyspnea (87%, fever (81%, coughing (44%, headache (34%, tachycardia (81%, low arterial blood pressure (56%, metabolic acidosis (57%, lymphocytopenia (51%, hematocrit > 45% (70%, leukocytosis with left deviation (67%, creatinine (51% and urea (42%. Mortality (54.3% occurred mainly on the fourth day. Respiratory insufficiency, low arterial blood pressure and shock occurred after 24 to 48 hours. High hematocrit and decreased platelet levels were signs strongly suggestive of the disease. The diagnostic hypothesis of atypical pneumonia was associated with a good

  13. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus in Côte d'Ivoire

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    Sumibcay Laarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus, captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV, was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea. Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses.

  14. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  15. Hantavirus Public Health Outreach Effectiveness in Three Populations: An Overview of Northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S. McConnell

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601. Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN URBAN SOIL AND ITS POTENTIAL RISK IN SHENYANG CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-da; REN Hui-min; LIU Jing-shuang; YU Jun-bao; ZHANG Xue-lin

    2006-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics of Pb in urban soil of Shenyang City, China were investigated in this study. The range of Pb concentration in the soil was 22.02-2910.60mg/kg. The standard dev iation was443.07mg/kg, and coefficient of variation was 1.64. Tiexi District was seriously contaminated by lead. In general, Pb concentration in the soil decreased with distance from pollution source. Lead concentration varied in different functional areas with the order of industrial area>commercial area>residential area>suburb>reference area. Pb concentration decreased with the depth of soil profile. Both geo-accumulation index and ecological risk index were used to estimate the potential risk of soil Pb pollution in Shenyang City. The results showed that the high potential risk area included Tiexi District and traffic roads.

  17. Spatial distribution of Cd and Cu in soils in Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA), China*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Li-Na; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Wen-Qing; MA,LI; Chen, Su

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils, derived from sewage irrigation, mining and inappropriate utilization of various agrochemicals and pesticides, and so on, has been of wide concern in the last several decades. The Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA) in China is a representative area of heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from sewage irrigation for about 30 years. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation of soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) contami...

  18. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

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    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  19. Character and Causes of Population Distribution in Shenyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Guoming; ZHANG Shuwen; ZHANG Youquan

    2006-01-01

    Character of population distribution is one of the focuses studied by urban geography. Using the fifth national census data as basic data and using areal interpolation method, this paper analyzes character of urban population distribution of Shenyang City, Northeast China, in terms of three aspects of statistical character, spatial auto-correlation and spatial structure. Furthermore, this research analyzes the factors affecting the population distribution of the city. The main conclusions include: 1) There is an obvious structure character of population distribution in the grid with a grain of 300m, which is appropriate scale when researching population distribution in Shenyang City. 2) Urban population distribution has the character of assembling while population density distribution takes on variability in Shenyang City. 3)Population density distribution shows spatial auto-correlation within 7.36km. Spatial heterogeneity of population density is low. 4) Urban center, population distribution barycenter and population density maximum points separate each other.Population density distribution has multi-cores character. 5) Layout of governments, primary schools, middle schools,colleges, hospitals and marketplaces affects population distribution directly. With the increase of distance to these factors,population density decreases as logarithm.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China

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    Yang Na

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, investigations of Toxoplasma gondii infection in poultry (chickens, ducks, and geese have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 502 adult chickens, 268 adult ducks, and 128 adult geese was surveyed using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results The seroprevalences of T. gondii were 5.8%, 7.8%, and 4.7% in chickens, ducks, and geese, respectively. Prevalence was higher in free-range groups (11.2%, 12.3%, and 8.9% than caged groups (4.7%, 7.5%, and 6.0%, and there was a statistically significant difference only between free-range chickens and caged chickens, but no significant difference was found between free-range ducks, geese and caged ducks, geese. Conclusions The present study shows the prescence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China, which suggests that consumption of poultry meat in Shenyang may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention.

  1. [Selection of distance thresholds of urban forest landscape connectivity in Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-fu; Zhou, Bin; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei

    2010-10-01

    By using the QuickBird remote sensing image interpretation data of urban forests in Shenyang City in 2006, and with the help of geographical information system, this paper analyzed the landscape patches of the urban forests in the area inside the third ring-road of Shenyang. Based on the habitat availability and the dispersal potential of animal and plant species, 8 distance thresholds (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 m) were selected to compute the integral index of connectivity, probability of connectivity, and important value of the landscape patches, and the computed values were used for analyzing and screening the distance thresholds of urban forest landscape connectivity in the City. The results showed that the appropriate distance thresholds of the urban forest landscape connectivity in Shenyang City in 2006 ranged from 100 to 400 m, with 200 m being most appropriate. It was suggested that the distance thresholds should be increased or decreased according to the performability of urban forest landscape connectivity and the different demands for landscape levels.

  2. Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Mills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3–6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time.

  3. A seroprevalence study to determine the frequency of hantavirus infection in people exposed to wild and pet fancy rats in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, J M; Close, R; McCann, L; Wright, D; Keys, M; McCarthy, N; Mannes, T; Walsh, A; Charlett, A; Brooks, T J G

    2017-09-01

    Recent cases of acute kidney injury due to Seoul hantavirus infection from exposure to wild or pet fancy rats suggest this infection is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We conducted a seroprevalence study in England to estimate cumulative exposure in at-risk groups with contact with domesticated and wild rats to assess risk and inform public health advice. From October 2013 to June 2014, 844 individual blood samples were collected. Hantavirus seroprevalence amongst the pet fancy rat owner group was 34.1% (95% CI 23·9-45·7%) compared with 3·3% (95% CI 1·6-6·0) in a baseline control group, 2·4% in those with occupational exposure to pet fancy rats (95% CI 0·6-5·9) and 1·7% with occupational exposure to wild rats (95% CI 0·2-5·9). Variation in seroprevalence across groups with different exposure suggests that occupational exposure to pet and wild rats carries a very low risk, if any. However incidence of hantavirus infection among pet fancy rat owners/breeders, whether asymptomatic, undiagnosed mild viral illness or more severe disease may be very common and public health advice needs to be targeted to this at-risk group.

  4. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a Chilean patient with recent travel in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, R; Vial, P; Noriega, L M; Johnson, A; Nichol, S T; Rollin, P E; Wells, R; Zaki, S; Reynolds, E; Ksiazek, T G

    1998-01-01

    A case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was serologically confirmed in a critically ill patient in Santiago, Chile. The patient's clinical course had many similarities to that of other HPS patients in North and South America but was complicated by acute severe renal failure. The patient's history included self-reported urban and probable rural rodent exposure during travel in Bolivia. Comparison of a viral sequence from an acute-phase serum sample with other known hantaviruses showed that the hantavirus nucleic acid sequence from the patient was very similar to a virus recently isolated from rodents associated with HPS cases in Paraguay.

  5. Development of a minigenome system for Andes virus, a New World hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-11-01

    The development of reverse genetics systems for negative-stranded RNA viruses is a rapidly evolving field that has greatly advanced the study of the many different aspects of the viral life cycle. Andes virus (ANDV) is a highly pathogenic hantavirus found in South America that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome but to date remains poorly characterized due to the lack of a reverse genetics system for genetic manipulation. Here, we describe the first successful minigenome system for a New World hantavirus, as well as many of the obstacles that still exist in the development of such a system.

  6. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study.

  7. Detection of Hantavirus gene from peripheral blood of patients with HFRS in Heilongjiang province and the epidemiological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAN YONG CHEN; LING LAN ZENG; XIN ZHANG; HONG QI JIANG; FENG JUAN SHAO; QING GANG LI; BAO LING LU; LIN LI

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to further understand the genotype of Hantavirus (HV) from peripheral blood of patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and the epidemiological significance of this disease in Heilongjiang province in recent years. Thirty-one serum samples of clinically diagnosed patients with HFRS were examined by RT-PCR to decide the genetic subtype. On the basis of infection season, the serum samples were divided into two groups: winter (Nov, 2003-Feb, 2004), spring and summer (April, 2004-Sep, 2004). Further analysis was performed in combination with clinical symptoms. It was found that among the total 31 samples, 22 were sero-positive. Among 14 serum samples in winter, 8 were sero-positive, of which 5 cases were of type Ⅰ (Hantaan virus, HTNV) and 3 of type Ⅱ (Seoul virus, SEOV). Among 17 samples in spring and summer, 14 were sero-positive, of which 5cases were of type Ⅰ and 9 of type Ⅱ. So it concludes that both of the two types of Hantavirus exist in Heilongjiang. The type Ⅰ is the main pathogen of HFRS in winter, and type Ⅱ is the main in spring and summer.

  8. Enhancing DNA vaccine potency against hantavirus by co-administration of interleukin-12 expression vector as a genetic adjuvant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lan-yan; MOU Ling; LIN Song; LU Run-ming; LUO En-jie

    2005-01-01

    Background The heavy incidence and mortality of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, as well as no specific drugs in curing the disease,clearly indicate the need for development of the more effective hantavirus vaccine. Refining the DNA vaccination strategy to elicit more clinically efficacious immune responses is now under intensive investigation. In the present study, we examined the effects of using an interleukin-12 expression plasmid as a genetic adjuvant to enhance the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine based on the S gene encoding nucleocapsid protein against hantavirus. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized three times by intramuscular inoculations of DNA vaccine encoding of hantanvirus nucleocapsid protein alone or in combination with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin-12 (pcIL-12). Booster immunizations were employed 2 times at 2-week interval. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production were assayed by MTT method and ELISA respectively. The level of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ in the splenic lymphocytic cultured supernatant were detected with ELISA kit at day 5, 10, 17, 35 and 42 after primary immunization.Conclusion Humoral and cytokine responses elicited by pcDNA3.1+S inoculation can be modulated by co-inoculation with pcIL-12 and efficiently induced Th1-dominant immune responses.

  9. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  10. Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilbe Monika

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus, Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens and common mole (Talpa europea, suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV, were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health.

  11. [The analysis of hantavirus S gene in Apodemus agrarius in Changbai area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-Li; Yang, Peng-Feil; Shao, Li-Jun; Liu, Yong-Xian; Pu, Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Cao, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Tian-Yu; Yao, Li-Si

    2013-06-01

    To gain more insights into epidemiologic characteristics and genotype of hantavirus in Apodemus agrarius in Changbai Area. Complete hantavirus S segment sequences were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The phylogenetic trees were constructed for analysis of genetic characters of hantavirus. A total of 58 Apodemus agrarius were trapped in the epidemic areas, and complete hantavirus S segment sequences were obtained from 4 lung samples of these rodents (6. 90%0). Phylogenetic analysis of the four S segment sequences indicated that all viruses isolated from Apodemu sagrarius were closely related to genotype 6 of Hantaan virus (95. 8%-96. 3%, nucleotide identity; 98. 6%-99. 5%, amino acid identity), all of them had a specific S387 different from other genotypes of Hantaan virus.

  12. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  13. Hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins self-assemble into virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera.

  14. [Occupational mental health and job satisfaction in university teachers in Shenyang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Wu, H; Wang, J N; Wang, L

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of occupational mental health and job satisfaction in university teachers in Shenyang, China and related influencing factors. Methods: A total of 1500 teachers from 6 universities in Shenyang were randomly selected as study subjects from November 2013 to January 2014. Self-administered questionnaires were used to investigate mental health, including effort-reward imbalance questionnaire, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiological Survey-Depression Scale, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Results: Of all teachers, 58.9% had depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in university teachers were negatively correlated with the scores of psychological capital, supervisory commitment, and perceived organizational support (r=-0.461, -0.306, and -0.366, all PJob satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological capital, perceived organizational support, and supervisory commitment (r=0.650, 0.715, and 0.636, all Peffects of occupational stress, perceived organizational support, and supervisory commitment on job satisfaction were -0.30, 0.26, and 0.14, respectively, and their indirect effects were -0.0176, 0.0656, and 0.0368, respectively. The direct effects of occupational stress, perceived organizational support, and supervisory commitment on depressive symptoms were 0.20, -0.08, and -0.05, respectively, and their indirect effects was 0.033, -0.123, and -0.069, respectively. Conclusion: Occupational mental health is closely associated with job satisfaction in university teachers in Shenyang, and psychological capital has a mediating effect on perceived organizational support, supervisory commitment, occupational stress, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms.

  15. Second China-Tanzania Governors and Mayors Dialogue Held in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan; Xiushuang

    2014-01-01

    <正>Sponsored by the CPAFFC,the Liaoning Provincial People’s Government and the Prime Minister’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government of Tanzania,the2nd China-Tanzania Governors and Mayors Dialogue was held in the provincial capital Shenyang on June11,2014.In attendance were Li Xi,Acting Governor of Liaoning,Feng Zuoku,CPAFFC Vice President,and Hawa A.Ghasia,Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office for Regional Administration and Local

  16. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  17. Preferential host switching and its relation with Hantavirus diversification in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Paula C; González-Ittig, Raul E; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the notion of co-speciation between Hantavirus species and their hosts was discarded in favour of a more likely explanation: preferential host switching. However, the relative importance of this last process in shaping the evolutionary history of hantaviruses remains uncertain, given the present limited knowledge not only of virus-host relationships but also of the pathogen and reservoir phylogenies. In South America, more than 25 hantavirus genotypes were detected; several of them act as aetiological agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). An understanding of the diversity of hantaviruses and of the processes underlying host switching is critical since human cases of HPS are almost exclusively the result of human-host interactions. In this study, we tested if preferential host switching is the main process driving hantavirus diversification in South America, by performing a co-phylogenetic analysis of the viruses and their primary hosts. We also suggest a new level of amino acid divergence to define virus species in the group. Our results indicate that preferential host switching would not be the main process driving virus diversification. The historical geographical proximity among rodent hosts emerges as an alternative hypothesis to be tested.

  18. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, Michelly de; Souza, William Marciel de; Lauretti, Flávio; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV) using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated) and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  19. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

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    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  20. Evidencia serológica de infección por hantavirus (bunyaviridae: hantavirus) en roedores del departamento de sucre, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Mejia, Stiven; Corrales Aldana, Homer; Perez Jimenez, Julia; Alvarez García, Lercy; Castellar Martínez, Anaís; Blanco Tuirán, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de anticuerpos específicos a hantavirus en roedores del municipio de San Marcos, departamento de Sucre. Métodos Se capturaron 144 roedores con trampas Sherman® en áreas urbanas y rurales del municipio de San Marcos, desde diciembre de 2007 hasta julio de 2009. Los anticuerpos Ig G específicos contra el Virus Sin Nombre (VSN) fueron detectados en muestras de plasma mediante ELISA indirecto. Resultados La seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus fue de...

  1. [Analysis on accessibility of urban park green space: the case study of Shenyang Tiexi District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Jun-Ying; Yan, Hong-Wei; Shi, Tuo; Li, Ying

    2014-10-01

    The accessibility of urban park green space is an important indicator to reflect how much the natural service supplied by parks could be enjoyed by citizens conveniently and fairly. This paper took Shenyang Tiexi District as an example to evaluate the accessibility of urban park green space based on QuickBird imagery and GIS software, with four modes of transportation, walking, non-motor vehicle, motor vehicle and public transport being considered. The research compared and analyzed the distribution of the accessible area and the accessible people of park green space. The result demonstrated that park green space in Shenyang Tiexi District was not enough and the distribution was not even. To be precise, the accessibility in southwest part and central part was relatively good, that in marginal sites was worse, and that in east part and north part was the worst. Furthermore, the accessibility based on different modes of transportation varied a lot. The accessibility of motor vehicle was the best, followed by non-motor vehicle and public transport, and walking was the worst. Most of the regions could be reached within 30 minutes by walking, 15 minutes by non-motor vehicle and public transport, and 10 minutes by motor vehicle. This paper had a realistic significance in terms of further, systematic research on the green space spatial pattern optimization.

  2. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiling of four antimicrobials against Gram-negative bacteria collected from Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Hong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine common antimicrobial regimens used in eradicating certain nosocomial Gram-negative pathogens and determine which ones are likely to be the most suitable as empirical choices in Shenyang, China. Methods A 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to determine the cumulative fraction of response (CFR for meropenem, imipenem, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam and levofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected in 2006 and 2007 from Shenyang. Results Meropenem and imipenem had the highest CFRs against the Enterobacteriaceae (97%-100%, followed by cefepime. No antibiotic simulated regimen achieved optimal CFR against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Piperacillin/tazobactam dosed at 4.5 g q8h achieved the lowest CFR against all bacteria. Conclusions This study suggests that the carbapenems provide the greatest likelihood of clinical success for the Enterobacteriaceae, and combination therapy might be needed when choosing empirical therapy, especially when A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa are suspected.

  3. Perceptions of building professionals on sustainable development: A comparative study between Hong Kong and Shenyang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, S.M.; Zhao, C.M.; Cheng, W.Y. [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2006-07-01

    It is logical to believe that the building professionals (architect, structural engineers, building services engineers, etc.) are the relevant persons that may influence the decision-making process on a real estate development process. Accordingly, the attitudes and perception of building professionals should have a significant influence on sustainable development. This article describes a survey concerning the perceptions of different building professionals, which include architects, construction engineers and building services engineers, on the environment, resource sustainability, and green consumerism in two major cities in China: Hong Kong and Shenyang. It is recognized that energy is central to sustainable development and in 2006/2007, the United Nation Commission on Sustainable Development will focus on energy issue. The discussion in this article will concentrate on the building professionals' perception on energy related issues. Nevertheless, the findings in respect of their awareness of the environment, resources sustainability and other related issues are also summarized. At global level, apart from the need to preserve historical buildings, the professionals in Shenyang feel that 'exhaustion of natural resources' is of major concern and energy preservation is significant. However, the Hong Kong professionals do not consider energy resource sustainability is of urgency. (author)

  4. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers strongly influence CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per trip to commercial centers in the suburbs of Shenyang were on average 6.94% and 26.92% higher than those to commercial centers in the urban core and the inner city, respectively. CO2 emissions induced by wholesale centers were nearly three times higher than the lowest CO2 emissions of commercial centers in the inner city. These empirical results enhance our understanding of shopping-related transport carbon emissions and highlight the importance of optimizing urban space structure, in particular, the layout of commercial centers.

  5. [Analysis on barriers of urban sustainable development based on DEMATEL: a case of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Rong; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Ren, Wan-Xia; Dong, Hui-Juan

    2012-10-01

    To scientifically identify the key barriers which the urban sustainable development is facing and to analyze the interrelationships among the barriers are of significance to promote urban sustainable development. Through literature review, site investigation and structural interview, 21 factors affecting the Shenyang City's sustainable development were recognized, and based on questionnaire survey and statistics analysis, 12 main factors were screened. Further, by employing decision-making and trial evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method, the interrelationships among these factors were analyzed. The key factors affecting the Shenyang's sustainable development included the lack of leaders' attention, the economy-oriented governmental performance evaluation system, the lower public awareness on sustainable development, and the lack of academic understanding on regional eco-carrying capacity and related key projects. It was suggested that the local government should pay more attention on sustainable development, increase propaganda activities, reform governmental performance evaluation system, establish a reward-punishment system for promoting sustainable development and an effective monitoring mechanism, and enhance the implementation of related regulations, the local enterprises should establish research and development funds to support the researches of key technologies and introduce key projects, and general publics should improve their awareness on sustainable development and actively participate in related activities.

  6. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and the dynamics of hantavirus using remote sensing, GIS, and a spatially explicit agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lina

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a strain of hantavirus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans, a deadly disease with high mortality rate (>50%). The primary virus host is deer mice, and greater deer mice abundance has been shown to increase the human risk of HPS. There is a great need in understanding the nature of the virus host, its temporal and spatial dynamics, and its relation to the human population with the purpose of predicting human risk of the disease. This research studies SNV dynamics in deer mice in the Great Basin Desert of central Utah, USA using multiyear field data and integrated geospatial approaches including remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and a spatially explicit agent-based model. The goal is to advance our understanding of the important ecological and demographic factors that affect the dynamics of deer mouse population and SNV prevalence. The primary research question is how climate, habitat disturbance, and deer mouse demographics affect deer mouse population density, its movement, and SNV prevalence in the sagebrush habitat. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) can be good predictors of deer mouse density and the number of infected deer mice with a time lag of 1.0 to 1.3 years. This information can be very useful in predicting mouse abundance and SNV risk. The results also showed that climate, mouse density, sex, mass, and SNV infection had significant effects on deer mouse movement. The effect of habitat disturbance on mouse movement varies according to climate conditions with positive relationship in predrought condition and negative association in postdrought condition. The heavier infected deer mice moved the most. Season and disturbance alone had no significant effects. The spatial agent-based model (SABM) simulation results show that prevalence was negatively related to the disturbance levels and the sensitivity analysis showed that

  7. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil

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    MENDES Wellington S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of the municipality of Anajatuba, state of Maranhão. Two other suspected cases from the same region are also described. The confirmed case involved a previously healthy young woman who died with signs and symptoms of acute respiratory insufficiency 5 days after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. The patient was a student who was helping her parents with work in the fields; it was a habit of the family to store rice inside the house. The suspected cases involved two first-degree relatives working as field hands who died of acute respiratory insufficiency 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. Both stored rice and corn inside their home. People living in the region reported massive infestations with rats in the woods and fields.

  8. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypophysitis after Puumala hantavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Marlene; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Summary Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a relatively mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Hypophyseal haemorrhage and hypopituitarism have been described in case reports on patients with acute NE. Chronic hypopituitarism diagnosed months or years after the acute illness has also been reported, without any signs of a haemorrhagic aetiology. The mechanisms leading to the late-onset hormonal defects remain unknown. Here, we present a case of NE-associated autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypopituitarism presumably due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Thyroid peroxidase antibody seroconversion occurred between 6 and 12 months, and ovarian as well as glutamate decarboxylase antibodies were found 18 months after acute NE. Brain MRI revealed an atrophic adenohypophysis with a heterogeneous, low signal intensity compatible with a sequela of hypophysitis. The patient developed central (or mixed central and peripheral) hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, all requiring hormonal replacement therapy. This case report suggests that late-onset hormonal defects after PUUV infection may develop by an autoimmune mechanism. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by prospective studies with sufficient numbers of patients. Learning points: Pituitary haemorrhage resulting in hypopituitarism has been reported during acute HFRS caused by PUUV and other hantaviruses. Central and peripheral hormone deficiencies developing months or years after HFRS have also been found, with an incidence higher than that in the general population. The pathogenesis of these late-onset hormonal defects remains unknown. This case report suggests that the late-onset hypopituitarism and peripheral endocrine defects after HFRS could evolve via autoimmune mechanisms. The sensitivity of current anti-pituitary antibody (APA) tests is low. A characteristic clinical course, together with typical brain MRI and endocrine findings may be

  9. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

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    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  10. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile between 2003 and 2010. Sixty of 66 enrollees had hantavirus confirmed. We observed no significant difference in primary efficacy or safety outcomes between the groups.

  11. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

  12. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay W. Hooper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route.

  13. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture.

  14. Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina Hantavirus seroprevalence in rodents and human cases in southern Argentina

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    Edmundo Larrieu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de la cordillera andino patagónica. El virus Andes ha sido identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la factibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar nueva información sobre especies de roedores portadores de hantavirus en Argentina, su prevalencia de anticuerpos para hantavirus (período 1999-2001 y la relación del tamaño de las poblaciones de roedores y su seroprevalencia con la ocurrencia de casos humanos (período 1996-2001. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 3973 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo sherman en seis operativos efectuados entre octubre de 1999 y mayo de 2001. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos elaborados a partir de virus Andes. Una síntesis de los resultados indica 397 roedores capturados, con un éxito de trampeo del 10% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 1.0%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus y A. Olivaceus seropositivos y O. flavescens y C. Laucha potencialmente portadores de hantavirus Se registraron 6 casos humanos en el período 1993-1995 (correspondientes a estudios retrospectivos, 21 casos se notificaron en el período 1996-1998 y 6 en el período 1999-2001 Se analiza la correlación entre ocurrencia de casos humanos, seroprevalencia en roedores y éxito de trampeo.In the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have occurred in the region of the Patagonian Andean range. The Andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent Oligoryzomys

  15. Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama.

  16. Two cases of Hantavirus infection in Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever endemic region

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    Mustafa Sünbül

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome

  17. Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality.

  18. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  19. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

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    Aurelija Zvirbliene

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89 or site #4 (aa 280–289. The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8 of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.

  20. The effect of environmental variables on atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chuan; WANG ZhenYao; KE Wei

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of contaminants and meteorological variables on the rust layer of carbon steel exposed in Shenyang urban atmosphere. Seven kinds of contaminants and twelve kinds of meteorological parameters were also registered in order to correlate the data with respect to corrosion rate and the stepwise multiple regression analysis was carried out in order to obtain the best regression model. The sum of rainfall time as well as sunshine time and the concentration of H_2S could stimulate initial atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel. The initial atmospheric corrosion kinetics of carbon steel was observed to follow the cubic equation. The corrosion products were analyzed by XRD and the transformation of phases in different periods was discussed.

  1. [Location selection for Shenyang urban parks based on GIS and multi-objective location allocation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Shi, Tie-Mao; Hu, Yuan-Man; Gao, Chang; Liu, Miao; Song, Lin-Qi

    2011-12-01

    Based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and multi-objective location-allocation (LA) model, and in considering of four relatively independent objective factors (population density level, air pollution level, urban heat island effect level, and urban land use pattern), an optimized location selection for the urban parks within the Third Ring of Shenyang was conducted, and the selection results were compared with the spatial distribution of existing parks, aimed to evaluate the rationality of the spatial distribution of urban green spaces. In the location selection of urban green spaces in the study area, the factor air pollution was most important, and, compared with single objective factor, the weighted analysis results of multi-objective factors could provide optimized spatial location selection of new urban green spaces. The combination of GIS technology with LA model would be a new approach for the spatial optimizing of urban green spaces.

  2. Numerical Analysis on Ventilating and Air Conditioning Scheme of Shenyang Subway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; NA Yanling

    2007-01-01

    Different cities have different climate conditions and outdoor temperature and humidity, so the scheme of an environment control in subway should be analyzed by considering objective conditions, project cost and operating status. In this paper, a physical and mathematical model is built according to the design of Shenyang subway (line 1), the boundary conditions of the model are defined by the design and experiments, the numerical analysis of ventilating scheme and air conditioning scheme is introduced individually, and the temperature field and air flow field of the two schemes are compared, so that the feasibility of using a ventilating scheme in subway of northeast cities is discussed. Considering comfort and economy, it can be concluded that mechanical ventilation is feasible in subway of northeast cities because the air temperature there is not very high in summer.

  3. The needs of the science teachers of Shenyang area, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this research was to survey those individuals teaching science in the middle schools of the Shenyang area, Northeast China. Specifically, the study attempted to differentiate between rural and nonrural teachers with respect to demographic differences, problem areas, instructional activities, and perceived needs. Procedure. A 100-item survey was used to collect data for this study. The sample consisted of 224 science teachers (Rural 114, nonrural 110) who taught at least science class in 1996--97 academic year in a middle school of Shenyang area, Northeast China. Frequencies and percentages presented the needs of the teachers. The differences between rural and nonrural groups were analyzed by Chi Square statistics. Findings. Almost three quarters (74.9%) of returns were younger than 41, and 43.9% of returns held no degree. Significant differences were fond between rural and nonrural groups according to age, classroom experience, school enrollment, lab activities, motivating students to learn science, using science test data bank, peer tutoring and evaluating your own instructional effectiveness as a science teacher. Rural and nonrural teachers shared 10 of 14 greatest needs. Conclusions. Teacher in-service program designers need to establish academic training programs which lead to entry level degrees and certificates and improve young teacher's instructional skills. Increased efforts should be given to meet the perceived needs addressed in this study in order to improve teachers' teaching and students' learning. Lack of person energy or motivation and program fail to meet teachers' needs were considered as barriers of attending inservice programs.

  4. Spatial distribution of Cd and Cu in soils in Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina SUN; Xiao-e YANG; Wen-qing WANG; Li MA; Su CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils, derived from sewage irrigation, mining and inappropriate utilization of various agrochemicals and pesticides, and so on, has been of wide concern in the last several decades. The Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA) in China is a representative area of heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from sewage irrigation for about 30 years. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation of soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) contamination in the SZIA. The soil samples were collected from the SZIA in 1990 and 2004; Cd and Cu in soils was analyzed and then the spatial distribution and temporal variation of Cd and Cu in soils were modeled using Kriging methods. The results show that long-term sewage irrigation had caused serious Cd and Cu contamination in soils. The mean and the maximum of soil Cd are markedly higher than the levels in second grade standard soil (LSGSS) in China, and the maximum of soil Cu is close to the LSGSS in China in 2004 and is more than the LSGSS in China in 1990. The contamination magnitude of soil Cd and the soil extent of Cd con- tamination had evidently increased since sewage irrigation ceased in 1992. The contamination magnitude of soil Cu and the soil extent of Cu contamination had evidently increased in topsoil, but obviously decresed in subsoil. The soil contamination of Cd and Cu was mainly related to Cd and Cu reactivation of contaminated sediments in Shenyang Xi River and the import of Cd and Cu during irrigation. The eluviation of Cd and Cu in contaminated topsoil with rainfall and irrigation water was another factor of temporal-spatial variability of Cd and Cu contamination in soils.

  5. Distribution and abundance of sigmodontine rodents in relation to hantavirus in Neuquén, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piudo, Luciana; Monteverde, Martín; González Capria, Silvana; Padula, Paula; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    In order to estimate spatial distribution, temporal variation, and prevalence of Andes hantavirus antibody in the rodent community, and especially in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus populations, four different ecosystems were trapped seasonally between spring 2001 and winter 2002 in Neuquen, northwestern Argentinean Patagonia. Five peridomestic settings were sampled within the same period. The rodent O. longicaudatus had the widest distribution in Neuquen, as it was the only species captured at every sample site except for the High Andean steppe, and it was also the most common species captured. Rodents of 13 species were tested for hantavirus antibody prevalence, but O. longicaudatus and Abrothrix longipilis were the only seropositive species. Seropositive individuals were captured during spring and summer in the Subantarctic forest and in winter 2001 in a peridomestic setting in the Patagonian steppe. The dominant presence of O. longicaudatus throughout Neuquen must be incorporated into strategies to prevent human exposure to hantavirus.

  6. Anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Thailand virus detected in rodents from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafindralambo, Nadia Kaloina; Lacoste, Vincent; Olive, Marie-Marie; Barivelo, Tony Andrianaivo; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from Madagascar. To assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between October, 2008, and March, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the Anjozorobe-Angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city Antananarivo. A hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (Rattus rattus) and of the endemic Major's tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus majori). Amazingly, sequence analysis of the S (small), M (medium), and L (large) coding DNA sequence of this virus showed that the Anjozorobe strain (proposed name) was a new genetic variant of Thailand virus (THAIV) that comprises other variants found in Southeast Asia. Because THAIV is suspected of causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, ongoing studies are addressing the risk of infection by this new variant in the Malagasy population.

