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  1. Trauma center accessibility for road traffic injuries in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takashi; Takamori, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshinari; Kimura, Akio; Hashizume, Makoto; Nakahara, Shinji

    2011-09-30

    Rapid economic growth in Vietnam over the last decade has led to an increased frequency of road traffic injury (RTI), which now represents one of the leading causes of death in the nation. Various efforts toward injury prevention have not produced a significant decline in the incidence of RTIs. Our study sought to describe the geographic distribution of RTIs in Hanoi, Vietnam and to evaluate the accessibility of trauma centers to those injured in the city. We performed a cross-sectional study using Hanoi city police reports from 2006 to describe the epidemiology of RTIs occurring in Hanoi city. Additionally, we identified geographic patterns and determined the direct distance from injury sites to trauma centers by applying geographical information system (GIS) software. Factors associated with the accessibility of trauma centers were evaluated by multivariate regression analysis. We mapped 1,271 RTIs in Hanoi city. About 40% of RTIs occurred among people 20-29 years of age. Additionally, 63% of RTIs were motorcycle-associated incidents. Two peak times of injury occurrence were observed: 12 am-4 pm and 8 pm-0 am. "Hot spots" of road traffic injuries/fatalities were identified in the city area and on main highways using Kernel density estimation. Interestingly, RTIs occurring along the two north-south main roads were not within easy access of trauma centers. Further, fatal cases, gender and injury mechanism were significantly associated with the distance between injury location and trauma centers. Geographical patterns of RTIs in Hanoi city differed by gender, time, and injury mechanism; such information may be useful for injury prevention. Specifically, RTIs occurring along the two north-south main roads have lower accessibility to trauma centers, thus an emergency medical service system should be established.

  2. The Dynamics of Urban Agriculture in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Brody Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, urban agriculture makes a significant contribution to the livelihoods of urban populations, in providing food security and income generation. In Hanoi, Vietnam’s capital city, urban agriculture is a longstanding feature, but rapid urban growth is leading to greater competition over land use, such that this practice is being increasingly threatened by conversion to non-agricultural urban uses.  The quality and safety of foodstuffs grown in urban areas is of growing concern to both consumers and producers in developing country cities such as Hanoi, where a large share of the city’s food supply is grown within the urban area. Government support has encouraged urban producers to modernize and invest in safer growing practices. However, in Hanoi, as indeed elsewhere, there is an urgent need to recognise the significance of urban agriculture in future planning strategies. Drawing upon recent field-based research in Hanoi, which examined local actors’ knowledge and perceptions of changes in urban agriculture within the city, the paper identifies key trends and underlying environmental and socio-economic factors, and considers the future sustainability of the practice.Dans de nombreux pays en voie de développement, l’agriculture urbaine représente une contribution significative à la subsistance des populations urbaines, en assurant leur sécurité alimentaire et en générant des revenus. À Hanoi, la capitale du Vietnam, l’agriculture urbaine n'est pas une nouveauté, mais la rapidité de la croissance urbaine intensifie la concurrence pour l'utilisation du sol, et la réaffectation du sol à des fins non agricoles fait peser une menace de plus en plus lourde sur cette pratique. La qualité et la sécurité des produits alimentaires cultivés dans les zones urbaines préoccupent de plus en plus les consommateurs et les producteurs dans les villes des pays en voie de développement telles que Hanoi, où une

  3. SEMICENTRALISED WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT: OPTIONS FOR THE DYNAMIC URBAN AREA OF HANOI, VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    SOPHIE SCHRAMM

    2011-01-01

    Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is experiencing rapid urbanisation coupled with high economic growth rates. This situation is both a challenge and an opportunity for the upgrading of existing technical infrastructures. Regarding wastewater treatment, the situation in Hanoi today is characterised by a lack of wastewater treatment plants, processing only a small fraction of the accumulating wastewater. Prevalent means of sanitation are septic tanks installed under buildings for the collection of...

  4. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue fever (DF in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DF over the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify space–time clusters and dispersion of DF. Results: The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.34. The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9% districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest. Conclusions: There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.

  5. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Hu, Wenbiao; Quang Thai, Pham; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Wright, Pamela; Martens, Pim

    2013-01-24

    Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DF over the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify space-time clusters and dispersion of DF. The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34). The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9%) districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest. There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.

  6. The spectrum of central nervous system infections in an adult referral hospital in hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Walter R.; Nguyen, Kinh; Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huyen; Horby, Peter; Nguyen, Ha L.; Lien, Trinh; Tran, Giang; Tran, Ninh; Nguyen, Ha M.; Nguyen, Thai; Nguyen, Ha H.; Nguyen, Thanh; Tran, Giap; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; Schultsz, Constance; Tran, Huong; Nguyen, Diep; Vu, Bich; Le, Hoa; Dao, Trinh; Nguyen, Trung; Wertheim, Heiman

    2012-01-01

    To determine prospectively the causative pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. From May 2007 to December 2008, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 352 adults with suspected meningitis or encephalitis underwent

  7. Availability and accessibility of HIV counseling and testing services for pregnant women in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Hardon, A.; Ngoc, Y.P.; Tran, H.N.; Coutinho, R.A.; Wright, P.

    2009-01-01

    In Hanoi, Vietnam, HIV counseling and testing is available but apparently still many HIV-positive women were either not detected or were identified too late for optimal PMTCT intervention. The study looked at how easily pregnant women could find out about and use HIV counseling and testing and

  8. Quantifying the Emergence of Dengue in Hanoi, Vietnam: 1998-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuong, H.Q.; Hien, N.T.; Duong, T.N.; Phong, T.V.; Cam, N.N.; Farrar, J.; Nam, V.S.; Thai, K.T.D.; Horby, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An estimated 2.4 billion people live in areas at risk of dengue transmission, therefore the factors determining the establishment of endemic dengue in areas where transmission suitability is marginal is of considerable importance. Hanoi, Vietnam is such an area, and following a large

  9. Institutional aspects of integrating irrigation into urban wastewater management: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, F.P.; Vliet, van B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater flows of metropolitan cities and their downstream use for irrigation are often associated with technical systems. However, an engineering approach on its own will leave questions unanswered at the socio-technical and institutional level. Research was carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam, on the

  10. Institutional aspects of integrating irrigation into urban wastewater management: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, Frans P.; van Vliet, Bas J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater flows of metropolitan cities and their downstream use for irrigation are often associated with technical systems. However, an engineering approach on its own will leave questions unanswered at the socio-technical and institutional level. Research was carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam, on the

  11. Analysis of air pollution over Hanoi, Vietnam using multi-satellite and MERRA reanalysis datasets.

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    Kristofer Lasko

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the major environmental concerns in Vietnam. In this study, we assess the current status of air pollution over Hanoi, Vietnam using multiple different satellite datasets and weather information, and assess the potential to capture rice residue burning emissions with satellite data in a cloud-covered region. We used a timeseries of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI satellite data to characterize absorbing aerosols related to biomass burning. We also tested a timeseries of 3-hourly MERRA-2 reanalysis Black Carbon (BC concentration data for 5 years from 2012-2016 and explored pollution trends over time. We then used MODIS active fires, and synoptic wind patterns to attribute variability in Hanoi pollution to different sources. Because Hanoi is within the Red River Delta where rice residue burning is prominent, we explored trends to see if the residue burning signal is evident in the UVAI or BC data. Further, as the region experiences monsoon-influenced rainfall patterns, we adjusted the BC data based on daily rainfall amounts. Results indicated forest biomass burning from Northwest Vietnam and Laos impacts Hanoi air quality during the peak UVAI months of March and April. Whereas, during local rice residue burning months of June and October, no increase in UVAI is observed, with slight BC increase in October only. During the peak BC months of December and January, wind patterns indicated pollutant transport from southern China megacity areas. Results also indicated severe pollution episodes during December 2013 and January 2014. We observed significantly higher BC concentrations during nighttime than daytime with peaks generally between 2130 and 0030 local time. Our results highlight the need for better air pollution monitoring systems to capture episodic pollution events and their surface-level impacts, such as rice residue burning in cloud-prone regions in general and Hanoi, Vietnam in

  12. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam. (Special Issue: Public health in Vietnam: here's the data, where's the action?)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Thi Thanh, Toan; Hu, WenBiao; Pham Quang, Thai; Luu Ngoc, Hoat; Wright, P; Martens, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The

  13. The impact of 4Ps on Purchase Decision: A case of Apple in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Trung Thieu

    2016-01-01

    By using quantitative research methods and deductive reasoning, this research paper aims to address the importance of four marketing mix components (4Ps) on purchase decisions of customers of Apple Inc., by launching a survey in Hanoi, Vietnam, to generate primary data. The chosen sampling technique is quota sampling and several “quotas” were built. Descriptive analysis and hypothetical analysis (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Regression) using SPSS 20.0 are applied. Other implications of the rese...

  14. Sexual relationships among men who have sex with men in Hanoi, Vietnam: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Thanh, Vu Pham Nguyen; Allebeck, Peter; Popenoe, Rebecca

    2013-02-05

    The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam's two largest cities, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, may be above 10%. The aim of this study was to explore sexual relationship patterns and experiences among MSM in Hanoi, to inform HIV preventive efforts. Using purposive sampling we recruited 17 MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam, for in-depth interviews. Participants were aged between 19 and 48 years and came from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Content analysis was used. Almost all men in the study saw their same-sex attraction as part of their "nature". Many informants had secret but rich social lives within the MSM social circles in Hanoi. However, poor men had difficulties connecting to these networks. Lifetime sexual partner numbers ranged from one to 200. Seven participants had at some point in their lives been in relationships lasting from one to four years. For several men, relationships were not primarily centered on romantic feelings but instead intimately connected to economic and practical dependence. Sexual relationships varied greatly in terms of emotional attachment, commitment, trust, relationship ideals, sexual satisfaction and exchange of money or gifts. Faithfulness was highly valued but largely seen as unobtainable. Several informants felt strong family pressure to marry a woman and have children. This study contextualizes sexual relationships among MSM in Hanoi and highlights the extent to which HIV prevention activities need to not only consider HIV prevention in the context of casual sexual encounters but also how to adequately target preventive efforts that can reach MSM in relationships.

  15. Transfer method of conducting in the symphony orchestra of the Hanoi National Conservatory of Music, Vietnam

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    Parichat Wiang-in

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative designed and conducted with two primary research aims, which were: 1 To study the life and experiences of symphonic orchestra conductors in Hanoi, Vietnam; 2 To study the inheritance process for conductors of the symphonic orchestra in Hanoi, Vietnam. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected as the Vietnam National Academy of Music in Hanoi. The investigation began in October 2012 and was concluded in January 2014. The two key informants for this investigation were expert conductors and teachers at the academy, Dr. Nguyễn Phúc Linh and Dr. Nguyễn Thiếu Hoa. Data was collected from a combination of document analysis and field research. Tools used for data collection included interviews, participant and non-participant observation and focus group discussions. Results show that both of the key informants for this investigation were born into families of artists and had a particularly close relationship with traditional folk art. Scholarships to study abroad at the Tchaikovsky University, Russia enabled them to learn from Russian conductors and they developed the skills that have now led them to be recognized as being among the most accomplished conductors in Vietnam. The process of instruction preferred by these two academics is taught in three steps: the preparation stage, the teaching stage and the assessment and evaluation stage. The benefits of studying with Dr. Nguyễn Phúc Linh and Dr. Nguyễn Thiếu Hoa are the cumulative experiences of international conducting practices and the high standards that the two academics possess and demand.

  16. The impact of 4Ps on Purchase Decision: A case of Apple in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Bui Trung Thieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using quantitative research methods and deductive reasoning, this research paper aims to address the importance of four marketing mix components (4Ps on purchase decisions of customers of Apple Inc., by launching a survey in Hanoi, Vietnam, to generate primary data. The chosen sampling technique is quota sampling and several “quotas” were built. Descriptive analysis and hypothetical analysis (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Regression using SPSS 20.0 are applied. Other implications of the research and limitations were also discussed below.

  17. Construction of Urban 3-D Model of Hanoi, Vietnam Using FOSS Tools

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    Yonezawa, G.; Mitamura, M.; Sakurai, K.; Luan, T. X.; Raghavan, V.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.; Nonogaki, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate an urban transformation of Hanoi City, Vietnam from topographic changes in the 19-20 centuries. To analyze the relief of terrain and micro-topography for such an urban transfiguration, we need to generate the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) using the elevation survey data. DEM is a digital representation of ground surface topography and the most important element of topographic analysis for urban transfiguration. And, the three dimensional (3-D) mode of buildings which we generated from house map in Hanoi City can be also expressed apparently. It must be useful for an urban transformation because it is difficult to estimate how so many lakes and ponds disappeared by using two dimensional (2-D) spatial analysis only. We generated the DEM (8km x 8km) of Hanoi City from approximately 24,000 points data collected in 2005. This survey data was provided by Hanoi University of Mining and Geology (HUMG). Based on the surface estimation method using Cubic B-Spline Function, we generated this DEM at 2 meters resolution (Nonogaki et al., 2008). The very subtle elevation gaps which can not be distinguished on the satellite image are significantly recognizable on it. The example of the visualization of 3-D DEM is shown in Figure 1 using the NVIZ of visualization tool in GRASS GIS software. It is overlaid the Hanoi road map on the generated DEM. We generated the vector map of each block of houses in the Pho Co district in Hanoi City by using the house maps in 2005 which are provided by HUMG. It is consisted of 12,000 polygon data. These are converted the 3-D data (features) using the GIS software. This 3-D model is not only visualized the landscape in the Pho Co district accurately, but also reflected the elevation in this area. Thus, the 3-D features are built on DEM which is shown in Chapter 3. Therefore, we can create an overview of how the current urbanization is advancing in the area where the lakes and ponds existed in the past. Example of the

  18. Seasonality in mortality and its relationship to temperature among the older population in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have established a relationship between temperature and mortality. In particular, older populations have been shown to be vulnerable to temperature effects. However, little information exists on the temperature–mortality relationship in Vietnam. Objectives: This article aims to examine the monthly temperature–mortality relationship among older people in Hanoi, Vietnam, over the period between 2005 and 2010, and estimate seasonal patterns in mortality. Methods: We employed Generalized Additive Models, including smooth functions, to model the temperature–mortality relationships. A quasi-Poisson distribution was used to model overdispersion of death counts. Temporal trends, seasonality, and population size were adjusted for while estimating changes in monthly mortality over the study period. A cold month was defined as a month with a mean temperature below 19°C. Results: This study found that the high peak of mortality coincided with low temperatures in the month of February 2008, during which the mean temperature was the lowest in the whole study period. There was a significant relationship between mean monthly temperature and mortality among the older people (p<0.01. Overall, there was a significant decrease in the number of deaths in the year 2009 during the study period. There was a 21% increase in the number of deaths during the cold season compared to the warm season. The increase in mortality during the cold period was higher among females compared to males (female: IRR [incidence relative risk] =1.23; male: IRR=1.18. Conclusions: Cold temperatures substantially increased mortality among the older population in Hanoi, Vietnam, and there were gender differences. Necessary preventive measures are required to mitigate temperature effects with greater attention to vulnerable groups.

  19. Simulation of the impact of managed aquifer recharge on the groundwater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Glass, Jana; Via Rico, Daniela A.; Stefan, Catalin; Nga, Tran Thi Viet

    2018-05-01

    A transient numerical groundwater flow model using MODFLOW-NWT was set up and calibrated for Hanoi city, Vietnam, to understand the local groundwater flow system and to suggest solutions for sustainable water resource management. Urban development in Hanoi has caused a severe decline of groundwater levels. The present study evaluates the actual situation and investigates the suitability of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) to stop further depletion of groundwater resources. The results suggest that groundwater is being overexploited, as vast cones of depression exist in parts of the study area. Suitable locations to implement two MAR techniques—riverbank filtration and injection wells—were identified using multi-criteria decision analysis based on geographic information system (GIS). Three predictive scenarios were simulated. The relocation of pumping wells towards the Red River to induce riverbank filtration (first scenario) demonstrates that groundwater levels can be increased, especially in the depression cones. Groundwater levels can also be improved locally by the infiltration of surplus water into the upper aquifer (Holocene) via injection wells during the rainy season (second scenario), but this is not effective to raise the water table in the depression cones. Compared to the first scenario, the combination of riverbank filtration and injection wells (third scenario) shows a slightly raised overall water table. Groundwater flow modeling suggests that local overexploitation can be stopped by a smart relocation of wells from the main depression cones and the expansion of riverbank filtration. This could also avoid further land subsidence while the city's water demand is met.

  20. Holocene estuarine sediments as a source of arsenic in Pleistocene groundwater in suburbs of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Funabiki, Ayako; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater pollution by arsenic is a major health threat in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. The present study evaluates the effect of the sedimentary environments of the Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, and the recharge systems, on the groundwater arsenic pollution in Hanoi suburbs distant from the Red River. At two study sites (Linh Dam and Tai Mo communes), undisturbed soil cores identified a Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA) and Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) as major aquifers, and Holocene estuarine and deltaic sediments as an aquitard layer between the two aquifers. The Holocene estuarine sediments (approximately 25-40 m depth, 9.6-4.8 cal ka BP) contained notably high concentrations of arsenic and organic matter, both likely to have been accumulated by mangroves during the Holocene sea-level highstand. The pore waters in these particular sediments exhibited elevated levels of arsenic and dissolved organic carbon. Arsenic in groundwater was higher in the PCA (25-94 μg/L) than in the HUA (5.2-42 μg/L), in both the monitoring wells and neighboring household tubewells. Elevated arsenic concentration in the PCA groundwater was likely due to vertical infiltration through the arsenic-rich and organic-matter-rich overlying Holocene estuarine sediments, caused by massive groundwater abstraction from the PCA. Countermeasures to prevent arsenic pollution of the PCA groundwater may include seeking alternative water resources, reducing water consumption, and/or appropriate choice of aquifers for groundwater supply.

  1. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, H.; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing...... and there is a need to build more knowledge so that authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. 22 foods or food groups...... were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets...

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

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    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The costs of traumatic brain injury due to motorcycle accidents in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Vo Thuy TN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to estimate the costs, in the first year post-injury, of non-fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI in motorcycle users not wearing helmets in Hanoi, Vietnam. The costs are calculated from the perspective of the injured patients and their families, and include quantification of direct, indirect and intangible costs, using years lost due to disability as a proxy. Methods The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data on treatment and rehabilitation costs, employment and support were obtained from patients and their families using a structured questionnaire and The European Quality of Life instrument (EQ6D. Results Thirty-five patients and their families were interviewed. On average, patients with severe, moderate and minor TBI incurred direct costs at USD 2,365, USD 1,390 and USD 849, with time lost for normal activities averaging 54 weeks, 26 weeks and 17 weeks and years lived with disability (YLD of 0.46, 0.25 and 0.15 year, respectively. Conclusion All three component costs of TBI were high; the direct cost accounted for the largest proportion, with costs rising with the severity of TBI. The results suggest that the burden of TBI can be catastrophic for families because of high direct costs, significant time off work for patients and caregivers, and impact on health-related quality of life. Further research is warranted to explore the actual social and economic benefits of mandatory helmet use.

  4. Mental health literacy: knowledge of depression among undergraduate students in Hanoi, Vietnam.

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    Nguyen Thai, Quynh Chi; Nguyen, Thanh Huong

    2018-01-01

    Mental health literacy (MHL) refers to an individuals' knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, and prevention. This study aims to investigate the MHL of depression among public health and sociology undergraduate students in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to September 2015. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to 350 undergraduate students (213 public health majors; 137 sociology majors). Questions about MHL of depression were adapted from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health Literacy and Stigma. Question topics included recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, first-aid support, and knowledge about interventions to help people with depression. Chi squared tests were conducted to compare proportional statistics across groups for multiple measures. With regard to recognition of mental disorders, 32.0% of the respondents used the accurate label "depression" for the vignette. Among those who correctly identified depression, 82.1% would seek help. The corresponding statistic was 81.1% from those who did not recognize depression. Both groups would seek help from counselor, psychologist, family members, and close friends. First-aid support suggested by the respondents in both groups were informal sources ( to listen to her problem in an understanding way, to encourage her to be more physically active , etc.). The interventions considered most helpful by the respondents were self-help strategies such as learning how to relax , getting physically active , doing exercise early in the morning , and reading a self - help book . Joining a group of individuals with similar problems was chosen to be a helpful intervention among those who did not recognize depression (p depression believed that people with depression should be admitted to hospital for psychiatric treatment (p depression among undergraduate students in Vietnam. The

  5. Life time suicidal thoughts in an urban community in Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Leenaars Antoon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal thought is a risk factor and a stage in the suicidal process from planning to attempting and dying by suicide. To date, studies on suicidal thought in the general population, especially in Asian communities, have been limited. Method The WHO SUPRE-MISS (the multisite intervention study on suicidal behaviours community survey questionnaire was filled in for 2,280 randomly selected residents of the DongDa district of Hanoi, Vietnam by means of face-to-face interviews. This multi-factor questionnaire includes such variables as sociodemographic information, suicidal thought and history of suicide attempts, physical health, alcohol consumption and medication. Results Prevalence rates for life time suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts were 8.9%, 1.1% and 0.4% respectively. Suicidal thoughts are associated with multiple characteristics, such as female gender, single/widowed/separated/divorced marital status, low income, lifestyle (use of alcohol, sedatives and pain relief medication, but not with low education or employment status. Having no religion and being a Buddhist appear to be protective factors for suicidal thought. The ratio of suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts on a lifetime basis is 22.3:2.8:1. Conclusion In Vietnam, as in Western and other Asian countries, suicidal thoughts are associated with similar negative psychosocial risk factors, lifestyle and emotional problems, which implies that suicide preventive measure developed elsewhere can be adjusted to Vietnamese condition. Understanding the unique and common risks in a culture may assist in prediction and control.

  6. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

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    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer Preference and Attitude Regarding Online Food Products in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Dang, Anh; Xuan Tran, Bach; Tat Nguyen, Cuong; Thi Le, Huong; Thi Do, Hoa; Duc Nguyen, Hinh; Hoang Nguyen, Long; Huu Nguyen, Tu; Thi Mai, Hue; Dinh Tran, Tho; Ngo, Chau; Thi Minh Vu, Thuc; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2018-05-14

    This study aimed to examine: (1) how the Internet has changed consumers food-buying behavior and identify its associated factors; (2) consumers' concern about food safety information of online food products. A cross-sectional study was performed from October to December 2015 in Hanoi-a Vietnamese epicenter of food service. One thousand seven hundred and thirty six (1736) customers were randomly chosen from food establishments of 176 communes. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires. The majority of participants reported using the Internet to search for food products (81.3%). The most crucial factors influencing food purchases through the Internet were convenience (69.1%) and price (59.3%). Only one-third of participants selected products based on accurate evidence about food safety certification or food origin. The majority of participants were concerned about the expiration date (51.6%), while brand (9.8%) and food licensing information (11.3%) were often neglected. People who were:(1) female, (2) highly influenced by online relationships, and (3) having difficulty in doing usual activities were more likely to look for online food products. These findings produce practical advice to consumers when purchasing their desired food products on the Internet, to online food retailers and to the Government of Vietnam to implement appropriate legislation regarding trading online food products.

  8. Avian Influenza H5N1 and the Wild Bird Trade in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brooks-Moizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife trade and emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health and global biodiversity. Legal and illegal trade in domestic and wild birds has played a significant role in the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which has killed more than 240 people, many millions of poultry, and an unknown number of wild birds and mammals, including endangered species, since 2003. This 2007 study provides evidence for a significant decline in the scale of the wild bird trade in Hanoi since previous surveys in 2000 (39.7% decline and 2003 (74.1% decline. We attribute this to the enforcement of Vietnam's Law 169/2005/QD UBND, introduced in 2005, which prohibits the movement and sale of wild and ornamental birds in cities. Nevertheless, 91.3% (21/23 of bird vendors perceived no risk of H5N1 infection from their birds, and the trade continues, albeit at reduced levels, in open market shops. These findings highlight the importance of continued law enforcement to maintain this trade reduction and the associated benefits to human and animal health and biodiversity conservation.

  9. Finding Sex Partners Through Social Media Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aparna; Nguyen, Minh; Giang, Le Minh; Ha, Tran Viet; Bhadra, Madhura; Nguyen, Sang Minh; Vu, Viet Duc; Nguyen, Quynh T; Miller, William C; Go, Vivian F

    2018-02-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in low and middle income countries search for male sexual partners via social media in part due to societal stigma and discrimination, yet little is known about the sexual risk profiles of MSM social media users. This cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of social media use to find male sex partners in Hanoi, Vietnam and examines associations between social media use and sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including levels of internalized, perceived and enacted stigma, high-risk sexual behaviors, and HIV testing. 205 MSM were recruited from public venues where MSM congregate as well as through snowball sampling and completed an anonymous survey. MSM who found their male sexual partners using social media in the last year were more likely to have completed a university or higher degree (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.7), experience high levels of MSM-related perceived stigma (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1-8.0), and have more than ten lifetime male sexual partners (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3-7.6) compared to those who did not use social media. A niche for social media-based interventions integrating health and stigma-reduction strategies exists in HIV prevention programs for MSM.

  10. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    The moss technique is widely used to monitor atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in many countries in Europe, whereas this technique is scarcely used in Asia. To implement this international reliable and cheap methodology in the Asian countries, it is necessary to find proper moss types typical for the Asian environment and suitable for the biomonitoring purposes. Such a case study was undertaken in Vietnam for assessing the environmental situation in strongly contaminated areas using local species of moss Barbula indica. The study is focused on two areas characterized by different pollution sources: the Hanoi urban area and the Thainguyen metallurgical zone. Fifty-four moss samples were collected there according to standard sampling procedure adopted in Europe. Two complementary analytical techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were used for determination of elemental concentrations in moss samples. To characterize the pollution sources, multivariate statistical analysis was applied. A total of 38 metal elements were determined in the moss by the two analytical techniques. The results of descriptive statistics of metal concentration in moss from the city center and periphery of Hanoi determined by AAS are presented. The similar results for moss from Thainguyen province determined by INAA and AAS are given also. A comparison of mean elemental concentrations in moss of this work with those in different environmental conditions of other authors provides reasonable information on heavy metal atmospheric deposition levels. Factor loadings and factor scores were used to identify and apportion contamination sources at the sampling sites. The values of percentage of total of factors show two highly different types of pollution in the two examined areas-the Hanoi pollution composition with high portion of urban-traffic activity and soil dust (62%), and the one of Thainguyen with factors related to industrial

  11. Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Manh Hoai; Nguyen Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen Hung Minh; Pham Hung Viet; Berg, Michael; Alder, Alfredo C.; Giger, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence, temporal trend, sources and toxicity of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were investigated in sediment samples from the sewer system of Hanoi City, including the rivers Nhue, To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu and the Yen So Lake. In general, the concentrations of the pollutants followed the order DDTs > PCBs > HCHs (β-HCH) > HCB. However, the pollution pattern was different for the DDTs and PCBs when the sampling locations were individually evaluated. The concentrations of the DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, and HCB ranged from 4.4 to 1100, 1.3 to 384, <0.2 to 36 and <0.2 to 22 ng/g d.w., respectively. These levels are higher than at any other location in Vietnam. Compared to measurements from 1997, the DDTs, PCBs, β-HCH and HCB levels show an increasing trend with DDT/DDE ratios, indicating very recent inputs into the environment although these persistent compounds are banned in Vietnam since 1995. - Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were studied in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi.

  12. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  13. Seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza A (H5 and A (H9 viruses among market poultry workers, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2001.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Uyeki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The frequency of avian influenza A virus infections among poultry workers is not well understood. METHODS: A seroprevalence study of market poultry workers and persons without occupational poultry exposure was conducted during 2001 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sera were tested for avian influenza H5 and H9 antibodies by microneutralization and Western blot assays. RESULTS: Seroprevalence of H5 and H9 antibodies was 4% and 3% in poultry workers and 1% and 3.5% in non-poultry workers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of H5 and H9 antibodies was low among Hanoi market poultry workers in 2001, but can serve as a baseline for additional studies.