  7. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  8. DNA vaccine-derived human IgG produced in transchromosomal bovines protect in lethal models of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W; Brocato, Rebecca L; Kwilas, Steven A; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Josleyn, Matthew D; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sullivan, Eddie J

    2014-11-26

    Polyclonal immunoglobulin-based medical products have been used successfully to treat diseases caused by viruses for more than a century. We demonstrate the use of DNA vaccine technology and transchromosomal bovines (TcBs) to produce fully human polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) with potent antiviral neutralizing activity. Specifically, two hantavirus DNA vaccines [Andes virus (ANDV) DNA vaccine and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) DNA vaccine] were used to produce a candidate immunoglobulin product for the prevention and treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). A needle-free jet injection device was used to vaccinate TcB, and high-titer neutralizing antibodies (titers >1000) against both viruses were produced within 1 month. Plasma collected at day 10 after the fourth vaccination was used to produce purified α-HPS TcB human IgG. Treatment with 20,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU)/kg starting 5 days after challenge with ANDV protected seven of eight animals, whereas zero of eight animals treated with the same dose of normal TcB human IgG survived. Likewise, treatment with 20,000 NAU/kg starting 5 days after challenge with SNV protected immunocompromised hamsters from lethal HPS, protecting five of eight animals. Our findings that the α-HPS TcB human IgG is capable of protecting in animal models of lethal HPS when administered after exposure provides proof of concept that this approach can be used to develop candidate next-generation polyclonal immunoglobulin-based medical products without the need for human donors, despeciation protocols, or inactivated/attenuated vaccine antigen. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Expansión geográfica del síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en la Argentina: Informe del caso más austral Geographic expansion of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina: The southernest case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bellomo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1995 se han informado más de 1000 casos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la Argentina, enfermedad grave y muchas veces fatal para los humanos. La mayoría de los casos fueron asociados al virus Andes (AND único hantavirus que ha sido informado como causante de transmisión persona a persona. Se han descrito varios linajes patogénicos del virus AND, de los cuales AND Sur, cuyo reservorio es el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, afecta a la región patagónica de Argentina y Chile. En el presente estudio se informan las manifestaciones clínicas y las características epidemiológicas de un caso de SPH. El objetivo fue describir la presentación clínica del caso, su entorno epidemiológico, el sitio probable de contagio, la variante viral implicada y su relación con los casos más cercanos notificados. Se realizó el seguimiento clínico, el diagnóstico serológico y molecular y la investigación epidemiológica, incluyendo un estudio de la población de roedores reservorios en las áreas involucradas. Se trató de una presentación clásica de SPH moderada, causada por el linaje viral AND sur y su secuencia nucleotídica se comparó con casos del sur argentino y chileno. El caso de hantavirus investigado resultó ser el más austral (48° 46´ 1.2´´ S; 70° 15´ 0´´ O notificado hasta el momento e involucró a una nueva provincia argentina.Since 1995 more than 1000 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS were reported in Argentina, a severe disease and often fatal to humans. Most cases were associated with Andes virus (AND that caused few events of person-to-person transmission. Several lineages of pathogenic AND viruses have been described, including AND South, hosted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus which affects the Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a HPS case. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation of the case, its

  10. 2013年沈阳市食源性致病菌监测分析%Analysis of food borne pathogenic bacteria monitoring in Shenyang city in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温立海; 赵常志; 刘漪

    2016-01-01

    目的:为了了解沈阳市食源性致病菌污染情况,研究食源性疾病的发生规律,预警食物中毒提供依据。方法:依据国家食源性疾病监测2013年度工作手册,对样品进行检测。结果:共监测乳及乳制品、速冻发面制品、肉及肉制品、水产品等9类样品235份,检出食源性致病菌22份,总检出率9.36%。检出的致病菌分别是金黄色葡萄球菌6株,蜡样芽孢杆菌6株,副溶血性弧菌10株。结论:2013年沈阳市食品存在食源性致病菌污染,应加强本地区食源性致病菌的监测,防止食源性疾病和食物中毒发生。%Objective:In order to understand the pollution situation of food borne pathogenic bacteria in Shenyang City,to study the occurrence regularity of food borne diseases,and to provide evidence for early warning of food poisoning.Methods:According to the national food borne disease monitoring 2013 annual working manual,the samples were detected.Results:235 cases of milk and dairy products,frozen dough products,meat and meat products,aquatic products and so on 9 kinds of samples were monitored,22 food borne pathogenic bacterias were detected,the total detection rate was 9.36%.The detection of pathogenic bacteria were 6 strains of staphylococcus aureus,6 strains of bacillus cereus,10 strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus.Conclusion:In 2013,the food in Shenyang city is contaminated by food borne pathogenic bacteria,which should strengthen the monitoring of food borne pathogenic bacteria in the region to prevent the occurrence of food borne diseases and food poisoning.

  11. Novel serological tools for detection of Thottapalayam virus, a Soricomorpha-borne hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Mathias; Tegshduuren, Erdenesaikhan; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Petraityte, Rasa; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Hammerschmidt, Bärbel; Friedrich, Robert; Mertens, Marc; Groschup, Martin H; Arai, Satoru; Endo, Rika; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei; Ishihara, Chiaki; Ulrich, Rainer G; Arikawa, Jiro; Köllner, Bernd

    2012-11-01

    We developed serological tools for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies and hantavirus antigens in shrews. The work was focussed to generate Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and anti-shrew immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The mAbs against TPMV nucleocapsid (N) protein were produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant TPMV N proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, baculovirus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-mediated expression systems. In total, six TPMV N-protein-specific mAbs were generated that showed a characteristic fluorescent pattern in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using TPMV-infected Vero cells. Out of the six mAbs tested, five showed no cross-reaction to rodent-associated hantaviruses (Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Tula, Dobrava-Belgrade and Sin Nombre viruses) in IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although one mAb reacted to Sin Nombre virus in IFA. None of the mAbs cross-reacted with an amino-terminal segment of the shrew-borne Asama virus N protein. Anti-shrew-IgG sera were prepared after immunization of rabbits and BALB/c-mice with protein-G-purified shrew IgG. TPMV-N-protein-specific sera were raised by immunisation of Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) with purified yeast-expressed TPMV N protein. Using these tools, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect TPMV-N-protein-specific antibodies in the sera of shrews. Using an established serological assay, high TPMV N protein specific antibody titres were measured in the sera of TPMV-N-protein-immunized and experimentally TPMV-infected shrews, whereas no cross-reactivity to other hantavirus N proteins was found. Therefore, the generated mAbs and the established ELISA system represent useful serological tools to detect TPMV, TPMV-related virus antigens or hantavirus-specific antibodies in hantavirus-infected shrews.

  12. Extinction of refugia of hantavirus infection in a spatially heterogeneous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Parmenter, R. R.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2010-07-01

    We predict an abrupt observable transition, on the basis of numerical studies, of hantavirus infection in terrain characterized by spatially dependent environmental resources. The underlying framework of the analysis is that of Fisher equations with an internal degree of freedom, the state of infection. The unexpected prediction is of the sudden disappearance of refugia of infection in spite of the existence of supercritical (favorable) food resources, brought about by reduction of their spatial extent. Numerical results are presented and a theoretical explanation is provided on analytic grounds on the basis of the competition of diffusion of rodents carrying the hantavirus and nonlinearity present in the resource interactions.

  13. Diversity and Distribution of Host Animal Species of Hantavirus and Risk to Human Health in Jiuhua Mountain Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xing Qiang; LI Shi Guang; LIU Hong; WANG Jun; HUA Ri Mao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. Methods The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Results Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. Conclusion The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health.

  14. Experimental Study on Observation of Hemorheologic Parameters of Hydrocortisone Caused Shen-Yang Deficiency in Rat Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和岚; 毛腾敏

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between Shen deficiency and blood stasis. Methods:Using consecutive intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone to build Shen-yang deficiency model rats, and detect their hemorheological and biochemical parameters. Results: Comparison between the model group and control group showed that the in vitro thrombus significantly lengthened in the model group (P<0.05), the dry weight increased (P<0.01), hematocrit and whole blood viscosity under high sheared change lowered (P<0.05), blood glucose elevated (P<0.01), and RBC infiltration index, aggregation index increased (P close to 0.05). Conclusion: Under the condition of Shen-yang deficiency, although blood does not show such properties of blood stasis as being "viscous, concentrated, coagulated and aggregated", partial change of hemorheology occurs, and it is liable to form thrombus, which proves that the Shen deficiency status is accompanied with the tendency of blood stasis.

  15. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypophysitis after Puumala hantavirus infection

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    Marlene Tarvainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infection causes nephropathia epidemica (NE, a relatively mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Hypophyseal haemorrhage and hypopituitarism have been described in case reports on patients with acute NE. Chronic hypopituitarism diagnosed months or years after the acute illness has also been reported, without any signs of a haemorrhagic aetiology. The mechanisms leading to the late-onset hormonal defects remain unknown. Here, we present a case of NE-associated autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypopituitarism presumably due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Thyroid peroxidase antibody seroconversion occurred between 6 and 12 months, and ovarian as well as glutamate decarboxylase antibodies were found 18 months after acute NE. Brain MRI revealed an atrophic adenohypophysis with a heterogeneous, low signal intensity compatible with a sequela of hypophysitis. The patient developed central (or mixed central and peripheral hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, all requiring hormonal replacement therapy. This case report suggests that late-onset hormonal defects after PUUV infection may develop by an autoimmune mechanism. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by prospective studies with sufficient numbers of patients.

  16. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

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    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  17. Detection of the first incidence of Akodon paranaensis naturally infected with the Jabora virus strain (Hantavirus in Brazil

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    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterised hantaviruses circulating in different Akodon rodent species collected in midwestern Santa Catarina (SC, southern Brazil, where the Jabora hantavirus (JABV strain was first identified in Akodon montensis. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses based on a partial S segment indicated that, in SC, Akodon paranaensis and A. montensis carried the same type of hantavirus. Additionally, we conducted the first genomic characterisation of the complete S segment from the Brazilian JABV strain. This is the first report of A. paranaensis infected with the JABV.

  18. [Urban heat island effect based on urban heat island source and sink indices in Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Guang; Xu, Shen-Lai; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Zi-Qi; Cai, Fu; Wu, Jin-Wen; Chen, Peng-Shi; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2013-12-01

    Based on the remote images in 2001 and 2010, the source and sink areas of urban heat island (UHI) in Shenyang City, Northeast China were determined by GIS technique. The effect of urban regional landscape pattern on UHI effect was assessed with land surface temperature (LST), area rate index (CI) of the source and sink areas and intensity index (LI) of heat island. The results indicated that the land use type changed significantly from 2001 to 2010, which significantly changed the source and sink areas of UHI, especially in the second and third circle regions. The source and sink areas were 94.3% and 5.7% in the first circle region, 64.0% and 36.0% in the third circle region in 2001, while they were 93.4% and 6.6%, 70.2% and 29.8% in 2010, respectively. It suggested that the land use pattern extended by a round shape in Shenyang led to the corresponding UHI pattern. The LST in the study area tended to decrease from the first circle region to the third. The UHI intensity was characterized with a single center in 2001 and with several centers in 2010, and the grade of UHI intensity was in a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The absolute value of CI increased from the first circle region to the third, and the L1 was close to 1, suggesting the change in land use pattern had no significant influence on UHI in Shenyang.

  19. 2005-2010年沈阳市碘缺乏病监测分析%Monitoring of iodine deficiency disorders in Shenyang City from 2005-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长晟; 徐守旗; 于美娜; 苏孟; 丁聪

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握2005-2010年沈阳市居民碘营养情况,及时发现存在的问题,为政府制定碘缺乏病防治策略提供依据.方法 按照《全国碘缺乏病监测方案》要求,碘盐监测选取批发企业和居民用户为监测对象;病情监测选取8~10岁儿童和成人为监测对象.结果 沈阳市市级碘盐批发企业和各县区碘盐批发企业碘盐合格率和批质量合格率均为100%.居民用户碘盐合格率、碘盐覆盖率、合格碘盐食用率均在95%以上,非碘盐率小于3%.儿童甲状腺肿大率触诊检查从2005年开始均低于5%.儿童和成人尿碘中位数未见明显差别,均处于碘营养适宜水平,尿碘小于50μg/L的比例为0.8%.结论 从沈阳市历年碘盐监测结果来看,沈阳市居民碘营养水平已经持续稳定在国家消除碘缺乏病标准以内.%[Objective] To understand the iodine nutrition situation of residents in Shenyang City from 2005-2010, to identify the existing problem timely, and provide evidence for government to develop iodine deficiency disorders control strategies. [Methods]In accordance with the requirements of the" National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Surveillance Program", wholesale enterprises and residents were selected as iodized salt monitoring objects, children aged 8-10 years and adults were recruited as disease monitoring objects. [Results] Iodized salt passing rate and batches passing rate of Shenyang municipal and county level iodized salt wholesale enterprises were all 100%. Passing rale of iodized salt among residents, coverage rate of iodized salt and consumption rate of qualified iodized salt were all above 95% , non-iodized salt rate was less than 3%. Goiter rate of children by palpation was lower than 5% since 2005. The median of urinary iodine was not significantly different between children and adults, it was at the appropriate level of iodine nutrition, urinary iodine <50 μg / L accounted for 0 . 8%. [ Conclusion] The

  20. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  1. DNA Vaccine-Generated Duck Polyclonal Antibodies as a Postexposure Prophylactic to Prevent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Rebecca; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Vial, Pablo; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35–40%). Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The natural “despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed) results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU)/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This is the

  2. Co-circulation in a single biome of the Juquitiba and Araraquara hantavirus detected in human sera in a sub-tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jansen; Duré, Ana I L; Negrão, Raquel; Ometto, Tatiana; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease. Although HCPS has been reported in several regions of Brazil, more cases of HCPS have recently been reported in Minas Gerais than in any other state. In 2009, we analyzed 27 samples presenting antibodies against hantaviruses. These samples originated from 688 symptomatic patients, as determined based on the Hemorrhagic Fever Protocol. A subsequent SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of the virus in 22 of the samples. Among the RT-PCR-positive samples, 17 were analyzed using DNA sequencing; these sequences were compared with others deposited in GenBank and showed similarity with the Araraquara and Juquitiba virus clusters. This work describe the detection of Juquitiba virus, including three fatal cases, in Minas Gerais state, furthermore, showed that it is feasible to characterize the circulating strains using a small fragment of S segment. Finally, the results suggest the co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba virus in a single biome in Minas Gerais state.

  3. Tula hantavirus triggers pro-apoptotic signals of ER stress in Vero E6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lankinen, Hilkka; Putkuri, Niina; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti

    2005-03-01

    Tula virus is a member of the Hantavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Viruses of this family have an unusual pattern of intracellular maturation at the ER-Golgi compartment. We recently found that Tula virus, similar to several other hantaviruses, is able to induce apoptosis in cultured cells [Li, X.D., Kukkonen, S., Vapalahti, O., Plyusnin, A., Lankinen, H., Vaheri, A., 2004. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3261-3268.]. However, the cellular mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that the progressive replication of Tula virus in Vero E6 cells initiates several death programs that are intimately associated with ER stress: (1) early activation of ER-resident caspase-12; (2) phosphorylation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target transcriptional factor, c-jun; (3) induction of the pro-apoptotic transcriptional factor, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153, or C/EBP homologous protein (Gadd153/chop); and (4) changes in the ER-membrane protein BAP31 implying cross-talk with the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that a sustained ER stress was induced marked by an increased expression of an ER chaperone Grp78/BiP. Taken together, we have identified involvement of ER stress-mediated death program in Tula virus-infected Vero E6 cells which provides a new approach to understand the mechanisms in hantavirus-induced apoptosis.

  4. Circulation of hantaviruses in the influence area of the Cuiabá-Santarém Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele BA Medeiros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe evidence of circulation of hantaviruses in the influence area of the Santarém-Cuiabá Highway (BR-163 in the Brazilian Amazon through the prevalence of specific antibodies against hantaviruses in inhabitants living in four municipalities of this area: Novo Progresso (2.16% and Trairão (4.37%, in state of Pará (PA, and Gua-rantã do Norte (4.74% and Marcelândia (9.43%, in state of Mato Grosso. We also demonstrate the ongoing association between Castelo dos Sonhos virus (CASV and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in the Castelo dos Sonhos district (municipality of Altamira, PA and the first report of CASV in the municipalities of Novo Progresso and Guarantã do Norte. The results of this work highlight the risk for a possible increase in the number of HPS cases and the emergence of new hantavirus lineages associated with deforestation in this Amazonian area after the conclusion of paving works on BR-163 Highway.

  5. The association between hantavirus infection and selenium deficiency in mainland China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Q. Fang; M. Goeijenbier (Marco); S.-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); L-P. Wang (Li-Ping); S. Liang (Song); S.L. Klein (Sabra L.); X.-L. Li (Xin-Lou); K. Liu (Kun); L. Liang (Lu); P. Gong (Peng); G.E. Glass (Gregory E.); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.-Q. Ma (Jia-Qi); W. Cao (W.); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses and transmitted by rodents is a significant public health problem in China, and occurs more frequently in selenium-deficient regions. To study the role of selenium concentration in HFRS incidence we used a multidisciplin

  6. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel

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    Leighanne O. Parkes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada.

  7. Rapid, whole blood diagnostic test for detecting anti-hantavirus antibody in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Takako; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Gamage, Chandika D; Nishio, Sanae; Takakura, Akira; Arikawa, Jiro

    2013-10-01

    Hantavirus is a causative agent of rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Seoul virus (SEOV) is a causative agent of urban and laboratory rat-associated HFRS worldwide. Surveillance of rodents has been done mainly by serological detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). An immunochromatographic (ICG) test was developed with the N-terminal 103 amino acids of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus expressed by Escherichia coli as an antigen to detect IgG antibody specific to hantavirus in sera from Rattus sp. animals. Antibody-detecting sensitivity of the ICG test was the same as that of ELISA and about 100-times higher than that of IFA. Overall sensitivities and specificities of the ICG test in comparison to ELISA and IFA for sera from 192 urban rats and 123 laboratory rats were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. Diluted whole blood samples without separation could be used for the ICG test. The ICG test enabled detection of antibodies to SEOV, Hantaan, Dobrava/Belgrade, and Thailand viruses, which are causative agents of HFRS throughout Eurasia. The ICG test is a rapid, simple and safe method for diagnosis of SEOV infection in rats.

  8. Molecular evolution of Puumala hantavirus in Fennoscandia: phylogenetic analysis of strains from two recolonization routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Kari; Hänninen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Like other members of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, Puumala virus (PUUV) is thought to be co-evolving with its natural host, the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. To gain insight into the evolutionary history of PUUV in northern Europe during the last post-glacial period, we h...

  9. Signatures of Host mRNA 5′ Terminus for Efficient Hantavirus Cap Snatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erdong

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses, similarly to other negative-strand segmented RNA viruses, initiate the synthesis of translation-competent capped mRNAs by a unique cap-snatching mechanism. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) binds to host mRNA caps and requires four nucleotides adjacent to the 5′ cap for high-affinity binding. N protects the 5′ caps of cellular transcripts from degradation by the cellular decapping machinery. The rescued 5′ capped mRNA fragments are stored in cellular P bodies by N, which are later efficiently used as primers by the hantaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for transcription initiation. We showed that N also protects the host mRNA caps in P-body-deficient cells. However, the rescued caps were not effectively used by the hantavirus RdRp during transcription initiation, suggesting that caps stored in cellular P bodies by N are preferred for cap snatching. We examined the characteristics of the 5′ terminus of a capped test mRNA to delineate the minimum requirements for a capped transcript to serve as an efficient cap donor during hantavirus cap snatching. We showed that hantavirus RdRp preferentially snatches caps from the nonsense mRNAs compared to mRNAs engaged in translation. Hantavirus RdRp preferentially cleaves the cap donor mRNA at a G residue located 14 nucleotides downstream of the 5′ cap. The sequence complementarity between the 3′ terminus of viral genomic RNA and the nucleotides located in the vicinity of the cleavage site of the cap donor mRNA favors cap snatching. Our results show that hantavirus RdRp snatches caps from viral mRNAs. However, the negligible cap-donating efficiency of wild-type mRNAs in comparison to nonsense mRNAs suggests that viral mRNAs will not be efficiently used for cap snatching during viral infection due to their continuous engagement in protein synthesis. Our results suggest that efficiency of an mRNA to donate caps for viral mRNA synthesis is primarily regulated at the translational level. PMID

  10. Signatures of host mRNA 5' terminus for efficient hantavirus cap snatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erdong; Mir, Mohammad A

    2012-09-01

    Hantaviruses, similarly to other negative-strand segmented RNA viruses, initiate the synthesis of translation-competent capped mRNAs by a unique cap-snatching mechanism. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) binds to host mRNA caps and requires four nucleotides adjacent to the 5' cap for high-affinity binding. N protects the 5' caps of cellular transcripts from degradation by the cellular decapping machinery. The rescued 5' capped mRNA fragments are stored in cellular P bodies by N, which are later efficiently used as primers by the hantaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for transcription initiation. We showed that N also protects the host mRNA caps in P-body-deficient cells. However, the rescued caps were not effectively used by the hantavirus RdRp during transcription initiation, suggesting that caps stored in cellular P bodies by N are preferred for cap snatching. We examined the characteristics of the 5' terminus of a capped test mRNA to delineate the minimum requirements for a capped transcript to serve as an efficient cap donor during hantavirus cap snatching. We showed that hantavirus RdRp preferentially snatches caps from the nonsense mRNAs compared to mRNAs engaged in translation. Hantavirus RdRp preferentially cleaves the cap donor mRNA at a G residue located 14 nucleotides downstream of the 5' cap. The sequence complementarity between the 3' terminus of viral genomic RNA and the nucleotides located in the vicinity of the cleavage site of the cap donor mRNA favors cap snatching. Our results show that hantavirus RdRp snatches caps from viral mRNAs. However, the negligible cap-donating efficiency of wild-type mRNAs in comparison to nonsense mRNAs suggests that viral mRNAs will not be efficiently used for cap snatching during viral infection due to their continuous engagement in protein synthesis. Our results suggest that efficiency of an mRNA to donate caps for viral mRNA synthesis is primarily regulated at the translational level.

  11. Landscape and regional environmental analysis of the spatial distribution of hantavirus human cases in Europe

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    Caroline Brigitte Zeimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although Southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast and the Netherlands should be kept under watch.Conclusions: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area; the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently.

  12. Cross-Protection against Challenge with Puumala Virus after Immunization with Nucleocapsid Proteins from Different Hantaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Nicacio, Cristina; Gonzalez Della Valle, Marcelo; Padula, Paula; Björling, Ewa; Plyusnin, Alexander; Lundkvist, Åke

    2002-01-01

    Hantaviruses are rodent-borne agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans. The nucleocapsid protein (N) is relatively conserved among hantaviruses and highly immunogenic in both laboratory animals and humans, and it has been shown to induce efficient protective immunity in animal models. To investigate the ability of recombinant N (rN) from different hantaviruses to elicit cross-protection, we immunized bank voles with rN from Puumala (PUUV), Topografov (TOPV), Andes (ANDV), and Dobrava (DOBV) viruses and subsequently challenged them with PUUV. All animals immunized with PUUV and TOPV rN were completely protected. In the group immunized with DOBV rN, 7 of 10 animals were protected, while only 3 of 8 animals were protected in the group immunized with ANDV rN, which is more closely related to PUUV rN than DOBV rN. Humoral and cellular immune responses after rN immunization were also investigated. The highest cross-reactive humoral responses against PUUV antigen were detected in sera from ANDV rN-immunized animals, followed by those from TOPV rN-immunized animals, and only very low antibody cross-reactivity was observed in sera from DOBV rN-immunized animals. In proliferation assays, T lymphocytes from animals immunized with all heterologous rNs were as efficiently recalled in vitro by PUUV rN as were T lymphocytes from animals immunized with homologous protein. In summary, this study has shown that hantavirus N can elicit cross-protective immune responses against PUUV, and the results suggest a more important role for the cellular arm of the immune response than for the humoral arm in cross-protection elicited by rN. PMID:12050380

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk collected from Dalian and Shenyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisue, T.; Someya, M.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Kayama, F. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan); Kayama, F. [CREST-JST, Kawaguchi (Japan); Jin Yihe [China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2004-09-15

    During the past few decades, numerous investigations on pollution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in human breast milk have been conducted in various countries with a view to assessing risks for infants. In developed countries, it was found that levels of POPs in human breast milk have decreased in recent decades. On the other hand, in some developing and former soviet countries, it is suspected that organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH are still in use, and relatively high levels of these contaminants have been observed in human breast milk. China, which has the largest ground area among Asian countries, produced large quantities of technical HCH and DDT in the past and mainly used these organochlorine insecticides in agricultural fields. In fact, high levels of HCHs and DDTs have been detected in seawater, sediment and fish from China. In addition, relatively high levels of PCBs have been detected in aquatic media along industrialized areas. Thus, in China, because of anticipated higher levels of pollution by POPs in the environment, some investigations on pollution by these contaminants in environmental media have been recently conducted. However, no information on human exposure to POPs in northeastern parts of China is available, although a few investigations have been conducted in southeastern parts around Hong Kong. The present study attempted to elucidate the contamination status of POPs in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China.

  14. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  15. Assessment of pesticide pollution in suburban soil in south Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Lv, Jungang; Feng, Jimin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, 35 representative farmland soil samples from suburban areas in south Shenyang, the capital city in Liaoning province, China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 114 pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested pesticides in the area ranged in 0-51.32 ng/g and the average of concentrations was 6.86 ng/g. Six pesticides, including butachlor(with detect frequency 71.4%), p,p'-DDE (88.6%), p,p'-DDT (77.1%), o,p'-DDD (82.9%), hexachlorobenzene (88.6%) and δ-HCB (77.1%), were detected most frequently. It indicated that DDTs (N.D.-40.25 ng/g) and HCHs (N.D.-42.79 ng/g) were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil because of their long term persistence. On the contrary, most of organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroids and carbamates were not detected. Spatial variation of six pesticides with high detection frequency (>70%) in soil was illustrated. Pollution levels, characteristics and the possible sources were also discussed. The data were helpful to figure out the pollution of the pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with food safety.

  16. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  17. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses.

  18. 沈阳城市防洪风险分析与管理系统建设%Shenyang city flood control risk analysis and management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石凤君; 丁立国; 殷丹; 张利

    2015-01-01

    In view of the present situation of Shenyang flood control engineering,this paper introduced the river model test research work of Hunhe Shenyang city section,developed the urban flood control risk technology research scientific task,drew up city flood control plan,and es-tablishment of Shenyang urban flood control management system.%针对沈阳市防洪工程现状,介绍了浑河沈阳城市段河工模型试验研究工作,开展了城市防洪风险分析技术研究科研课题,编制了城市防洪预案,并建立了沈阳市城市防洪管理系统。

  19. Plasma cell-free DNA levels are elevated in acute Puumala hantavirus infection.

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    Tuula K Outinen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20 patients with acute NE. We also carried out a qualitative high-sensitivity lab-on-a-chip DNA assay in 20 patients to elucidate the appearance of cf-DNA in plasma and urine. RESULTS: The maximum plasma cf-DNA values taken during acute NE were significantly higher than the control values taken after the hospitalization period (median 1.33 µg/ml, range 0.94-3.29 µg/ml vs. median 0.77 µg/ml, range 0.55-0.99 µg/ml, P<0.001. The maximum plasma cf-DNA levels correlated positively with maximum blood leukocyte count (r = 0.388, P = 0.002 and the length of hospital stay (r = 0.376, P = 0.003, and inversely with minimum blood platelet count (r = -0.297, P = 0.020. Qualitative analysis of plasma cf-DNA revealed that in most of the patients cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA (150-200 bp. The visually graded maximum cf-DNA band intensity correlated positively with the maximum quantity of total plasma cf-DNA (r = 0.513, P = 0.021. Maximum urinary excretion of cf-DNA in turn was not markedly increased during the acute phase of NE and did not correlate with any of the variables reflecting severity of the disease or with the maximum plasma cf-DNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma levels of cf-DNA are elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlate with the apoptotic cf-DNA-band intensity. The plasma cf-DNA concentration correlates with some variables reflecting the severity of the disease. The urinary excretion of cf-DNA does not reflect the degree of inflammation in the kidney.

  20. Application of MODIS GPP to Forecast Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Based on Fluctuations in Reservoir Population Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, R.; Heinsch, F. A.; Mills, J. N.; Wagoner, K.; Running, S.

    2003-12-01

    Recent predictive models for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have used remotely sensed spectral reflectance data to characterize risk areas with limited success. We present an alternative method using gross primary production (GPP) from the MODIS sensor to estimate the effects of biomass accumulation on population density of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), the principal reservoir species for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of diagnosed HPS cases in North America are attributed to SNV, which is transmitted to humans through inhalation of excretions and secretions from infected rodents. A logistic model framework is used to evaluate MODIS GPP, temperature, and precipitation as predictors of P. maniculatus density at established trapping sites across the western United States. Rodent populations are estimated using monthly minimum number alive (MNA) data for 2000 through 2002. Both local meteorological data from nearby weather stations and 1.25 degree x 1 degree gridded data from the NASA DAO were used in the regression model to determine the spatial sensitivity of the response. MODIS eight-day GPP data (1-km resolution) were acquired and binned to monthly average and monthly sum GPP for 3km x 3km grids surrounding each rodent trapping site. The use of MODIS GPP to forecast HPS risk may result in a marked improvement over past reflectance-based risk area characterizations. The MODIS GPP product provides a vegetation dynamics estimate that is unique to disease models, and targets the fundamental ecological processes responsible for increased rodent density and amplified disease risk.

  1. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior in Côte d'Ivoire

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    Kang Hae Ji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanganya virus (TGNV, the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae, and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus and Imjin virus (MJNV in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura. The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi, 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae, 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV, was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution

  2. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies.

  3. Ecotoxicity of soils contaminated with industrial and domestic wastewater in western Shenyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yufang; ZHOU Qixing; GONG Ping; SUN Tieheng

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from 7 sites in the up-, mid- and down-reach along and nearby the wastewater irrigation channel, western Shenyang of China. The concentrations of selected pollutants (mineral oil, PAHs - polycycle aromatic hydrocarbons and Cd) were determined by UV spectrometer, HPLC and AAS (atomic adsorption spectrometer) spectrometer, respectively. Toxicity effects of soils were evaluated by seedling emergence test with root length of wheat as the end-point and by earthworms test with the mortality rate and inhibition rates of body weight as endpoints. Results showed accumulation of pollutants for most soils with concentration of 200.2 mg.kg-1 ~1600 mg.kg-1 for mineral oil, 0.33 mg.kg-1~1.81 mg.kg-1 for Cd and 900.16 mg.kg-1~ 2737.91 mg.kg-1 for PAHs. The inhibition rates of root elongation were from -20% up to 40 %, and mortality rates of earthworms ranged from 0%~40% from the exposure period of two weeks to eight weeks by sampling interval of two weeks, the inhibition rates of earthworm growth were from -19.36% to 34.53%, showing effects of stimulation at 2 weeks to an increasing effects of inhibition at 4, 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. Mortality rates correlated with the loss of body weight of earthworms.This study indicated the potential risk of pollutants of environmental low content in soil by the determination of selected chemicals combined with toxicity indexes.

  4. Leaf phenological characters of main tree species in urban forest of Shenyang.

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    Sheng Xu

    Full Text Available Plant leaves, as the main photosynthetic organs and the high energy converters among primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, have attracted significant research attention. Leaf lifespan is an adaptive characteristic formed by plants to obtain the maximum carbon in the long-term adaption process. It determines important functional and structural characteristics exhibited in the environmental adaptation of plants. However, the leaf lifespan and leaf characteristics of urban forests were not studied up to now.By using statistic, linear regression methods and correlation analysis, leaf phenological characters of main tree species in urban forest of Shenyang were observed for five years to obtain the leafing phenology (including leafing start time, end time, and duration, defoliating phenology (including defoliation start time, end time, and duration, and the leaf lifespan of the main tree species. Moreover, the relationships between temperature and leafing phenology, defoliating phenology, and leaf lifespan were analyzed.The timing of leafing differed greatly among species. The early leafing species would have relatively early end of leafing; the longer it took to the end of leafing would have a later time of completed leafing. The timing of defoliation among different species varied significantly, the early defoliation species would have relatively longer duration of defoliation. If the mean temperature rise for 1°C in spring, the time of leafing would experience 5 days earlier in spring. If the mean temperature decline for 1°C, the time of defoliation would experience 3 days delay in autumn.There is significant correlation between leaf longevity and the time of leafing and defoliation. According to correlation analysis and regression analysis, there is significant correlation between temperature and leafing and defoliation phenology. Early leafing species would have a longer life span and consequently have advantage on carbon accumulation

  5. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

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    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  6. A new hantavirus from the stripe-backed shrew (Sorex cylindricauda) in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shu-Qing; Gong, Zheng-Da; Fang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiu-Song; Zhao, Qiu-Min; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-05-12

    Inspired by the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses from insectivore species worldwide, we performed a small-scale search for insectivore-borne hantaviruses. In this paper, we report the discovery of a new hantavirus, which was designated the Qian Hu Shan virus (QHSV). This virus was detected in the lung tissues of three stripe-backed shrews (Sorex cylindricauda), which were captured in the Yunnan Province, China. The full-length S genomic segment of the representative QHSV strain YN05-284 was 1661 nucleotides and is predicted to encode a nucleocapsid protein of 429 amino acids that starts at nucleotide position 48. It exhibited the highest similarity with other Sorex-related hantaviruses, with 68.1%-72.8% nucleotide and 71.9%-84.4% amino acid sequence identities. An analysis of a 1430-nucleotide region of the partial M segment exhibited approximately 54.4%-79.5% nucleotide and 43.2%-90.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. A comparison of a 432-nucleotide region of the L segment also showed similar degrees of identity, with 68.9%-78.4% nucleotide and 71.1%-93.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian methods indicated that QHSV shared the most recent common ancestor with other Sorex-related hantaviruses. The host was identified using a morphological assessment and verified using mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cyt b) gene sequencing. A pair-wise comparison of the 1140-nucleotide mt-Cyt b gene sequence from the host demonstrated that the host was close to S. cylindricauda from Nepal with 94.3% identity. The virus-host association tanglegram, which was constructed using the Dendroscope software, indicated that the QHSV phylogeny and the host phylogeny were approximately matched, which suggests no evidence of host switching for QHSV. Our results contribute to a wider viewpoint regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect shrews.

  7. Stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection: The effect of the initial infection-free period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, José A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stage-dependent model with constant delay to study the effect of the initial infection-free period on the spread of Hantavirus infection in rodents. We analyze the model under various extreme weather conditions, in the context of the El Niño-La Niña Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and show how these variations determine the evolution of the system significantly. When the scenario corresponds to El Niño, the system presents a demographic explosion and a delayed outbreak of Hantavirus infection, whereas if the scenario is the opposite there is a rapid decline of the population, but with a possible persistence period that may imply a considerable risk for public health, a fact that is in agreement with available field data. We use the model to simulate a historical evolution that resembles the processes that occurred in the 1990s.

  8. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

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    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  9. Hantavirus: an infectious cause of acute kidney injury in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kate; Jameson, Lisa; Meigh, Rolf; Brooks, Tim

    2014-07-17

    We present a case of an undifferentiated febrile illness in a 59-year-old man from East Yorkshire. He was initially treated for leptospirosis due to the fact that he had farm exposure and the findings of acute kidney injury (AKI), thrombocytopenia and a raised alanine transferase (ALT) on his initial blood results. Serology tests later proved him to have had another rodent-borne illness: hantavirus. An investigation by Public Health England (formerly known as Health Protection Agency) (PHE) went on to prove the presence of the same serotype of hantavirus in rats caught on the patient's property. After an initial deterioration, the patient made a relatively uneventful recovery and all his blood tests returned to normal levels.

  10. A multistage differential transformation method for approximate solution of Hantavirus infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Merdan, Mehmet; Yildirim, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is presented a reliable algorithm based on the standard differential transformation method (DTM), which is called the multi-stage differential transformation method (MsDTM) for solving Hantavirus infection model. The results obtanied by using MsDTM are compared to those obtained by using the Runge-Kutta method (R-K-method). The proposed technique is a hopeful tool to solving for a long time intervals in this kind of systems.

  11. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings.

  12. Hantavirus como agentes emergentes de importancia en Suramérica

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    Andrés F. Londoño

    2011-03-01

    El objetivo de este documento fue revisar el estado actual del conocimiento de algunos aspectos generales de los hantavirus y las enfermedades que producen en el mundo, mencionando de paso los hallazgos más recientes en nuestro país. Al final se discuten algunas de las muchas dudas aún presentes respecto a la importancia clínica y los impactos que estos agentes puedan ocasionar sobre la salud pública humana en Colombia.

  13. Co-circulation of soricid- and talpid-borne hantaviruses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010-2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0-18.8% and 0-5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1%-100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3%-100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species co-existing in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  14. Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Witkowski, Peter T; Radosa, Lukas; Dzagurova, Tamara K; Okulova, Nataliya M; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Vasilenko, Ludmila; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Malkin, Gennadiy A; Krüger, Detlev H; Klempa, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.

  15. [Characterization of S gene of a strain of hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Heilongjiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-Fei; Chen, Shu-Hong; Wang, Kai-Li; Zhang, Jing; Li, Ji-Hong

    2012-09-01

    In order to study the molecular characterization of the hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Heilongjiang Province, the S gene of a new strain NA33 was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the complete nucleotide sequence of the S gene of NA33 strain was composed of 1 693 nucleotides with TA-rich. The S gene contained one ORF, starting at position 37 and ending at position 1 326, encoding the N protein of 429 amino acid residues, and in line with HTN-based coding. Sequence comparison of the S genes between NA33 and reference hantavirus strains showed that NA33 was more homologous to Amur-like viruses than to the Hantaan (HTN) viruses or the other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of N proteins showed that NA33 was clustered into the group of Amur-like viruses and was more similar to Far East Russia and Jilin strains isolated from Apodemus peninsulae. The phylogenetic tree indicated a certain degree of host-dependent characteristics and geographical aggregation characteristics of hantanviruses. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of N protein of NA33 had the conserved amino acid sites of Amur-like viruses. In conclusion, Apodemus peninsulae carried Amur-like viruses in Heilongjiang province and was an important infectious source of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

  16. Maripa hantavirus in French Guiana: phylogenetic position and predicted spatial distribution of rodent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thoisy, Benoît; Matheus, Séverine; Catzeflis, François; Clément, Luc; Barrioz, Sébastien; Guidez, Amandine; Donato, Damien; Cornu, Jean-François; Brunaux, Olivier; Guitet, Stéphane; Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-06-01

    A molecular screening of wild-caught rodents was conducted in French Guiana, South America to identify hosts of the hantavirus Maripa described in 2008 in a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) case. Over a 9-year period, 418 echimyids and murids were captured. Viral RNA was detected in two sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda, trapped close to the house of a second HPS case that occurred in 2009 and an O. fulvescens close to the fourth HPS case identified in 2013. Sequences from the rodents had 96% and 97% nucleotide identity (fragment of S and M segments, respectively) with the sequence of the first human HPS case. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the complete sequence of the S segment show that Maripa virus is closely related to Rio Mamore hantavirus. Using environmental descriptors of trapping sites, including vegetation, landscape units, rain, and human disturbance, a maximal entropy-based species distribution model allowed for identification of areas of higher predicted occurrence of the two rodents, where emergence risks of Maripa virus are expected to be higher.

  17. Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundkvist Åke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M-segment sequences of Buryatian hantavirus strains showed that Myodes-associated strains belong to Hokkaido virus (HOKV type while Microtus-associated strains belong to Vladivostok virus (VLAV type. On phylogenetic trees Buryatian HOKV strains were clustered together with M. rufocanus- originated strains from Japan, China and Far-East Russia (Primorsky region. Buryatian Microtus- originated strains shared a common recent ancestor with M. fortis- originated VLAV strain from Far-East Russia (Vladivostok area. Our data (i confirm that M. rufocanus carries a hantavirus which is similar to but distinct from both Puumala virus carried by M. glareolus and Muju virus associated with M. regulus, (ii confirm that M. fortis is the natural host for VLAV, and (iii suggest M. oeconomus as an alternative host for VLAV.

  18. Person-to-person household and nosocomial transmission of andes hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Calvo, Mario; Vial, Cecilia; Mansilla, Rita; Marco, Claudia; Palma, R Eduardo; Vial, Pablo A; Valdivieso, Francisca; Mertz, Gregory; Ferrés, Marcela

    2014-10-01

    Andes hantavirus (ANDV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile and is the only hantavirus for which person-to-person transmission has been proven. We describe an outbreak of 5 human cases of ANDV infection in which symptoms developed in 2 household contacts and 2 health care workers after exposure to the index case-patient. Results of an epidemiologic investigation and sequence analysis of the virus isolates support person-to-person transmission of ANDV for the 4 secondary case-patients, including nosocomial transmission for the 2 health care workers. Health care personnel who have direct contact with ANDV case-patients or their body fluids should take precautions to prevent transmission of the virus. In addition, because the incubation period of ANDV after environmental exposure is longer than that for person-to-person exposure, all persons exposed to a confirmed ANDV case-patient or with possible environmental exposure to the virus should be monitored for 42 days for clinical symptoms.

  19. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  20. 2004-2010年沈阳市和平区肺结核流行特征%Epidemic characteristics of TB in Heping District of Shenyang City from 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 沈华

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握沈阳市和平区肺结核发病强度和流行特征,为制定肺结核防制规划提供依据.方法 利用描述流行病学方法分析该市肺结核相关疫情数据.结果 2004-2010年沈阳市和平区肺结核年均报告发病率为60.31/10万,各年度报告发病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);男女性别比为2.26:1,男性报告发病率为83.74/10万,女性报告发病率为36.98/10万,男女肺结核报告发病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);其他、家务及待业2项职业报告肺结核病例数居分别占报告病例数的37.21%、22.52%,20~59岁年龄组报告发病数占75.12%.结论 沈阳市和平区肺结核发病季节高峰不明显,男性报告发病率明显高于女性,发病职业高峰明显,呈典型的青壮年高发趋势.该区应加强组织领导,落实各项保证措施;加强培训,提高结核病专业人员的业务能力和管理水平;强化疫情报告,做好肺结核疑似病例的追踪、随访和订正工作;搞好肺结核患者的规范化治疗,提高全民防范意识和水平.%[ Objective ] To understand the disease intensity and epidemic characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in Heping District of Shenyang City, and provide evidence for developing TB control programs. [Methods]Descriptive epidemiology was adopted to analyze the epidemic data of TB in Shenyang City. [ Results ] The reported TB incidence in Heping District of Shenyang City from 2004-2010 was 60.31/100 000, the difference between years was significant (P<0.01), the ratio of male to female was 2.26: 1, the reported incidence of male was 83.74/100 000, that of female was 36.98/100 000, the difference between genders was significant! P <0.01). The TB cases of other occupation, housework and unemployed accounted for 37.21% , 22.52% of total reported cases. The cases aged 20-59 years occupied 75. 12% of total cases. [ Conclusion] In Heping District of Shenyang City, Seasonal peak incidence of TB is not

  1. Horizontal distribution and levels of heavy metals in the biggest snowstorm in a century in Shenyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Jing; ZHOU Qixing; LIU Weitao; REN Liping

    2008-01-01

    The horizontal distribution and levels of heavy metals in the biggest snowstorm in Shenyang since 1904 were investigated by analyzing 4 metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cu) in a series of ultraclean samples collected from 17 sites distributed in different regions of the Shenyang area, China. The results showed that the concentrations of all the 4 heavy metals in snow from the industrial regions were high, up to 7.3 (As), 2.2 (Cd), 850.0 (Pb), and 0.197-20.2 (Cu) μg/kg, respectively. In the suburb, in contrast, their concentrations were not detected, except for As. Because of the long-term application of arsenical pesticides and herbicides, As was detected in the snow samples which collected on the farm. As, Cd, and Pb were also detected in the snow samples collected from the parks, the residential areas, and the commercial districts mainly by reason of human activities. In a sense, long-term industrial activities, traffic activities, coal combustion, and agricultural activities affected the horizontal distribution and levels of these heavy metals in snow differently. The data relating to the horizontal distribution and concentrations of heavy metals in the snow under extreme climatic conditions can provide with a unique snapshot of environmental pollution situation and behaviors in urban areas.

  2. [Calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint and its application: a case study in Shenyang City of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Chao-Xing; Yu, Ying-Tan; Li, Fa-Yun; Ma, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Water resources ecological footprint can directly reflect the pressure of human social and economic activities to water resources, and provide important reference for the rational utilization of water resources. Based on the existing ecological footprint models and giving full consideration of the water resources need of urban ecological system, this paper established a new calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint, including domestic water account, process water account, public service water account, and ecological water requirement account. According to the actual situation of Shenyang City, the key parameters of the model were determined, and the water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the City were calculated and analyzed. From 2000 to 2009, the water resources ecological footprint per capita of the City presented an overall decreasing trend, but still had an annual ecological deficit. As compared to that in 2000, the water resources ecological footprint per capita was decreased to 0.31 hm2 in 2005, increased slightly in 2006 and 2007, and remained stable in 2008 and 2009, which suggested that the sustainable utilization of water resources in Shenyang City had definite improvement, but was still in an unsustainable development situation.

  3. 沈阳市雨水收集方式研究%Study on rainwater collection method in Shenyang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 蒋白懿

    2012-01-01

    为了解决沈阳市水资源短缺、城市洪涝灾害、生态环境等问题,对雨水收集方式作了分析研究,借鉴国内外雨水收集成功经验,提出沈阳市可采用建下凹式绿地和修建雨水调蓄池为主要雨水收集方式,建下凹式绿地,雨水渗蓄率最大达到43%;修建雨水调蓄池可将原有合流制排水系统的截留倍数提高到2以上。%In order to solve problems in Shenyang city including water resource shortage, urban flood disaster, and ecological environment and so on, the essay studies rainwater collection methods. By referring to successful rainwater collection experience at home and abroad, it puts forward main rainwater collection methods in Shenyang city including low elevation greenbelt and repairing rainwater storage tank. Rainwater storage rate will be up to 43% by setting up low elevation greenbelt, closer will rise up to 2 times by setting up rainwater storage tank.

  4. [Spatial distribution characteristics of urban potential population in Shenyang City based on QuickBird image and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Ying; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chen, Wei; Liu, Miao; Hu, Jian-Bo; Zhong, Qiao-Lin; Lu, Ning

    2012-06-01

    Population is the most active factor affecting city development. To understand the distribution characteristics of urban population is of significance for making city policy decisions and for optimizing the layout of various urban infrastructures. In this paper, the information of the residential buildings in Shenyang urban area was extracted from the QuickBird remote sensing images, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the population within the Third-Ring Road of the City were analyzed, according to the social and economic statistics data. In 2010, the population density in different types of residential buildings within the Third-Ring Road of the City decreased in the order of high-storey block, mixed block, mixed garden, old multi-storey building, high-storey garden, multi-storey block, multi-storey garden, villa block, shanty, and villa garden. The vacancy rate of the buildings within the Third-Ring Road was more than 30%, meaning that the real estate market was seriously overstocked. Among the five Districts of Shenyang City, Shenhe District had the highest potential population density, while Tiexi District and Dadong District had a lower one. The gravity center of the City and its five Districts was also analyzed, which could provide basic information for locating commercial facilities and planning city infrastructure.

  5. [Ecological benefit evaluation of urban forests in Shenyang City based on QuickBird image and CITYgreen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Gui-Ling; Li, Ling; Xu, Wen-Duo

    2008-09-01

    Based on the urban forest coverage data interpreted from QuickBird image (2006) and the CITYgreen model, the benefits of Shenyang urban forest types with different canopy closure in carbon fixation and pollutant removal were investigated by means of sampling strategy. The results showed that the total amount of carbon storage, annual carbon sequestration, annual air pollutant removal, and their corresponding values were 0.51 Tg, 6858.20 Mg x a-1), 556.04 Mg x a(-1) 1.26 x 10(8) Yuan, 1.72 x 10(6) Yuan, and 0.22 x 10(8) Yuan, respectively. Among the urban forest types in Shenyang City, ecological and public welfare forest (E) contributed most to the carbon fixation and air pollutant removal. The carbon density decreased in the order of S (subordinated forest) > L (landscape and relaxation forest) > P (production and management forest) > E > R (road forest), annual carbon sequestration was in the order of P > L > E > S > R, and annual air pollutant removal was in the order of P > L > S > E > R. The carbon density of different urban forest types was closely related to their structural complexity. For the forests with high canopy closure, both the annual carbon sequestration and the annual pollutant removal were high; while for those with lower canopy closure, these two characteristics were dependent on the structural complexity of the forests.

  6. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Lastra Marcelo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Andes virus (ANDV, a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9 that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC. Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs

  7. Evidence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents captured in a rural area of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Evidência de infecção por hantavírus em roedores silvestres capturados em uma área rural do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Regina S. de Lemos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the etiological agents of the Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome, a serious rodent-borne disease in Brazil. In order to investigate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents, a survey was conducted in three different suburban areas of the municipality of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 145 wild animals captured belonging to 12 different species identified by morphology and karyological analysis, 107 were rodents of the following species: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Myocastor coypus. Blood samples from these rodents were assayed for the presence of antibodies against hantavirus by IgG ELISA using Andes recombinant nucleocapsid antigen. Antibody reactive to Andes virus was found in two different species, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. These results indicate a potential risk for hantavirus transmission to humans in this area, where reservoir rodents are present in peridomestic settings.Hantavírus é o agente etiológico da síndrome cardio-pulmonar por hantavirus (SCPH, uma importante doença transmitida por roedores no Brasil. Com o objetivo de se conhecer a ocorrência de infecção por hantavírus em pequenos roedores silvestres, uma análise sorológica foi conduzida em três diferentes áreas do subúrbio da cidade de Pedreira, São Paulo. Dos 145 animais silvestres capturados, pertecentes a 12 diferentes espécies identificadas por morfologia e por análise cariológica, 107 eram roedores das seguintes espécies: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, e Myocastor coypus. Amostras de sangue desses roedores foram testadas para a presença de anticorpos IgG contra o antígeno do nucleocapsídeo do vírus Andes através do teste ELISA. Reatividade sorológica ao vírus Andes foi observada em duas espécies diferentes, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. Estes resultados

  8. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011–2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses. PMID:28295052

  9. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.

  10. Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

  11. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-02-19

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80-120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans.

  12. Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

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    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are an established cause of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe. Following a confirmed case of HFRS in the UK, in an individual residing on a farm in North Yorkshire and the Humber, a tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England, and the subsequent isolation of a Seoul hantavirus from rats trapped on the patient’s farm, it was considered appropriate to further investigate the public health risk of this virus in the region. Of a total 119 individuals tested, nine (7.6% were seropositive for hantavirus antibodies. Seven of the seropositive samples showed a stronger reaction to Seoul and Hantaan compared to other clinically relevant hantaviruses. Observation of rodents during the day, in particular mice, was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity. In addition to one region known to be at risk following an acute case, five further potential risk areas have been identified. This study supports recently published evidence that hantaviruses are likely to be of public health interest in the region.

  13. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs.

  14. Study on Opening the School Sports Facilities in Shenyang%沈阳市开放中小学体育设施对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡毅军

    2015-01-01

    Shenyang sports facilities construction started late, the status quo of sports facilities can not meet people’s sports event needs. The sports facilities of the majority of schools in Shenyang are idle outside of teaching time. In this case, the paper analyzed the school sports facilities and its opening situation, summarized the experience and problems of opening the school sports facilities in Shenyang, analyzed the relevant researches and practice at home and abroad, put forward the countermeasures of opening school sports facilities in Shenyang.%沈阳市体育设施建设起步较晚,现状体育设施规模不能满足人民群众进行体育活动需求。沈阳市大多数中小学体育设施在教学时间以外,均处于空闲状态。在此情况下,本文对沈阳市中小学体育设施及其开放情况进行分析,总结沈阳市开放中小学体育设施的经验及问题,分析国内外相关研究及实践,提出沈阳市开放中小学体育设施的对策。

  15. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  16. Molecular characterization of Dobrava and Kurkino genotypes of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus detected in Hungary and Northern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Madai, Mónika; Horváth, Győző; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2013-12-01

    Among the Hantavirus genus, Saaremaa virus (SAAV) has been the subject of taxonomical debates. While the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses declares SAAV as a distinct species, several European hantavirus experts proposed that SAAV is in fact a genotype of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV). In the present study we performed S-segment-based phylogenetic analysis of eight DOBV strains identified in rodents in Hungary and Northern Croatia. These new sequences considerably increase the number of complete nucleoprotein gene sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Our phylogenetic analysis clearly support the taxonomical nomenclature recently proposed for DOBV, i.e., genotypes such as Dobrava, Saaremaa, Kurkino, and Sochi should indeed be classified within the DOBV hantavirus species. Moreover, we found that only the Dobrava and Kurkino genotypes of DOBV species are circulating in Hungary while currently there is no evidence for the presence of Saaremaa genotype.

  17. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, Eva; Jeffers, Scott Allen; Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Jestin, Jean-Luc; England, Patrick; Tischler, Nicole D.; Rey, Félix A.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single “fusion loop”. We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal “tail” that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:27783711

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN FUNCIONAL DE LA REGIÓN TRONCAL DE LA PROTEÍNA Gc DEL HANTAVIRUS ANDES

    OpenAIRE

    MUÑOZ LEON, IGNACIO ALEJANDRO

    2011-01-01

    Los hantavirus son virus envueltos, con un genoma tripartito de RNA monohebra sentido negativo que infectan humanos. En Chile, desde el año 1995 se ha descrito la presencia de la especie de hantavirus: Andes (ANDV). En su membrana de envoltura se encuentra anclada la glicoproteína Gc, la cual es la encargada de fusionar la membrana viral con la membrana celular, proceso que permite, la entrada de las ribonucleocápsides virales al citoplasma celular. Gc comparte características con prote...

  19. [Dynamic changes of urban architecture landscape based on Barista: a case study in Tiexi District of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi; Xiong, Zai-ping; Liu, Miao

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional building information was extracted from high resolution satellite image based on Barista software. Combined with ArcGIS software, the dynamic changes of the building landscape in Tiexi District of Shenyang City during urban renewal process were analyzed from the conversion contribution rate, building density, average building height, and built-up area rate. It was found that during this urban renewal process, four dominant landscape types (vacant lot, residential building, industrial building, and road) were the main parts of the landscape changes. The areas of vacant lot, residential building, commercial building, and road increased, while that of industrial building decreased. The building density decreased, while the average building height increased. There was an obvious regional variation in building landscape. The building density in industrial district was higher than that in residential district, while the average building height was in adverse. The further from the city center, the lower the building density and building average height.

  20. Genotyping the hepatitis B virus with a fragment of the HBV DNA polymerase gene in Shenyang, China

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    Juan Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hepatitis B virus (HBV has been classified into eight genotypes (A-H based on intergenotypic divergence of at least 8% in the complete nucleotide sequence or more than 4% in the S gene. To facilitate the investigation of the relationship between the efficacy of drug treatment and the mutation with specific genotype of HBV, we have established a new genotyping strategy based on a fragment of the HBV DNA polymerase gene. Pairwise sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed using CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR on the eight (A-H standard full-length nucleotide sequences of HBV DNA from GenBank (NCBI and the corresponding semi-nested PCR products from the HBV DNA polymerase gene. The differences in the semi-nested PCR fragments of the polymerase genes among genotypes A through F were greater than 4%, which is consistent with the intergenotypic divergence of at least 4% in HBV DNA S gene sequences. Genotyping using the semi-nested PCR products of the DNA polymerase genes revealed that only genotypes B, C, and D were present in the 50 cases, from Shenyang, China, with a distribution of 11 cases (22%, 25 cases (50%, and 14 cases (28% respectively. These results demonstrate that our new genotyping method utilizing a fragment of the HBV DNA polymerase gene is valid and can be employed as a general genotyping strategy in areas with prevalent HBV genotypes A through F. In Shenyang, China, genotypes C, B, and D were identified with this new genotyping method, and genotype C was demonstrated to be the dominant genotype.

  1. Genetic Diversity, Distribution, and Serological Features of Hantavirus Infection in Five Countries in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, P. J.; Colavecchia, S. B.; Martínez, V. P.; Gonzalez Della Valle, M. O.; Edelstein, A.; Miguel, S. D. L.; Russi, J.; Riquelme, J. Mora; Colucci, N.; Almirón, M.; Rabinovich, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1995 when the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was reported in Patagonia, there have been more than 400 cases of HPS reported in five countries in South America. The first case of HPS was associated with Andes (AND) virus. In this study, we report on the genetic diversity, geographical distribution, and serological features of hantavirus infection in six countries in South America based on 87 HPS cases from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. An early immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG humoral response was observed in almost all HPS cases. The IgM response appears to peak 1 or 2 days after the onset of symptoms. Peak IgG antibody titers occur mostly after the first week. Low IgG titers or the absence of IgG was associated with higher mortality rates. The IgA response peaks around day 15 and then rapidly decreases. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on partial M-fragment G1- and G2-encoding sequences showed that HPS cases from the five countries were infected with viruses related to AND or Laguna Negra (LN) virus. Within AND virus-infected persons, at least five major genetic lineages were found; one lineage was detected in Uruguayan and Argentinean cases from both sides of the Rio de la Plata river. Two Paraguayan patients were infected with a virus different from LN virus. According to the results of phylogenetic analyses, this virus probably belongs to a distinct lineage related more closely to the AND virus than to the LN virus, suggesting that there is probably an Oligoryzomys-borne viral variant circulating in Paraguay. These studies may contribute to a better understanding of hantavirus human infection in South America. PMID:10921972

  2. 'Bedside assessment' of acute hantavirus infections and their possible classification into the spectrum of haemophagocytic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J; Colson, P; Saegeman, V; Lagrou, K; Van Ranst, M

    2016-07-01

    Hantavirus infections, recently renamed 'hantavirus fever' (HTVF), belong to the most common but also most underestimated zoonoses in the world. A small number of reports described the so-called 'lipid paradox' in HTVF, i.e. the striking contrast between a very low serum total cholesterol and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and a paradoxical concomitant hypertriglyceridaemia. In a prospective study, with patients being their own control after illness, we wanted to verify if this quick and easy 'bedside test' was robust enough to warrant a preliminary diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by HTVF. The study cohort consisted of 58 Belgian cases (mean age 44 years), admitted with varying degrees of AKI and of thrombocytopaenia, both characteristic for presumptive HTVF. All cases were sero-confirmed as having acute HTVF. At or shortly after hospital admission, a significant (p hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome' (HCPS) cases, mostly described hitherto in the New World. In more severe AKI cases, the mean total cholesterol was significantly lower (p = 0.02) than in milder cases, i.e. cases with peak serum creatinine levels of < 1.5 mg/dL. Thrombocytopaenia, generally accepted as the severity index in HTVF, appeared, moreover, significantly correlated with serum levels of total cholesterol (R = 0.52, p < 0.001) and with serum levels of HDLc (R = 0.45, p < 0.01). A link with the novel clinical entity of haemophagocytic syndromes, also characterised by manifest hypertriglyceridaemia, is discussed.

  3. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

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    González Paula LM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998, trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent

  4. Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelena, Hana; Zvolankova, Vlasta; Zuchnicka, Jana; Liszkova, Katerina; Papa, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with various degree of severity. The most severe form is caused by the Dobrava/Belgrade virus (DOBV), associated with the rodent Apodemus flavicollis. During the last decade cases of infection caused by DOBV have been reported in Central Europe. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS.

  5. Effects of seasonality and of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Katja; Escudero, Carlos; Buceta, Javier; de la Rubia, Francisco J.

    2004-05-01

    We present an analysis of two features that generalize the original model for the spread of the Hantavirus introduced by Abramson and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. E Vol. 66, 011912 (2002)]. One, the effect of seasonal alternations, may cause the virus to spread under conditions that do not lead to an epidemic under the action of either season alone. The other, the effect of internal fluctuations, modifies the distribution of infected mice and may lead to extinction of the infected population even when the mean population is above epidemic conditions.

  6. Simulations in the mathematical modeling of the spread of the Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. A.; Abramson, G.; Bishop, A. R.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2002-10-01

    The range of validity of a recently proposed deterministic (mean field) model of the spread of the Hantavirus infection is studied with the help of Monte Carlo simulations for the evolution of mice populations. The simulation is found to reproduce earlier results on the average but to display additional behavior stemming from discreteness in mice number and from fluctuations of the finite size system. It is shown that mice diffusion affects those additional features of the simulation in a physically understandable manner, higher diffusion constants leading to greater agreement with the mean field results.

  7. Class and subclass distribution of hantavirus-specific serum antibodies at different times after the onset of nephropathia epidemica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.G.M. Jordans; J.P.G. Clement; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSera from Dutch and Belgium individuals who suffered from nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), were tested for the distribution of classes and subclasses of Hantavirus (HV)-specific antibodies at different times after the onset of the

  8. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

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    Silvana Levis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

  9. Identification of Hantavirus serotypes by testing of post-infection sera in immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); H.G.M. Jordans; J.P.G. Clement; E.J.M. Rooijakkers; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); J.M. Dalrymple; G. van der Groen (Guido); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractSerum samples were collected from 27 individuals who had been infected with a member of the genus Hantavirus in the Netherlands or Belgium during the last 15 years. These samples were tested in an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems, u

  10. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  11. A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

    2013-09-13

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1-15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W.; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1–15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development. PMID:23892100

  13. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  14. Estimating hantavirus risk in southern Argentina: a GIS-based approach combining human cases and host distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-14

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995-2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature -1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  15. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Andreo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  16. Statistical mechanical considerations in the theory of the spread of the Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.

    2005-10-01

    Calculations in the theory of the spread of epidemics are described with particular focus on the estimation of motion parameters describing rodents that are the carriers of the Hantavirus epidemic. The data considered are of the “mark-recapture” kind, i.e., those collected by capturing, tagging and recapturing the animals in a prescribed finite region of space. The theoretical tool used is the Fokker-Planck equation, its characteristic quantities being the diffusion constant which describes the motion of the rodents, and the attractive potential which addresses their tendency to live near their burrows. The measurements are addressed through simple analytical calculations of the mean squared displacement of the animals relevant to the specific probing window in space corresponding to the trapping region. A Fourier prescription is provided to extract the home range of the animals from the observations. Applications of the theory to rodent movement in Panama and New Mexico are mentioned and several on-going generalizations of current models of Hantavirus epidemic spread are introduced.