  14. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza A (H5) and A (H9) Viruses among Market Poultry Workers, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Huynh, Lien P.; Hang, Nguyen L. K.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequency of avian influenza A virus infections among poultry workers is not well understood. Methods A seroprevalence study of market poultry workers and persons without occupational poultry exposure was conducted during 2001 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sera were tested for avian influenza H5 and H9 antibodies by microneutralization and Western blot assays. Results Seroprevalence of H5 and H9 antibodies was 4% and 3% in poultry workers and 1% and 3.5% in non-poultry workers, respectively. Conclusions Seroprevalence of H5 and H9 antibodies was low among Hanoi market poultry workers in 2001, but can serve as a baseline for additional studies. PMID:22928049

  15. Homosexuality-related stigma and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Huy; Risser, Jan M H; Ross, Michael W; Huynh, Nhung T; Nguyen, Huong T M

    2015-02-01

    This article examined the associations between three forms of homosexuality-related stigma (enacted, perceived, and internalized homosexual stigmas) with risky sexual behaviors, and to describe the mechanisms of these associations, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 451 MSM into a cross-sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Data were adjusted for recruitment patterns due to the RDS approach; logistic regression and path analyses were performed. Participants were young and single; most had attended at least some college. Nine out of ten participants engaged in sexual behaviors at moderate to high risk levels. Compared to those who had no enacted homosexual stigma, men having low and high levels of enacted homosexual stigma, respectively, were 2.23 times (95 % CI 1.35-3.69) and 2.20 times (95 % CI 1.04-4.76) more likely to engage in high levels of sexual risk behaviors. In addition, there was an indirect effect of perceived homosexual stigma and internalized homosexual stigma on sexual risk behaviors through depression and drug and alcohol use. Our study provides valuable information to our understanding of homosexual stigma in Vietnam, highlighting the need for provision of coping skills against stigma to the gay community and addressing drinking and drug use among MSM, to improve the current HIV prevention interventions in Vietnam.

  16. TerraSAR-X time-series interferometry detects human-induce subsidence in the Historical Centre of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Nguyen, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Hanoi was the capital of 12 Vietnamese dynasties, where the most historical relics, archaeological ruins and ancient monuments are located over Vietnam. However, those heritage assets are threatened by the land subsidence process occurred in recent decades, which mainly triggered by massive groundwater exploitation and construction activities. In this work, we use a set of high resolution TerraSAR-X images to map small-scale land subsidence patterns in the Historical Centre of Hanoi from April 2012 to November 2013. Images oversampling is integrated into the Small Baseline InSAR processing chain in order to enlarge the monitoring coverage by increasing the point-wise measurements, maintaining the monitoring scale of single building and monument. We analyzed over 2.4 million radar targets on 13.9 km2 area of interest based on 2 main sites: The Citadel, the Old Quarter and French Quarter. The highest subsidence rate recorded is -14.2 mm/year. Most of the heritage assets are considered as stable except the Roman Catholic Archdiocese and the Ceramic Mosaic Mural with the subsidence rates are -14.2 and -13.7 mm/year, respectively. Eventually, optical image and soil properties map are used to determine the causes of subsidence patterns. The result shows the strong relationships between the existing construction sites, the component of sediments and land subsidence processes that occurred in the study site.

  17. Commodification and Politicization of Heritage: Implications for Heritage Tourism at the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, Hanoi (Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong T. Bui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study deconstructs the process of turning heritage resources into tourism products. A case study of the Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, a UNESCO World Heritage site located in the capital city of Vietnam, Hanoi, provides an in-depth understanding of the plural use of heritage. Findings from the study reveal issues of heritage dissonance inherent in the process of resource selection, interpretation, and targeting for different audiences. It is apparent that commodification cannot be separated from the politicization of heritage. In the case of heritage of national importance and international significance, politicization has been prioritized and results in diminishing the utilization of heritage for commercial purposes such as tourism.

  18. Air Pollution Modeling at Road Sides Using the Operational Street Pollution Model-A Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2010-01-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out...... in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses...... the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide...

  19. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  20. Shifting configurations of shopping practices and food safety dynamics in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Spaargaren, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical analysis of contemporary practices of shopping for vegetables in the highly dynamic context of urban Hanoi during the period from 1975 to 2014. Focusing on everyday shopping practices from a food safety perspective, we assess the extent to which the policy-enforced

  1. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza A (H5) and A (H9) Viruses among Market Poultry Workers, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Uyeki, Timothy M.; Nguyen, Doan C.; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Huynh, Lien P.; Hang, Nguyen L. K.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of avian influenza A virus infections among poultry workers is not well understood. METHODS: A seroprevalence study of market poultry workers and persons without occupational poultry exposure was conducted during 2001 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sera were tested for avian influenza H5 and H9 antibodies by microneutralization and Western blot assays. RESULTS: Seroprevalence of H5 and H9 antibodies was 4% and 3% in poultry workers and 1% and 3.5% in non-poultry workers, respect...

  2. Evaluating Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Processors and Sellers Working in Food Facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; DO, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Luong Thanh; Boggiano, Victoria; LE, Huong Thi; LE, Xuan Thanh Thi; Trinh, Ngoc Bao; DO, Khanh Nam; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Dang, Anh Kim; Mai, Hue Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Than, Selena; Latkin, Carl A

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of fast food and street food is increasingly common among Vietnamese, particularly in large cities. The high daily demand for these convenient food services, together with a poor management system, has raised concerns about food hygiene and safety (FHS). This study aimed to examine the FHS knowledge and practices of food processors and sellers in food facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam, and to identify their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,760 food processors and sellers in restaurants, fast food stores, food stalls, and street vendors in Hanoi in 2015. We assessed each participant's FHS knowledge using a self-report questionnaire and their FHS practices using a checklist. Tobit regression was used to determine potential factors associated with FHS knowledge and practices, including demographics, training experience, and frequency of health examination. Overall, we observed a lack of FHS knowledge among respondents across three domains, including standard requirements for food facilities (18%), food processing procedures (29%), and food poisoning prevention (11%). Only 25.9 and 38.1% of participants used caps and masks, respectively, and 12.8% of food processors reported direct hand contact with food. After adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics, these factors significantly predicted increased FHS knowledge and practice scores: (i) working at restaurants and food stalls, (ii) having FHS training, (iii) having had a physical examination, and (iv) having taken a stool test within the last year. These findings highlight the need of continuous training to improve FHS knowledge and practices among food processors and food sellers. Moreover, regular monitoring of food facilities, combined with medical examination of their staff, should be performed to ensure food safety.

  3. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  4. Content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in sediments of rivers receiving wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcussen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from Hanoi city is discharged into rivers that supply water for various agricultural and aquacultural food production systems. The aim of this study was to assess the content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in the sediment and pore water of the main wastewater receiving rivers. The sediment was polluted with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) with maximum concentrations of 73 As, 427 Cd, 281 Cr, 240 Cu, 218 Ni, 363 Pb, 12.5 Sb and 1240 Zn mg kg -1 d.w. Observed distribution coefficients (log 10 K d,obs ) were calculated as the ratio between sediment (mg kg -1 d.w.) and pore water (mg L -1 ) concentrations. Maxima log 10 K d,obs were >4.26 Cd, >6.60 Cu, 4.78 Ni, 7.01 Pb and 6.62 Zn. The high values show a strong PTE retention and indicate the importance of both sorption and precipitation as retention mechanisms. Sulphide precipitation was a likely mechanism due to highly reduced conditions. - Sorption and precipitation processes are important in retention of potentially toxic elements in Hanoi river sediment and prevent elements entering food production systems

  5. High HIV Prevalence and Risk Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadol, Patrick; Hoang, Tran Vu; Le, Linh-Vi; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014. Recruited FSWs were asked to refer one male client to the study. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected from FSWs and male clients by administered questionnaires. Biologic specimens collected from male clients were tested for HIV and opiates. Sampling weights, calculated based on the FSWs probability of being selected for enrolment, were applied to prevalence estimates for both FSWs and male clients. Logistic regression models were developed to obtain odds ratios for HIV infection among male clients. A total of 804 male clients were enrolled. Overall, HIV prevalence among male clients was 10.2%; HIV prevalence was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-27.9%) among those reporting a history of illegal drug use and 32.4% (95% CI 20.2-47.7%) among those with opioids detected in urine. HIV prevalence among male clients did not differ across 'bridging' categories defined by condom use with FSWs and regular partners over the previous 6 months. HIV among male clients was associated with a reported history of illegal drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.87-7.56), current opioid use (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.02-6.36), and being referred by an FSW who self-reported as HIV-positive (OR 5.37; 95% CI 1.46-19.75). Self-reported HIV prevalence among enrolled FSWs was 2.8%. Based on HIV test results of male clients and self-reported status from FSWs, an estimated 12.1% of male client-FSW pairs were sero-discordant. These

  6. Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jørgensen, Karin; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of 38 elements in soil and water spinach cultivated under different degrees of wastewater exposure...... in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed no effect of wastewater use on the overall element concentrations in soil and water spinach. Mean soil concentrations for selected potentially toxic elements at the studied field sites had the following ranges 9.11-18.7 As, 0.333-0.667 Cd, 10.8-14.5 Co, 68-122 Cr, 34...... concentrations in water spinach were 0.139 As, 0.032 Cd, 0.135 Cr, 2.01 Cu, 39.1 Fe, 57.3 Mn, 0.16 Ni, 0.189 Pb and 6.01 Zn mg kg(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). The site and soil content of organic carbon were found to have high influence on the water spinach element concentrations whereas soil pH and the total soil...

  7. The economic burden of pneumonia and meningitis among children less than five years old in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuc; Griffiths, Ulla K; Anh, Dang D; Franzini, Luisa; Chan, Wenyaw; Pham, Ha; Swint, John M

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the average treatment costs of pneumonia and meningitis among children under five years of age in a tertiary hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam from societal, health sector and household perspectives. We used a cost-of-illness approach to identify cost categories to be included for different perspectives. A prospective survey was conducted among eligible patients to get detailed personal costing items. From the perspective of the health sector, the mean costs for treating a case of pneumonia and meningitis were USD 180 and USD 300, respectively. From the household's perspective, the average treatment costs were USD 272 for pneumonia and USD 534 for meningitis. When also including indirect costs, the average total treatment costs from the societal perspective were USD 318 for pneumonia and USD 727 for meningitis. The study contributed to limited evidence on the high treatment costs of pneumonia and meningitis to the Vietnamese society, which is useful for a cost-effectiveness analysis of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine or other relevant disease preventions. It also indicated a need to re-evaluate the health insurance policy for children under 6 years old, so that the unnecessarily high out-of-pocket costs of these diseases are reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Enhancing students’ cognitive skill in Nguyen Tat Thanh high school Hanoi Vietnam through scientific learning material of static electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanto, A.; Linuwih, S.; Aji, M. P.; Bich, D. D.

    2018-03-01

    Scientific learning material is still needed by students at Nguyen Tat Thanh High School (NTT), Hanoi Vietnam in order to enhance the students’ cognitive skill. Cognitive skill represents the level of students’ understanding to the particular material. Students’ cognitive skill can be improved by applying the learning material based on scientific approach as a treatment. The enhancement of students’ cognitive skill can be measured by analyzing the students’ test result collected before and after treatment. The analysis is focused to measure the enhancement or the sifted of cognitive aspects including remembering aspect (C1), understanding aspect (C2), applying aspect (C3), analyzing aspect (C4), and evaluating aspect (C5). According to the analysis the enhancement of cognitive aspects are 8.26% of remembering, 3.26% of understanding, 32.94% of applying, 21.74% of analyzing, and 21.74% of evaluating. The major enhancements are occured at applying, analyzing, and evaluating aspects. Therefore it can be concluded that students’ cognitive skill is enhanced by applying scientific learning material of static electricity.

  9. Genotype X/C recombinant (putative genotype I) of hepatitis B virus is rare in Hanoi, Vietnam--genotypes B4 and C1 predominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thi Bich Thuy; Alestig, Erik; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Hannoun, Charles; Lindh, Magnus

    2010-08-01

    There are eight known genotypes of hepatitis B virus, A-H, and several subgenotypes, with rather well-defined geographic distributions. HBV genotypes were evaluated in 153 serum samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. Of the 87 samples that could be genotyped, genotype B was found in 67 (77%) and genotype C in 19 (22%). All genotype C strains were of subgenotype C1, and the majority of genotype B strains were B4, while a few were B2. The genotype X/C recombinant strain, identified previously in Swedish patients of indigenous Vietnamese origin, was found in one sample. This variant, proposed to be classified as genotype I, has been found recently also by others in Vietnam and Laos. The current study indicates that the genotype X/C recombinant may represent approximately 1% of the HBV strains circulating in Vietnam. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The effects of innovation on firm performance of supporting industries in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, N.; Nhan, N.; Giang, P.; Ngoc, N.