  17. Theory of hantavirus infection spread incorporating localized adult and itinerant juvenile mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Giuggioli, L.; Abramson, G.; Camelo-Neto, G.

    2007-02-01

    A generalized model of the spread of the Hantavirus in mice populations is presented on the basis of recent observational findings concerning the movement characteristics of the mice that carry the infection. The factual information behind the generalization is based on mark-recapture observations reported in Giuggioli et al. [Bull. Math. Biol. 67, 1135 (2005)] that have necessitated the introduction of home ranges in the simple model of Hantavirus spread presented by Abramson and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. E 66, 11912 (2002)]. The essential feature of the model presented here is the existence of adult mice that remain largely confined to locations near their home ranges, and itinerant juvenile mice that are not so confined, and, during their search for their own homes, move and infect both other juveniles and adults that they meet during their movement. The model is presented at three levels of description: mean field, kinetic and configuration. Results of calculations are shown explicitly from the mean field equations and the simulation rules, and are found to agree in some respects and to differ in others. The origin of the differences is shown to lie in spatial correlations. It is indicated how mark-recapture observations in the field may be employed to verify the applicability of the theory.

  18. The Association between Hantavirus Infection and Selenium Deficiency in Mainland China

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    Li-Qun Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS caused by hantaviruses and transmitted by rodents is a significant public health problem in China, and occurs more frequently in selenium-deficient regions. To study the role of selenium concentration in HFRS incidence we used a multidisciplinary approach combining ecological analysis with preliminary experimental data. The incidence of HFRS in humans was about six times higher in severe selenium-deficient and double in moderate deficient areas compared to non-deficient areas. This association became statistically stronger after correction for other significant environment-related factors (low elevation, few grasslands, or an abundance of forests and was independent of geographical scale by separate analyses for different climate regions. A case-control study of HFRS patients admitted to the hospital revealed increased activity and plasma levels of selenium binding proteins while selenium supplementation in vitro decreased viral replication in an endothelial cell model after infection with a low multiplicity of infection (MOI. Viral replication with a higher MOI was not affected by selenium supplementation. Our findings indicate that selenium deficiency may contribute to an increased prevalence of hantavirus infections in both humans and rodents. Future studies are needed to further examine the exact mechanism behind this observation before selenium supplementation in deficient areas could be implemented for HFRS prevention.

  19. Modeling potential distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the Andes virus (Genus: Hantavirus) reservoir, in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Verónica; Glass, Gregory; Shields, Timothy; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    We constructed a model to predict the potential distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the reservoir of Andes virus (Genus: Hantavirus), in Argentina. We developed an extensive database of occurrence records from published studies and our own surveys and compared two methods to model the probability of O. longicaudatus presence; logistic regression and MaxEnt algorithm. The environmental variables used were tree, grass and bare soil cover from MODIS imagery and, altitude and 19 bioclimatic variables from WorldClim database. The models performances were evaluated and compared both by threshold dependent and independent measures. The best models included tree and grass cover, mean diurnal temperature range, and precipitation of the warmest and coldest seasons. The potential distribution maps for O. longicaudatus predicted the highest occurrence probabilities along the Andes range, from 32°S and narrowing southwards. They also predicted high probabilities for the south-central area of Argentina, reaching the Atlantic coast. The Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome cases coincided with mean occurrence probabilities of 95 and 77% for logistic and MaxEnt models, respectively. HPS transmission zones in Argentine Patagonia matched the areas with the highest probability of presence. Therefore, colilargos presence probability may provide an approximate risk of transmission and act as an early tool to guide control and prevention plans.

  20. Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after flooding disasters: Epidemiology, management, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    To alert clinicians to the climatic conditions that can precipitate outbreaks of the rodent-borne infectious diseases most often associated with flooding disasters, leptospirosis (LS), and the Hantavirus-caused diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS); to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases; and to recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious diseases. Internet search engines, including Google®, Google Scholar®, Pub Med, Medline, and Ovid, were queried with the key words as search terms to examine the latest scientific articles on rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks in the United States and worldwide to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of LS and Hantavirus outbreaks. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks following heavy rainfall and flooding disasters. Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent population densities; and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures following heavy rainfall, flooding, and even freshwater recreational events; and for Hantavirus-caused infectious diseases in patients with hemorrhagic fevers that progress rapidly to respiratory or renal failure following rodent exposures.

  1. Ecología y evolución de hantavirus en el Cono Sur de América Ecology and evolution of hantavirus in the Southern Cone of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Murua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus tienen huéspedes especie específicos pertenecientes a una familia común Muridae con tres sub familias, dos de ellas Murinae y Arvicolinae que se distribuyen en áreas geográficas de Europa Asia y Oceanía con un género Arvicolinae en América del Norte y la Sub familia Sigmodontinae en Centro América y Sudamérica. Estudios de la filogenia del huésped y el virus muestran fuertes similitudes al ser comparados, lo que sugiere una asociación de mucha más larga data con un proceso de coevolución entre el agente infeccioso y sus huéspedes roedores. La historia de la tierra y los procesos tectónicos y climáticos que afectaron al continente en épocas pretéritas son relevantes para comprender la actual distribución de los reservorios huéspedes y sus parásitos. Se entregan antecedentes biogeográficos de los roedores con la distribución geográfica de los hantavirus en Sudamérica, análisis filogenético de los virus, epidemiología molecular que sustentan la propuesta que el virus y el roedor han coevolucionado antes del momento de separarse la Familia Muridae en subfamilias (Murinae, Arvicolinae y Sigmodontinae y anterior al ingreso de los roedores sigmodontinos al continente sudamericano. Se discute la dificultad en demarcar especie nueva de hantavirus y la existencia de varios linajes con diferencias pequeñas entre si para ser consideradas como especies virales. Se describen diferencias y similitudes entre las dos especies de hantavirus que más casos han producido en América del Norte (virus Sin Nombre y en el Cono Sur de de América (Virus Andes.Hantavirus are associated with a single primary rodent host of the familiy Muridae in three sub families, two of them Murinae and Arvicolinae distributed in the Paleartic Region (Europa, Asia, China and the sub family Sigmodontinae in North, Central and South America besides an Arvicolinae genus (Microtus in North America. Studies on the host and virus phylogeny show

  2. 沈阳市2011-2014年蚊蝇类监测结果分析%Analysis on the mosquitoes and flies monitoring results in Shenyang from 2011 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周博; 吴旭; 郎义

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握沈阳市蚊虫和蝇类密度及季节消长规律,为虫媒传染病的预防控制提供技术支持.方法蚊虫监测采用诱蚊灯法;蝇类监测采用笼诱法.结果 2011-2014年共捕获蚊类8572只,平均蚊密度为4.46只/(灯·h),淡色库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕蚊总数的73.74%.不同生境蚊密度牲畜棚>农户>居民区>医院>公园.沈阳市蚊密度季节消长明显,活动高峰一般在7-9月;2011-2014年共捕获蝇类16 119只,平均蝇密度为6.40只/(笼·h),隶属5科13属14种.以丝光绿蝇为优势种,其次为厩腐蝇、家蝇、黑尾黑麻蝇、红头丽蝇、红尾粪麻蝇、棕尾别麻蝇;蝇密度呈现逐年上升趋势,2014年蝇密度是2011年的6.4倍;蝇密度高峰期在6-8月;不同生境蝇密度依次是绿化带>农贸市场>居民区>餐饮店外环境.结论 基本掌握了沈阳市蚊虫和蝇类密度、种类构成、季节消长情况.长期系统地对蚊虫和蝇类密度监测,为合理制定蚊蝇类综合防制策略提供科学依据.%Objective To learn and master the mosquitoes and the flies density and seasonal fluctuation in Shenyang and to provide a technical support for arbo?infectious diseases prevention and control. Methods Light traps and fly cage were used for mosquitoes and flies respectively. Results From 2011 to 2014, a total of 8572 mosquitoes were collected, with a mean density of 4.46 mosquitoes/(lamp·hour). Culex pipiens pallens was predominant species, accounting for 73.74%. The mosquito density was the highest in barns, followed by in farmers'houses, residential areas, hospitals and in parks. The mosquito density showed a marked seasonal fluctuation in Shenyang, with peak activity between July to September; from 2011 to 2014, a total of 16 119 flies were collected, with a mean density of 6.40 flies/(trap·hour), falling into 5 families, 13 genera and 14 species. Lucila sericata was predominant species, followed by Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica

  3. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus co-infection in acute patients hospitalized in Sri Lanka: implications for a potentially worldwide underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil-Chandra, N P; Clement, J; Maes, P; DE Silva, H J; VAN Esbroeck, M; VAN Ranst, M

    2015-07-01

    Two global (re-)emerging zoonoses, leptospirosis and hantavirus infections, are clinically indistinguishable. Thirty-one patients, hospitalized in Sri Lanka for acute severe leptospirosis, were after exclusion of other potentially involved pathogens, prospectively screened with IgM ELISA for both pathogens. Of these, nine (29·0%) were positive for leptospirosis only, one (3·2%) for hantavirus only, seven (22·5%) for both pathogens concomitantly, whereas 13 (41·9%) remained negative for both. Moreover, in a retrospective study of 23 former patients, serologically confirmed for past leptospirosis, six (26·0%) were also positive in two different IgG ELISA hantavirus formats. Surprisingly, European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) results were constantly higher, although statistically not significantly different, than Asian Hantaan virus (HTNV), suggesting an unexplained cross-reaction, since PUUV is considered absent throughout Asia. Moreover, RT-PCR on all hantavirus IgM ELISA positives was negative. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus infections are probably heavily underestimated worldwide, compromising epidemiological data, therapeutical decisions, and clinical outcome.

  4. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  5. Application of data mining to the analysis of meteorological data for air quality prediction: A case study in Shenyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Song, Guojun

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution is one of the important reasons for restricting the current economic development. PM2.5 which is a vital factor in the measurement of air pollution is defined as a kind of suspended particulate matter with its equivalent diameter less than 25μm, which may enter the alveoli and therefore make a great impact on the human body. Meteorological factors are also one of the main factors affecting the production of PM2.5, therefore, it is essential to establish the model between meteorological factors and PM2.5 for the prediction. Data mining is a promising approach to model PM2.5 change, Shenyang which is one of the most important industrial city in Northeast China with severe air pollutions is set as the case city. Meteorological data (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, rainfall, etc.) from 2013 to 2015 and PM2.5 concentration data are used for this prediction. As to the requirements of the World Health Organization (WHO), three data mining models, whereby the predictions of PM2.5 are directly generated by the meteorological data. After assessment, the random forest model is appeared to offer better prediction performance than the other two. At last, the accuracy of the generated models are analysed.

  6. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters.

  7. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  8. [Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhe; Chen, Zhian; Pan, Shinong; Liao, Wei; Zhan, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqiang; Wang, Yitong; Lu, Chunxue; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liang, Hongjun; Guo, Qiyong

    2015-05-05

    To retrospectively analyse the medical imaging examination results of the injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Divison. Collected and analyzed the health information and medical imaging examination results from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University during the two games. There was 9 cases of sports injuries in the 2008 Olympic Games, mainly for knee, ankle ligament injury and muscle sprain, 36 cases of sports injuries in the 2013 China National Games, mainly for head traumas (9 cases), knee injuries (7 cases), ankle injuries (7 cases), shoulder injures (4 cases). Competitions of high risk of being injured were wrestling (10 cases), track and field (8 cases), American football (6 cases). The most common cause of illness were respiratory system (60 cases) and the digestive system (27 cases) in the total 233 cases illnesses in the China National Games. Different sports have different characteristic, regularity and mechanism of injury. Medical imaging examination has important value in the diagnosis of injury during large games. The respiratory system and digestive system are the most common illnesses and affect the athletes training and competition as important as injuries. So illness is the focus on the medical care assurance of the large games.

  9. [Variation pattern and its affecting factors of three-dimensional landscape in urban residential community of Shenyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Feng; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xiong, Zai-Ping; Liu, Miao

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1:10000 aerial photo in 1997 and the three QuickBird images in 2002, 2005, and 2008, and by using Barista software and GIS and RS techniques, the three-dimensional information of the residential community in Tiexi District of Shenyang was extracted, and the variation pattern of the three-dimensional landscape in the district during its reconstruction in 1997-2008 and related affecting factors were analyzed with the indices, ie. road density, greening rate, average building height, building height standard deviation, building coverage rate, floor area rate, building shape coefficient, population density, and per capita GDP. The results showed that in 1997-2008, the building area for industry decreased, that for commerce and other public affairs increased, and the area for residents, education, and medical cares basically remained stable. The building number, building coverage rate, and building shape coefficient decreased, while the floor area rate, average building height, height standard deviation, road density, and greening rate increased. Within the limited space of residential community, the containing capacity of population and economic activity increased, and the environment quality also improved to some extent. The variation degree of average building height increased, but the building energy consumption decreased. Population growth and economic development had positive correlations with floor area rate, road density, and greening rate, but negative correlation with building coverage rate.

  10. Driver Sleepiness and Risk of Car Crashes in Shenyang, a Chinese Northeastern City: Population-based Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI-FEN LIU; SONG HAN; DUO-HONG LIANG; FENG-ZHI WANG; XIN-ZHU SHI; JIAN YU; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the association of driver sleepiness with the risk of car crashes.Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shenyang, a northeastern city in China, between November 2001 and July 2002. The case group comprised 406 car drivers involved in crashes, and 438 car drivers recruited at randomly selected sites, and on the day of week, and the time of day when they were driving on highways in the study region during the study period were used as control groups. Face-to-face interviews with drivers were conducted according to a well-structured questionnaire covering the circumstances of their current trip and their background information.Stanford sleepiness scale and Epworth sleepiness scale were used to quantify acute sleepiness and chronic sleepiness respectively. Results There was a strong association between chronic sleepiness and the risk of car crash. Significantly increased risk of crash was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10 vs <10; adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 95%confidence interval 1.30 to 3.29), but no increased risk was associated with measures of acute sleepiness. Conclusions Chronic sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of car crash. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy.

  11. Mapas de riesgo para Hantavirus en el Parque Nacional Conguillío, sur de Chile Hantavirus risk maps for Conguillío National Park, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS MUÑOZ-PEDREROS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo de infección con Hantavirus depende de factores, que determinan una probabilidad de contagio con los reservorios, tales como: (a la estructura vegetacional y el uso del suelo como un escenario primario, donde los factores específicos de composición, estructura y densidad de la vegetación detallan elementos relacionados con el habitat de los reservorios. (b La existencia de poblaciones de roedores reservorio. (c Establecimientos humanos, como disponibilidad y densidad de caminos, áreas habitadas o de presencia humana (e.g., casas, bodegas. Estos tres factores, habitat (probabilidad de ocurrencia del reservorio, roedores seropositivos (peligro de contagio y humanos (población expuesta, conjugados, proporcionan los elementos de juicio necesarios para establecer el riesgo. Es importante considerar que estos factores tienen una dinámica de cambio estacional durante el año y modificaciones ambientales naturales y antrópicas. Así, buscamos comprender el riesgo a que está sometido el ser humano en el espacio rural. Los modelos espaciales corresponden a representaciones de la realidad observada en un área determinada y condicionada a diversos factores geográficos, topográficos, biológicos, climáticos, etc. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer sectores potenciales de riesgo al hantavirus en un parque nacional de la IX Región de Chile empleando cartas temáticas de variables ambientales en un Sistema de Información Geográfica para analizar fotografías aéreas mediante fotointerpretación, transferencia, digitalización y manejo de base de datos gráfica y alfanumérica, validada en terreno. La capa vectorial fue "rasterizada" con un tamaño de pixel de 50 m. El mapa de riesgo se construyó utilizando un modelo aditivo de capas mediante el uso del software Model Builder 1.0, extensión de Arc View 3.2. La base del procedimiento fue el proceso de "overlay" aritmético, que sobrepone las capas adicionando los términos de

  12. Elevated thrombopoietin and platelet indices confirm active thrombopoiesis but fail to predict clinical severity of puumala hantavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Outi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Lassila, Riitta; Huhtala, Heini; Vaheri, Antti; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and procoagulant changes in relation with clinical variables in a cohort of patients with acute hantavirus disease. Blood samples of 33 prospectively recruited, consecutive, hospitalized patients with acute Puumala virus–induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) were collected acutely and at the recovery visit (control). Serum thrombopoietin (TPO) and activity of plasma microparticles (MPs) from various cell sources were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based methods. The results were related to data on platelet indices and functions, coagulation variables, and clinical disease. Serum TPO was nearly 4-fold higher acutely compared with the control (median 207 pg/mL, range 56–1258 pg/mL vs. median 58 pg/mL, range 11–241 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and coincided with high mean platelet volume (MPV) and immature platelet fraction (IPF%). Prothrombin fragments and D-dimer were high acutely compared with the control (F1 + 2 median 704 pmol/L, range 284–1875 pmol/L vs. median 249 pmol/L, range 118–556 pmol/L, P < 0.001; d-dimer median 2.8 mg/L, range 0.6–34.0 mg/L vs. median 0.4 mg/L, range 0.2–1.1 mg/L, P < 0.001), and associated with low platelet count and severe acute kidney injury (AKI). MPs’ procoagulant activity was high acutely only among patients with mild AKI (plasma creatinine below the median at the time of the measurement). Upregulated TPO together with high MPV and IPF% confirm active thrombopoiesis, but do not predict severity of HFRS. Simultaneously, elevated prothrombin fragments and d-dimer suggest increased consumption of platelets in patients with severe AKI. Activity of platelet-derived MPs in HFRS should be studied with flow cytometry in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:28033261

  13. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L.; Kwilas, Steve A.; Josleyn, Matthew D.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W.; Bradley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  14. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  15. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies in divergent small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautivo, Karla; Schountz, Tony; Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Ferrés, Marcela; Torres-Pérez, Fernando

    2014-05-06

    We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species.

  16. Rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Hantavirus-Specific Antibodies in Divergent Small Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cautivo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV, using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species.

  17. Establishment of Diagnostic Assay for Hantavirus with Microarray Techniques%基因芯片技术检测肾综合征出血热病毒核酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱进; 陶开华; 操敏; 张云; 李越希; 张锦海; 唐家琪

    2004-01-01

    To establish a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for Hantavirus with microarray techniques, specific primers and probes were designed according to the conservative and specific DNA sequence of 76-118 strain and R22 strain. The probes were spotted on glass slides to form microarrays.The Cy3-1abled single stranded DNA fragments prepared by dissymmetical PCR were hybridized with the probes on the glass slides. The microarrays were scanned and analyzed with a scanner. The results showed that the DNA microarray could detect the different typed DNA of HTN and SEO with adequate specificity and sensitivity. The developed DNA microarray and techniques might be a very useful method for diagnosis and prevention, and could be widely applied in specific pathogens detection ofinfectious diseases such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

  18. Stable Expression of Hantavirus H8205 Strain G1/IL-2 Gene and Immune Protection of the Fusion Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ying; YUAN Yuan; JIA Min; YU Bing; HUANG Hanju

    2007-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of stable expression of Hantavirus H8205 strain G1 segment and human IL-2 fusion gene in Vero cells, and to examine the immune protection effects on mice vaccinated with this recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing Hantavirus G1 gene and IL-2 gene. With the help of lipofectamine, the Vero cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1/HisB-IL-2-G1 and the positive cells were selected by G418. IFAT and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were used to determine the stable transfection and expression of recombinant protein.Each mouse was inoculated with plasmids intramuscularly (i.m.) three times, 2 boosts were given at 2-week intervals, serum anti-hantavirus antibodies were detected by ELISA and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were detected by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The fusion protein expressed in Vero cells was 78 kD, corresponding to the estimated molecular size. The neutralizing antibody titers of mice with pcDNA3.1/HisB-IL-2-G1 were 1:20-1:80. IL-2/G1 fusion gene could be transferred in Vero cells and stably express the fusion protein. Specific humeral immune responses in mice can be induced with the recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing the fusion gene, which lays the foundation for further development of therapeutic HTNV vaccine.

  19. Acidification triggers Andes hantavirus membrane fusion and rearrangement of Gc into a stable post-fusion homotrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Bignon, Eduardo A; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2015-11-01

    The hantavirus membrane fusion process is mediated by the Gc envelope glycoprotein from within endosomes. However, little is known about the specific mechanism that triggers Gc fusion activation, and its pre- and post-fusion conformations. We established cell-free in vitro systems to characterize hantavirus fusion activation. Low pH was sufficient to trigger the interaction of virus-like particles with liposomes. This interaction was dependent on a pre-fusion glycoprotein arrangement. Further, low pH induced Gc multimerization changes leading to non-reversible Gc homotrimers. These trimers were resistant to detergent, heat and protease digestion, suggesting characteristics of a stable post-fusion structure. No acid-dependent oligomerization rearrangement was detected for the trypsin-sensitive Gn envelope glycoprotein. Finally, acidification induced fusion of glycoprotein-expressing effector cells with non-susceptible CHO cells. Together, the data provide novel information on the Gc fusion trigger and its non-reversible activation involving lipid interaction, multimerization changes and membrane fusion which ultimately allow hantavirus entry into cells.

  20. Regulation of type I interferon in the process of hantavirus infection%汉坦病毒感染对Ⅰ型干扰素应答的调节机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永妮; 曹梦远(综述); 叶伟; 张芳琳(审校)

    2014-01-01

    汉坦病毒主要感染人内皮细胞,细胞在病毒感染早期诱导生成的Ⅰ型干扰素( IFN-Ⅰ)可阻断汉坦病毒的复制,但不同的病毒蛋白和不同型别的汉坦病毒在IFN应答的调节机制上可能有所不同。就汉坦病毒感染对IFN应答的调节机制进行了综述。%Hantaviruses primarily infect human vascular endothelial cells ( VECs) , and type I interferon ( IFN) which is induced by Hantavirus infection in early phase can block the replication of Hantavirus, but the different viral proteins and different types of Hantavirus may play the different role in the regulation of IFN response. This paper reviews the regulation mechanism of IFN responses by Hantavirus infection.

  1. Evaluation of urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene as biomarkers for exposure to diesel exhaust in taxi drivers of Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P; Paulsen, Michael; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Tamura, Kenji; Dong, Lijun; Zhang, Xuemei; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Yost, Michael G; Simpson, Christopher D

    2013-03-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant contributor to the toxicity associated with particulate matter (PM). 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) has been used as a molecular marker for DE, and the urinary metabolites of 1-NP have been proposed as biomarkers for exposure to DE. In this study, several urinary 1-NP metabolites were evaluated for their utility as markers of short-term exposures to DE. The study population was a cohort of 24 taxi drivers from Shenyang, China, who submitted urine samples collected before, after, and the next morning following their workshifts. The urinary metabolites studied were isomers of hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (3-, 6-, 8- OHNPs) and hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (3-,6-, 8-OHNAAPs). Exposure to DE was estimated based on exposure to 1-NP in air samples collected during and after the driver's workshift; 6- and 8-OHNP, and 8-OHNAAP were consistently detected in the drivers' urine. Concentrations of the metabolites in the taxi drivers' urine were greater than metabolite levels previously reported in non-occupationally exposed subjects; however no associations were observed between subject-specific exposures to 1-NP and urinary metabolites measured at the end of the workshift or in the next morning void. Significant autocorrelation was observed in metabolite levels in successive urine samples, from which half-lives for urinary elimination of ~10-12 h were estimated. These observations suggest that, in an occupational setting, urinary 1-NP metabolites may be more suitable as markers of ongoing exposure (timescales of several days) rather than indicators of acute exposure associated with single workshifts.

  2. Soil Microbial Characteristics Under Long-Term Heavy Metal Stress: A Case Study in Zhangshi Wastewater Irrigation Area, Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from Zhangshi Wastewater Irrigation Area in the suburb of Shenyang City,China,an area with a 30-year irrigation history with heavy metal-containing wastewater.The chemical properties and microbial characteristics of the soils were examined to evaluate the present situation of heavy metal pollution and to assess the soil microbial characteristics under long-term heavy metal stress.In light of the National Environmental Quality Standards of China,the soil in the test area was heavily polluted by Cd and to a lesser degree by Zn and Cu,even though wastewater irrigation ceased in 1993.Soil metabolic quotient(qCO2)had a significant positive correlation,while soil microbial quotient (qM)had a negative correlation with content of soil heavy metals.Soil microbial biomass carbon(MBC)had significantly negative correlation with Cd,but soil substrate-induced respiration(SIR),dehydrogenase activity(DHA),cellulase activity,and culturable microbial populations had no persistent correlations with soil heavy metal content.Soil nutrients,except for phosphorous,showed positive effects on soil microbial characteristics,which to a certain degree obscured the adverse effects of soil heavy metals.Soil Cd contributed more to the soil microbial characteristics,but qM and qCO2 were more sensitive and showed persistent responses to heavy metals stress.It could be concluded that qM and qCO2 can be used as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in soils.

  3. Temporal-spatial distribution and variability of cadmium contamination in soils in Shenyang Zhangshi irrigation area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-na; ZHANG Yao-hua; SUN Tie-heng; GONG Zong-qiang; LIN Xin; LI Hai-bo

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in soils has been of wide concern in China in the last several decades. The heavy metal contamination was caused by sewage irrigation, mining and inappropriate utilization of various agrochemicals and pesticides and so on. The Shenyang Zhangshi irrigation area (SZIA) in China is a representative area of heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from sewage irrigation for about 30 years duration. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation of soil cadmium contamination in the SZIA. The soil samples were collected from the SZIA in 1990 and 2004; Cd of soils was analyzed and then the spatial distribution and temporal variation of Cd in soils was modelled using kriging methods. The kriging map showed that long-term sewage irrigation had caused serious Cd contamination in topsoil and subsoil. In 2004, the Cd mean concentrations were 1.698 and 0.741 mg/kg, and the maxima 10.150 and 7.567 mg/kg in topsoils (0-20 cm) and subsoils (20-40 cm) respectively. These values are markedly more than the Cd levels in the second grade soil standard in China. In 1990, the Cd means were 1.023 and 0.331mg/kg, and the maxima 9.400 and 3.156 mg/kg, in topsoils and subsoils respectively. The soil area in 1990 with Cd more than 1.5mg/kg was 2701 and 206.4 hm2 in topsoils and subsoils respectively; and in 2004, it was 7592 and 1583 hm2, respectively. Compared with that in 1990, the mean and maximum concentration of Cd, as well as the soil area with Cd more than 1.5 mg/kg had all increased in 2004, both in topsoils and subsoils.

  4. A Hospital Volumecost Profit Analysis in Shenyang%沈阳市某医院量本利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继兴

    2015-01-01

    目的:针对沈阳市某公立医院常年亏损的状态,从微观定量分析的角度,采用量本利分析的方法,对其财务报表进行分析和讨论,找出相应亏损原因,提出合理策略以改善现有的亏损状态。方法对沈阳市某公立医院2010—2012年财务报表进行量本利分析,得出相应的保本点、保本工作量以及保本额等相应数据,并对其进行描述分析。结果沈阳市某公立医院2010—2012年连续三年其门急诊收入、住院收入、其它收入、总收入以及政府的财政补助均呈现明显的上升趋势;3年间的变动成本不断上升,但固定成本2011年达到最高;保本工作量及保本额均远远高于医院实际的工作量和收入水平,其安全边际呈现明显的负值。医院的盈亏状况呈现明显亏损状态。结论量本利分析可较清晰地揭示出医院成本、工作量、收费价格和收支结余之间的关系。该分析方法在医院经济管理工作中的应用,不仅在于它能揭示上述关系,而且其对医院经济管理具有一定的现实指导意义。为扭转医院不断亏损的状态,需强调成本控制的重要性,要实现盈亏平衡,同时需要政府、社会、医院等多方的共同努力,才能完成。%Purpose According to the perennial losses state of a public hospital in Shenyang,from the perspective of microscopic quantitative analysis with the method of Volume-cost-profit analysis,analysis of its financial statements and discussion,find out the corresponding loss reasons,put forward the reasonable strategy to improve the existing state of losses.Methods analysis the financial statements of a public hospital in Shenyang in 2010—2012 with the method of Volume-cost-profit analysis,draw the corresponding break-even point,break-even workload and capital preservation of the corresponding data, and carries on the description analysis.ResultsThe outpatient and emergency

  5. Hantavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  6. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  7. Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans and rodents in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil Diagnóstico de infecção por hantavírus em humanos e roedores em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciane Garcia de Figueiredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome (HPCS is an emerging serious disease in the Americas. Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are the causative agents of this syndrome and are mainly transmitted through inhalation of aerosols containing the excreta of wild rodents. In the Ribeirão Preto region (state of São Paulo, Brazil, HPCS has been reported since 1998, caused by the Araraquara virus (ARAV, for which Necromys lasiurus is the rodent reservoir. This study aimed to show diagnostic results relating to infection in humans and rodents, obtained at the Virology Research Center of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, between 2005 and 2008. METHODS: HPCS was diagnosed by means of ELISA and/or RT-PCR in 11 (21.2% out of 52 suspected cases, and 54.4% of these were fatal. Furthermore, 595 wild rodents (Necromys lasiurus, Akodon sp, Calomys tener and Oligoryzomys sp were caught between 2005 and 2008. RESULTS: Fifteen (2.5% of these rodents presented antibodies for hantavirus, as follows: Necromys lasiurus (4%, Calomys tener (1.9% and Akodon sp (1.5%. Nucleotide sequences obtained through RT-PCR from one HPCS patient and one Calomys tener rodent were compared with hantavirus sequences from GenBank, which showed that both were homologous with ARAV. CONCLUSIONS: This work corroborates previous studies showing that ARAV is the hantavirus causing HPCS in the Ribeirão Preto region. It also shows that rodents infected with hantavirus represent a constant risk of transmission of this virus to man.INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença grave emergente nas Américas. Os hantavírus, Bunyaviridae, são os agentes causadores desta síndrome, causadas, principalmente, pela inalação de aerossóis dos dejetos de roedores silvestres. Na região de Ribeirão Preto, a SPCVH, causada pelo vírus Araraquara, tem sido diagnosticada, desde 1998. O roedor-reservatório do ARAV é o

  8. Spatial structure of rodent populations and infection patterns of hantavirus in seven villages of Shandong Province from February 2006 to January 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin; SHAO Qi; WANG Zhi-qiang; KANG Dian-min; LI Shi-wei; LI Xue-gang; XUE Fu-zhong; WANG Jie-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in Junan county, Shandong Province, China.We conducted geographic information system (GlS)-based spatial analysis with the objective of estimating the spatial distribution of rodent populations and their hantavirus infection patterns, to describe the spatial relationships of hantavirus strains in small ecological areas and to identify key areas in endemic areas of HFRS for future public health planning and resource allocation.Methods Rodent sampling was conducted in seven villages in Junan county from February 2006 to January 2007 using field epidemiological surveillance. Dynamics of hantavirus infection and population densities in rodents were investigated. Spatial statistical techniques including Ripley' L index and nearest neighbour hierarchical (NNH) clustering analysis were conducted to reveal the spatial structure of rodent populations in seven villages. Phylogenetic analysis and two-dimensional minimal spanning tree (2-D MST) models were employed to describe the spatial relationship of hantavirus strains.Results Data showed that Mus musculus was the most common species in our study area, followed by Rattus norvegicus. Ripley's L index and NNH analysis showed that the spatial distribution of all captured rodents, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus in seven villages were clustered and there were hotspot areas of rodent distribution. The branches of 2-D MSTs had similar topologies to those of corresponding phylogenetic trees, and hantavirus strains exhibited obvious connective traces in seven villages.Conclusions These results contribute to the understanding of the spatial distribution of rodent populations and hantavirus infection patterns in small areas, and identify priority areas within the epidemic areas for the development of a better prevention strategy against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in a small ecological area.

  9. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.

  10. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5% and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%. Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70% were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4% were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis, six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae, one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus. All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.

  11. Nucleotide sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis of hantaviruses isolated in Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian; ZHAO Zhong-tang; WANG Zhi-qiang; LIU Yun-xi; HU Mao-hong

    2007-01-01

    Background China is the most severe endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the world with 30 000-50 000 cases reported annually, which accounts for more than 90% of total number of cases worldwide. The incidence rate of the syndrome in Shandong Province is one of the highest in China, which has ever reached 50 per 100 000 persons per year. However, the molecular characteristics of hantaviruses (HV) epidemic in Shandong Province remain unclear. Therefore it is useful to clarify nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic characteristics of HV isolated in Shandong Province in order to provide better advices to control and prevent HFRS.Methods RNAs were extracted from sera of clinically diagnosed patients and positive rodent lungs that were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Partial M segments of HV were amplified from the RNAs with reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR) using hantavirus genotype specific primers. The nested PCR products were sequenced and compared with those from previously epidemic isolates in Shandong and with other representative HV sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic tree analyses were performed based on the sequences of the M genes.Results Thirty-four HV isolates in Shandong showed 67.1%-100% nucleotide identities. The nucleotide homologies among 6 Hantaan viruses (HTNV) isolates in Shandong were 78.1%-98.7%, while the homologies among 28 Seoul virus (SEOV) isolates in Shandong were 93.7%-100%. There were at least 3 subtypes HTNV (H2, H5, H9) and 2 subtypes SEOV (S2, S3) in Shandong Province.Conclusions In Shandong Province, the homologies of HTNV were lower and there were no predominant subtypes,while the homologies of SEOV were higher and S3 was the predominant subtype. The homologies of SEOV from rodents were higher than those from patients. The distribution of subtypes in Shandong was similar to that of the adjoining provinces. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences showed

  12. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Guzmán; Salim Mattar; Silvana Levis; Noemí Pini; Tadeu Figueiredo; James Mills; Jorge Salazar-Bravo

    2013-01-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (...

  13. Analysis of Outpatient Cases in Center of Allergy and Immunotherapy, The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Comonand between 2001 and 2010%2001-2010年沈阳军区总医院变态反应门诊病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇薇; 林小平; 柴若楠; 仲欢欢; 吕智慧; 冯晓娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究沈阳地区2001-2010年变态反应门诊常见病种及发病特征,为当地过敏性疾病的防治提供科学依据.方法 应用本科信息数据库系统,对2001年-2010年本院变态反应门诊就诊的病例进行回顾性统计分析.结果 就诊病种占第一位的为哮喘(44492例,占43%),其次为鼻炎(28070例,占27%)、荨麻疹(12065例,占12%),其他常见病种有花粉症(4652例,占4.5%)、皮炎(3515例,占3.4%)、湿疹(3411例,占3.3%)、紫癜(1964例,占1.9%).引起过敏性疾病的主要过敏原依次为屋尘螨(77.8%)、粉尘螨(75.1%)、蒿草(40.5%)、豚草(22.3%)、狗毛(10.9%)、猫毛(8.5%)、树木(4.1%)、向日葵(3.2%)、葎草(1.95%).7-9月份是过敏性疾病的高发季节.结论 沈阳地区变态反应门诊最常见的病种为哮喘、鼻炎、荨麻疹.尘螨是引起过敏性疾病的主要过敏原,过敏性疾病的患病人数有明显的季节性波动特征.%Objective To investigate the spectrum and characteristics of common allergic diseases in clinic of allergy department in Shenyang, forming the scientific basis of management and prevention of allergic diseases in this area Methods The data of patients were retrospectively analyzed, who attended clinic of allergy department in our hospital since 2001 to 2010, based on the database of hospital information system. Results The most common allergic disease was allergic asthma ( 44 492 cases, 43 % ), followed by rhinitis ( 28 070 cases, 27% ) and urticaria (12 065 cases, 12% ), and the other common diseases were hay fever (4 652 cases, 4.5% ), dermatitis ( 3 515 cases, 3.4% ), eczema ( 3 411 cases, 3.3% ), purpura (l 964 cases, 1.9% ). The major allergens induced allergic diseases according to priority were Dermatophagoid.es pteronyssinus ( 77.8% ), Dermatophagoid.es farina ( 75. 1% ), mugwort pollen ( 40. 5% ), ragweed pollen ( 22. 3% ), dog hairs ( 10. 9% ), cat hairs ( 8. 5% ), tree pollens ( 4. 1% ), sunflower pollen ( 3. 2% ) and

  14. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Antigens of Yellow Fever virus, which is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti 389 mosquito , can be found inside the rough endoplasmic...Smith MR, Standiford TJ, Reddy RC. 2007. PPARs in Alveolar Macrophage Biology . PPAR 631 research 2007:23812. 632 9. Kim HM, Lee YW, Lee KJ, Kim HS...American journal of respiratory cell and 729 molecular biology 51:502-515. 730 42. Kooguchi K, Hashimoto S, Kobayashi A, Kitamura Y, Kudoh I, Wiener

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  16. Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.

  17. Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa-Estani Sergio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.

  18. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil: clinical aspects of three new cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA Marcelo S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS has been recognized recently in Brazil, where 28 cases have been reported as of September 1999. We report here the clinical and laboratory findings of three cases whose diagnoses were confirmed serologically. All the patients were adults who presented a febrile illness with respiratory symptoms that progressed to respiratory failure that required artificial ventilation in two of them. Laboratory findings were most of the time consistent with those reported in the United States in patients infected with the Sin Nombre virus, and included elevated hematocrit and thrombocytopenia; presence of atypical lymphocytes was observed in one patient. The chest radiological findings observed in all the patients were bilateral, diffuse, reticulonodular infiltrates. Two patients died. Histopathological examination of the lungs of these patients revealed interstitial and alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and mild interstitial pneumonia characterized by infiltrate of immunoblasts and mononuclear cells. In the epidemiologic investigation of one of the cases, serologic (ELISA tests were positive in 3 (25% out of 12 individuals who shared the same environmental exposure. HPS should be included in the differential diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory failure.

  19. Puumala hantavirus infections in bank vole populations: host and virus dynamics in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Daniela; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Imholt, Christian; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Eccard, Jana A; Jacob, Jens

    2017-02-28

    In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies. We demonstrated that fluctuation of PUUV seroprevalence is dependent not only on multi-annual but also on seasonal dynamics of rodent host abundance. Moreover, PUUV infection might affect host fitness, because seropositive individuals survived better from spring to summer than uninfected bank voles. Individual space use was independent of PUUV infections. Our study provides robust estimations of relevant patterns and processes of the dynamics of PUUV and its rodent host in Central Europe, which are highly important for the future development of predictive models for human hantavirus infection risk.

  20. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina, 1993-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, G; Lazaro, M; Resa, A; Arellano, O; Amestoy, A M; De Bunder, S; Herrero, E; Perez, A; Larrieu, E

    1997-01-01

    Early in 1995 the first case of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome was serologically confirmed in El Bolsón (Province of Río Negro, Argentina), corresponding to the third outbreak reported in Argentina. A total of 26 cases of HPS related to the Andean region of Rio Negro Province, were reported from 1993 to 1996, 17 in El Bolsón, 4 in San Carlos de Bariloche, and 5 in Buenos Aires. The incidence rate was 5.03 x 100,000 with a mortality rate of 51.85 x 100. The occurrence of cases was mainly seasonal, with a significantly greater number in the spring, and the persons affected mainly lived in urban or periurban areas. In four cases, the affected individuals were members of a couple, spouses or live-in contacts. Seven cases were Health workers (physicians, nurses or administrative staff). Twelve cases were related among them, due to an outbreak of 80 days. Two of them did not visit the Andean region. A total of 139 rodents were captured and seven of them, Olygoryzomys longicaudatus, were found to be serologically positive. The possibility of infection by contact with rodents or fecal matter is being analyzed and also hypothesis related with interhuman transmission.

  1. Disease: H00390 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , Embil JM Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a concise clinical review. South Med J ...102:620-5 (2009) PMID:12521363 (description) Lednicky JA Hantaviruses. a short review. Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:30-5 (2003) ...

  2. The Survey on the Development of Shenyang Real Estate Market%沈阳市房地产市场发展情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洋

    2012-01-01

    Until 2011 September, Shenyang real estate market had notable variation. To understand this effect on the financial industry, we selected 10 financial institutions and 12 real estate development companies in Shenyang and carried on field research on them. The research shows: as the impact of national macro-control policies, Shenyang real estate turnover began to decline, but prices rose slightly. Our real estate prices are relatively low, and the market rigid demand is more, so the real estate market is basically stable, and the risk is relatively low. Banks implement the national macro economic policies earnestly, and have more potential risk awareness on the real estate industry. A lot of bank organizations raised the loan interest rate to real estate enterprise, and increased the guarantee funds to them. Now the variation of real estate market has relatively small risks on the banking market, so it is still controllable.%截至2011年9月份,沈阳市房地产市场出现了明显变化,为了解房地产市场的这种变化对金融业的影响,本文选取了我市10家金融机构及12家房地产开发公司并对其进行了实地调研。调研显示:受国家宏观调控政策的影响,我市房地产成交量开始下降,但价格略有上升。由于我市房地产价格相对较低,市场刚性需求较多,房地产市场基本稳定,风险相对较小;银行积极执行国家宏观调控政策,对房地产行业潜在的风险意识增强,多家银行机构上调了房地产企业的贷款利率,追加了房地产企业的担保资金,目前房地产市场变化对我市银行业带来的风险相对较小,尚在可控范围。

  3. Epidemics of Phaeoisariopsis vitis in Shenyang%沈阳地区葡萄褐斑病流行规律初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春浩; 于舒怡; 李海春; 臧超群; 赵奎华; 刘长远

    2014-01-01

    Based on the epidemics of grape leaf rot on‘Xiangyue’grape in Shenyang,occurrence and its epidem-ics were closely related with growth period,temperature and relative humidity. Logistic model could well reflect the increase of grape leaf rot in Shenyang. It was predicted that the exponential phase of grape leaf rot was from late June to early July in Shenyang,and the logistic phase was from early July to mid-September,while the decline phase was from mid-September to the end of corn growth stage. The exponential phase was also the best time for chemical control. The exponential-phase accumulated temperature (AT)was 0-994.2 ℃ ,and the accumulated relative humidity (ARH)was 0-3 344.03% . The Logistic-phase AT was between 994.2 ℃ and 3 159.2 ℃ ,and ARH was between 3 344.03% and 10 439.1% .%通过对沈阳地区‘香悦’葡萄褐斑病流行规律进行初步研究,认为葡萄褐斑病发生和流行与生育期、温度和相对湿度有密切关系。经过对比分析,Logistic模型可较好地模拟沈阳地区‘香悦’葡萄褐斑病病情指数增长情况。经Logistic模型推导,该病指数增长期时间为6月下旬至7月上旬;逻辑斯蒂期时间为7月上旬至9月中旬,衰退期时间为9月中旬以后,其中指数增长期是最佳药剂防治时间;该病指数增长期积温为0~994.2℃;逻辑斯蒂期积温为994.2~3159.2℃;指数增长期累积湿度为0~3344.03%,逻辑斯蒂期累积湿度为3344.03%~10439.1%。

  4. Expression of recombinant Araraquara Hantavirus nucleoprotein in insect cells and its use as an antigen for immunodetection compared to the same antigen expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Jose LC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigens for Hantavirus serological tests have been produced using DNA recombinant technology for more than twenty years. Several different strategies have been used for that purpose. All of them avoid the risks and difficulties involved in multiplying Hantavirus in the laboratory. In Brazil, the Araraquara virus is one of the main causes of Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. Methods In this investigation, we report the expression of the N protein of the Araraquara Hantavirus in a Baculovirus Expression System, the use of this protein in IgM and IgG ELISA and comparison with the same antigen generated in E. coli. Results The protein obtained, and purified in a nickel column, was effectively recognized by antibodies from confirmed HCPS patients. Comparison of the baculovirus generated antigen with the N protein produced in E. coli showed that both were equally effective in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our results therefore indicate that either of these proteins can be used in serological tests in Brazil.

  5. A five-year perspective on the situation of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and status of the hantavirus reservoirs in Europe, 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Heyman; C.S. Ceianu; I. Christova; N. Tordo (Noël); M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); M.J. Alves (M. João); Å. Lundkvist (Åke); M. Hukic; A. Papa (Anna); A. Tenorio; H. Zelena (Hana); S. Eßbauer; I. Visontai; I. Golovljova; J. Connell (John); L. Nicoletti; M. van Esbroeck (M.); S.G. Dudman (Susanne Gjeruldsen); S.W. Aberle (Stephan W.); T. Avsic-Zupanc; G. Korukluoglu; A. Nowakowska; B. Klempa; R.G. Ulrich (Rainer); S. Bino; O. Engler; M. Opp (Matthias); A. Vaheri (Antti)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHantavirus infections are reported from many countries in Europe and with highly variable annual case numbers. In 2010, more than 2,000 human cases were reported in Germany, and numbers above the baseline have also been registered in other European countries. Depending on the virus type

  6. 沈阳市财源建设的现状、问题及对策%Status, Problems and Solutions of Financial Resources Construction in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠华

    2012-01-01

    The current situation and existing problems of the financial resources construction in Shenyang City are described, the pressure of financial expenditure; the unreasonable constitution of revenue growth; and the high business tax and VAT. The favorable and unfavorable factors of the construction of the follow-up financial resources are analyzed, and specific measures are proposed to achieve economic and financial resources win-win situation.%介绍了沈阳市财源建设的现状及存在的问题:财政支出压力大,收入构成不合理,营业税和增值税较高。分析了后续财源建设的有利和不利因素并提出了针对性措施,以实现经济和财源双赢。

  7. Trends in obesity, overweight, and malnutrition among children and adolescents in Shenyang, China in 2010 and 2014: a multiple cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lingling; Dong, Youdan; Bai, Yinglong; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2017-02-02

    The prevalence, characteristics, and trends in obesity, overweight, and malnutrition among children and adolescents in 2010 and 2014 in Shenyang, China was described. This was a multiple cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 and 2014 National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health. A total of 31,031 children and adolescents were included in this survey. Differences in the percentages of obesity, overweight, and malnutrition by age, gender, and living region in 2010 and 2014 were compared using the χ2 test. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to select potential covariates for the dependent variable (overweight, obesity, or malnutrition). The prevalence of obesity and overweight in 2010 was 8.99% and 13.72%, respectively, and 12.64% and 14.06% in 2014, respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition was 10.68% and 10.69% in 2010, and 2014, respectively. In 2010 and 2014, boys and girls 7-11 years of age had higher rates of obesity than other age groups (P malnutrition was significantly lower in boys than girls (P malnutrition did not change. The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and malnutrition was associated with gender, age, and living region by univariate logistic regressions. The prevalence of obesity and overweight has continuously risen since 2010, and there is a low-age trend of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in Shenyang, China. The increasing rate of obesity and overweight was faster in rural than urban areas. Malnutrition did not significantly decrease during the 4-year period from 2010-2014.

  8. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. Methods The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Results Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%, more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%. Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41 compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17, highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61, and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16 were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Conclusions Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed.

  9. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Liang, Huiying; Li, Xuelian; Guan, Peng; Yin, Zhihua; Zhou, Baosen

    2010-01-27

    To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed.

  10. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. Methods The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Results Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Conclusions Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed. PMID:20102639

  11. Discussion on Effects of El Nino Event on Climate in Shenyang%试论El nino事件对沈阳气候的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美娜; 杨志勇; 郑苗苗

    2011-01-01

    通过对1951~2005年沈阳温度、降水、暴雨日数资料及1951~2005年沈阳气候极值分析,探讨El Nino事件时沈阳气候的影响.结果发现,在El nino当年沈阳地区温度呈偏低趋势,当El nino过后沈阳地区温度呈现偏高趋势.通常在El nino发生前一直到接近El nino峰期这一段时间,沈阳地区雨水充沛,有的年份会洪涝灾害发生;温度偏低,冬季容易出现冷冬,有的年份会发生低温冷害.El niao事件次年,沈阳地区雨量偏少,日照充足,偏暖,一般会出现暖冬,有的年份会有干旱、高温少雨等灾害性天气发生.%Based on analysis of temperature, precipitation, rainstorm days and climate extremum in Shenyang during 1951 -2005, the effects of El nino events on climate in Shenyang were discussed. The results showed that in the year of El nino, temperature showed low trend, after that,temperature showed high trend. Normally, during the peried before El nino to peak period, the rainfall is abundant, temperature is low. In the next year of El nino, rainfall is low, sunshine is abundant, temperature is high. Sometime, drought, high temperature with low rain etc. disaster years would occurred.

  12. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: Diagnostic Problems with a Known Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Dominic; Slenczka, Werner; Alter, Peter; Boehm, Stephan; Feldmann, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), caused by different hantaviruses, is a distinct clinical syndrome endemic in several parts of Asia and Europe. However, the clinical picture can sometimes be indistinguishable from that of other infectious or noninfectious diseases. In this report we describe a clinical case, which is a rare occurrence but is a prime example of the difficulties in the diagnosis of HFRS in areas with a low prevalence of the disease.

  13. Hantavirus antibodies in rodents and human cases with pulmonary syndrome, Río Negro, Argentina Anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos con síndrome pulmonar, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Larrieu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Río Negro Province, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS appeared in the region of subantartic forests. The Andes virus (ANDV has been identified in the region both in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus rodents and in humans, with the main transmission being from rodents to humans but also showing the possibility of human to human transmission. Between 1996 and 2004, in 40 campaigns, 29.960 night-traps for capturing live rodents were set up. Blood samples were obtained from the rodents and processed using enzyme immunoassay with recombinant antigens made from ANDV. A total of 1767 rodents were captured, with a capture success of 5.9% and an antibody prevalence of 2.1%. Important differences were observed among the species captured from Andes and Steppe regions. Seropositive Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, Abrotrix olivaceus, Abrotrix xanhtothinus and Loxodontomus microtus were captured. During the 1993-2004 period, 40 HPS cases were registered.En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de los bosques subantárticos. El virus Andes (AND fue identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la posibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 29.960 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo Sherman, en 40 operativos efectuados desde 1996 hasta 2004. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores, las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos recombinantes elaborados a partir de virus AND. Fueron capturados 1767 roedores, con un éxito de trampeo del 5.9% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 2.1%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus, Abrothrix olivaceus y

  14. HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME (HPS IN GUARIBA, SP, BRAZIL: REPORT OF 2 CASES Relato de 2 casos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus ocorridos em Guariba, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu M. FIGUEIREDO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Human infections caused by a hantavirus were reported in different regions of the State of São Paulo (SP, Brazil during the first six months of 1998. Two cases of fatal pulmonary syndrome occurred in May of 1998 in the City of Guariba, located in the Northeastern Region of SP. Both patients worked in a corn storage barn infested by rodents. These patients, after 2 or 3 days of non-specific febrile illness, developed a severe interstitial pneumonia spreading widely in both lungs, causing respiratory failure and death. At autopsy both patients showed lung interstitial edema with immunoblast-like mononuclear cell infiltrates, consistent with a viral etiology. Hantavirus infection was diagnosed by ELISA in both cases and by RT-PCR in one of the patients. Aspects of the clinical presentation, physiopathology and differential diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome are discussed.Casos de hantavirose foram notificados em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (SP, Brasil, durante o primeiro semestre de 1998. Dois casos fatais de síndrome pulmonar ocorreram em maio de 1998 na Cidade de Guariba, localizada na Região Nordeste de SP. Ambos os pacientes trabalhavam no mesmo local, estocando milho em um paiol infestado de roedores. Estes pacientes, após 2 ou 3 dias de doença febril aguda inespecífica, desenvolveram uma grave pneumonia intersticial, que espalhou-se difusamente por ambos os pulmões causando insuficiência respiratória e óbito. À autópsia, ambos os casos apresentavam edema pulmonar intersticial com infiltrado de células mononucleares (imunoblastos sugestivo de etiologia viral. O diagnóstico laboratorial de hantavirose foi feito pela detecção de anticorpos específicos por ELISA, em ambos os casos e por detecção do genoma viral utilizando a RT-PCR, em um dos pacientes. Aspectos da apresentação clínica, da fisiopatologia e do diagnóstico diferencial desta síndrome pulmonar são discutidos no trabalho.

  15. 沈阳市围产保健口腔健康教育模式初探%Investigate the Model of Perinatal Women’s Oral Health Education in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪娇; 黄彦红; 李静; 栾虹; 李荔荔; 李妍

    2013-01-01

      To enhance the perinatal women’s oral health care and behavior in Shenyang, we designed a pattern of perinatal women’s oral health education. The oral health knowledge awareness, health behavior and oral health status of perinatal women were improved in Shenyang by the effective implementation of the model.%  为了增强沈阳地区围产妇女口腔保健意识和行为,设计“围产保健口腔健康教育模式”。通过该模式的有效实施,提高了沈阳市围产期妇女口腔知识的知晓率和影响口腔卫生行为的具有率,改善了口腔卫生状况。

  16. 沈阳地区红头阿扁叶蜂的研究初报%A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE SAWFLY,ACANTHOLYDA ERYTHROCEPHALA (HYMENOPTERA:PAMPHILIIDAE) IN SHENYANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂清

    2000-01-01

    Acantholyda erythrocephala, a kind of destructire insec t, is found recently in Shenyang, China. Its host tree is Pinus spp. especia lly Pinus tabulaeformis and P.densiflora. The injured branch, tip will b e withered or even died. The harmful period of the larvae is about one month. Th ere is one generation during a year in Shenyang area. Winter is passed as prepup ae by making earth cells in the soil at the depth of 0~10cm. It can be controll e d by many ways:set up closed forest; making conopy density be more than 0.7; dig ging out the forest soil in autumm, winter or early spring; cutting the larval n ests and burning up; spraying 10% pyrethrum at 8000x ditution to the early insta r larvae.

  17. Analysis of results in monitoring food-borne pathogens in Shenyang during the first part of 2011%沈阳市2011年上半年食源性致病菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连英姿; 安静; 侯元; 刘建敏; 王侠

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解沈阳市售食品中食源性致病菌污染状况及分布.方法:在全国食源性疾病监测网控制体系下,2011年上半年采集沈阳市6个监测点内的十大类市售食品共计102份,对其进行沙门菌、大肠杆菌O157:H7、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、副溶血性弧菌5种食源性致病菌的监测分析.结果:102份食品样品中,分离出目的菌6株,其中肠炎沙门菌1株,金黄色葡萄球菌3株,单核细胞增生李斯特菌2株,总检出率5.88%.结论:通过对沈阳市售食品中食源性致病菌主动监测,掌握食源性致病菌的污染状况,及时发现食品安全隐患,有效预防食源性疾病的发生.%Objective:To understand status and distribution of food - borne pathogen contamination in market - sold food in Shenyang. Methods; According to the instruction of national surveillance network on food - borne disease, 102 food samples were collected from marketplace in 6 monitoring sites during the first part of 2011, pathogens were detected and identified for the presence of Salmonella spp. ,Escherichia coli 0157 ;H7, Listeria Monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus. Results; Totally 6 pathogenic strains (5. 88% ) were identified in the 102 foods samples, including 1 salmonella isolate, 3 Staph-ylococcus aureus, 2 Listeria Monocytogenes. Conclution: Through active monitoring of food - borne pathogens, we can grasp the contamination status and adopt measures for potential safety hazard timely to prevent the food - borne disease effectively.

  18. 沈阳地铁二号线五里河车站围护结构设计%Design of Building Envelop of Wulihe Station of Line 2,Shenyang Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 马宁; 崔相奎

    2012-01-01

    Selection procedures of building envelop of Wulihe Station of Line 2,Shenyang Metro is introduced and key points in calculation of underground diaphragm wall are described emphatically.%介绍了沈阳地铁二号线五里河车站围护结构的选择过程,重点叙述地下连续墙的计算要点。

  19. Study on the cognitive characteristics of public aerobics in Shenyang fitness club%对沈阳市健身俱乐部大众健美操参与者认知特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 邹瑛莹

    2011-01-01

    By using the methods of documents and materials,questionnaire survey and logical analysis to research the Cognitive Characteristics of Shenyang Public Aerobics in three fitness clubs.%采用文献资料法、问卷调查法和逻辑分析法,对沈阳市三家健身俱乐部大众健美操参与者的认知行为特征进行研究。

  20. 沈阳市建设以装备制造业为特色的国家中心城市对策%Countermeasures of the construction of Shenyang as a national central city featured by equipment manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂林; 李文国

    2014-01-01

    沈阳是我国工业重镇,东北区域中心城市。继北京、上海、广州、天津、重庆进入国家中心城市之后,建设国家中心城市成为沈阳明确的战略目标。建设国家中心城市需要突出城市禀赋特色,明确城市定位。沈阳素称“共和国装备部”,正在加速建设世界级装备制造业基地。因此,沈阳建设国家中心城市应以装备制造业为主要特征,同时建设区域经济、交运、服务中心,建设东北宜居都市。%Shenyang is one of the most important industrial cities in China, which is the central city of the northeastern region of China. After Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Tianjin and Chongqing turning into the national central cities, Shenyang has made clear-cut strategic goal to become one of them. The construction of national central city needs to highlight the endowment characteristics and define the position of the city. Shenyang is known as the equipment department of the People’ s Republic of China, which is speeding up the construction of equipment manufacturing industry base of the world. As a result, to become a national central city, Shenyang needs to be based on equipment manufacturing industry as the main features, at the same time, and build itself into the regional economic, the transportation, and the service center of the Northeast China, also make itself the livable city in the northeast of China.

  1. Relationship between pet keeping and childhood asthma in Shenyang city%家养皮毛宠物与儿童哮喘关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苗苗; 王达; 任万辉; 高峰; 何钦成; 董光辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of pet keeping at home with childhood asthma. Methods Totally 6 278 children in 10 kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Shenyang city were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Information on respiratory health was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Results The prevalence of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, asthma, current asthma, current wheeze, and rhinitis were 9. 53% ,4. 49% ,6. 23% ,2. 42% ,5. 61% ,and 5. 27% Respectively. And the prevalence of asthma, current wheeze, and rhinitis in the boys were higher than those in the girls (P < 0. 05). Pet keeping in home was not associated with asthma and asthma related symptoms of the children,however,sleeping with pet significantly increased the prevalence of asthma (P<0. 05). Compared with the subjects without both family atopy history and pet exposure, the effect of family atopy history alone was significant in subjects without pet exposure,with an adjusted odds ratio(OR) of 3. 29(95% confidence interval [C/] ; 2. 55 -4.25). In the case of the presence of these two factors (both pet exposure and family atopy history) ,the adjusted OR of the asthma decreased to 2. 01(95% Cl-.1. 17 -3.43) ,and there was no significantly interactive effect of pet keeping and family atopy history of asthma and asthma related symptoms among the children. Conclusion Family atopy and pet exposure are the risk factors of asthma and asthma-related diseases in children. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms are positively associated with the level of pet exposure,however, there is no interactive effect between pet keeping in home and family atopy history of asthma among children.%目的 了解家养皮毛宠物与儿童哮喘的关系.方法 采用整群抽样方法,在沈阳市5个行政区内随机选取10所幼儿园和5所小学,采用国际统一标准问卷ATS调查表对所有学生进行呼吸系统疾病及症状调查.结果 沈阳市儿童持续咳

  2. 汉坦病毒群CODEHOP RT-PCR检测方法的建立%Development of CODEHOP RT-PCR to detect Hantavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡群; 马思杰; 王静; 倪红霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立一种能对汉坦病毒群进行快速检测的CODEHOP引物RT-PCR方法.方法 根据GenBank发表的不同汉坦病毒L基因组氨基酸序列,利用CODEHOP方法设计合成一对引物,经反应条件优化,建立快速检测汉坦病毒群所有病毒的方法,并通过对标准毒株的检测评价方法的灵敏度和特异性.结果 特异性试验结果显示,该方法可对汉坦病毒进行特异性扩增,目的片段大小和序列与预期结果相符,对汉坦病毒核酸的最小检出量为10 pg.结论 建立的CODEHOP RT-PCR方法的特异性强、灵敏度高,可用于汉坦病毒群的检测.%Objective To develop a rapid method of detecting Hantavirus by RT-PCR using consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOPs). Methods In accordance with the amino acid sequence of the L genome of different hantaviruses published in GenBank, a pair of primers was designed using CODEHOP. A rapid method of detecting all kinds of hantaviruses was developed by optimizing the reaction conditions, and the specificity and sensitivity of this technique was evaluated using standard virus strains. Results Specificity testing indicated that this technique amplified hantaviruses, and the size of the target fragments and the sequences coincided with the anticipated results. The minimum detection of hantavirus RNA was 10 pg. Conclusion A highly specific and sensitive technique for CODEHOP PCR was established, and this technique can be used to detect Hantavirus.

  3. 沈阳市6所大学篮球运动员运动损伤调查与分析%Investigation and analysis on sports injury of basketball players of 6 universities in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左琦

    2012-01-01

    采用问卷调查、文献资料、访谈、数理统计等研究方法,对沈阳市6所大学篮球运动员运动损伤产生原因进行调查分析。并针对沈阳市篮球运动员易损伤部位,提出预防运动损伤的可行性建议。%By using the methods of documents, questionnaire, investigation interview and statistics, this paper investigation and analysis on the causes of sports injury of basketball players of 6 universities in Shenyang. The research shows that the main causes of sports injury of basketball players of 6 universities in Shenyang are uneven and slippery ground, the low air temperature in winter, unreasonable technical movement. According to the easy injury location of basketball players in Shenyang, this research provides feasible suggestions which are the preventions of Sports Injury.

  4. Condiciones para la transmision del hantavirus en zona andina de Río negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Talmon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.

  5. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Karin B; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20-25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS.

  6. 汉坦病毒感染与β3整合素%Hantavirus infection and β3 integrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 白雪帆

    2010-01-01

    β3 integrin is one of a large family in cell-surface adhesion receptors, which can mediate cell-cell,cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and plays a key role in many virus infections. In this paper, the biological functions of the β3 integrin family are reviewed and the role in hantavirus infection is delineated.%β3整合素是分布于细胞膜表面的一类黏附分子,介导细胞与细胞、细胞与胞外基质的相互作用,并且参与了若干种病毒的感染过程.此文就近年来β3整合素研究的进展及其在汉坦病毒感染发病中的作用及机制作了综述.