    2016-07-01

    Innovation, including product, process, marketing, and organizational innovation within a firm, is considered as one of essential component for surviving and growing. These innovation activities create value and competitive advantages for successful organizations; therefore, understanding the organization’s overall innovation is the first and foremost to understand the role of innovation on firm performance. The objective of this research is to explore two parts: the impacts of innovation on the different aspect of innovation performance, then their effects to firm performance (production, market, and financial performance). This study uses primary data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire involves 4 parts including general information, innovation activities; innovative performance, and firm performance. This research focuses on firms in supporting industries of mechanics, electronics, motorbike and automobile. These firms are in a list of companies (known as The Excellent Vietnamese Companies in Northern and Central Vietnam) established by JETRO and VCCI. There are 150 firms in this list. The questionnaire survey was administered to directors, CEO of those firms during April and May, 2014. Out of the 150 questionnaires sent out, 118 were valid, accounting for 78.7% of the true response rate. Analysis methodologies of reliability, factor analysis and regression are utilized in this paper. The result demonstrated there are positive effects of process, marketing, and organizational innovations on firm performance in supporting firms. More specifically, the higher the level of innovation activities is, the greater the innovative performance is, which means the larger level of Process, organization and marketing innovation activities are, the higher level of innovative performance are likely to be. Secondly, the higher level of Process, organization and marketing innovative performance, the better level of firm performances is likely to be. To sum up, in

  11. The effects of innovation on firm performance of supporting industries in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Innovation, including product, process, marketing, and organizational innovation within a firm, is considered as one of essential component for surviving and growing. These innovation activities create value and competitive advantages for successful organizations; therefore, understanding the organization’s overall innovation is the first and foremost to understand the role of innovation on firm performance. The objective of this research is to explore two parts: the impacts of innovation on the different aspect of innovation performance, then their effects to firm performance (production, market, and financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses primary data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire involves 4 parts including general information, innovation activities; innovative performance, and firm performance. This research focuses on firms in supporting industries of mechanics, electronics, motorbike and automobile. These firms are in a list of companies (known as The Excellent Vietnamese Companies in Northern and Central Vietnam established by JETRO and VCCI. There are 150 firms in this list. The questionnaire survey was administered to directors, CEO of those firms during April and May, 2014. Out of the 150 questionnaires sent out, 118 were valid, accounting for 78.7% of the true response rate. Analysis methodologies of reliability, factor analysis and regression are utilized in this paper. Findings: The result demonstrated there are positive effects of process, marketing, and organizational innovations on firm performance in supporting firms. More specifically, the higher the level of innovation activities is, the greater the innovative performance is, which means the larger level of Process, organization and marketing innovation activities are, the higher level of innovative performance are likely to be. Secondly, the higher level of Process, organization and marketing innovative performance, the

  12. Financial analysis of poultry commodity chains in Hanoi Suburb, North of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Dang, Thang; Vu Dinh, Ton; Dogot, Thomas; Lebailly, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poultry production plays an important role in the structure of familial incomes in Vietnam but this activity is currently met with difficulties caused by the great influence of inputs/outputs on the markets and the risks of epidemic diseases. This research was conducted for interviews and records according to book keeping among 280 poultry smallholders; 100 intermediary agents of poultry meat supply chains at the various scales of poultry supply chains and the diversification o...

  13. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  14. Fate of Arsenic during Red River Water Infiltration into Aquifers beneath Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Dieke; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoa; Lan, Vi Mai; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Sø, Helle Ugilt; Nhan, Pham Quy; Larsen, Flemming; Viet, Pham Hung; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-17

    Recharge of Red River water into arsenic-contaminated aquifers below Hanoi was investigated. The groundwater age at 40 m depth in the aquifer underlying the river was 1.3 ± 0.8 years, determined by tritium-helium dating. This corresponds to a vertical flow rate into the aquifer of 19 m/year. Electrical conductivity and partial pressure of CO 2 (P CO 2 ) indicate that water recharged from the river is present in both the sandy Holocene and gravelly Pleistocene aquifers and is also abstracted by the pumping station. Infiltrating river water becomes anoxic in the uppermost aquifer due to the oxidation of dissolved organic carbon. Further downward, sedimentary carbon oxidation causes the reduction of As-containing Fe-oxides. Because the release of arsenic by reduction of Fe-oxides is controlled by the reaction rate, arsenic entering the solution becomes highly diluted in the high water flux and contributes little to the groundwater arsenic concentration. Instead, the As concentration in the groundwater of up to 1 μM is due to equilibrium-controlled desorption of arsenic, adsorbed to the sediment before river water started to infiltrate due to municipal pumping. Calculations indicate that it will take several decades of river water infiltration to leach arsenic from the Holocene aquifer to below the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L.

  15. Fate of Arsenic during Red River Water Infiltration into Aquifers beneath Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recharge of Red River water into arsenic-contaminated aquifers below Hanoi was investigated. The groundwater age at 40 m depth in the aquifer underlying the river was 1.3 ± 0.8 years, determined by tritium–helium dating. This corresponds to a vertical flow rate into the aquifer of 19 m/year. Electrical conductivity and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) indicate that water recharged from the river is present in both the sandy Holocene and gravelly Pleistocene aquifers and is also abstracted by the pumping station. Infiltrating river water becomes anoxic in the uppermost aquifer due to the oxidation of dissolved organic carbon. Further downward, sedimentary carbon oxidation causes the reduction of As-containing Fe-oxides. Because the release of arsenic by reduction of Fe-oxides is controlled by the reaction rate, arsenic entering the solution becomes highly diluted in the high water flux and contributes little to the groundwater arsenic concentration. Instead, the As concentration in the groundwater of up to 1 μM is due to equilibrium-controlled desorption of arsenic, adsorbed to the sediment before river water started to infiltrate due to municipal pumping. Calculations indicate that it will take several decades of river water infiltration to leach arsenic from the Holocene aquifer to below the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. PMID:27958705

  16. Protocol for hospital based-surveillance of cerebral palsy (CP) in Hanoi using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance mechanism (PAEDS-Vietnam): a study towards developing hospital-based disease surveillance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Gulam; Van Bang, Nguyen; Dũng, Trịnh Quang; Giang, Nguyen Thi Huong; Chau, Cao Minh; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi; Van Thuong, Nguyen; Badawi, Nadia; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-09

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam. These essential baseline data will inform future health service planning, health professional education and training, and family support. This is a hospital-based prospective surveillance of children with CP presenting to the rehabilitation, neurology and general paediatric services at the National Children's Hospital and St Paul Hospital in Hanoi. We will use active, prospective daily case-finding for all children with CP aged CP, known risk factors for CP, and nutrition, immunisation, education and rehabilitation status. This study was approved by the Hanoi Medical University Institutional Review Board (decision no 1722) and The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (approval no 2016/456). Establishment of PAEDS-Vietnam will enable hospital-based surveillance of CP for the first time in Vietnam. It will identify preventable causes of CP, patient needs and service gaps, and facilitate early diagnosis and intervention. Study findings will be disseminated through local and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Social Support as a Key Protective Factor against Depression in HIV-Infected Patients: Report from large HIV clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Takahashi, Kenzo; Tanuma, Junko; Mizushima, Daisuke; Do, Cuong Duy; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Nguyen, Hoai Dung Thi; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental health issue among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study explored how different types and sources of social support are associated with depression among HIV-infected patients in Vietnam. We carried out a cross-sectional survey on 1,503 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at two HIV clinics in Hanoi in 2016. Depression was prevalent in 26.2% of participants. Higher score of social support, especially emotional/informational supp...

  18. Helminth infections among people using wastewater and human excreta in peri-urban agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thuy Trang; Mølbak, Kåre; Phung, Dac Cam; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of helminth infections and their associated risks in a community using both wastewater and human excreta in agriculture and aquaculture. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a peri-urban area in Hanoi, Vietnam. Data on the demography, socioeconomics and sanitation were collected from a survey of 400 agricultural households. Parasitological examination for the eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and hookworm was performed on single stool specimens obtained from study household members' 15-70 years and 0-72 months of age. Of 807 stool samples collected from 620 adults and 187 children, 39% were infected with helminths. The prevalence of infections with Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and hookworm was 21.6%, 9.8% and 21.8%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that being an adult, female gender, living in a household without a latrine, excreta composted for less than 1 month and use of fresh human excreta were significantly associated with co-infection with all three helminths. Being an adult was an independent determinant for infections with individual helminths. The absence of a latrine and use of stored urine for irrigation were associated with an increased risk of Ascaris infection. Risk factors for Trichuris infection were inadequately composted excreta and year-round wastewater contact; risk factors for hookworm infection were female gender, household without a latrine and use of fresh human excreta. Wastewater exposure did not pose a major risk for helminth infection in this community. Instead, lack of sanitation facilities and use of fresh or inadequately composted human excreta in agriculture were important risk factors.

  19. Social Support as a Key Protective Factor against Depression in HIV-Infected Patients: Report from large HIV clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Takahashi, Kenzo; Tanuma, Junko; Mizushima, Daisuke; Do, Cuong Duy; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Nguyen, Hoai Dung Thi; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-11-14

    Depression is the most common mental health issue among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study explored how different types and sources of social support are associated with depression among HIV-infected patients in Vietnam. We carried out a cross-sectional survey on 1,503 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at two HIV clinics in Hanoi in 2016. Depression was prevalent in 26.2% of participants. Higher score of social support, especially emotional/informational support and positive social interaction, showed significant association with lower depression rate. Although family was primary source of all types of social support, receiving emotional/informational support not only from family but also from outside of family correlated with a lower proportion of depression. In countries with constrained social resources and/or with family-oriented social structures, as in Vietnam, expanding social networks between HIV populations and society is a potentially important option for reducing depression.

  20. Contamination by arsenic and other trace elements in tube-well water and its risk assessment to humans in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Fujihara, Junko; Kubota, Reiji; Minh, Tu Binh; Kim Trang, Pham Thi; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of As and other trace elements and their association were examined in groundwater (n=25) and human hair (n=59) collected at Gia Lam District and Thanh Tri District, suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, in September 2001. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from <0.10 to 330 μg/l, with about 40% of these exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. Also, 76% and 12% of groundwater samples had higher concentrations of Mn and Ba than WHO drinking water guidelines, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in hair of residents in Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts (range 0.088-2.77 μg/g dry wt.) were lower than those in other As-contaminated areas of the world, but were higher than those of people in non-contaminated areas. Concentrations of As and Mn in hair of some individuals from the Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts exceeded the level associated with their toxicity and, therefore, a potential health risk of As and Mn is a concern for the people consuming the contaminated water in this area. Cumulative As exposure was estimated to be lower than the threshold levels at the present, which might explain the absence of manifestations of chronic As poisoning and arsenicosis in the residents of Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts. To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time that the residents are exposed not only to As but also Mn and Ba from groundwater in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. - High concentrations of arsenic, manganese and barium were found in tube-well water and human hair in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practice on and willingness to pay for human papillomavirus vaccine: a cross-sectional study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Than, Phung Tat Quoc; Doan, Tien Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Thi Mai, Hue; Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi; Le, Huong Thi; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Roger Cm

    2018-01-01

    Despite its effectiveness in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the rate of uptake of the HPV vaccine is low in Vietnam. This study aimed to investigate barriers related to knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) about the HPV vaccine and willingness to pay (WTP) for the vaccine among those using services in an urban vaccination clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a vaccination clinic of the Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March to April 2016. KAP on the HPV vaccine was collected using a structured questionnaire. Double-bounded dichotomous-choice questions with open-ended questions were used to examine the WTP of respondents. Interval regression and stepwise logistic models were used to identify factors associated with WTP and the average amount that people would be willing to pay for the vaccine. Of 492 vaccination service users, 67.9%, 94.6%, and 12.3% of respondents were aware of the best age for HPV vaccination, its benefits, and the target group for vaccination, respectively. While the majority believed that the HPV vaccine was safe (92.8%) and effective (90.8%), and desired to be vaccinated (71.1%), only 31.8% of users were vaccinated. Most of the respondents were willing to pay for the HPV vaccine (86.6%), and willing to pay an average amount of US$49.3. Those aged 20-29 years and earning more than 22 million VND/month (very rich) were more likely to pay for the HPV vaccine than people aged pay for the vaccine at a lower price than individuals with below secondary-level education and who had not heard about the vaccine from these health professionals. Sexual health education and financial assistance should be imparted alongside the HPV vaccination program.

  2. The use of technology to find sexual health information online among men who have sex with men in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh X; Krishnan, Aparna; Le, Giang M; Nguyen, Quynh T; Bhadra, Nia M; Nguyen, Sang M; Miller, William C; Go, Vivian F

    2018-04-01

    In an era where mobile phones and computers are ubiquitous, technology-based interventions to reduce HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have great potential to reach high-risk groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to examine technology usage to find sexual health information online among MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study of 205 MSM in Hanoi was conducted from February to May 2016. Overall, 50.7% of participants reported having used a smartphone, computer, or tablet to find HIV/STI testing locations in the past year, and 75.1% reported having used such devices to find other HIV/STI information online. Unemployment (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.00-1.28) and having been tested for HIV (aPR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.07-1.51) were significantly associated with using technology to find online sexual health information. MSM who had ever exchanged sex for money or drugs (aPR: 0.80; 95%CI: 0.68-0.94) were less likely to use technology to find sexual health information online. Technology is a promising platform for HIV/STI prevention programs among MSM, with the potential to reach different subgroups. Further efforts to develop technology-based interventions tailored to the needs of the MSM communities in Hanoi and to encourage MSM who were not currently seeking sexual health information and testing services online to do so are necessary.

  3. Nutrient management and institutional cooperation as conditions for environmentally safe wastewater irrigation: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, F.P.; van Vliet, Bas J.M.; Dung, N.V.; Van, D.T.H.; Ragab, Ragab; Koo-Oshima, Sasha

    2006-01-01

    Hanoi is rapidly growing in population and in economic activities. Increasing volumes of domestic and industrial wastewater flows are discharged mostly untreated into the drainage system. At downstream level, these polluted, nutrient rich waters are used for irrigation. Nutrient concentrations in

  4. Correlates of HIV-1 viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michael R; La, Hanh; Nguyen, Hien Duc; Sheehan, Heidi; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Van Dang, Duong; Hellinger, James; Wanke, Christine; Tang, Alice M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Injection drug users bear the burden of HIV in Vietnam and are a focus of national treatment programs. To date, determinants of successful therapy in this population are unknown. Substance use and clinical correlates of viral suppression were studied in 100 HIV-1 infected drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months in Hanoi, Vietnam. Mean age of the cohort was 29.9 + 4.9 years; all were men. A majority of patients (73%) achieved viral suppression (HIV-RNA 95% adherence (p<0.01) and current use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p<0.01); current or ever diagnosed with tuberculosis was associated with viral non-suppression (p=0.006). Tobacco use was prevalent (84%), and surprisingly 48% of patients reported active drug use; neither was associated with viral non-suppression. This is the first study to document successful ART treatment in a population of Vietnamese drug users; rates of viral suppression are comparable to other international populations. The 28% of patients without HIV-1 suppression highlights the need for adherence promotion, risk reduction programs, and population based surveillance strategies for assessing the emergence of HIV drug resistance in settings where access to viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. PMID:19451329

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses, Including Highly Pathogenic H5N1, from Poultry in Live Bird Markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan C.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Jadhao, Samadhan; Maines, Taronna; Shaw, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Smith, Catherine; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Balish, Amanda; Klimov, Alexander; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Swayne, David E.; Huynh, Lien P. T.; Nghiem, Ha K.; Nguyen, Hanh H. T.; Hoang, Long T.; Cox, Nancy J.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia. PMID:15767421

  6. Microbial contamination along the main open wastewater and storm water channel of Hanoi, Vietnam, and potential health risks for urban farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Cissé, Guéladio; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Thu Ha, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Ngoc, Pham; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Anh Vuong, Tuan; Utzinger, Jürg; Schindler, Christian; Winkler, Mirko S.

    2016-01-01

    assessed the wastewater systems in reducing microbial contamination in Hanoi, Vietnam. • We found that bacterial contamination in water used in agricultural field exceeds safety limits. • We propose a series of control measures that would allow reducing microbial contamination. • This paper can guide cities in Asia on how to work towards the Sustainable Development Goal 6.3 linked to safe use of wastewater.

  7. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheim Heiman FL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP. Results Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6% or street vendors (34.1%. The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604–1551. Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09 or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96. Conclusions High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective

  8. Microbial contamination along the main open wastewater and storm water channel of Hanoi, Vietnam, and potential health risks for urban farmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.fuhrimann@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pham-Duc, Phuc [Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cissé, Guéladio [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Thu Ha, Hoang [Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dung, Do Trung [Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Malaria, Parasitology, and Entomology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ngoc, Pham [Department of Animal Hygiene, National Institute for Veterinary Research, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen-Viet, Hung [Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi (Viet Nam); International Livestock Research Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Anh Vuong, Tuan [Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Utzinger, Jürg; Schindler, Christian; Winkler, Mirko S. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    . - Highlights: • We assessed the wastewater systems in reducing microbial contamination in Hanoi, Vietnam. • We found that bacterial contamination in water used in agricultural field exceeds safety limits. • We propose a series of control measures that would allow reducing microbial contamination. • This paper can guide cities in Asia on how to work towards the Sustainable Development Goal 6.3 linked to safe use of wastewater.

  9. Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Ngo Thi Thanh; Mundy, Gary; Neukom, Josselyn; Zule, William; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Tam, Nguyen Minh

    2015-05-30

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that low dead space syringes may reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus infection associated with sharing syringes among people who inject drugs, there is little evidence of effective approaches to motivate people who inject drugs (PWID) to shift from high to low dead space syringes. Using a mix of consumer and trade marketing approaches, informed by rapid assessments of both the syringe market and PWID preferences, practices, and behaviors in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Population Services International (PSI) Vietnam piloted an intervention to increase the use of low dead space syringes (LDSS) in the three provinces of Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Thai Nguyen, where an estimated 31% of PWID are HIV positive and 58% are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This paper provides a summary of the social marketing activities implemented and results achieved by PSI Vietnam during an initial 1-year pilot period from December 2012 to December 2013 in these three provinces to explore their effectiveness in motivating PWID to use low dead space syringes. We found major increases in sales of LDSS accompanied by increases in reported use and consistent use of LDSS among PWID in the three provinces included in the pilot program and a positive and independent association (odds ratio (OR) 21.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6-27.3) between LDSS use and exposure to social marketing activities. We also found that LDSS use had a stronger association with perceptions of LDSS product quality than with perceptions regarding LDSS potential to reduce HIV transmission risk and use. We conclude that social marketing interventions have an important role to play in widening access to and the use of LDSS for PWID, as they address the need for PWID to find LDSS when and where they need them and also promote the benefits of LDSS use to PWID. High coverage of these activities among PWID appears to be the key in

  10. Iron Isotope Variations in Reduced Groundwater and in Drinking Water Supplies: A Case Study of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.

    2004-12-01

    In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and δ 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a δ 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater

  11. Parent-youth communication and concordance between parents and adolescents on reported engagement in social relationships and sexually intimate behaviors in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Green, Mackenzie; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Pham, Van; Tho, Le Huu; Ha, Nguyen T; Minh, Truong Tan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-03-01

    Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths' engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths' reported and parents' perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. The cohort included 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-squared tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. The mean age of youth was 17.2 years. The mean score for parental "RH knowledge" was 24.74 (SD, 3.84; range, 15-34). Lower parental RH knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education (F = 2.983; df, 184; p = .014). Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to "comfort" (β = .17; p = .048), and "comfort" to frequency of "talk" (β = .6; p sexual touching (β = .57; p = .60). Parent and youth in Vietnam are engaged in limited communication about RH. There is a need for more data to assess the effect of these communication patterns on youths' engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Tangible Direct Flood Damage Using a Spatial Analysis Approach under the Effects of Climate Change: Case Study in an Urban Watershed in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change, the frequency and intensity of Hydro-Meteorological disasters, such as floods, are increasing. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to assess tangible future flood damage in the urban watershed of the To Lich River in Hanoi, Vietnam. An approach based on spatial analysis, which requires the integration of several types of data related to flood characteristics that include depth, in particular, land-use classes, property values, and damage rates, is applied for the analysis. To simulate the future scenarios of flooding, the effects of climate change and land-use changes are estimated for 2030. Additionally, two scenarios based on the implementation of flood control measures are analyzed to demonstrate the effect of adaptation strategies. The findings show that climate change combined with the expansion of built-up areas increases the vulnerability of urban areas to flooding and economic damage. The results also reveal that the impacts of climate change will increase the total damage from floods by 26%. However, appropriate flood mitigation will be helpful in reducing the impacts of losses from floods by approximately 8% with the restoration of lakes and by approximately 29% with the implementation of water-sensitive urban design (WSUD. This study will be useful in helping to identify and map flood-prone areas at local and regional scales, which can lead to the detection and prioritization of exposed areas for appropriate countermeasures in a timely manner. In addition, the quantification of flood damage can be an important indicator to enhance the awareness of local decision-makers on improving the efficiency of regional flood risk reduction strategies.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude, Frequency and Level of Consumption Regarding Non-alcoholic Carbonated Soft Drinks among Students from Two High Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD among students from two high schools in Hanoi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city. Results: Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD. Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01. Recommendations: Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.

  14. The Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Undiagnosed Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam : Findings from a Cross-sectional, Biobehavioral Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Holt, Martin; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; La, Lan Thi; Tran, Gioi Minh; Doan, Tung Thanh; de Wit, John

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV infection in Vietnam, and the use of amphetamine type substances (ATS) is prevalent and possibly increasing in this population. The reported analysis examines the association between ATS use before or during sex and HIV

  15. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This document presents the energy profile of Vietnam: energy organizations and policy; companies: Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Power Company 1, 2 and 3 (PC1, PC2, PC3) and Electricite du Vietnam (electric power), Vinacoal (coal); supplies (resources, electric power, oil, gas and coal); prices; consumption; projects and perspectives. (J.S.)

  16. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    taken with the eager collaboration of Vietnam's government, have since ... social sciences; and environment and natural resource management) was ... deliberate and increasing openness to the world of trade, investment, and knowl- edge ... Vietnam design trade liberalization and competition policies (in part as preparation.

  17. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh

    2001-01-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60 Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  18. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  19. Fragmented landscapes of water supply in suburban Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright-Contreras, Lucia; March, Hug; Schramm, S.

    2017-01-01

    Facing the challenges of city planning in the frame of rapid urbanization in the Global South, this study addresses the relationship between the urban development of Hanoi, Vietnam, and water supply including users’ perception of water accessibility and satisfaction of coverage, quality, and cost.

  20. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    This document summarizes the main energy facts and data about Vietnam: institutions and energy policy, energy companies (Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), Vinacoal (coal)), energy production (resources, electricity, oil, natural gas, coal), energy prices (motor fuels and electricity), energy consumption, and future energy issues and prospects (exploitation of new fossil fuel resources, building of new refineries and power stations). The main economic, supply and demand, and energy balance indicators are summarized in tables and graphics. (J.S.)

  1. Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

  2. Atmospheric muons in Hanoi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham thi Tuyet Nhung; Pierre Darriulat; Nguyen Thi Thao; Dang Quang Thieu; Vo Van Thuan

    2006-01-01

    Recent measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in Hanoi were reviewed. As the measurements were carried out in a region of maximal geomagnetic rigidity cutoff, they provided a sensitive test of air shower models used in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured data were found to be in a very good agreement with the prediction from the model of M. Honda. (author)

  3. A description of teaching methods using an on-site instructor versus a distant site instructor to train laryngoscopy to medical students in Hanoi, Vietnam, from Omaha, Nebraska, by video communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeger, Wesley G; Branecki, Chad E; Nguyen, Thang T; Hall, Todd; Boedeker, Ben; Boedeker, David; Wadman, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrated a method to train medical students at Hanoi Medical School in airway management from Omaha, Nebraska, using tele-mentoring techniques. Correct placement of the endotracheal tube was documented by tele-broncoscopy following intubation. This technology may increase medical training capabilities in remote or developing areas of the world. Medical care delivery could be performed using this technology by tele-mentoring a lesser trained medical provider at a distant site enabling them to accomplish complex medical tasks.

  4. Making Polluter Pay Legislation Work - A Study of Vietnam's Decree ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts Of Environmental Regulations On The Food Processing Industry In. Vietnam' by Le ... Natural. Resources and Urban Economics & Management, Hanoi National Economics. University ... fast and is recognised as one of the country's ...

  5. Acute effects of ambient air pollution on lower respiratory infections in Hanoi children: An eight-year time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Schindler, Christian; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2018-01-01

    Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam. We explored the impact of age, gender and season on these associations. Daily ambient air pollution concentrations and hospital admission counts were extracted from electronic databases received from authorities in Hanoi for the years 2007-2014. The associations between outdoor air pollution levels and hospital admissions were estimated for time lags of zero up to seven days using Quasi-Poisson regression models, adjusted for seasonal variations, meteorological variables, holidays, influenza epidemics and day of week. All ambient air pollutants were positively associated with pneumonia hospitalizations. Significant associations were found for most pollutants except for ozone and sulfur dioxide in children aged 0-17. Increments of an interquartile range (21.9μg/m 3 ) in the 7-day-average level of NO 2 were associated with a 6.1% (95%CI 2.5% to 9.8%) increase in pneumonia hospitalizations. These associations remained stable in two-pollutant models. All pollutants other than CO were positively associated with hospitalizations for bronchitis and asthma. Associations were stronger in infants than in children aged 1-5. Strong associations between hospital admissions for lower respiratory infections and daily levels of air pollution confirm the need to adopt sustainable clean air policies in Vietnam to protect children's health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Physics in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology

  7. Physics in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-03-15

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology.

  8. Health issues in nursing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristy, S J

    1995-01-01

    Major health concerns are not currently addressed in Vietnam as the country strives to upgrade its economic status. The current standard of medical care is rudimentary at best, as is the education and practice of Vietnamese nurses. The Ministry of Health in Vietnam has directed the Medical College of Hanoi to commence a 4-year degree in nursing in 1994. Historical, practical, political, economic, social, and cultural issues affect the development of nursing as a profession. Assistance from the West is sought by the Medical College in Hanoi.

  9. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2003-01-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  10. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA), Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-02-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  11. Tulemusteta koosistumine Hanois / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Aasia ja Vaikse ookeani riikide majandusühenduse APEC tippkohtumisel Hanois ei saanud põhisündmuseks Põhja-Koread puudutava karmi resolutsiooni vastuvõtmine, vaid hoopis USA ja Venemaa vahelise lepingu allkirjastamine, mis annab võimaluse Venemaale liituda WTO-ga

  12. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Duong H; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001-2006 and 2006-2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries.

  13. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001–2006 and 2006–2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries. PMID:29734346

  14. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Crawford, J.; Stelcer, E.; Vuong, T.B. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust (Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants (Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 {mu} g m{sup -3} and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 {mu} g m{sup -3} from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  15. Research to connect the ozone monitor into irradiation system at Hanoi Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Huy; Pham Duy Duong; Nguyen Dinh Hung; Vu Quoc Dat

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, in order to develop radiation technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute has supported Hanoi Irradiation Centre a Project titled: Upgrading the irradiation facility. According to the Project, equipment have been replaced by a new one so that the facility could be suitable for treatment of products. The facility was designed and produced by the former Russia experts. Under normal operating conditions, we are protected by shielding, detection systems, and safety procedures. A system of interlocks prevents unauthorized entry into the radiation chamber when the source is exposed. However, interlocks system have not been warning and preventing ozone gas that can affect human health. So we are having an upgrade as connecting the ozone monitor into irradiation system at Hanoi Irradiation Centre. (author)

  16. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Toan Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  17. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  18. Epidemiology of dengue fever in Hanoi from 2002 to 2010 and its meteorological determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever (DF is a growing public health problem in Vietnam. The disease burden in Vietnam has been increasing for decades. In Hanoi, in contrast to many other regions, extrinsic drivers such as weather have not been proved to be predictive of disease frequency, which limits the usefulness of such factors in an early warning system. Aims: The purpose of this research was to review the epidemiology of DF transmission and investigate the role of weather factors contributing to occurrence of DF cases. Methods: Monthly data from Hanoi (2002–2010 were used to test the proposed model. Descriptive time-series analysis was conducted. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis assuming a negative binomial distribution was established through several models. The predictors used were lags of 1–3 months previous observations of mean rainfall, mean temperature, DF cases, and their interactions. Results: Descriptive analysis showed that DF occurred annually and seasonally with an increasing time trend in Hanoi. The annual low occurred from December to March followed by a gradual increase from April to July with a peak in September, October. The amplitude of the annual peak varied between years. Statistically significant relationships were estimated at lag 1–3 with rainfall, autocorrelation, and their interaction while temperature was estimated as influential at lag 3 only. For these relationships, the final model determined a correlation of 92% between predicted number of dengue cases and the observed dengue disease frequencies. Conclusions: Although the model performance was good, the findings suggest that other forces related to urbanization, density of population, globalization with increasing transport of people and goods, herd immunity, government vector control capacity, and changes in serotypes are also likely influencing the transmission of DF. Additional research taking into account all of these factors besides climatic

  19. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  20. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  1. The tower of Hanoi myths and maths

    CERN Document Server

    Hinz, Andreas M; Petr, Ciril

    2018-01-01

    The solitaire game “The Tower of Hanoi" was invented in the 19th century by the French number theorist Édouard Lucas. The book presents its mathematical theory and offers a survey of the historical development from predecessors up to recent research. In addition to long-standing myths, it provides a detailed overview of the essential mathematical facts with complete proofs, and also includes unpublished material, e.g., on some captivating integer sequences. The main objects of research today are the so-called Hanoi graphs and the related Sierpiński graphs. Acknowledging the great popularity of the topic in computer science, algorithms, together with their correctness proofs, form an essential part of the book. In view of the most important practical applications, namely in physics, network theory and cognitive (neuro)psychology, the book also addresses other structures related to the Tower of Hanoi and its variants. The updated second edition includes, for the first time in English, the breakthrough reach...