  7. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos: relato de caso Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with multiple organ dysfunctions: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Spegiorin Moreno

    2007-12-01

    rates. The aim of this study is to report a case of HPS with multiple organ failure, managed with early goal-directed therapy guided by flow and tissue perfusion parameters. CASE REPORT: A 36 year-old male had fever with progressive dispnea, severe hypoxia and acute respiratory failure. Diffuse interstitial alveolar infiltrates were seen in the chest X-Ray. He developed multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (pulmonary, renal, coagulation, cardiovascular and metabolic. Treatment and invasive hemodynamic monitoring with pulmonary artery catheter was early instituted. The most important laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations, elevated liver enzymes, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and a positive sorology for Hantavirus (ELISA IgM positive. Organ dysfunctions reverted to normal and he was discharged after 21 days in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: An early and adequate resuscitation with goal-directed therapy enabled the reversion of the multiple organ failure syndromes and a favorable outcome, despite the severity of the disease.

  8. [Recombinant expression of hantaan virus protein N with application of Western-blot in detecting anti-hantavirus antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, P P; Xu, F; Sun, Y S; Yang, Z R; Zhang, Y; Yue, M; Zhu, H P

    2017-04-10

    Objective: S gene of hantavirus(HV) was expressed in insect cells by genetic engineering technology. The expression product of S gene was used as antigen to detect anti-HV specific antibody IgG in serum. Methods: Gene encoding NP of the strain HV-Z10 was amplified by PCR and then its eukaryotic expression system rBAC-Z10S-TN was constructed by using the routine genetic engineering method. SDS-PAGE was applied to measure the expression of rNP.Ion-exchange plus Ni-NTA-affinity chromatography was performed to purify the recombinant product. Indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA) was used to determine the specific immune-reactivity of rNP. WB assay was established to detect the serum samples from 95 confirmed HFRS patients. Parameters related to the outcomes of detection were compared with the routine HV-IgG IFA method. Results: rBAC-Z10S-TN was able to express rNP with high efficiency. The purified rNP only showed a single protein fragment in the gel after SDS-PAGE. HV IgG could efficiently recognize rNP and hybridize with the recombinant protein. 97.67% of the serum samples from the HFRS patients were positive confirmed by WB. Conclusions: We successfully constructed a high efficient prokaryotic expression system of NP encoding gene from hantavirus strain HV-Z10. WB assay which was established in this study could be used as a new serological test for HFRS diagnosis, thanks to the simplicity, safety, sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  9. [Optimization of ELISA and immunoblot methods for the detection of IgG antibodies against old world hantaviruses in wild rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ceylan; Karataş, Ahmet; Sözen, Mustafa; Matur, Ferhat; Abacıoğlu, Hakan; Öktem, Mehmet Ali

    2016-04-01

    Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of viral particles in infected rodents' secretions such as saliva, urine and faeces or via direct contact with infected rodents. The rodent species that are known as the carriers of Dobrava (DOBV), Puumala (PUUV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Tula (TULV) and Seoul (SEOV) viruses are found in our country. The presence of specific antibodies against hantaviruses have been demonstrated in rodents collected from Black Sea and Aegean Regions of Turkey in 2004 for the first time. The first hantavirus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases were reported in Black Sea region in 2009. The determination of the hantavirus prevalence in wild life and rodent populations in the field is crucial for the information about hantavirus-related cases and to clarify the state of risk. There is no commercial product optimized for the screening of rodent serum samples in terms of HFRS agents like DOBV and PUUV that are widely seen in Eurasia as well as Turkey. In this study, the antigens belonging to the commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immunoblot tests that are produced for the screening of human sera were used for the development of antibody screening tests against hantavirus in rodent sera and were optimized. The most appropriate serum and conjugate dilutions were determined for the optimization of ELISA (Anti-Hantavirus Pool ELISA; Euroimmun, Germany) and immunoblot (Euroline Anti-Hanta Profile 1 strips; Euroimmun, Germany) methods. Optimized ELISA method was used for the screening and optimized immunoblot method was used for the confirmation. A total of 84 wild rodent sera that belonged to Apodemus and Microtus species were evaluated with this procedure and the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of optimized ELISA method were determined. For the optimization of ELISA 1/50, 1/100 and 1/200 serum dilutions and 1/10.000, 1/20.000 and 1/40.000 conjugate dilutions were tested. For the optimization of immunoblot, 1

  10. Barn owl (Tyto alba predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magrini

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9% and Necromys lasiurus (6.7% being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  11. Reply to Comment Clement et al.: (Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We acknowledge Clement and colleagues for their comments [1] on our paper [2]. We agree that many controversies are being discussed by the hantavirus community, particularly surrounding the interpretation of serological results and the designation of new species and strains. Within this setting, we are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the key factual and methodological points raised by Clements et al. [...

  12. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events.

  13. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F., E-mail: sv.khaiboullina@gmail.com [Whittemore Peterson Institute, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Morzunov, Sergey P. [Department of Pathology and Nevada State Health Laboratory, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Boichuk, Sergei V. [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Palotás, András [Asklepios-Med (private medical practice and research center), Szeged (Hungary); Jeor, Stephen St. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Lombardi, Vincent C. [Whittemore Peterson Institute, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Rizvanov, Albert A. [Department of Genetics, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts.

  14. XTCAPP在沈阳机床的成功应用%The successful application of XTCAPP in Shenyang Machine Tool Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣

    2012-01-01

    This document generally illustrates that how the Shenyang Machine Tool Co. , Ltd. improves the production efficiency and the level of process management by operation a computer aided process planning software , integrating of public service information and realizing the CAD, PDM, CAPP data sharing. The document mainly introduces the achievement of the technology preparation process and the basis of data management by using the XTCAPP function module. The technical problems it solved during the implementation are also introduced. The operation of XTCAPP provides an integrated and networking technology design and management environment which improves the level of the information technology of the enterprise.%论述了沈阳机床实施XTCAPP计算机辅助工艺规划软件,整合企业的工艺信息,实现CAD、PDM、CAPP数据共享,来提高企业的生产效率和工艺管理水平.具体介绍了采用XTCAPP功能模块来实现工艺编制、工艺基础数据管理以及XTCAPP在实施过程中需要解决的技术问题.实施XTCAPP提供了一个集成化、网络化的工艺设计与管理环境,提高了企业信息化水平.

  15. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  16. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil from a Typical Contaminated Urban Coking Sites in Shenyang City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei; Zhang, Le; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Shuxian; Ji, Lan; Dan, Su

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the level of PAH pollution in typical contaminated coking sites in Shenyang. Sixty surface soil samples were collected from an area of 1.3 × 10(5) m(2) polluted by PAHs. The concentrations, sources and possible health risks of 16 PAHs in the area were analyzed. The average content of Σ16 PAHs was 6.1 × 10(3) mg/kg. In oral intake, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) presented the largest exposure risk (hazard quotient HQ = 1.17 × 10(-5)), followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DbA) (HQ = 1.14 × 10(-5)). The non-carcinogenic hazard indices and carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were arranged in the order of BaP > DbA > benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) > benz(a)anthracene (BaA) > indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) > benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) > chrysene (Chr). Bap and DbA were the principal pollution sources, followed by BbF, BaA, InP, BkF and Nap successively. Oral intake was the main route of PAH entry into the human body.

  17. Management of Rural Domestic Waste Collection and Transportation in Shenyang%沈阳市农村生活垃圾收运管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李季; 张云

    2012-01-01

    介绍了沈阳市农村生活垃圾收运及处理设施现状,分析了收运体系存在的问题,提出应尽快颁布实施农村生活垃圾管理条例,推进农村环卫体制建设以形成市、县、乡、村完善的管理体系,加强农民环保意识普及力度,推进农村生活垃圾处理科技创新,提高农村生活垃圾资源化利用效率等建议.%The status of collection,transportation and treatment facilities for rural domestic waste in Shenyang were introduced.Existing problems in waste collection and transportation system were analyzed.And some suggestions were put forward,that is,promulgating management regulations of rural domestic waste as quickly as possible,promoting the construction of rural environmental sanitation system to form the perfect management system of city,county,town and village,strengthening the popularization of rural environmental awareness,promoting technological innovation of rural domestic waste treatment,improving utilization efficiency of rural domestic waste reclamation,and so on.

  18. Shenyang railway passenger transportation marketing strategy research%沈阳铁路局客运营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越

    2015-01-01

    Shenyang railway station is located in the mid-south part of northeast road network, in the northeast economic development plays a very important role, in the past quite a long time the main passenger and cargo transportation in the northeast area is mainly performed by railway transportation. In recent years, railway and highway, aviation of the increasingly fierce competition, put forward on the basis of the theory of marketing, optimize the railway marketing strategy, for the railway passenger transport market share.%沈阳铁路局位于东北路网的中南部,在东北经济建设中发挥着非常重要的作用,在过去相当长的一段时间内东北地区的主要客货运输主要由铁路运输完成.近几年铁路与公路、航空的竞争日益激烈,提出运用市场营销理论,优化铁路营销策略策略,争夺铁路客运市场份额.

  19. HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME IN THE PROVINCE OF RIO NEGRO, ARGENTINA, 1993-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo CANTONI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Early in 1995 the first case of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome was serologically confirmed in El Bolsón (Province of Río Negro, Argentina, corresponding to the third outbreak reported in Argentina. A total of 26 cases of HPS related to the Andean region of Rio Negro Province, were reported from 1993 to 1996, 17 in El Bolsón, 4 in San Carlos de Bariloche, and 5 in Buenos Aires. The incidence rate was 5.03 x 100000 with a mortality rate of 51.85 x 100. The occurrence of cases was mainly seasonal, with a significantly greater number in the spring, and the persons affected mainly lived in urban or periurban areas. In four cases, the affected individuals were members of a couple, spouses or live-in contacts. Seven cases were Health workers (physicians, nurses or administrative staff. Twelve cases were related among them, due to an outbreak of 80 days. Two of them did not visit the Andean region. A total of 139 rodents were captured and seven of them, Olygoryzomys longicaudatus, were found to be serologically positive. The possibility of infection by contact with rodents or fecal matter is being analyzed and also hypothesis related with interhuman transmissionEm 1995, o primeiro caso de Síndrome Pulmonar pelo Hantavírus (HPS foi sorologicamente confirmado em El Bolsón (Província de Rio Negro, Argentina, correspondendo ao terceiro surto relatado na Argentina. Um total de 26 casos de HPS relacionados com a região Andina, Província de Rio Negro, foram relatados de 1993 a 1996, 17 em El Bolsón, 4 em São Carlos de Bariloche e 5 em Buenos Aires. O índice de incidência foi de 5,03 x 100.000 com índice de mortalidade de 51,85 x 100. A ocorrência de casos foi principalmente sasonal, com números significativamente maiores na primavera, e as pessoas afetadas viviam principalmente nas áreas urbanas e periurbanas. Em 4 casos, os indivíduos afetados eram membros de um casal, esposas ou viviam em contato. Sete casos eram trabalhadores da Saúde (m

  20. Research on Effects upon Physical Activity of the Elderly by Successful Bid for the National Games in Shenyang City%全运会成功申办对沈阳市老年人体育活动影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱坤

    2011-01-01

    随着辽宁省成功申办12届全运会,一股体育热潮席卷辽宁省,作为主要承办地点的沈阳,深受全运热潮的影响。本文主要论述了全运会落户沈阳对老年人体育活动的影响,希望为沈阳老年人体育活动的发展提供一些借鉴。%With the successful bid for 12th National Games by Liaoning province,there is a sports craze in Liaoning province.As the main contractor site,Shenyang is also affected.This thesis studies on the effects upon physical activity of the elderly by National Games in Shenyang.We hope to provide some reference to the development of physical activity of the elderly in Shenyang.

  1. 肾综合征出血热和汉坦病毒肺综合征研究进展%Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪帆; 王平忠

    2011-01-01

    肾综合征出血热(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS)和汉坦病毒肺综合征(hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,HPS)均是由汉坦病毒属病毒(hantaviruses)引起的急性传染病.HFRS的病原体——汉滩病毒(Hantaan virus,HTNV)、汉城病毒(SEOV)、普马拉病毒(PUUV)和多布拉伐病毒(DOBV)等主要分布于有着几千年文明历史的欧亚大陆,国际上称为旧世界汉坦病毒(hantavirus in old world);

  2. [Climate changes and emerging diseases. What new infectious diseases and health problem can be expected?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, K; Niedrig, M; Biederbick, W; Merkert, H; Hacker, J

    2009-07-01

    Increasing temperatures, but also other climatic factors, will have an impact on human health. Apart from the direct consequences of extreme weather conditions (e.g., heat-related fatalities), indirect health consequences in the long-term are also of great importance. In addition to a likely increase in allergic diseases and additional complications in the course of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infectious diseases are of particular interest. In Germany, endemic pathogens, such as hantavirus (with its reservoir in small rodents), tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus), and certain food- and water-borne pathogens, are of concern. Mild winters favor rodent populations and may result in hantavirus epidemics in the subsequent summer period. Statistical analyses show a significant association between temperature and campylobacter incidence in Germany. An outbreak of rodent-borne leptospirosis among strawberry harvesters enhanced by heavy rainfalls illustrates how weather conditions may influence disease occurrence. Pathogens that are non-endemic in Germany but are imported by humans, vectors, and reservoir animals pose an additional risk to the population. Increasing temperatures improve the conditions for establishment of new vectors and for autochthonous transmission of some pathogens (e.g., chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, malaria, or leishmaniasis). Climatic and ecologic conditions in Germany currently do not favor autochthonous outbreaks for most of these pathogens. However, if temperatures increase, as expected, such outbreaks will become more likely. Germany should enhance its research in public health activities in the field of climate change and infectious diseases.

  3. 沈阳市老年人广场舞扰民问题的调查研究%An analysis on the city elderly square dance disturbing residents in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚连涛

    2016-01-01

    By focusing on the connection of the“aging”and“square dancing”in Shenyang, this article analyzes the status quo of square dance in place, time, self-awareness and action; and discusses how the square dance could effectively develop to be rational, health, and happy.%以广场舞开展的地点、时间、自我意识等相关情况入手,探讨如何使老年人广场健身操能有效地开展,做到理性广场舞、健康广场舞、快乐广场舞。

  4. [Cooperative relations between non-cropped habitats and soil animals in suburban farmland Landscape: A case in Shenbei New District in Shenyang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhen-xing; Yu, Zhen-rong; Wang, Qiu-bing; Li, Jin-hong

    2015-12-01

    Non-cropped habitat in farm landscape plays a significant role in biodiversity, the functions of arable land and crop yields. This study focused on Shenbei New District in Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in Northeast China, which was a typical area with contradiction between biodiversity conservation and the high demand of agricultural production in the process of urbanization. Information entropy model, hand-picking and Baermann method were used for survey and identification of arthropods and nematodes in soils in urban suburban (US), urban fringe area (UFA) and rural area ( RA). The cooperative relations between the number of soil animals and types, structure as well as the total amount of non-cropped habitat were investigated in these three types of areas using linear regression. Our results showed that the area of single patch in non-cropped habitat was smaller than one hectare in Shenbei New District, and the types and the proportion of non-cropped habitat patches were increasing along with the increase of their distance to the urban center. But the proportion of non-cropped habitats areas appeared under an inverted U-type change. The proportion of non-cropped habitat patches was from 8.6% to 27.8%. The individual number of soil animals showed the U-type trend, while their species number changed irregularly. The individual number of soil animals increased with the increase of the proportion of non-cropped habitat patches in RA and US. There was no obvious correlation between the individual number of soil animal and the proportion of non-cropped habitat patches in UFA. The individual number of soil animals decreased with the increase of the proportion of non-cropped habitats areas. There was no cooperative relation in the proportion of non-cropped habitats and the number of soil animal species.

  5. 沈阳市食用油消费意识现状与分析%Consumption awareness status and analysis of edible oil in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金星; 徐方旭; 匡立学; 冯叙桥

    2012-01-01

    The consumption situation of edible oil in Shenyang was investigated and analyzed by questionnaire survey of randomly selected 320 consumers. The results showed that the main consumption types of edible oil were soybean oil, blend oil and peanut oil; that brand, nutritional value and whether raw - material was GMO were the major factors influencing the comsumers' choices when purchasing, and that source of nutrition knowledge of edible oils was mainly through TV advertisements and from friends. The results indicated that consumers were lack of fundamental knowledge, and lable understanding of edible oils. It was suggested that it was of great significance for the healthier development of edible oil industry to intensify the propagation of basic knowledge about edible oils for the consumers to form right consumption awareness.%对沈阳市320名食用油消费者食用油消费意识、食用油相关知识及标签认知状况进行了调查研究.调查结果表明,沈阳市消费者消费的主要食用油种类依次是大豆油、调和油、花生油,选择食用油时考虑的主要因素有品牌、营养价值和是否转基因,消费者有关食用油营养知识的来源途径主要是电视广告和朋友介绍.总体来说,消费者的食用油基础知识缺乏,对标签的认知度不高.因此,加大食用油相关知识的宣传力度,提高消费者正确的消费意识,对食用油产业的发展有着重要的意义.

  6. Internet-Based Sex-Seeking Behavior Promotes HIV Infection Risk: A 6-Year Serial Cross-Sectional Survey to MSM in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence is still rapidly increasing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM. The Internet also makes it easier for MSM to have casual partners. This study aims to evaluate the trend of Internet-based sex-seeking behavior of MSM and its impact on HIV prevalence, the distribution of HIV subtype strains, and transmitted drug resistance rates. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2014. Of the 1,981 MSM, 50.5% (1,000/1,981 mainly sought homosexual partners through the Internet (Internet-based MSM, IBM. The proportion of IBM among total MSM subjects increased from 43.3% to 61.5% (p<0.001. HIV prevalence of IBM increased from 5.7% to 20.7%, while that of non-Internet-based MSM (NIBM increased from 7.0% to 14.7%. A relative higher proportion of NIBM were infected with HIV CRF01_AE subtype than IBM (79.5% versus 72.2%, p=0.52. Multivariable analysis found IBM had a significantly higher HIV prevalence than NIBM (13.2% versus 10.5%, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.0–1.9]. Being a migrant non-Shenyang resident MSM (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.3–2.9] and occasionally/never using condoms with casual homosexual partners (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI [1.1–2.6] were two distinct risk factors for HIV infection in IBM. More efforts should be targeted towards developing interventions aimed at IBM, particularly migrant MSM and who engage in UAI with casual homosexual partners.

  7. 沈阳市健身俱乐部发展现状分析%Study on the Development Prospect of Fitness Clubs in Shenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖敏

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,literature,questionnaire,expert interview,mathematical statistic method of fitness clubs in Shenyang city were investigated,analyzed the present situation of fitness club,fitness club,the basic situation of the fitness club coach,member of the basic situation,people needs exercise consciousness of sports,fitness club,peo-ple's demand for market positioning the sports space club,but forward the development countermeasures of fitness club.The larger development space club,but the club still exists some problems,in view of the current situation and put forward suggestions.%通过文献资料、问卷调查、专家访谈、数理统计方法对沈阳市健身俱乐部进行了调查,分析健身俱乐部目前的现状、健身俱乐部基本情况、健身俱乐部教练的情况、会员基本情况、人们对体育锻炼需求意识、健身俱乐部的市场定位,群众对体育健身的需求,并提出健身俱乐部的发展对策。俱乐部的发展空间较大,但是俱乐部还存在一定的问题,针对目前的状况提出建议和意见。

  8. Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus during a complete population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Razzauti

    Full Text Available Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3% were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1 nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2 the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3 some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4 frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious and new transient variants are continually generated; 5 reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6 prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7 reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes.

  9. Investigation and Evaluation of Environmental Protection Consciousness of University Students in Shenyang City%沈阳市大学生环保意识调查与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英升; 刘智勋; 韩彬

    2011-01-01

    In ordr to understand the current environmental protection consciousness of non--environmentmajor university students, this paper takes samples of university students from some universities in Shenyang,and tests their environmental consciousness by questionnaire. The paper analyses the data from questionnaires by means of AHP(Analytieal Hierarchy Process) and comprehensive evaluation function. The result shows that Shenyang college students' awareness of environmental protection is strong.%为了解目前沈阳市非环境专业大学生环保意识情况,确定今后环境保护宣传教育的重点和方向,于2011年5月对沈阳市5所高校非环境专业的学生,以调查问卷的形式进行了环保意识抽样调查,并采用层次分析法和综合评判函数对调查问卷反馈的信息进行了统计分析,其结果表明:沈阳市大学生的环保意识较强。

  10. Fire Prevention System of New Procurement Vehicles for Shenyang Metro Line 1%沈阳地铁1号线增购车辆防火系统简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南景宏; 刘锡顺; 朱姝媛; 杨延龙

    2016-01-01

    A complete fire protection and control system in metro vehicle is vital to reduce injuries, fatalities and damage to property caused by metro fires. The new vehicles on Shenyang metro line 1 have fire detection system and fire extinguishing system. The paper briefl y introduces the on-board fi re protection and control system confi guration, technical characteristics and electrical control principle of Shenyang metro line 1, providing references to other metros for installation of such fire protection and control system in metro vehicles in China.%地铁防火系统的完善对减少地铁火灾造成的人员伤亡和财产损失至关重要。沈阳地铁1号线增购车辆是国内首个兼具火灾探测系统和灭火系统的地铁车辆,文章对其防火系统的组成、技术特点及电气控制方案进行了简析,以期为国内其他地铁车辆安装该系统提供参考和借鉴。

  11. 沈阳市和平区幼儿园儿童健康状况%Health condition of children in the kindergartens of Heping District in Shenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璠; 孙铭

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the growth status and prevalence rate among children in the kindergartens of Heping District in Shenyang City,provide a basis for coping with the changes of health condition of children,find out the emphasis of child health care and improving the level of child health care.[Methods] The health examination data and child health care reports in kindergartens from 2007-2011 were analyzed.The prevalence rate of obesity,audition,malnutrition and other common childhood diseases were described,and the trend changes were compared.[Results] The prevalence of obesity in children under 5 years old increased from 4.08% to 5.84%,which showed a rising trend (x2 =16.95,P < 0.05).The prevalence of malnutrition was instability,but it had been controlled at a low level The prevalence of diarrhea increased,and that reached 1.26% in 2011,which significantly higher than that in past yeas.The prevalence of anemia among children under 7 years old had the characteristics of instability.The prevalence of saprodontia,myopia and rickets decreased obviously,and that was respectively 26.84%,5.20% and 0.04% in 2011.The prevalence of hearing impairment was low.[Conclusion] It is necessary to pay great attention to the prevention and control of obesity in the child health care in kindergarten.The prevention of malnutrition,anemia and diarrhea should be further strengthened,and the hearing screening needs to be improved.%目的 了解沈阳市和平区幼儿园儿童生长发育以及患病情况,为应对儿童健康状况变化、明确儿童保健工作重点、提高儿童保健水平提供依据.方法 对2007-2011年幼儿园儿童健康检查资料及园所儿童卫生保健报表数据进行统计分析.描述肥胖、营养不良以及其他儿童常见病、听力障碍的患病情况,比较其时间变化趋势.结果 幼儿园5岁以下儿童的肥胖率由4.08%增高至5.84%,总体呈上升趋势(x2=16.95,P<0.05);营养不良率有一

  12. Dobrava-Belgrade virus: phylogeny, epidemiology, disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is an Old World hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. With a case fatality rate up to 12%, DOBV infection is the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. The virus was initially identified in the Balkans, but the discovery of new endemic foci have expanded its recognized geographic range. The recent description of novel genetic variants with different degrees of pathogenicity have complicated its taxonomic analysis. The original rodent host of DOBV is Apodemus flavicollis, however additional Apodemus species, such Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus ponticus, have been found to serve as hosts of the various DOBV genotypes. The complex evolution and genetic diversity of the virus are still under investigation. The present review aims to provide an update on the phylogeny of DOBV and the epidemiology of infection in rodents and humans; to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease; to present current knowledge about laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; discuss the current state of the art in antiviral drug and vaccine development.

  13. Hantavirus infection induces apoptosis in Vero E6cells via mitochondria pathway%汉坦病毒通过线粒体途径诱导Vero E6细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏飞; 于建武; 刘伟; 颜炳柱; 孙丽杰; 康鹏; 赵勇华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the apoptosis of Vero E6 cells infected with hantavirus. Methods N protein of hantavirus was detected in the lysates of Vero E6 cells infected with hantavirus by Western blot. The apoptosis of Vero E6 cells induced by hantavirus was detected by flow cytometry and DNA-ladder assays. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Cyt-c and activated Caspase-3 were assessed by Western blot. Results Hantavirus N protein was found in cell ly sates following hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells by western blot. DNA electrophoresis showed typical DNA laddering and apoptosis peak was detected by flow cytometry. The expres sion levels of Cyt-c and activated Caspase-3 were increased while Bcl-2 decreased as the infec tion sustained. Conclusion Hantavirus infection induces apoptosis in Vero E6 cells via mito chondria pathway.%目的 探讨汉坦病毒诱导非洲绿猴肾细胞Vero E6凋亡的机制.方法 汉坦病毒感染VeroE6细胞后应用Western blot检测胞浆内汉坦病毒核心蛋白(N蛋白)的表达情况,应用DNA-ladder和流式细胞术检测汉坦病毒感染Veto E6细胞诱导凋亡的发生,用Western blot方法检测凋亡相关蛋白Bcl -2、Cyt-c及Caspase-3的表达情况.结果 汉坦病毒感染Vero E6细胞后,在胞浆内检测出汉坦病毒N蛋白.流式细胞仪检测到凋亡峰,DNA电泳可见典型的DNA梯带.Western blot显示随着感染时间的延长,Cyt-c蛋白及Caspase-3酶原活化片段表达增加,Bcl-2蛋白表达减少.结论 汉坦病毒通过线粒体途径诱导Vero E6细胞凋亡.

  14. 沈阳地区妊娠妇女贫血的流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on anemia in pregnant women in Shenyang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 李静; 董爽

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate and understand the current situation and influencing factors of anemia in pregnant women in Shenyang city. Methods: A total of 3 200 pregnant women from the hospital were selected, and the status of anemia was analyzed retrospectively. Results; The total incidence of anemia in pregnant women was 21. 63% , there was statistically significant difference in the incidence of anemia among the pregnant women during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy (P <0. 01) . There was statistically significant difference in the incidence of anemia among the pregnant women with different occupations, educational levels, economic situations, and distributions ( P < 0. 01) . Conclusion: Anemia during gestational period is a very severe public health, blood routine test should be conducted regularly during the second and third trimesters pf pregnancy, gestational health propaganda and education should be enhanced, it is necessary to direct gestational diet scientifically, improve the cognitive level of pregnant women, supplement chalybeate conventionally on the fourth month during pregnant period, reexamine blood routine test during the third trimester of pregnancy, and achieve early diagnosis and early treatment.%目的:调查了解沈阳地区孕妇妊娠合并贫血的现状及影响因素.方法:选择沈阳地区于沈阳市妇女儿童保健中心就诊的孕妇3 200名,对其贫血状况进行回顾性分析.结果:孕妇贫血总患病率为21.63%,孕早、中、晚期患病率之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).孕期职业、学历、经济状况、地区分布的不同其妊娠合并贫血的患病率也不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:孕期贫血是一个非常严重的公共卫生问题,应定期于孕中期及晚期复查血常规,加强孕期保健宣教工作,科学指导孕期饮食、提高孕妇认识水平,于妊娠期4个月起常规补充铁剂,于孕晚期复查血常规,做到早期诊断,早期治疗.

  15. Study on human embryonic kidney 293 cell infected by hantavirus and its mechanism inducing apoptosis%汉坦病毒感染人胚肾细胞诱导凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 王晓燕; 刘伟; 康鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨汉坦病毒在人胚肾细胞(HEK-293)内的增殖及诱导凋亡的机制.方法 采用间接免疫荧光法检测HEK-293内汉坦病毒抗原,用westen blot方法测定汉坦病毒作用后bcl-2、bax、Cyt-c及caspase-3的表达.结果 汉坦病毒感染细胞后用间接免疫荧光法可在感染的HEK-293胞浆内检测出汉坦病毒抗原;Western blotting结果显示,随着汉坦病毒浓度增加,Bcl-2蛋白表达降低,Bax蛋白表达上调,Cyt-c蛋白及caspase-3酶原活化片段表达升高.结论 汉坦病毒可感染HEK-293细胞并在其体内增殖,可能通过线粒体途径诱导HEK-293细胞发生凋亡.%OBJECTIVE To study the possible mechanism of hantavirus in proliferating and inducing apoptosis in human embryonic kidney 293 cell. METHODS Hantavirus antigen in human embryonic kidney 293 cell were demonstrated by an indirectimmunofluorescent assay. The expression of bcl-2, bax. Cyt-c and caspase-3 was assessed by western blot. RESULTS Hantavirus antigens were detected in the cytoplasm of infected HEK-293 by indirectimmunofluorescent. The expression of bcl-2 decreased with the expression of bax, Cyt-c and caspase-3 activation increased when hantavirus concentration rose. CONCLUSION HEK-293 is easily infected by hantavirus which can proliferates in infected HEK-293 and induce apoptosis by mitochondrial-mediated manner.

  16. Estudio de Hantavirus seoul en una población humana y de roedores en un asentamiento precario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seijo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico transversal para determinar la circulación de Hantavirus seoul, de distribución mundial y asociado con fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal (FHSR, en una población humana (n: 106 de un asentamiento precario de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y en una población de Rattus norvegicus, (n: 29 capturados en el peridomicilio. Se estudiaron además 35 personas, con igual relación epidemiológica, que eran asistidas por hipertensión arterial. La seroprevalencia de anticuerpos antihantavirus en los roedores fue del 31% mientras que no se encontraron indicios serológicos de infección en los humanos.A sero-epidemiological survey was conducted to detect evidence of the circulation of Hantavirus seoul. This virus of worldwide distribution is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. A total of 106 samples from people who live in a marginal area in Buenos Aires City and 29 Rattus norvegicus captured in the surroundings of their houses were tested for specific antibodies. Thirty five samples from hypertensive patients undergoing a follow up health program, living in the same neighbourhood, were also tested. The antibody prevalence in rodents was 31% while no evidence of infection was found in the human samples.

  17. 中国汉坦病毒基因型及分布%Distribution and gene-typing of Hantaviruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 张云智

    2011-01-01

    汉坦病毒(Harntavirus,HV)属于布尼亚病毒科(Bunyaviridae)汉坦病毒属(genus hantavirus).HV是人类疾病的重要病原体,人类感染HV后主要导致2种严重疾病,即肾综合征出血热(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS)和汉坦病毒肺综合征(hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,HPS).近几年HV的研究进展较快,世界HV分布区不断扩大,新型或新亚型病毒不断被发现,目前HV至少可分为40个血清型/基因型,并证实至少有22个型的HV可引起人类疾病,其中7个型引起HFRS,15个型引起HPS,尚有10多个型HV与人类疾病关系还不太清楚[1-2].