  2. Dealing with a positive result: routine HIV testing of pregnant women in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, P.; Hardon, A.P.; Nguyen, T.A.; Pham, N.Y.; Wright, P.

    2008-01-01

    HIV testing is an essential component of PMTCT. It can be offered to pregnant women through different testing models, ranging from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to routine and mandatory testing. This study was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, where HIV-prevalence is low among the general

  3. Civil society organizations' roles in health development in Vietnam: HIV as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Civil society in contemporary Vietnam has been recognised as an important force in public health. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of 30 organisations and networks in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, this paper argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) focus almost exclusively on

  4. Vietnam Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  5. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    It is really difficult to determine the exact date for the starting of nuclear physics research in Vietnam. Serious research on experimental nuclear physics began only since 1972 with the installation of such nuclear instrument like microtron accelerator, neutron generator, etc. During the past 20 years, hundred of research works have been published in local and foreign scientific journals. In the 5th national conference in Physics held in Hanoi in October 1993, at the Nuclear Physics section, 62 reports were presented reflecting the situation of nuclear physics research in the recent years, especially in the past five years. This review introduces its main results and formulates some perspectives of development in the late nineties in Vietnam. (K.A.). 27 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  7. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...reach the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...Major Exports to Vietnam aircraft, mining equipment, electronic machinery, steel wire, raw cotton, plastics Source: Mark E. Manyin, The Vietnam

  8. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Vietnam. Food irradiation programme planning facility operation and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Vietnam, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Vietnam between 16 and 23 March 1991, to the Hanoi Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. This mission included the following: The expert inspected the new Soviet automated, dry storage pilot plant gamma irradiator in the final stages of construction on the outskirts of Hanoi, and met with senior staff of the Hanoi Irradiation Center plus the Center specialized groups to hear and take note of their progress, problems and materials and manpower training expectations, etc. A tour of a large rice and vegetable growing cooperative outside Hanoi was made, followed by a meeting with members of the Cooperative's governing body. This cooperative will participate in pilot scale food irradiation feasibility studies once the new irradiator is operational. The expert provided a technical seminar to the Hanoi Irradiation Center staff, plus a general seminar to members of the Consumers Union of Vietnam plus invited guests, on radiation processing in general and food irradiation in particular, during the week. The expert accompanied Irradiation Center staff to Haiphong to visit the National Institute for Marine Products Research plus two Government-run fishery products processing plants in connection with the marine products side of the national food irradiation programme. He was accompanied to a meeting at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry to meet with the Vice-Minister and staff plus food and allied industry representatives. (author)

  9. The insoluble question of electric power in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, Eric; Lasserre, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    An economic dragon for the last twenty years or so, Vietnam is faced with a strongly growing demand for electric energy. Though the country is rich of many different resources necessary to producing electricity, most of them are available in limited quantities. According to forecasts for the 2030-2050 period, Vietnam's coal and natural gas resources will not be able to meet the national demand. Consequently, Hanoi's main goals are to develop and invest in hydroelectricity, renewable energies and a civil nuclear programme. For lack of rigorous planning, adequate financing and given the tensions in the South China Sea, Vietnam's electric energy production growth plan seems technically, financially and geo-politically unfeasible without the help of foreign actors, ultimately weakening the Party-State

  10. Air Power and the Ground War in Vietnam, Ideas and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Air University Review also published his essay "In Search of the Unicorn ," a discussion of the broad development of military reform...internal considerations in North Vietnam affected the Hanoi government’s behavior ; and a single-causal explanation of the peace agreement falters . Beyond...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  11. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  12. 'Let's talk about sex, baby': sexual communication in marriage in contemporary Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Bui Thu

    2010-08-01

    Sexual communication within marriage has been a long-neglected topic in Vietnam. The research described in this paper explored how educated husbands and wives communicate about sexuality in urban settings in contemporary Vietnam. Twenty married individuals living in Hanoi were recruited to participate through snowball sampling. Data were collected through unstructured interviews. Thematic analysis showed that respondents were able to talk with each other relatively openly about sexuality. While the issues raised were various, sexual communication decreased in quantity and quality with the length of marriage. The ambiguity of discourses of sexuality was reportedly both the main catalyst and barrier to conversation.

  13. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River Floodplain, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Jessen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis....... The concentration of As increases over depth to a concentration of up to 550 μg/L. Most As is present as As(III) but some As(V) is always found. Arsenic correlates well with NH4, relating its release to organic matter decomposition and the source of As appears to be the Fe-oxides being reduced....

  14. Preference and willingness to pay for nutritional counseling services in urban Hanoi [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite substantial achievement in reducing malnutrition rates in Vietnam, there has been an increasing rate of overweight individuals in urban areas, which may result in a high burden of non-communicable diseases. Nutritional counseling clinics have been introduced in several settings; however, little is known about the preference for this service among urban clients. This study aimed to assess the preference and willingness to pay (WTP for nutritional counseling services among urban clients. Methods: We interviewed 429 clients who attended Hanoi Medical University Nutritional Counseling Clinic (Hanoi, Vietnam. WTP was determined using double-bounded dichotomous-choice questions and open-ended questions. Results: In total, 78.6% respondents were willing to use nutritional counseling services. The mean amount of WTP for one-time service and one-year package was 96,100VND (~$4.3 and 946,400VND (~$41.9, respectively. Clients’ willingness to use the service was higher among females, those seeking counseling for elderly people and those who preferred face-to-face counseling services (p<0.05. WTP was higher among those who were over 35 years old, those seeking services for the elderly people, those having poor nutritional status, and those having under-6 year old children (p<0.05. Conclusions: The preference and WTP for nutritional counseling services in urban Hanoi were relatively high. Scaling up this service is necessary to actively prevent and control the spread of non-communicable diseases.

  15. The transformation of agriculture and rural life downstream of Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den L.M.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of urbanization and of recent economic reforms on the livelihoods of farmers in Hanoi¿s peri-urban areas. Although the proportion of land used for agriculture is declining, agricultural production is intensifying ¿ for instance, with pork, vegetables and fish

  16. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okimoto Tadayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between

  18. On nuclear manpower development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung Van Duan

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam began to be interested in education and training on nuclear sciences and related subjects since the early 1960's. A department of Nuclear Physics and Engineering was established in 1970 at the Hanoi University of Technology (HUT), which is the biggest interdisciplinary technological education centre of the country. In Vietnam there are several institutions where exist programmes of education on nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering. But HUT has been being since 1970 the only institution that has underway programme of education on nuclear engineer degree. Although the Department was renamed and its education programme was adjusted, but the objectives of its education programme have been being followed without changes. These objectives are as follows: 1) To develop peaceful applications of atomic energy in Vietnam; 2) To train up engineers on nuclear instrumentation for supporting the first objective; and 3) To prepare initial manpower for introduction of Nuclear Power in Vietnam. Nuclear community of Vietnam is still not so large. Total number of its members increased until 1986, and then decreases up to now. Present average age of members of the community is of 45. In 15 coming years at least 500-700 young people must be educated on programmes on nuclear engineer degree and on nuclear bachelor degree. This is a very difficult task for a developing country such as Vietnam. From a point of view of development, the above-mentioned number is too small, and it must be much more. This makes the task much more difficult. In addition, education on nuclear engineering in the country at present is in a hard situation because of lacking in experienced people, as well as in teaching material and equipment, and, because of weakness of the education programme. So, it may be impossible to achieve success in realization of the task without a large and effective international cooperation in education on nuclear science and engineering. That is why the Asian Network for

  19. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  20. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Huy Uyen; Bui Van Loat; Dang Phuong Nam; Cao Anh Duc; Pham Quang Dien; Nguyen Hao Quang

    1990-01-01

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs 137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10 -5 Bq/g; Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10 -5 Bq/g. Cs 137 is radioactive so Cs 137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K 40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  1. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  2. Geopolitics of Natural and Energetic Resources in Vietnam: an Economically Viable Anchor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, Eric; Lasserre, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, Vietnam has been mutating into an economic dragon together with an unprecedented demographic boom. The high growth expresses itself through an increased demand for energy and raw materials. Though Vietnam is endowed with quite a number of resources, most of them are available in limited amounts. Medium-term estimates reckon the country's fossil resources will not meet the domestic demand. Consequently, Hanoi is planning the development of a national energy policy focused on three sectors: hydroelectricity, renewable energies, and civilian nuclear programme. For lack of strict work plans and adequate financing, the Vietnam energy development plan does not sound technically and financially feasible without the help of foreign players whose presence on the national territory exacerbates the local, national and regional geopolitical stakes

  3. Upper estimates of complexity of algorithms for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Novikov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are proved upper explicit estimates of complexity of lgorithms: for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the limited number of disks, for Reve's puzzle and for $5$-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the free number of disks.

  4. Study Of Isotopic Technical Application To Estimate Origin Of Nitrogen Composition Of Groundwater In Hanoi Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap; Dinh Bich Lieu; Dang Anh Minh; Vo Thi Anh; Bui Dac Dung; Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh; Nguyen Manh Hung; Nguyen Van Hoan; Nguyen Van Hai

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater in Hanoi area as well as some other areas in Bac-Bo Delta is being contaminated by heavy metals and nitrogen compounds, especially arsenic and ammonium. The origin of nitrogen compounds in groundwater in Hanoi area is estimated in order to exploit and manage sustainable groundwater served for production and live. (author)

  5. Tower of Hanoi disk-transfer task: Influences of strategy knowledge and learning on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsh, M.C.; Huizinga, M.

    2005-01-01

    Tower of Hanoi has become a popular tool in cognitive and neuropsychology to assess a set of behaviors collectively referred to as executive functions. Substantial variability in performance on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) disk-transfer task among normally functioning young adults, and potential

  6. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam: Hanoi et Hô Chi Minh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With an annual income of approximately $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. It has been repetitively devastated by armed conflicts and frequent large-scale natural disasters for over 50 years. Viet Nam's population is estimated to approximately 70 million, 80% of ...

  7. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam : Hanoi et Hô Chi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les nouvelles du CRDI chaque mois. Abonnez-vous · Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique de confidentialité · Transparence · Utilisation du site Web. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter ...

  8. Changes in the prevalence of child maltreatment in Vietnam over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; van Berkel, Sheila R; Nguyen, Huong T; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-06-01

    In the context of the shortage of studies on child maltreatment changes over time in limited resource settings, this paper explored the changes in the prevalence of multiple types of child maltreatment over a period of 10 years in Vietnam and tested the moderating role of some demographic characteristics in these changes. We used data from two prevalence studies conducted in 2004 and in 2014 using similar methodologies. Both studies used self-report questionnaires which were completed by randomly selected students aged 12-17 years from different provinces in Vietnam. We also compared Hanoi subgroups to examine the trend using the most equivalent samples. While the prevalence estimates of sexual abuse and neglect were unchanged over 10 years, the prevalence of physical abuse and emotional abuse declined. The decrease in the prevalence of physical abuse was larger for younger adolescents and boys than for their counterparts. For sexual abuse, older adolescents reported an increase in the prevalence of sexual abuse. In the Hanoi sample comparison, only the prevalence of emotional abuse declined and this reduction was smaller for younger adolescents than for the older group. Despite the reduction of emotional and physical abuse in the whole sample and emotional abuse in the Hanoi sample, all types of child maltreatment were still highly prevalent in Vietnam. We argue that interventions on all types of child maltreatment should be further implemented. Similar studies could be conducted to evaluate the effect of child protection policies on the prevalence of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 10, October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-09

    Followers in the Countries of Latin America [ Tran Anh] 48 JPRS-ATC-88-002 9 February 1988 VIETNAM: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 10, October 1987 [Except...character is not simply an ideological-political category applied in literature. Our party, as Truong Chinh said at the Third National Literature and Art...Hanoi TAP CHI CONG SAN in Vietnamese No 10, Oct 87pp 39-42 [Article by Nguyen Dang Quang, assistant editor-in-chief of GIAO DUC LY LUAN Journal

  11. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs.

  12. Clinical and microbiological features of melioidosis in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Doan Mai; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Breitbach, Katrin; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Nübel, Ulrich; Flunker, Gisela; Khang, Dinh Duy; Quang, Nguyen Xuan; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2008-12-01

    Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported from Vietnam for decades, but clinical and epidemiological data for the indigenous population are still scarce. In this study, we reviewed clinical and demographic data of patients with culture-proven melioidosis diagnosed at a single large referral hospital in Hanoi between November 1997 and December 2005. We found that the clinical manifestations of melioidosis (with fatal septicaemia as the most common presentation), a high rate of underlying diseases, and a peak of cases admitted during the wet season, were similar to studies from other endemic areas. The geographical origin of patients with melioidosis showed that melioidosis existed in at least 18 northern provinces. The characterization of clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei strains by multilocus sequence typing identified 17 different sequence types (STs), 11 of which have (as yet) not been found outside Vietnam. Several of these STs presumably were generated through recent evolutionary events in this rapidly diversifying bacterial species, and thus, restricted geographic distribution may be a consequence of limited time passed since emergence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a series of cases describing clinical and epidemiological features of melioidosis and corresponding B. pseudomallei strains from northern Vietnam.

  13. [The current situation and agendas in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kiyoko; Uda, Hidenori; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Yano, Ryosuke; Saijo, Takao; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satomi, Maki; Yoshida, Aya; Oishi, Osamu; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Kamenosono, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Objectives In Vietnam, the number of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been increasing in recent years in association with the country's remarkable economic growth and corresponding changes in its population's lifestyle. The purposes of this research were to identify the challenges in the prevention and control of NCDs in Vietnam and to discuss countermeasures for NCDs in Vietnam and Japan.Methods As a 2015 Regional Public Health Overall Promotion Project, an investigation team consisting of 11 public health physicians visited Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, and its vicinities from January 11, 2016 to January 15, 2016. In Hanoi and its vicinities, we visited local healthcare institutions, such as the World Health Organization(WHO) Representative Office in Vietnam and Ministry of Health of Vietnam, and discussed the prevention and control of NCDs in Vietnam and Japan.Results According to a survey in 2014, 73% of people of all age groups in Vietnam died from NCDs and the number of people suffering from NCDs has been sharply increasing in recent years. Major behavioral risk factors are dietary risks, tobacco smoke, alcohol use, and physical inactivity. There are four main problems with prevention and control of NCDs: 1) low awareness among the people of NCDs, 2) regional disparity of medical services, 3) shortage of healthcare staff members with professional knowledge, and 4) poor NCD surveillance. In Vietnam, an NCD program with screening methods and medical guidelines for respective diseases was developed in 2002. However, it only covered tertiary prevention and did not fully describe the primary and secondary prevention measures. Currently, with the technical assistance of the WHO, the implementation of countermeasures emphasizing prevention and control to reduce NCD risk factors has only just begun.Conclusion It was considered that educating each person in Vietnam on NCD prevention measures would be necessary and that a national policy

  14. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Jobe, R Todd; Moody, Aaron; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-08

    Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10): e3462) demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets) isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic isolation by

  15. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Carrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10: e3462 demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear.In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic

  16. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  17. 'I thought I was the only one': the misrecognition of LGBT youth in contemporary Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While recent LGBT rights demonstrations and discussions about same-sex marriage have thrust the issue of homosexuality into the spotlight, it was not long ago that the issue of homosexuality was notable by its absence in Vietnam. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with young gay, lesbian and bisexual people in Vietnam's capital city Hanoi, this paper considers the increasing visibility of homosexuality through the theoretical lens of recognition, and illustrates the heterosexist misrecognition that LGBT young people have been subjected to in legislation, the media, their families, and through the education system. Drawing on the narratives of LGBT young people, the paper highlights the potentially negative impact such misrecognition may have on psychological and social wellbeing.

  18. Performance of Single Friction Pendulum bearing for isolated buildings subjected to seismic actions in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N. V.; Nguyen, C. H.; Hoang, H. P.; Huong, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Using structural control technology in earthquake resistant design of buildings in Vietnam is very limited. In this paper, a performance evaluation of using Single Friction Pendulum (SFP) bearing for seismically isolated buildings with earthquake conditions in Vietnam is presented. A two-dimensional (2-D) model of the 5-storey building subjected to earthquakes is analyzed in time domain. Accordingly, the model is analyzed for 2 cases: with and without SFP bearing. The ground acceleration data is selected and scaled to suit the design acceleration in Hanoi followed by the Standard TCVN 9386:2012. It is shown that the seismically isolated buildings gets the performance objectives while achieving an 91% reduction in the base shear, a significant decrease in the inter-story drift and absolute acceleration of each story.

  19. Radiation accident in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  20. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country.

  1. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, N.Q.; Giap, T.V.; Phan, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Binh, N.T; Sieu, L.N.; Hien, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33 and 37 μBq m -3 for 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 days over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The 131 I/ 137 Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. (author)

  2. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG): association between its addiction, self-control and mental disorders among young people in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dinh Thai; Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Otsuka, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-01

    To explore the association between MMORPG addiction and mental health status, and between self-control ability and mental health status among young male MMORPG players in Hanoi, Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, 10 computer game rooms were randomly selected out of 77 in five communes in Hanoi. From these game rooms, 350 MMORPG players were purposively recruited as a study group, of whom 344 completed the questionnaire. In the same five communes, 344 non-players were selected as a control group. An online game addiction scale, a self-control scale and the Vietnamese SRQ-20 were used to measure the degree of MMORPG addiction, self-control ability and level of mental disorders. MMORPG players had significantly higher mental disorders scale scores than non-players (p MMORPG addiction scale scores and mental disorders scale scores (r = 0.730, p MMORPG addiction scale score and self-control scale score were considered the best predictors of a higher mental disorders scale score. Young, male MMORPG players with higher addiction scores were more likely to have higher mental disorders scale scores, and such mental status was negatively associated with the level of self-control in Hanoi, Vietnam. Closer attention should be paid to prevent mental disorders among MMORPG players.

  3. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  4. Transfer of nuclear engineering knowledge at Hanoi University of Technology: Lessons learned and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, P. van; Anh, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) has been being the most important polytechnic education centre of the country for half a century. Nuclear Engineering Education Programme (NEEP) was started at HUT since the year 1970, right after establishment of Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University according to the initiative of the first Minister of Ministry of Higher Education of the country. Since the year 2000 the Department changed its education programme to adapt it to the actual circumstances in the country and renamed as Department of Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Physics (DONEEP). The objectives of the HUT's NEEP are as follows: 1. To train up nuclear technical manpower for development of peaceful uses of atomic energy in Vietnam. 2. To prepare initial nuclear technical human resources for introduction of Nuclear Power into the country. Aiming at these objectives, the Programme achieved remarkable results such as inestimable contributions to introducing and then developing the NDT radiography method in Vietnam, to improving and developing the atomic energy applications in the country, to providing important parts of technical human resources for strengthening the nuclear community of the country. The duration of 37 years of implementation of the Programme may be divided by 3 periods: from 1970 to 1989, 1990-2000 and from the year 2001 up to now. During the first period, the Programme was fully supported by the leadership of the University and the Ministry of Higher Education. The second period was full of difficulties. This was the period of searching the ways for preserving and adapting the Programme to the new circumstances in the country. The present period is the one of searching the ways for developing the NEEP at HUT. The lessons learned from 37-year implementation of the HUT's NEEP are as follows: 1. To establish proper objectives aiming to satisfy the urgent short term and/or long term demands of the country is the most

  5. Assessment of injection safety in Ha Dong General Hospital, Hanoi, in 2012 [version 4; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Tuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injection is one of the most frequently used medical methods to introduce drugs or other substances into the body for purposes of treatment or prevention. Unsafe injection can cause adverse outcomes, such as abscess and anaphylactic shock, and increases the risk of blood-borne transmission of viruses to patients and health care workers, as well as the community. Recognizing the importance of injection safety, in 2000 the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH collaborated with the Vietnam Nurses Association to launch the “Safe injection” program throughout the country, including Hanoi. Methods: This cross-sectional study, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, was conducted from February to August 2012 in Ha Dong General Hospital using a structured questionnaire and observation checklist. The target population of the study was 109 nurses working in clinical departments and 436 injections were observed. Results: The percentage of nurses who are familiar with injection safety standards was found to be 82.6%. The proportion of practical injections that met the 23 standards of injection safety set by the MOH amounted to 22.2%. The factors related to safe injection practice of nurses who were younger age group (OR=3.1; p<0.05 and fewer number of years working as a nurse (OR=2.8; p<0.05. Conclusions: While nurses have high level of knowledge about safe injections but a small proportion actually practiced. Experience may not always guarantee safe practices.  Injection safety training should be regularly imparted upon all categories of nurses.

  6. Assessment of injection safety in Ha Dong General Hospital, Hanoi, in 2012 [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Tuong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injection is one of the most frequently used medical methods to introduce drugs or other substances into the body for purposes of treatment or prevention. Unsafe injection can cause adverse outcomes, such as abscess and anaphylactic shock, and increases the risk of blood-borne transmission of viruses to patients and health care workers, as well as the community. Recognizing the importance of injection safety, in 2000 the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH collaborated with the Vietnam Nurses Association to launch the “Safe injection” program throughout the country, including Hanoi. Methods: This cross-sectional study, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, was conducted from February to August 2012 in Ha Dong General Hospital using a structured questionnaire and observation checklist. The target population of the study was 109 nurses working in clinical departments and 436 injections were observed. Results: The percentage of nurses who are familiar with injection safety standards was found to be 82.6%. The proportion of practical injections that met the 23 standards of injection safety set by the MOH amounted to 22.2%. The factors related to safe injection practice of nurses who are younger age group (OR=3.1; p<0.05 and lower amount of working years (OR=2.8; p<0.05. Conclusions: Despite the high level of knowledge about safety injection, a low proportion of nurses performed correct safety injection practice. Moreover, the results demonstrated that experience might not always guarantee better practice. The findings raise the need for further training about this issue, especially among older nurses.

  7. High prevalence of Hepatitis C virus genotype 6 in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duc Anh; Leuangwutiwong, Pornsawan; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Luplertlop, Nattanej; Bach, Hoa Khanh; Akkarathamrongsin, Srunthron; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to update the prevalence of the various Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Vietnamese blood donors. One hundred and three HCV antibody-positive plasma samples were collected from blood donors at the National Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Hanoi, Vietnam. All specimens were subjected to RT-PCR of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) to confirm the presence of HCV RNA. The core and NS5B regions of thh positive samples were subsequently amplified by RT-PCR followed by direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Seventy out of 103 samples (68.0%) were RNA positive. Core and NS5B were successfully amplified and sequences were obtained for 70 and 65 samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was the most predominant among Vietnamese blood donors with a prevalence of 37.1% (26/70), followed by genotype 1a at 30.0% (21/70) and genotype 1b at 17.1% (12/70). The prevalence of two other genotype 6 variants, 6e and 61 was 8.6% and 1.4%, respectively. Further analysis of recent studies showed that the geographic distribution of genotype 6 covered mainly southern China and the mainland of Southeast Asia including Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar. The GenBank accession numbers for the sequences reported in this study are FJ768772-FJ768906.

  8. Introduction of microsurgery in Vietnam by a charitable organization: a 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, J Craig; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Son, Nguyen Tai; An, Luu Ngoc; Sellers, Daniel; Russell, Robert; Manktelow, Ralph; Wei, Fu-Chan; Orgill, Dennis P

    2007-04-01

    Microsurgical procedures, although equipment- and labor-intensive, allow efficient treatment of selected soft-tissue, bone, and peripheral nerve defects. The precise surgical skills required and the high equipment and institutional costs have been deterrents to initiating programs in developing countries. The authors report their 15-year international effort in facilitating the development of microsurgical techniques in Vietnam. The authors reviewed their educational, logistical, and operative experience from 11 Operation Smile International missions to Vietnam and the microsurgical procedures performed independently by Vietnamese surgeons at the Central Military Hospital 108 in Hanoi. Over 15 years, Operation Smile International missions to Vietnam performed 108 free tissue transfer operations with 15 peripheral nerve transfer procedures and 143 nonmicrosurgical reconstructive operations. Visiting surgeons with specialized expertise taught facial reanimation, flap prefabrication, and perforator flaps. During this same period, Vietnamese surgeons became facile with microsurgical techniques and independently performed a wide array of these procedures in the institutions visited. Vietnamese surgeons have organized microsurgery divisions within some hospital departments and now teach microsurgical techniques. Repeated missions allowed for patient follow-up, staged procedures, educational exchange, and quality control. Several Vietnamese surgeons have traveled abroad to obtain additional training and have set up training programs in other areas of Vietnam. Charitable organizations can help surgeons in developing countries master complex microsurgical techniques through short-term medical missions, donation of equipment and supplies, and the encouragement of institutional support. A continuing education program, including local conferences, microsurgical laboratory training facilities, and study abroad, can aid this introduction.

  9. Problem-based learning (PBL) and public health: an initial exploration of perceptions of PBL in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, John W; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Negin, Joel; Wright, E P

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide interest in problem-based learning (PBL) has grown in past decades. This article aims to evaluate the perceived effectiveness, appropriateness, benefits, and challenges attributed to the use of PBL in public health education in Vietnam with a view to providing recommendations for curricular design and future policy. Teachers at 2 universities in Hanoi participated in group interviews, and students from these 2 universities completed Likert-style questionnaires. Students and teachers regarded PBL positively. However, there was consensus that hybrid models that used PBL alongside other methods are probably the most beneficial for public health education in Vietnam. Teachers discussed the educational and systematic advantages and difficulties associated with PBL. Themes arising from this analysis may be helpful in guiding future research-namely, regarding the application of PBL in low- and middle-income countries and in public health. Further exploration of the use of PBL hybrid models is discussed. © 2012 APJPH.

  10. Vietnam Report No. 2415

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This report contains articles about Vietnam. Some topics include military affairs and public security, international relations, party activities and government, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry and construction...

  11. Vietnam Report No. 2382

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on Vietnam. Some topics discussed are military affairs and public security, international relations, trade, aid, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry, construction, transportation...

  12. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  13. Vietnam Report 2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vudddn

    entrepreneurship and business development, we believe that GEM Vietnam .... indicators have the highest levels: the dynamics of the domestic market ...... either by selling, shutting down or otherwise discontinuing an owner/management.

  14. Using the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle to Infuse Your Mathematics Classroom with Computer Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…

  15. Hospital clinical pharmacy services in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne

    2018-04-07

    Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.