  18. 沈阳市精神科护士睡眠质量状况调查%Sleep Quality in Psychiatric Nurses in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海春; 张昌; 王春丽; 王雪红

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To study the sleep quality of three psychiatric hospitals'nurses in Shenyang and analyze the factors which affect the sleep quality ,and propose appropriate measures to improre the sleep quality of nurses ,which can promote physical and mental health .Methods :The study adopted the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index Scale(PSQI) and self - made general quedtionnaire to 255 nurses in three psychiatric hospitals of Shenyang as the research object , using cluster sampling method to collect and analyze the data by statistics .Results :There were 88 people who got more 7 points in the PSQI total scores and the average points was (7 .86 ± 3 .613) .The scores of shift nurses on day‐time dysfunction ,PSQI ,falling asleep time ,sleep time ,the using of sleep medicine were more than the day shift nur‐ses in psychiatry department ,the difference was statistically significant (F = 2 .514 ,3 .945 ,5 .422 ,3 .893 ,3 .132 ;P <0 .05) .The scores of the older nurses on sleep disorder ,PSQI ,falling asleep time ,the using of sleep medicine were more than the young nurses ,the difference was statistically significant (F = 2 .489 ,2 .942 ,2 .962 ,3 .067 ;P < 0 .05) . Conclusion :The overall sleep quality of clinical nurses is poor .Effective measures should be taken to intervene in or‐der to raise the level of their physical and mental health .%目的:研究沈阳市精神卫生专科医院护士睡眠质量的状况,分析影响其睡眠质量的因素,提出相应对策,从而提高护士的睡眠质量,促进身心健康。方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)及自编的一般情况调查表,以沈阳市3所精神卫生专科医院255名在职护士为研究对象,进行问卷调查,资料收集,并进行统计分析。结果:PSQI 总分>7分者,共88人(34.51%),PSQI 平均得分(7.85±3.613),与常模比较差异显著(t =6.96,P <0.01);不同岗位精神科护士白天功能障碍项目

  19. Analysis of the genotyping of hantavirus in Qingdao%青岛地区肾综合征出血热病毒基因分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程茂玲; 乔刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the epidemic circumstance and investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and genotyping of hantavirus in Qingdao area of Shandong Province.Methods The 64 serum samples were collected from patients of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome( HFRS), and the virus RNA was extracted as pattern.According to the hantavirus gene sequence of GenBank, HTN and SEO universal primers were designed as outer primers, and HTN and SEO specific primers as inner primers.G1 gene sequence of M fragment from hantavirus genome was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analyzed.DNA Star software was used to analyze nucleic acid sequence.Results Six (9%) cases were positive with HTN specific primer, and 25 (39%)cases were positive with SEO specific primer.The total positive rate was 48%.SEO type was prevalent in hantavirus epidemiology in Qingdao.The variation of the nucleotide sequences among SEO type ( nucleotide sequence divergence ranging from 0.3% -8.9% ) was lower than that among HTN type ( nucleotide sequence divergence ranging from 2.6% -11.2% ).Conclusions Most isolates of hantavirus are SEO type, while HTN type exists also in Qingdan.Most HTN isolates are detected at Jiaonan area.%目的 调查青岛地区肾综合征出血热病毒的流行情况,研究病毒在该地区的分子流行病学特征及基因分型.方法 采集64例肾综合征出血热(HFRS)急性期患者血清标本,提取血清中病毒RNA作为模板.根据GenBank中汉坦病毒基因序列,设计HTN型和SEO型的通用外套引物,同时分别设计HTN型特异性引物和SEO型的特异性引物作为内套引物.采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)扩增汉坦病毒基因组M片段G1区基因序列并测序.测序结果利用DNA Star软件进行核苷酸序列分析.结果 在64例标本中用HTN型特异性引物扩增阳性6例,占9%;用SEO型特异性引物扩增阳性25例,占39%;总阳性率为48%.总体来

  20. 10.7.Congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930270 Clinical analysis of rupture of aorticsinus aneurysm in 30 cases.ZHANG Yuwei (张玉威),et al.Instit Cardiovasc Dis,Dept Med,Shenyang Milit General Hosp,PLA.Chin Cir J1993;8(1):30—31.Rupture of aortic sinus aneurysm is a rarecongenital heart disease.It is sometimes misdi-agnosed and treated because of no typical symp-toms and signs.30 cases with rupture of a-neurysm of aortic sinus were studied.Clinicaldata suggested that the disease could be firstlynoticed when the healthy male aged 20~40years developed suddenly chest pain or extreme-ly uncomfortable feeling with gradually increas-ing heart dysfunction low—frequency harsh andsuperficial continuous precordial murmurs.Chest X-ray exhibited enlargement of heartand asymmetry of pulmonary plethora.ECG

  1. 莠去津在沈阳地区土壤中的残留动态分析%Analysis of Atrazine Residue Dynamic in the Soil in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素娜; 高增贵; 孙艳秋; 刘限; 李婉莹

    2014-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法对莠去津在沈阳市和新民市土壤中的消解动态进行了研究。结果表明:在添加浓度为0.05~0.5 mg/kg时,莠去津在土壤中的回收率为87.35%~120.12%,相对标准偏差为3.32%~7.03%,满足农药残留分析要求。莠去津在沈阳市和新民市土壤中的消解动态均符合一级降解动力学方程。莠去津在沈阳市土壤中的半衰期为15.61~16.27 d,在新民市土壤中的半衰期为14.65~15.34 d,两者消解速率相近。莠去津在土壤中的最终残留量为未检出,说明该农药为低残留、易消解农药。建议田间使用38%莠去津悬浮剂防治玉米田杂草时,有效成分用量不高于3377 g/hm2,于玉米播后苗前施药1次。%A HPLC method was established for determining the residue and the degradation of atrazine in Shenyang and Xinmin. The results showed that the fortified recoveries of atrazine were 87.35%-120.12%at the spiking levels of 0.05-0.5 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations of 3.32%-7.03%. The method met the requirements of residue analysis. The degradation of atrazine in soil conformed to the first-order kinetic equation, and the half-lives of atrazine were 15.61-16.27 d and 14.65-15.34 d in Shenyang and Xinmin, respectively. The rates of degradation in soil in Shenyang and Xinmin were similar. The final residues of atrazine in soil were not detected. Atrazine 38%SC could be used to control weed in corn field with the maximum active ingredient dosages of 3 377 g/hm2.

  2. Analysis on HIV/AIDS Epidemic Situation in Shenyang City from 1991 to 2009%沈阳市1991-2009年艾滋病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符文华; 白杉; 张吉慧; 苏孟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the epidemic characteristics of HIV/AIDS in Shenyang city, predict its trend, so as to provide scientific basis for making control countermeasures. [ Methods] Using data of HIV/AIDS epidemic report, HIV/AIDS epidemic situation in Shenyang city from 1991 to 2009 was analyzed. [Results]By the end of 2009, 1052 HIV/AIDS cases were reported, which included 933 male cases and 119 female cases. Most of cases were people aged 20 ~49 years old (82.7%). Population distribution: HIV was transmitted from exotic infected person to high-risk population before 1997, but HIV has spread to every population in the recent years. The major transmission ways was changed from blood transmission to sexual transmission, and the sexual transmission accounted for 59.9% in 2009. The same-sex transmission was two times more than blood transmission, and blood transmission accounted for 15.9%. [ Conclusion] The HIV/AIDS epidemic situation spreads rapidly in Shenyang city. More and more HIV/AIDS cases would occur by sexual transmission. It is necessary to carry out effective measures to control HIV/AIDS epidemic.%目的 分析沈阳市艾滋病流行特征并预测其流行趋势,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 利用艾滋病疫情报告数据,分析沈阳市1991-2009年的艾滋病疫情.结果 至2009年底,共发现HIV/AIDS 1 052例,男933例,女119例;20~49岁年龄组报告的例数最多,占82.7%.人群分布:1997年前HIV传播是从外来输入到高危人群,近几年则扩展到各人群,并从以血液传播为主转变成以性传播为主,到2009年经性传播占59.9%,同性传播是异性传播的2倍,血液传播占15.9%.结论 沈阳市近年来艾滋病疫情发展迅速,经性传播引起的HIV/AIDS将越来越多,需采取有效措施,遏制艾滋病的蔓延.

  3. Study on Industrial Heritage Reuse Model of Path Dependence and Breakthrough around Shenyang City%沈阳工业遗产再利用模式的路径依赖与突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米煜婷; 范晓君

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, by using the method of questionnaire survey and ifeld interviews to stu dy the Path dependence of the pattern of industrial heritage reuse in Shenyang and the breakthro ugh. We found that the industrial heritage has its own distinctiveness different from other cultura l heritage. In the process of the development of the pattern of industrial heritage reuse in Shenya ng exits some problems such as the dependence of cognitive, the dependence of system, economi c dependence and locking problems. Therefore, Shenyang should draw lessons from the successf ul experience of the pattern of domestic and foreign industrial heritage industrial heritage reuse o f Shenyang, to create a consistent with the actual situation of the local pattern of industrial herita ge reuse. At the same time, we should strengthen the research on industrial heritage value, the est ablishment of a database, overall coordination and effective mechanism, broaden the sources of f unding and break through the industrial heritage features.%本文通过问卷调查和实地访谈的方法,研究了沈阳工业遗产再利用模式的路径依赖与突破,发现工业遗产自身具有不同于其他文化遗产的特殊性.本文认为,沈阳在工业遗产再利用开发中存在认知性依赖、制度依赖、经济依赖及锁定等问题.因此,沈阳应在借鉴国内外工业遗产再利用模式成功经验的基础上,创建符合本地实际情况的工业遗产再利用模式.同时,要加强工业遗产价值研究、建立数据库、统筹协调有效机制、拓宽资金来源以及突破工业遗产自身特点等.

  4. 2005-2011年沈阳市大东区猩红热流行特征%Epidemiological features of scarlet fever in Dadong District of Shenyang City from 2005-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑛; 唐景春

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the incidence trend and epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Dadong District of Shenyang City, provide scientific basis for developing the control program of scarlet fever and evaluating the implementation effect. [Methods]The epidemic data of scarlet fever in Dadong District of Shenyang City from 2005 to 2011 were analyzed descriptively. [ Results] A total of 1 767 scarlet fever cases were reported in Dadong District of Shenyang City from 2005 to 2011, the average annual incidence rate was 37. 68/lakh, and the ratio of male-to-female was 1.46: 1 (P < 0. 01). The incidence rate in 0- 4 year-old age group was 258. 86/lakh, while that in 5-9 year-old age group, 10-14 year-old age group and over 15 year-old age group was 706.45/lakh, 106.58/lakh and 1.57/lakh, respectively. Students accounted for 38. 94% of total cases, kindergarten children and scattered children respectively accounted for 37. 80% and 20.03% . The cases reported in May to June and November to December accounted for 27.56% and 23.09% of the total cases respectively. [ Conclusion] The average incidence rate of scarlet fever is high in Dadong District of Shenyang City during 2005-2011. Students, kindergarten children and scattered children are the high-risk population, while the prevention and control should be strengthened.%目的 掌握沈阳市大东区猩红热发病水平及流行特征,为制定猩红热防治规划及评价实施效果提供准确依据.方法 对沈阳市大东区2005-2011年猩红热疫情资料进行描述性分析.结果 2005-2011年沈阳市大东区累计报告猩红热1 767例,年均发病率为37.68/10万,男女性别比为1.46:1 (P<0.01);0~4岁发病率为258.86/10万,5~9岁为706.45/10万,10~ 14岁106.58/10万,≥15岁为1.57/10万;学生发病占38.94%,幼托儿童占37.80%,散居儿童占20.03%;5、6月和11、12月病例分别占发病总数的27.56%、23.09%.结论 2005-2011年沈阳市大东区猩红热

  5. 沈阳浑北灌区节水配套改造工程二期项目施工总结%Shenyang Hunbei irrigation water saving Reconstruct Project Phase II construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浩

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on Shenyang Hunbei irrigation water saving Reconstruct Project Phase II ,from foundation excavation,masonry mortar rubble masonry retaining wall construction,embankment foundation treatment and reclamation,geomembrane laying,pressure beam,concrete slope,retaining five feet,the con-struction methods,processes and key issues requiring attention are analyzed and discussed.%本文围绕沈阳浑北灌区节水配套改造工程二期项目,从基础开挖、浆砌石挡土墙砌筑施工、堤防基础处理与填筑、土工膜铺设、压梁、混凝土护坡、护脚五个方面,对施工方法、工艺及需要注意的重点问题进行了分析和讨论。

  6. Research on Replenishment Scheme Optimization of Sinopharm Medicine Holding Shenyang Co., Ltd%基于CPFR的国药控股(沈阳)有限公司补货方案优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘冰露; 赵琛

    2012-01-01

    运用供应链中CPFR的补货管理模式和相关理论,从补货系统、补货目标、补货关键控制指标等方面深入研究了国药控股(沈阳)有限公司的补货管理现状,找寻其中存在的问题,并对公司补货方案进行优化.%In this paper, on the basis of the CPFR replenishment scheme and the related theories, we studied the current status of Sinopharm Medicine Holding Shenyang Co., Ltd. with regard to replenishment system, objective and KCI, identified the existing problems and proposed the optimization measures.

  7. Economy and Applicability of Solar Energy Combined Heating Network Floor Radiation Heating System in Shenyang%沈阳市太阳能与外网联合供暖系统经济性与适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖永安; 许志鹏; 郝亚芬; 阎国鹏

    2015-01-01

    研究沈阳市典型房间采用太阳能与外网联合的地板辐射供暖系统的经济性,包括系统初投资、费用年值等,为太阳能采暖系统的研究与推广提供参考。以沈阳市某71.52 m2的典型房间为例,利用自行开发的太阳能与外网联合供暖计算软件,对比典型配套太阳能供暖系统的初投资值、费用年值及回收年限值等,并作出简要分析。利用软件计算得出典型配套系统的初投资、费用年值等经济性参数对比表,针对沈阳市70 m2左右的采暖房间而言,若采用太阳能与外网联合的地板辐射供暖系统,初投资值大约在3万~5万元不等,回收年限均在10年以上。对于沈阳市普通热用户,从人居收入方面考虑,选择初投资值较低的太阳能与外网联合供暖系统是比较经济的;对于初投资值很大的决定性因素是较高的太阳能集热器价格,因此降低太阳能集热器价格将有利于太阳能供暖系统的推广。%The economy of solar energy combined heating network floor radiation heating system which used in a typical room in Shenyang is analyzed, including the system’s initial investment and annual cost, etc., providing a reference for study and promotion of solar energy heating system. A typical room 71.52 m2 in Shenyang as an example, the “Solar Energy Floor Radiation Heating System Combined with Heating Network Calculation Software” is utilized to calculate the initial investment and other parameters. The typical solar heating systems’ initial investment, payback time etc., are analyzed. The economical pa-rameters, including the initial investment and annual cost of the typical system, are calculated with the soft-ware for a 71.25 m2 room in Shenyang. If the room uses the solar energy combined heating network floor radiation system, the initial investment value is about 30 000 to 50 000 yuan; Payback time is more than 10 years. For users in Shenyang

  8. 沈阳市霜期农业气候资源特征分析%Analysis of the Characteristics of the Frosty Agro-climatic Resources of Shenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克; 张巍; 杨霄

    2012-01-01

    The study of the frosty agricultural climate resources change, frosty agriculture climate resources change, frosty agriculture in Shenyang City, the smooth development, while avoiding disadvantages to provide a scientific based on Shenyang 1951 to 2010 meteorological data conventional mathematical statistical methods, analysis of the frosty light and heat water variation. The results showed that: the past 60 years due to climate warming in Shenyang City frosty period was shortened obviously, the meteorological elements at less stable. Compared with 1951 to 2010, nearly 30 years, frosty temperatures increased 0.9℃ high temperature increased by 5.7%; sunshing time was reduced to 66 h, the increase of 16.7%, increased in precipitation 8.3 mm, much rain and snow, an increase of 5%; cloudy days increased 6 days, the probability increased by 8.3%; windy days in reducing, big blizzard number of changes smoothly. Continuous cloudy scant sunlight, temperatures rose to changes in unstable was climatic characteristics of the winter of Shenyang City, a greater impact on the winter agricultural development, only to improve the facilities for modernization of agricultural equipment, intelligent features, in order to play a better thermal efficiency of resources.%研究霜期农业气候资源变化,为沈阳市霜期农业顺利发展,趋利避害提供科学依据.利用沈阳1951-2010年气象资料,采用常规数理统计方法,分析霜期光热水资源变化特征.结果表明:近60年来,因气候变暖沈阳市霜期缩短趋势明显,气象要素变化稳定性较差.与1951-2010年相比,近30年的霜期气温升高0.9C,高温年增加5.7%;日照时间减少66 h,寡照年增加16.7%;降水量增加8.3 mm,多雨雪年增加5%;阴天日数增加6天,几率提高8.3%;大风日数减少,大、暴雪次数变化平缓.连续阴天寡照、气温升高变化不稳是沈阳市冬季气候特点,对冬季设施农业发展影响较大.只有完善设施农

  9. 深圳市HFRS疫源地鼠携带汉坦病毒与人感染汉坦病毒的基因特征对应性研究%Analysis of the gene characteristic correspondence on rats with Hantavirus and the human infected Hantavirus in natural epidemic areas of HFRS in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳帆; 何建凡; 刘建军; 陈戊申; 冼慧霞; 张海龙; 杨洪; 张仁利; 何雅青

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市肾综合征出血热(HFRS)疫源地鼠携带汉坦病毒与人感染汉坦病毒二者的病原学特征及联系,为HFRS的防控提供科学依据.方法 收集疑似HFRS病人急性期血清标本,并在相同区域开展笼日法捕鼠,无菌取鼠肺.分别采用ELISA和直接免疫荧光法筛选阳性标本,选择代表性血清标本以及鼠肺标本进行逆转录-套式聚合酶链反应(RT-nested PCR)扩增部分M和S片段及核苷酸序列测定,与国内外的汉坦病毒毒株一起进行同源性比对和系统进化树分析.结果 472份鼠肺经直接免疫荧光检测共获得阳性鼠肺47份,带毒率为9.96%.对60份IgM抗体阳性的血液标本进行RT-nested PCR扩增,检出12份阳性,阳性率为20%.从代表性的8份鼠肺和8份病人血清中提取的标本二者之间M片段核苷酸序列的同源性高达95%以上,S片段之间的同源性高达96.5%以上.其推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为98.0%~100%、98.4%~100%.深圳市HFRS疫源地鼠携带的汉坦病毒和人感染汉坦病毒均为汉城型S2亚型.结论 深圳市流行的汉坦病毒为SEO型S2亚型.无论是同一地区的鼠和人之间,还是不同地区的鼠和人之间,汉坦病毒都是具有较高的同源性.%Objective To compare and contrast the gene characteristic correspondence of hantaviruses(HV) carried by rats in natural epidemic areas of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) and infected among HFRS patients in Shenzhen,provide a reasonable scientific basis for controlling of HFRS.Methods We collected the patients serum specimens in acute stage and lung tissues samples of rats.ElISA and direct immunofluorescence were applied to screen the positive samples,respectively.The partial G2 fragments of M segment and S segment were amplified from the representative patients' serum positivesamples and lung tissues positive samples in different areas with reverse transcription-nested-polymerase chain reaction

  10. 沈阳师范大学本科学生创业意愿分析%Entrepreneurship intend analysis of college students of Shenyang Normal Unuversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班福志

    2011-01-01

    通过对沈阳师范大学不同学院本科生创业情况抽样调查,用多因素方差分析的方法得到最终检验结果,利用多因素方差分析筛选变量建立回归模型,并采用logistic逻辑回归方法进行回归检验.对创业意愿的影响因素和创业意愿的形成模型的研究进行了综述.对有关创业意愿形成的理论模型和实证研究进行梳理,对影响大学生创业意愿的因素进行分析,得出家庭所在地、父母职业、学习成绩、性别、对就业形势的认识、就业目的等对沈师大学生创业意愿有显著影响.通过对在校学生创业意愿的实证分析,有助于增强沈阳师范大学本科生就业与创业指导的针对性和实效性.分析各种因素对沈师学生创业意愿的影响程度,对更好的开展就业指导工作意义重大.%This paper analyzes the relative factors that influence students' entrepreneurial intention, Employing the Multiple Factor Variance analysis and Logistic regression analysis, based on the sampling survey for the entrepreneurial situation of the students in different schools in Shenyang Normal University. Using multiple factor variance analysis to screening variables and establish regression model, in the while, using Logistic regression analysis for Regression testing. The influence factors of entrepreneurial intend and the research of entrepreneurial intend formation model has been illustrated. The conclusion shows that the position of families, grades, sex, views on employment situation, aims of employment, professional planning are closely relevant to students' entrepreneurial intention. It will strengthen the pertinence and actual effect on the guidance for employment or starting a business for the graduates by the empirical analysis of the students' entrepreneurial intention. Analyzing the basic variables which impact on the level of student entrepreneurs, it can be seen that the influence of the school career guidance are much

  11. Survey on Specific Life Quality of Elderly Patients with Chronic Cough in Shenyang%沈阳地区老年慢性咳嗽患者特异性生活质量问卷评分调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀琴; 宁丽娟

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the specific life quality of elderly patients with chronic cough(CC) in Shenyang.[Methods] A total of 41 elderly patients with CC diagnosed in respiratory department of our hospital were chosen as observation group.The selected subjects lived in Shenyang for over 5 years.All patients received the assessment by using Leicesterhire cough life quality questionnaires(LCQ) before treatment.The results were compared between observation group and control group (n =55,middle and young patients).[Results]The scores of every item and domain of LCQ and total LCQ score in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P < 0.05),and there was significant difference (P < 0.05).[Conclusion]The specific life quality of elderly patients with chronic cough is obviously worse than the middle and young patients with chronic cough.%[目的]调查沈阳地区老年慢性咳嗽(CC)患者特异性生活质量.[方法]选择本院呼吸内科就诊老年CC患者41例(观察组),入选对象均在沈阳地区生活5年以上,均在治疗前接受“莱斯特咳嗽特异性生活质量问卷”(LCQ)评估,并与55例同期就诊中、青年同病患者(对照组)测试结果比较.[结果]观察组LCQ问卷条目评分、领域评分及LCQ总分均显著低于对照组,其差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]老年CC患者特异性生活质量明显差于中青年同病患者.

  12. Dobrava Virus as a New Hantavirus: Evidenced by Comparative Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-10

    Shu.Yuan Xiao, Gordana Diglisic, Tatjana Avsic- Zupanc , and James W. LeDuc Disease Assessment Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious...nu- Dobrava virus was isolated from the lungs of an Apo- cleotide sequence determined. Comparing the demus flavicollis [Avsic- Zupanc et al., 19921. The...buffer. The target band was cut mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, captured in Slovenia out and DNA recovered by using the GENECLEAN Kit 2[Avsic- Zupanc et

  13. 福建口岸啮齿类动物携带汉坦病毒分子流行病学调查%Molecular epidemiological investigation on hantavirus carried by rodents in Fujian port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇平; 许卿; 蔡亨忠; 陈钧; 张建明; 郑燕平; 高博

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the genotype and analyze molecule characteristics of main Hantavirus in Fujian port. Methods Nested RT-PCR was used to detect Hantavirus - specific nucleic acid sequences in rodents captured in Fujian port, and M segment was sequenced and analyzed in positive samples. Results A total of 839 rodents were trapped in Fujian port in 2010. Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species accounting for 58.52%. The positive rate of Hantavirus in captured rodents was 5.84%, which were all of Seoul Virus (SEOV). Hantavirus positive species were mainly R. norvegicus (8.96%) and R. tanezumi (3.09%). Generally, Hantavirus infection significantly increased during winter and spring. The phylogenetic analysis based on partial M segment (nt2001-2301) sequence in 25 samples indicated that there were two genetic subtypes, Seoul 2 and Seoul 3. Conclusion Seoul 3 is the main hantavirus subtype carried by rodents in Fujian port.%目的 了解福建口岸汉坦病毒的基因型别和分子特征.方法 对2010年福建口岸捕获的鼠形动物进行汉坦病毒检测,对部分阳性标本进行M基因片段序列分析.结果 2010年福建口岸共捕获鼠形动物839只,以褐家鼠为优势鼠种,占58.52%;鼠形动物携带汉坦病毒阳性率5.84%,均为汉城型(SEO),阳性鼠种为褐家鼠和黄胸鼠,阳性率分别为8.96%和3.09%.汉坦病毒检出呈较明显的冬春季高峰.用M基因片段(nt2001~2301)核苷酸序列构建系统进化树,将福建口岸SEOV分为S2和S3两个亚型.结论 S3亚型SEOV为福建口岸优势流行亚型.

  14. The reactivity of sera from hemorrhagic fever in patients with renal syndromes to the recombination nucleotide proteins from European hantaviruses in Hubei province%湖北地区HFRS患者血清与欧洲汉坦病毒重组核抗原的反应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晴; 陈文; 杨占秋

    2008-01-01

    :HTNV-rNP>DOBV-rNP>PUUV-rNP. As to the detection of IgA, it was: DOBV-rNP>HTNV-rNP>PUUV-rNP. However, there was no difference between DOBV-rNP and HTNV-rNP when the hantavirus-specific IgM was detected. PUUV-rNP showed a very weak reactivity to all the antibodies in samples, but 3-pair samples reacted strongly to all the three subtype-rNP of PUUV. Results from quantitative analysis revealed that there was a relative higher level of IgM and IgA in acute phase sera. No significant difference between IgM and IgA levels was found and the level of IgG was low. A high level of IgA was detected in convalescent sera. Moreover, the level of IgA and IgG significantly increased with the progress of the disease. Conclusion DOBV-rNP had a high detective efficiency to serum samples from HFRS patients in Hubei. HV-specific IgA was kept on a high level in acute and convalescent phases and had important implications for the surveillance of HFRS. Also,it is assumed that PUUV and DOBV might have existed in Hubei province.

  15. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004308 Monitoring indexes for early renal injury in workers exposed to mercury. PENG Shanzhuo(彭珊茁),et al. Shenyang 9th People’s Hosp, Shenyang 110024. Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2004; 22 (2) : 122-124.Objective: To study the diagnostic method for ear-

  16. 11.5.Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930305 Immunoenzymatic labeling of mono-clonal antibodies for surface antigens of T—cellby using immune complexes of APAAP in pa-tients with interstitial lung disease.HOU Xian-ming(侯显明),et al.Respir Dis Res Instit,Chi-na Med Univ,Shenyang,110001.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(12):748—751.The use of unlabeled antibody bridging tech-nique with alkaline phosphatase moncional an-tialkaline phosphatase (APAAP) complexesmakes it possible to solve the problem of shortdurability of immunofluorescent staining and theproblem of nonspecific endogenous enzyme in-terference of blood cells with immunoperoxidasemethod.The technique of APAAP allows saris-

  17. 汉坦病毒肺综合征研究的若干进展%Advancements in researches of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗端德

    2001-01-01

    @@ 自从1993年5月美国西南部四角地区暴发以急性呼吸衰竭为主要表现的汉坦病毒肺综合征(Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,HPS)以来,目前美国28个州均有病例发现.除美国外,美洲的加拿大、巴西、巴拉圭、阿根廷、智利、玻利维亚以及欧洲的德国、南斯拉夫、瑞典、比利时等国均报告了发生HPS的病例.我国是汉坦病毒感染的高发区,是否存在此病值得警惕.现将近年来国外研究情况简述如下.

  18. Serological survey of Seewis virus antibodies in patients suspected for hantavirus infection in Finland; a cross-reaction between Puumala virus antiserum with Seewis virus N protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiaxin; Vaheri, Antti; Hepojoki, Satu; Levanov, Lev; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2015-07-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV, carried by Myodes glareolus) co-circulates with Seewis virus (SWSV, carried by Sorex araneus) in Finland. While PUUV causes 1000-3000 nephropathia epidemica (NE) cases annually, the pathogenicity of SWSV to man is unknown. To study the prevalence of SWSV antibodies in hantavirus fever-like patients' sera, we used recombinant SWSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen in ELISA, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunoblotting. While characterizing the recombinant SWSV N protein, we observed that a polyclonal rabbit antiserum against PUUV N protein cross-reacted with SWSV N protein and vice versa. We initially screened 486 (450 PUUV-seronegative and 36 PUUV-seropositive) samples sent to Helsinki University Hospital Laboratory for PUUV serodiagnosis during 2002 and 2007 in an SWSV N protein IgG ELISA. In total, 4.2 % (19/450) of the PUUV-seronegative samples were reactive in the SWSV N protein IgG ELISA and none of the tested samples [43 PUUV-seronegative (weakly reactive in the SWSV IgG ELISA) and 15 random] were reactive in the SWSV N protein IgM ELISA. None of the IgG reactions could be confirmed by IFA or immunoblotting. Furthermore, among the 36 PUUV-seropositive samples three were reactive in SWSV N protein IgG and ten in SWSV N protein IgM ELISA. One PUUV-seropositive sample reacted with SWSV N protein in IFA and four in immunoblotting. Finally, we applied competitive ELISA to confirm that the observed reactivity was due to cross-reactivity rather than a true SWSV response. In conclusion, no evidence of SWSV infection was found among the 486 samples studied; however, we did demonstrate that PUUV antiserum cross-reacted with shrew-borne hantavirus N protein.

  19. Construction of City's Pleasant Lobby Space:A Case Study of South Square Design in Shenyang North Railway Station%营造华丽的城市门厅空间——沈阳北站南广场改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东旭; 陈雷; 单鹏宇

    2012-01-01

    该文通过对沈阳北站南广场的改造规划设计的介绍,提出了北站南广场设计的两个重要问题,即交通问题和形象问题,探讨了解决这些问题的策略及所采用的方法,设计的目标是将沈阳北站南广场建设为城市优美华丽的“门厅”空间.%By introducing the planning and design of the south square in Shenyang north railway station, this paper puts forward two important questions, I.e. Traffic problems and city image problems, and discusses the tactics and methods to solve those problems. The design's target is to build the south square of Shenyang north railway station into the city's pleasant lobby space.

  20. 2005-2013年沈阳市大东区居民死亡状况及危险因素分析%Analysis on residents’death status and risk factors in Dadong District of Shenyang from 2005 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    [目的]了解沈阳市大东区居民死亡情况和主要死亡原因,为政府部门制定疾病预防控制策略提供科学依据。[方法]将2005-2013年的死亡资料按照国际疾病分类方法ICD-10标准进行分类,通过DeathReg居民死亡分析软件进行汇总、处理,应用SPSS 19.0统计软件进行数据分析。[结果]2005-2013年大东区共死亡47,893人,总死亡率为795.61/10万。65岁以上年龄组死亡率最高,各年度男性的死亡率均高于女性的死亡率(P<0.01);大东区居民死因顺位前5位为肿瘤、心脏病、脑血管病、呼吸系统疾病/损伤和中毒。[结论]肿瘤、心脏病、脑血管病、呼吸系统疾病等慢性非传染性疾病是严重影响大东区居民健康的疾病,做好慢性病的早期预防、早期诊断、早期干预是今后工作的重点。损伤和中毒是造成居民“早死”主要原因之一,其中交通事故和自杀占50.97%。今后疾病预防控制工作的重点应是加强慢性非传染性疾病及伤害和中毒的防治力度。%Objective To analyze the statistic data and the main causes of death occurs in Dadong District of Shenyang, provide scientific proves for government to establish disease prevention and control strategies. Methods To classify the death record according to ICD-10 standard, the international disease classification method. Then collect and process the data by Death Reg. Data analysis was by SPSS19.0 statistical software. Results 47893 people died during 2005~2013,the total death rate was 795.61/100,000. The highest death group rate was above 65 years old. Within all groups, the death rate of men were higher then women(P<0.01). The top 5 main causes of death were cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory system disease, injury and poisoning. Conclusions Chronic non-Communicable diseases including cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory system disease were severely affect

  1. Brief Analysis of the Application of"Digital Shenyang"Fundamental Geographical Database in Geographic Conditions Survey%浅析"数字沈阳"基础地理信息数据库在地理国情普查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雪驹; 李天; 毛婧一

    2015-01-01

    基础地理信息数据库是数字沈阳地理空间框架的重要成果。最大限度地整合、利用现有的基础地理信息数据对地理国情普查工作有着很重要的意义。本文结合沈阳地理国情普查工作的技术和方法,分别探讨了"数字沈阳"基础地理信息数据在地表覆盖分类和地理国情要素采集中的应用技术,为地理国情普查的内业采集工作提供了思路和方法。%Fundamental geographical database is the important achievement of digital Shenyang geospatial framework. To maximize the integration and utilization of fundamental geographical data of ex-isting have very important meaning for the geographic conditions sur-vey. Combined with the technology and method of Shenyang geograph-ic conditions survey, this paper discusses the application of "digital Shenyang" fundamental geographical data in surface coverage classifi-cation and national geographical conditions elements collection, and provides the ideas and methods for the collection of work within the industry of National Geographic Conditions Survey.

  2. An Empirical Analysis of the Housing Price Affecting Factors of Real Estate:Taking Shenyang as an Example%房地产住宅价格影响因素的实证分析--以沈阳市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国良; 徐永桂

    2013-01-01

    The residential property prices is a barometer of the real estate market, it can response the real estate market supply and demand situation, and the influence of the policy. Through the analysis of the housing price affecting factors of real estate in Shenyang, this paper establishes the research target, and with the help of statistics from 2002 to 2011 in Shenyang, uses Eviews software to take regression analysis for the data, and gets the regression equation of the commodity housing price change in Shenyang, so as to provide the theory basis for real estate enterprises decision-making and government policy making.%住宅价格是房地产市场的晴雨表,能够反应房地产市场的供需情况,以及政策的影响。本文通过对沈阳市住宅价格影响因素进行分析,确立研究指标,并借助沈阳市2002年到2011年统计数据,运用Eviews软件对数据进行回归分析,得到沈阳市商品住宅价格变动回归方程,从而为房地产企业决策及政府制定政策提供理论依据。

  3. Risks and prevention of nosocomial transmission of rare zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Rutala, W A

    2001-02-01

    Americans are increasingly exposed to exotic zoonotic diseases through travel, contact with exotic pets, occupational exposure, and leisure pursuits. Appropriate isolation precautions are required to prevent nosocomial transmission of rare zoonotic diseases for which person-to-person transmission has been documented. This minireview provides guidelines for the isolation of patients and management of staff exposed to the following infectious diseases with documented person-to-person transmission: Andes hantavirus disease, anthrax, B virus infection, hemorrhagic fevers (due to Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever viruses), monkeypox, plague, Q fever, and rabies. Several of these infections may also be encountered as bioterrorism hazards (i.e., anthrax, hemorrhagic fever viruses, plague, and Q fever). Adherence to recommended isolation precautions will allow for proper patient care while protecting the health care workers who provide care to patients with known or suspected zoonotic infections capable of nosocomial transmission.

  4. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  5. Change Rules of Quantity and Species of Diatoms in Hunhe River in Shenyang%沈阳市内浑河河段中硅藻数量及种群变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇; 周哲; 蔡洪洋; 李鹏飞; 夏俊苓

    2013-01-01

    Objection To observe the change rules of quantity and species of diatom sin Hunhe River in Shenyang and to provide technology and scientific evidence for drow ning identification and the location of drow ning in forensic investigation. Methods In 2011, different locations for collecting water sam pleswere chosen in Hunhe River in Shenyang. Water sam pleswere collected and variation of quantity and species of diatom swere observed every month. And variation of dom inant species of diatom swas ob-served every week. Results The quantity, speciesand dom inant species of diatom sin Hunhe River in Shenyang varied with different tim eand locations. The quantity and species of diatom swere lowest from Decem ber to February and gradually increased, reaching peak in May and second peak in October, and then gradually decreased. The dom inant species of diatom s varied significantly adjacent two weeksat same location from April to N ovem ber, but had little changesat different locationsin same week from July to August. Conclusion The change rules of quantity and species of diatom sare com plicated and affected by various factors such as environm ent and hydrology. The change rules of speciesand quantity of diatom s should be considered in forensic investigation of drow ning identification and the lo-cation of drow ning.%目的:观测沈阳市内浑河河段中硅藻数量及种群的变化规律,为法医学溺死鉴定及判断落水地点提供技术帮助与科学证据。方法2011年全年对沈阳市内浑河河段布观测点,每月采集水样并观测硅藻数量及种群的变化规律,每周采集水样并观测硅藻优势种群的变化规律。结果沈阳市内浑河河段中硅藻数量、种群及优势种群均随时间、地点而变化;硅藻数量及种群数12~2月最低,之后逐渐升高,5月达高峰,略有下降10月达第二高峰期,之后迅速减少;硅藻优势种群4~11月同一采样点相邻两周间变化明显,7~8月

  6. Discussion on Passenger and Freight Traffic Upgrading Scheme for Leading Shenyang-Dandong Railway Passenger Lines into Railway Terminal%沈丹客专引入枢纽客货运改建方案的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉昆

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:本溪枢纽既有线路复杂,车站改建困难,既有铁路和城市规划存在冲突,沈丹客运专线引入枢纽方案不但需解决既有铁路存在的不足,还要兼顾枢纽的长远发展,其枢纽改建方案具有代表性.本文通过分析本线引入枢纽的客货运方案改建过程,总结出客运专线引入枢纽的研究思路和设计经验.研究结论:本文通过对沈丹客运专线引入本溪枢纽客货运改建方案的比选分析,得出客运专线引入枢纽改建方案应综合考虑枢纽总图规划、城市规划、既有车站作业性质、作业量、周边条件以及经济、环保、地形地质、施工风险等因素,通过技术经济比较综合比选,推选出最佳方案.本文所探讨的客运专线引入山区铁路枢纽车站改建方案为以后类似项目的设计有一定的借鉴作用.%Research purposes: There are many existing railways in Benxi railway terminal and it is difficult to upgrade the existing stations because there is the conflict between the existing railway network and the city development plan. Leading Shenyang-dandong Passenger Dedicated Line not only needs to overcome the shortages of the existing terminal, but also needs to consider the city long-term development plan. This paper studies the passenger and freight traffic upgrading scheme for leading the Shenyang-Dandong Passenger Dedicated Line into the Benxi railway terminal and sums up the experience in this field. Research conclusions: From studying the optional passenger and freight traffic upgrading schemes for leading the Shenyang-Dandong Railway Passenger Line into the Benxi railway terminal, it is concluded the passenger and freight traffic upgrading scheme should consider the factors of the overall terminal planning, the functions and operation quantitis of the existing stations, the surrounding conditions, the economic factor, enviromental protection, topographical and geological conditions and the

  7. Preliminary Report on Introduction Test of Different Aromatic Plants in Shenyang Area%30种芳香植物在沈阳地区引种试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 冯辉

    2014-01-01

    In order to select the aromatic plants suitable for cultivation in Shenyang area,30 aromatic plants species or varieties collected at home and abroad were introduced as test materials.All of them were planted both in the field in summer and the green house in winter.Evaluations were made on their seed germination time,transplanting survival rate of seedlings,growth potential,flowering,aroma characteristics and stress tol-erance.The results showed that 17 species,including arugula,sweet basil,purple basil,pink calyx sage, spearmint,catnip,bee balm,mint (Monarda citriodora),mint (Mentha arvensis),dracocephalum,wrinkled gianthyssop,common perilla,borage,golden camomile,chamomile,dill and evening primrose,were suitable for open field cultivation in Shenyang area.Most species were evaluated for spice,ornamental and vegetable according to their growth potential,respectively.%以从国内外引进的30种芳香植物为试验材料,从种子出苗时间、移栽成活率、生长势、开花情况、香气特点和抗逆性等因素着手,对各种类进行综合评价,旨在通过引种试验初步筛选出适于沈阳地区栽培的芳香植物。结果表明,芝麻菜、罗勒、紫罗勒、粉萼鼠尾草、留兰香、猫薄荷、美国薄荷、马薄荷、薄荷、香青兰、藿香、紫苏、琉璃苣、春黄菊、洋甘菊、莳萝和月见草17个种类生长势强,适宜在沈阳地区露地栽培;根据夏季露地和冬季温室中的生长情况,从香料生产、观赏、菜用等不同角度对其进行了评价。

  8. An Observational Study of Atmospheric Ice Nuclei Concentration in Spring and Summer in Shenyang%沈阳春夏季大气冰核浓度的观测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德平; 洪也; 王扬锋; 刘宁微; 张云海; 李丽光

    2012-01-01

    Observation and research on the distribution of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) concentration was started in 2010, in order to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of IN concentrations in Shenyang area. Ground measurement was made by Bigg mixing chamber and sampling of IN aerosols was done by membrane filter method. Airborne IN measurements were made on the artificial precipitation aeroplane Y-12 which being lended by Wheather Modification Office of Liaoning Province during April-September 2011. Sampling membrane filter processing conditions is unified in the activation temperature about -15 ℃ and from ice saturation to 3% water supersaturation. According to some of the observation data, IN concentration and its temperature distribution parameters in spring and summer in Shenyang is given. The monthly variation of IN concentrations from March-June and the distribution characteristics in different weather conditions are analyzed. And the changes of IN concentration with particle size and height are given primipa- rously.%为了解沈阳地区大气冰核浓度的时空分布状况,2010年起开始对沈阳地区的大气冰核浓度分布进行观测和研究.地面采用Bigg型混合云室法和滤膜法进行冰核气溶胶的采样测量,高空利用辽宁省人工影响天气办公室租用的人工增雨飞机进行滤膜法采样.采样滤膜的处理都是统一在活化温度-15℃及冰面过饱和度20%、水面过饱和度3%的湿度条件下进行的.根据取得的部分观测资料,给出了沈阳春夏季大气冰核的浓度及冰核温度谱分布参数,分析了冰核浓度在3~6月各月以及在不同天气状况下的分布特征,初步给出了大气冰核浓度的尺度谱分布及其随高度的变化.

  9. The Impact of Climate Change on the Regional Field Crops in Shenyang%气候变化对沈阳地区大田作物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁军; 董晓明; 姜晓燕

    2012-01-01

    为了当地农业结构调整、保障粮食生产提供依据,研究沈阳地区1951-2010年气候变化,采用气候倾向率及标准偏差方法对气候变化做定量分析.结果表明:沈阳地区年平均气温倾向率为0.196℃/10a,气候跃变之后年平均气温升高0.7C;年降水量倾向率为-16.724mrm/10a,气候跃变之后降水减少40mm,多雨年在减少,少雨年在增加;第一场透雨出现时间被推迟,个别年份播种期受到限制.气候跃变之后终霜日提前,初霜日后推,延长了无霜期,作物播种期可适当早播;降水量减少、第一场透雨出现时间后延和不稳定,对作物生长和播种影响较大,成为农作物正常生长和产量稳定提高的限制因素.%To provide evidence for agricultural structure adjustment and guarantee grain production , using climate tendency rate and standard deviation quantitative analysis method of climate change, researched climate change in Shenyang on 1951 to 2010. The results showed that: In Shenyang area, annual average temperature tendency rate is 0.196℃/10a, which increased by 0.7t in condition of climate jump. The annual precipitation tendency rate decreased 40mm on condition of climate jump, which compared with normal value is -16.724 mm/10a. Meanwhile, rainy year was decreasing; in contrast that little rainy year was increasing. And the individual years of sowing was restricted, which effected by the first soaking rain occurrence time delayed. After climate jump, the ends of frost seasons have been gotten earlier, and its onsets were later, and the frostless season is longer. Crop sowing data early sowing. Decreasing precipitation and delaying the first soaking rain occurrence time, greater impacted on crop growth and sowing, crop normal growth and production steadily improving are limiting factors.

  10. The ambient air dioxin levels and exposure risk in different functional zones of Shenyang%沈阳市环境空气不同功能区二噁英含量与暴露风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华; 王恩德

    2013-01-01

    以沈阳市不同功能区为研究对象,进行不同功能区的二噁英含量与暴露风险分析.研究表明:沈阳市不同功能区的二噁英质量浓度大小顺序为工业区>居民区>文化区>商业区>公园>风景区;6个功能区均检测出多氯二苯并二噁英(PCDDs)、多氯二苯并呋喃(PCDFs)和多氯联苯(PCB)3种污染物,除风景区外,PCDFs所占比例最大,PCDDs居第二位,PCB所占的比例最小;毒性当量的计算结果表明,不同功能区的二噁英毒性当量浓度与其质量浓度大小顺序一致;呼吸暴露量计算结果表明,儿童的呼吸暴露量高于成人,说明儿童受到空气二噁英的呼吸暴露风险更大.%The ambient air dioxin levels and exposure risk in different functional zones of Shenyang was analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the content of dioxins in different functional zones followed the order of industrial area > residential area > cultural area > commercial area > park > scenic area. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzoparadioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in all functional zones. Except scenic area, PCDFs had the highest share of dioxins in Shenyang, and followed by PCDDs and PCB. Exposure risk of dioxins was quantitative analyzed by toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ). Industrial area had the highest TEQ value, and the next followed the order of residential area> cultural area>commercial area> park>scenic area. The exposure inhalation amount of children was higher than that of adults, which implied that children had higher exposure risk of dioxin pollution in ambient air.

  11. [TULA HANTAVIRUS IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, L N; Zaykovskaya, A V; Protopopova E K; Babkin, I V; Malyshev, B S; Tovpinets, N N; Evstafiev, I L

    2015-01-01

    Genetic evidence of the Tula virus (TULV) in Crimea region of Russia is presented. Based on the reverse transcription PCR and subsequent sequence analysis, a total of 4 RNA isolates of the TULV were identified from the tissue samples of the Altai voles Microtus obscurus captured in the Bakhchisaray district of the Republic Crimea. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-, M-, and L-segment sequences of the Crimean TULV strains showed that they formed distinct genetic lineage, Russia IV, in the TULV variant. New sequences were most closely related to the lineage Russia I sequences obtained from common vole (M. arvalis) captured in the Tula region in Central Russia

  12. 城乡建设用地空间格局分析——以沈阳市为例%Analysis of Spatial Pattern of Urban-Rural Construction Land:With Shenyang City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉斌; 李洪涛; 陆浩; 郭柏栋

    2011-01-01

    Based on the annual alteration survey data of land utilization status of Shenyang City in 2005. Employing the analysis of equal length and the analysis of equal area, this paper analyses the spatial pattern of construction land in urban-rural fringe areas of the city. The result indicates that, first, with the length increase, the area of urban-rural construction land reduces gradually and the urban-rural construction land assumes a mode of build-up effect development, and second, the improved method has higher precision and better conformity and is feasible and workable in practical use.%基于2005年沈阳市土地利用现状年度变更调查数据,利用等步长等距离缓冲区分析法和等步长等面积缓冲区分析法分析了沈阳市城乡结合部建设用地的空间格局.结果表明:(1)随着步长的增加城乡建设用地面积逐渐减少,城乡建设用地呈聚集效应发展;(2)改进方法精度更高,符合性更好,在实际应用中切实可行.

  13. 沈阳市2011~2013年麻疹实验室网络运转状况分析%Analysis on running status of Shenyang municipal measles laboratory network during 2011 -2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾妮娜; 张国斌; 张智; 朱丽君

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价2011~2013年沈阳市麻疹实验室网络运转状况。方法回顾性分析2011~2013年沈阳市麻疹实验室网络检测结果及麻疹监测系统数据,分析麻疹病毒血清学检测、病毒分离与基因分型,以及健康人群抗体监测结果,并对实验室网络质量控制进行评价。结果2011~2013年沈阳市麻疹监测系统报告麻疹疑似病例588例,确诊531例,其中实验室确诊麻疹275例(51.79%);共采集血清标本515份,标本采集率为87.59%,其中采集合格并有实验结果的标本504份,标本检测率为97.86%。2011~2013年共采集麻疹病毒分离标本111份,麻疹病毒分离率为37.84%,且34株麻疹代表毒株基因型均为 H1a型。2011~2013年沈阳市麻疹实验室通过了辽宁省麻疹实验室组织的职能考核和血清复核,且于2013年通过辽宁省麻疹实验室的现场考核。健康人群麻疹IgG抗体阳性率95.24%,保护率为78.10%,初免阳性率为94.12%,几何平均滴度(GM T )为1∶2269.86。结论2011~2013年沈阳市麻疹实验室网络运转良好,在麻疹监测中起到了重要作用,应继续规范实验操作,加强实验室网络管理。%Objective To evaluate the running status of the Shenyang municipal measles laboratory network during 2011-2013 .Methods The detection results of the measles laboratory network and the data of the measles surveillance system during 2011-2013 were retrospectively analyzed .The detection results of measles viral serologi‐cal detection ,viral isolation ,genotyping and antibody monitoring results in the healthy population were analyzed and the quality control of the laboratory network was evaluated .Results 588 cases of suspected measles were reported by the Shenyang municipal measles monitoring system ,515 cases were definitely diagnosed ,in which 275 cases (51 .79% ) were diagnosed by laboratory ;515 serum samples were

  14. Identification of immature stages of carrion-breeding phorid flies indoors in Shenyang%沈阳地区室内常见尸食性蚤蝇幼期识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯典兴; 刘广纯

    2013-01-01

    利用尸食性蝇类发育生物学推断死后间隔时间的前提是对其幼期种属的准确鉴定.本文对沈阳地区室内常见的4种尸食性蚤蝇幼期的主要形态特征进行了描述.结果表明:根据其口器、体壁突起、气门和呼吸角等特征不仅可以区分虫龄,还可以鉴别4种蚤蝇.%The accurate identification of the fly larva or puparium to species is the premise when the development biology of carrion-breeding flies is used to estimate post-mortem interval. This paper presented the description of the main morphological features of immature stages of four most common carrion-breeding phorid flies indoors in Shenyang. The results show that the features, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, tubercles of integument, spiracles and respiratory horns, were not only used to differentiate the three instars, but also identify the four phorid flies.

  15. Research of Transformation of Shashan Rubber Dam in Shenyang River Sector of Hunhe River%浑河沈阳段砂山橡胶坝改建方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴洁; 丁立国; 冯金鹏; 宋姝

    2012-01-01

    This paper is in reaction to the existing problem of Shashan rubber dam in Shenyang river sector of Hunhe river.Four transformations was proposed.The first is changing one dam bag smaller;the second is changing one dam bag to steel dam gate;the third is changing one dam to pneumatic brake;the fourth is building regulation gate.Through comparison,regulation gate is the best way due to the stability and flexibility for adjusting low head fiow under irrigation condition.This paper presents a few methods to solve the problems in rubber dam,which are the reference for practical engineering.%针对浑河沈阳段砂山橡胶坝运行存在的问题,提出了4种解决方案。通过比较,调节闸较其他方案更有优势,在满足灌溉期过流要求的同时,可实现低水头流量调节且操作灵活,运行更加安全可靠。针对解决橡胶坝运行不足的问题提出了多种见解,其结论可供其他工程参考借鉴。

  16. Investigation on Religion of College Students ~ Taking Shenyang University as an Example%关于大学生信仰的调查——以沈阳大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芝; 陈默; 刘勇

    2011-01-01

    Through the investigation on 400 students from 5 colleges of Shenyang University, the students' faith in communism and the Communist Party, and religious beliefs are mastered. The results show that, the vast majority of students believe understanding of religion. To firm the students' Communist Party, universities should continue tradition education. communism and the Communist Party, and have a clear ideals and beliefs, and their faith in communism and the to set up party lecture and carry out the revolutionary%通过对沈阳大学5个学院400名在校生的问卷调查,掌握了学生对共产主义、共产党的信仰和对宗教的信仰情况。调查结果显示,绝大多数学生坚信共产主义和共产党,对宗教认识清楚。分析认为,高校还应继续通过讲党课和开展革命传统教育等活动,使学生更加坚定对共产党的信仰,坚定理想和信念。

  17. Investigation and analysis on the visitors behavior in street greenbelt of Qingnian Avenue of Shenyang%沈阳市青年大街街头绿地游人行为调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭甦阳; 闫红伟; 刘千荻; 任丽娜

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on behavioral psychology,by investigating and analyzing three greenbelts of Qingnian Avenue of Shenyang from the aspect of greenbelts' location,landscape space,road system,plant configuration,service facilities,management,etc.By using the Post Occupancy Evaluation method to analyze the datas,obtain the result finally and propose suggestions on paying attention on human-oriented design,enriching plant configuration,perfecting service facilities and management.To provide a reasonable theoretical direction for the future landscape design of the street greenbelts.%作者以行为心理学为基础,分别从绿地区位、景观空间、道路系统、植物配置、服务设施、维护管理等方面对沈阳市青年大街的三个街头绿地景观与游人行为关系进行调查与分析。通过使用状况评价(POE法),对调查数据进行分析,最终得出结论并提出注重人性化设计、丰富植物配置、健全服务设施、完善维护管理等建议,为以后的街头绿地景观设计提供一个科学的理论指导。

  18. Síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de 23 casos Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions, State of Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: clinical-epidemiological aspects of 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ezequiel Limongi

    2007-06-01

    required. The present study confirmed the seasonal pattern of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Uberlândia region and the involvement of professional groups who are considered to be at low risk of infection, in the transmission cycle of the disease. The high lethality rate (39% and the severity of the disease observed in this study may be related to attending to these patients at a late stage.

  19. Effect of Puumala hantavirus infection on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell hemostatic function: platelet interactions, increased tissue factor expression and fibrinolysis regulator release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGoeijenbier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.

  20. 深圳市鼠类感染汉坦病毒的分子特征%Study on the molecular characteristic of natural infection of rodents with Hantaviruses in Shenzhen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 阳帆; 何建凡; 张小岚; 梁焯南; 张顺祥; 张海龙; 杨洪

    2008-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate Hantavirus (HV) infection of captured rodents and to understand the genotypes and the molecular characteristic of Hantaviruses in Shenzhen. Methods The captured rodents were classified and the density of distribution was calculated. A total of 472 animals were captured, among which Rattus norvegicus was the dominant group. The total viral RNA was extracted from the lung tissues positive with HV antigens by immunofluorescent assay and gene sequence of M fragment was amplified with RT-nested-PCR by using the Hantavirus genotype specific primers. The amplified genes were then sequenced, and subjected to genotyping and homology analysis. Results The results of genotype analysis showed that the Hantaviruses taken from twenty-one lung specimens in Rattus norvegicus in Shenzhen city belonged to the Hantavirus type Ⅱ (SEOV). Results in homology analysis suggested that the homology among twenty-one samples should be rather high with 95.4% of nucleotide sequence identity and they belonged to the same subtype. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that they were branched into at least six different lineages, and were highly homologized with SZ2083. We also found that these virus strains had not shown more highly homology of nucleotide sequence in nearest district, whereas revealed consistency in farther district. Conclusion The major hosts of Hantaviruses in Shenzhen city were Rattus norvegicus and the epidemic strains were genotyped as SEO-type. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence from different rodents were highly homologous, while nucleotide mutation had also been observed. Further studies are required to explore the possible viruses' sequence mutation.%目的 了解深圳市宿主动物携带汉坦病毒状况、病毒型别及分子特征.方法 笼日法捕鼠,计算鼠密度,确定鼠种构成.共捕获宿主动物472只,褐家鼠为优势鼠种,占87.29%.免疫荧光抗原阳性鼠肺标本中提取病毒RNA,应用汉

  1. 葫芦岛市居民区褐家鼠携带的汉坦病毒分析%Analysis of Hantavirus carried by Rattus norvegicus in residential areas of Huludao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明慧; 陈小萍; 杨国庆; 沈铁峰; 刘保; 郭文平; 张永振

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hantavirus in rodents based on surveillance data in residential areas of Huludao for the formulation of preventive and control strategies in humans. Methods Rodent cages were used to capture small mammals. Lung samples of the subjects were then taken for detection of Hantavirus antigens using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Genotyping was conducted using RT-PCR. Results In 2005 and 2006, 254 Rattus norvegicus,17 Mus musculus and 5 Apodemus agrarius were captured in nine residential areas and two wild fields in Huludao. The virus-carrying rates were 4.72% in R. norvegicus and 5.88% in M. musculus, respectively. Nine strains of Hantavirus were amplified using the RNA derived from the positive lung tissues of R. norvegicus. According to genotyping results, all were identified as Seoul virus (SEOV). A strain of SEOV was also isolated. Hantavirus was not detected from M. musculus and A. agrarius.Conclusion R. norvegicus was the primary host of Hantavirus in residential areas of Huludao and ali rodent-carrying Hantavirus strains were identified as SEOV.%目的 通过对汉坦病毒的临测分析,掌握葫芦岛市居民区鼠类中的汉坦病毒流行情况,为制定人间汉坦病毒的预防控制措施提供依据.方法 用鼠笼捕获小动物,采用间接免疫荧光法(IFA)检测小动物肺中的汉坦病毒抗原,用RT-PCR进行基因分型.结果 在2005-2006年选取葫芦岛地区9个不同地点的居民区和2个野外地点捕鼠,共捕获褐家鼠254只,小家鼠17只,黑线姬鼠5只,褐家鼠带病毒率为4.72%,小家鼠为5.88%.提取汉坦病毒抗原阳性鼠肺组织中的病毒RNA,从褐家鼠中共扩增出9株汉坦病毒,基因分型全部为汉城病毒,并且分离到1株病毒.而从小家鼠和黑线姬鼠中未扩增到病毒.结论 葫芦岛市居民区的鼠类以褐家鼠为主,其携带的病毒属于汉城型.

  2. Investigation on smoking, passive smoking and quitting smoking among the investigated residents aged over 35 years in Shenyang%沈阳市35岁以上居民吸烟、被动吸烟及戒烟现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯刚; 韩宇; 蔡睿; 王秋月; 康健; 尹燕; 孙丽丽; 李久荣; 韩丹; 张明娜; 曹亮; 苏红见; 杨会兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解沈阳市居民目前吸烟、被动吸烟、戒烟相关情况,为有针对性地制定控烟措施提供基础资料.方法 对社区慢性阻塞性肺病预防与控制适宜技术研究所获得的2194份35岁以上沈阳市社区居民间卷调查中吸烟信患进行分析.结果 吸烟率为37.1%,现在吸烟率为27.7%,常吸烟率为27.6%,重型吸烟率为12.8%.男性吸烟率及吸烟量均高于女性(P< 0.001).35~49岁年龄组吸烟率最高(29.9%).不同受教育程度人群吸烟率差异无统计学意义.但不同收入水平的人群吸烟率存在差异.被动吸烟率女性高于男性,且随年龄增加,呈下降趋势.吸烟者中戒烟率为25.2%,复吸率为11.9%,接受医生劝导戒烟者戒烟率(34.7%)高于自主戒烟者(6.8%).结论 不同年龄、性别、家庭收入者吸烟率及成功的戒烟率差别明显.应进一步加强中青年人群烟草危害的健康教育及戒烟知识推广,倡导给予戒烟者更多的帮助,尤其是医生劝导戒烟及指导药物戒烟,提高戒烟率,减少烟草危害.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of smoking, passive smoking and smoking cessation among the residents aged over 35 years of the investigated communities in Shenyang to provide the basic information for the formulation of the appropriate plan of tobacco control. METHODS Summarized and analyzed the information of the smoking condition in some communities of Shenyang from the 2 194 investigation questionnaire of the study of the appropriate techniques for the community prevention and control of chronic obstructive disease. RESULTS Rates of general smoking, current smoking, regular smoking and heavy smoking among male residents aged over 35 years were 37.1%, 27.7%, 27.6% and 12.8% respectively. The smoking rate and total amount of the male was higher than those of the female. Among the different age groups, the rate of smoking was highest in the group of 35-49 years (29.9%). The

  3. 广西家鼠型肾综合征出血热病毒的发现和鉴定%Identification and analysis of an SEO strain of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome hantavirus from Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭毅; 闭福银; 韦增良

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify hantavirus from lung specimens of rats captured in Guangxi. Methods Rats were collected from various areas in Guangxi in combination with plague surveillance and rat lung specimens were examined by ELISA for hantavirus antigen,and M segment of positive specimen was partially amplified with RT-PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted for genotyping. Results From a total of 306 rat lung specimens,a strain of SEO hantavirus was detected from lung specimen of a Norvegicus that was from coastal area of Guangxi Qinzhou city. Conclusions For the first time SEO hantanviras was detected in the coastal area of Guangxi Qinzhou city,its epidemiological significance needs further study.%目的 从广西各地捕获的鼠肺标本检测汉坦病毒并鉴定其型别.方法 结合广西鼠疫监测采集啮齿类宿主动物,用ELISA法检测鼠肺标本,对汉坦病毒抗原阳性标本通过RT-PCR法扩增部分M片段上的核苷酸序列并测序,将扩增片段的核苷酸序列与已知病毒序列进行比对并分型.结果 在306份鼠肺标本中检测到1株SEO型的出血热病毒,阳性标本为广西沿海地区钦州市捕获的褐家鼠.结论 在广西沿海地区检测到SEO型汉坦病毒,其流行病学意义有待进一步研究.

  4. 量子点荧光探针用于汉坦病毒重组抗原的检测%Detection of recombinant Hantavirus antigens by using water-solubility quantum dots fluorescent probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 张云; 郑锦峰; 孙军红; 姚苹苹; 王洁; 李晶; 邓小昭; 王长军; 朱函坪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect recombinant Hantavirus antigens by using a quantum dots ( QDs) fluorescent probe. Methods The probe of water-solubility QDs fluorescence nanoparticle was synthesized and modified with protein G and anti-HV Antibodies. We detected recombinant Hantavirus antigens by probe combining immune method,and optimized the detecting conditions. Results The optimum reaction time,pH and goat antibodies concentration for conjugating the QDs were 2 h ,6.0, and 20 μg/ml, respectively. The limit of detection of recombinant antigens was 5 ng/ml. Conclusion The fluorescent probe could effectively recognize HV antigens. The method was specific, sensitive and convenient. We developed a new method for HV antigens detection.%目的 应用量子点荧光探针对汉坦病毒(Hantavirus,HV)重组抗原进行检测.方法 合成水溶性量子点荧光纳米颗粒,并在其表面修饰G蛋白和anti-HV抗体作为量子点荧光探针,对HV重组抗原进行检测并优化检测条件.结果 量子点与抗体的最佳偶联条件:pH 6.0、反应时间2h、抗体浓度为20 μg/ml.用本方法检测HV重组抗原的最低检测值为5 ng/ml.结论 该探针能有效的识别HV抗原,且操作简便快速,为HV重组抗原的检测和肾出血热综合征的诊断提供了新方法.

  5. INVESTIGATION ON STATUS OF HANTAVIRUS CARRIER OF RATTUS NORVEGICUS IN CHENGDU%成都市城区鼠种群密度与褐家鼠汉坦病毒带毒率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓良利; 田汶佳; 肖霖; 何建邯; 廖骏; 蒋峥; 刘竹; 马林; 时炜

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过对成都市褐家鼠汉坦病毒带毒率调查,发现成都市肾综合征出血热(HFRS)鼠传播特征,为科学指导HFRS防制提供依据.[方法]鼠密度调查采用粉迹法,用免