  16. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Sugihiro; Cuong, Ngo Chi; Tra, Doan Thu; Doan, Yen Hai; Shimizu, Kenta; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Mai, Le Quynh; Duc-Anh, Dang; Ando, Shuji; Arikawa, Jiro; Parry, Christopher M.; Ariyoshi, Koya; Thuy, Pham Thanh

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non–scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting. PMID:25778504

  17. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    pharmaceutical researchers. A strong decentralisation process characterises the pharmaceutical sector, with pharmacies in the provinces and districts while wholesalers remain located in Hanoi and Saigon. The presence of many middlemen has contributed to an increase in prices. Today, a concentration of pharmacies is still noted in inner cities while the suburbs and the villages still have difficulties supplying drugs for inhabitants. Solutions have been implemented such as the opening of new pharmacies and additional professional training for pharmacists. Prices were lowered while the quality of the supply chain was improved. Local production is encouraged as hospitals are prompted to prescribe Vietnamese products. The modernisation of the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry is also visible through the importation of medical materials and an increase in the number of private hospitals financed with both the help of local and foreign investors, mainly through joint-ventures, most often in Saigon and Hanoi. The renovation of local hospitals was also possible with the help of France and Japan. Columbia Gia Dinh International, located in Saigon, is one of the very few US/Vietnamese medical institutions created with a local partner, the Gia Dinh hospital. The recovery of the economy will accelerate the creation of new projects designed to improve local medical infrastructures. Other private companies, some of which are based in Singapore, have been specifically designed to deliver care to expatriates working in Vietnam. Insurance coverage has been provided in Vietnam since in 1992. Other improvements concern the implementation of "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) and "Good Laboratory Practices" and "Good Storage Practices". Most norms were implemented at the end of the 90s in joint companies linking foreign investors and local partners or in independent foreign drug manufacturers based in Vietnam. Special areas were created to receive high tech investments in the medical and

  18. Detecting Energy Spectrum Of The Products Of Reaction 6Li(n,alpha)3H By The Home-Made Gaseous Detectors In Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong Huu Phuoc; Phung Van Duan; Le Van Mien; Nguyen Tat Thang; Tran Hoai Nam

    2008-01-01

    There are shown some of results of study in designing and making first gaseous detectors of big sizes in Vietnam. The detectors were used for test measurement of detecting energy spectrum of the products of reaction 6 Li(n,alpha) 3 H caused by thermal neutrons. On the spectrum there were observed two energy peaks of tritons and alpha particles separately. In the test measurement there were used two neutron isotopic sources with total output 2x1.1x10 7 n/s. The study was implemented at Hanoi University of Technology. (author)

  19. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  1. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Game Production and Role of Game Producer : Case study: Research on demographic of gamers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was intended to serve as a guideline on how to manage a video game development process as a producer. The study includes basic knowledge of game production process, focusing more on managing the project as a whole, rather than reaching specific technical aspects. The production methodology described here is a combination of several methods used by most studios in the game industry. Additionally, understanding of game producer’s roles and characteristics was also studied to g...

  3. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part II. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Tippoo, Patrick; Sivaramakrishnan, Venkatraman; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    New vaccines are required to meet the public health challenges of the next generation and many unmet global health needs can be addressed by developing countries vaccine manufacturers such as lower-cost vaccines based on single-dose, thermostable formulations, efficacious in children with compromised gastrointestinal tracts. GMP compliance is also a challenge, as sometimes innovation and clinical development focus is not accompanied by command of scale-up and quality assurance for large volume manufacturing and supply. Identifying and addressing such challenges, beyond cost and cold-chain space, including safety considerations and health worker behavior, regulatory alliances and harmonization to foster access to vaccines, will help countries to ensure sustainable immunization. There needs to be continuous and close management of the global vaccine supply both at national and international levels, requiring careful risk management, coordination and cooperation with manufacturers. Successful partnership models based on sharing a common goal, mutual respect and good communication were discussed among stakeholders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal infections among people living along the major wastewater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Nauta, Maarten; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-01-01

    and aquaculture. The QMRA was developed on the basis of measured concentration of . Escherichia coli and . Salmonella spp. and . Ascaris spp. eggs in water samples. Published ratios between measured organisms and pathogenic strains of norovirus, rotavirus, . Campylobacter spp. ., pathogenic . E. . . coli...

  5. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam: Controlling geochemical processes and reactive transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Hue, N.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The groundwater chemistry was investigated in a transect of 100 piezometers. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition......(III) but some As(V) is always found. Arsenic correlates well with NH4, relating its release to organic matter decomposition and the source of As appears to be the Fe-oxides being reduced. Part of the produced Fe(II) is apparently reprecipitated as siderite containing less As. Results from sediment extraction...... chemistry over depth is homogeneous and a reactive transport model was constructed to quantify the geochemical processes along the vertical groundwater flow component. A redox zonation model was constructed using the partial equilibrium approach with organic carbon degradation in the sediment as the only...

  6. Tainted commons, public health: the politico-moral significance of cholera in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Martha L

    2014-09-01

    In October 2007, a series of cholera epidemics broke out in Hanoi, interrupting a moment of economic triumphalism in post-transition Vietnam. In seeking the source of a refractory disease associated with poverty and underdevelopment, officials, media, and citizens not only identified scapegoats and proposed solutions, they also endorsed particular visions of moral conduct, social order, and public health. Controversy over cholera, a potent politico-moral symbol, expressed an imaginary of "tainted commons" (i.e., an emergent space of civil society and small-scale entrepreneurship from which the state has partially withdrawn, while still exercising some measure of scrutiny and control). The ambiguities of this situation permitted the state to assume moral postures, evade responsibility, and deflect criticism to convenient targets. Prevalent outbreak narratives thus played on anxieties regarding specifically classed and gendered social groups, whose behavior was imagined to contravene ideals of public health and order. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  7. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-01-01

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model

  8. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-07-14

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model.

  9. Diversification and epidemic risks of poultry production systems in Hanoi suburb

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Dang, Thang; Duquesne, Brigitte; Lebailly, Philippe; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to address this question and to improve the income of small poultry producers through identification of poultry production systems and the supply chains with their various constraints, including the diseases and to analyze the explicative factors of the poultry development at local level. The research was conducted by interviewing and production record keeping system at the household farms which have poultry production at different scales in Hanoi suburb from...

  10. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    credible links to policymakers and development practitioners. VERN research findings appear in the coun- try's Human Development Report and its results informed trade policy, includ- ing preparation for Vietnam's accession to the World Trade Organization. Better use of resources. IDRC support since the early 1990s has.

  11. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    suggests, such action may come at a cost against competing priorities like modernization and economic development. In that context, it bears inquiring...program including India, 29 Rajaram Panda , “Vietnam and the World: Focus on the U.S. and India

  12. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, G Suzanne A; Vu, Thi Lam Binh; Do, Trung Dung; Speybroeck, Niko; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Padalko, Elizaveta; Roets, Ellen; Dorny, Pierre

    2017-05-25

    In Vietnam, no systematic prenatal toxoplasmosis screening is in place, and only few studies have assessed the prevalence and importance of this zoonotic parasite infection. In addition, no studies have been conducted to assess the risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. This study protocol was developed to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hanoi and Thai Binh, Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the association with risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis. The protocol was developed in a way that it could potentially evolve into a countrywide prenatal diagnosis and prevention program, with the main focus on primary prevention. The collaborating gynaecologists will invite eligible pregnant women attending antenatal care for the first time to participate in the study. At first consult, information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention will be provided. All participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire, which is designed to analyse socio-demographic and biologically plausible risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis, and blood samples will be collected to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. In case there is suspicion of a primary infection during pregnancy, the concerned women will be followed-up by the gynaecologists according to a predefined protocol. Every participant will be informed on her serological status, risk factors and prevention measures and is offered appropriate medical information and medical follow-up if required. The hypothesis is that congenital toxoplasmosis is an important but currently under-diagnosed public health problem in Vietnam. This study can strengthen sustainable control of toxoplasmosis in Vietnam, provide a protocol for prenatal diagnosis, boost overall awareness, improve the knowledge about toxoplasmosis prevention and can be essential for evidence-based health policy.

  13. Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidiary aim of an investigation of sexual beliefs and behaviours in pregnancy in Vietnam. Methods Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics at Hanoi Obstetric Hospital. Inclusion criteria were to be in advanced pregnancy and appear well educated and confident and therefore potentially be willing to discuss sexual matters. Data were collected by individual structured interviews assessing socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, quality of intimate relationship and adequacy of support. Emotional wellbeing was assessed by the Vietnamese translation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS. Results In total 61/74 (82% of women approached to participate were recruited. The mean EDS score of 5.42 ± 3.8, was similar to that of community cohorts in high income countries and only one participant scored above 15. The cohort was relatively socioeconomically advantaged with high rates of post-secondary education, secure salaried employment, reproductive autonomy and ability to afford higher quality antenatal care. Most participants were able to confide in their husbands and their pregnancies were welcome. Worse mood was associated with insecure casual work, crowded living conditions and experiencing critical coercion in the marital relationship. Conclusion There is an apparently low prevalence of symptoms of depression in relatively socioeconomically advantaged pregnant women in Vietnam.

  14. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  15. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  16. Incidence of AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Infections and Mortality during Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort of Adult HIV-Infected Individuals in Hanoi, 2007-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Tanuma

    Full Text Available Although the prognosis for HIV-infected individuals has improved after antiretroviral therapy (ART scale-up, limited data exist on the incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (ADIs and mortality during ART in resource-limited settings.HIV-infected adults in two large hospitals in urban Hanoi were enrolled to the prospective cohort, from October 2007 through December 2013. Those who started ART less than one year before enrollment were assigned to the survival analysis. Data on ART history and ADIs were collected retrospectively at enrollment and followed-up prospectively until April 2014.Of 2,070 cohort participants, 1,197 were eligible for analysis and provided 3,446 person-years (PYs of being on ART. Overall, 161 ADIs episodes were noted at a median of 3.20 months after ART initiation (range 0.03-75.8 with an incidence 46.7/1,000 PYs (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.8-54.5. The most common ADI was tuberculosis with an incidence of 29.9/1,000 PYs. Mortality after ART initiation was 8.68/1,000 PYs and 45% (19/45 died of AIDS-related illnesses. Age over 50 years at ART initiation was significantly associated with shorter survival after controlling for baseline CD4 count, but neither having injection drug use (IDU history nor previous ADIs were associated with poor survival. Semi-competing risks analysis in 951 patients without ADIs history prior to ART showed those who developed ADIs after starting ART were at higher risk of death in the first six months than after six months.ADIs were not rare in spite of being on effective ART. Age over 50 years, but not IDU history, was associated with shorter survival in the cohort. This study provides in-depth data on the prognosis of patients on ART in Vietnam during the first decade of ART scale-up.

  17. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  18. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  19. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  20. Status and prospects of nuclear energy development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Vuong Huu

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, nuclear energy has been used in non-power applications for more than 80 years. Health care is a field of the most popular applications of nuclear energy. Every year, hundreds of thousands of people have been diagnosed and treated using nuclear technologies such as radiotherapy, nuclear medicine. In agricultural sector, radiation mutation breeding techniques have been used successfully in creating high quality varieties of rice, soybean, and have made an active contribution in the food security program of the country. The radiation technology has been applied in preservation and pasteurization of some kinds of food, and in production of bio-promoters, hydro gels, etc. The nuclear techniques such as NDT, NCS, and TRACER have been applied in various industries, geology, environment, etc. Recently, the TRACER technique has been used in the management and exploitation of groundwater in Hochiminh City and the Capital of Hanoi. However, effectiveness and scale of non-power applications of nuclear energy is still moderated, does not meet the potential and demand. The studies of nuclear power introduction to Vietnam been carried out for many years and show its necessity and feasibility for the country. Awareness of the advantages of nuclear energy utilization, the Vietnam Government assigned the Ministry of Science and Technology to formulate the long-term strategy for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in co-operation with other governmental agencies. On 3rd of January 2006, the Prime Minister has approved the long-term strategy for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. The goal of the strategy is to set up and develop a nuclear technology industry with high contribution to the socio-economic development as well as the enhancement of the science and technology capability of the country. In order to implement the strategy, main solutions have been proposed: Strengthening and perfecting the organizational and management system; Formulation of nuclear legal

  1. Status and prospects of nuclear energy development in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Vuong Huu [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2006-04-15

    In Vietnam, nuclear energy has been used in non-power applications for more than 80 years. Health care is a field of the most popular applications of nuclear energy. Every year, hundreds of thousands of people have been diagnosed and treated using nuclear technologies such as radiotherapy, nuclear medicine. In agricultural sector, radiation mutation breeding techniques have been used successfully in creating high quality varieties of rice, soybean, and have made an active contribution in the food security program of the country. The radiation technology has been applied in preservation and pasteurization of some kinds of food, and in production of bio-promoters, hydro gels, etc. The nuclear techniques such as NDT, NCS, and TRACER have been applied in various industries, geology, environment, etc. Recently, the TRACER technique has been used in the management and exploitation of groundwater in Hochiminh City and the Capital of Hanoi. However, effectiveness and scale of non-power applications of nuclear energy is still moderated, does not meet the potential and demand. The studies of nuclear power introduction to Vietnam been carried out for many years and show its necessity and feasibility for the country. Awareness of the advantages of nuclear energy utilization, the Vietnam Government assigned the Ministry of Science and Technology to formulate the long-term strategy for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in co-operation with other governmental agencies. On 3rd of January 2006, the Prime Minister has approved the long-term strategy for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. The goal of the strategy is to set up and develop a nuclear technology industry with high contribution to the socio-economic development as well as the enhancement of the science and technology capability of the country. In order to implement the strategy, main solutions have been proposed: Strengthening and perfecting the organizational and management system; Formulation of nuclear legal

  2. Evaluation of mobile digital light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, L H; Reber, C; Phan, H; Switz, N; Nilsson, L M; Myers, F; Nhung, N V; Luu, L; Pham, T; Vu, C; Nguyen, H; Nguyen, A; Dinh, T; Nahid, P; Fletcher, D A; Cattamanchi, A

    2015-09-01

    Hanoi Lung Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam. To compare the accuracy of CellScopeTB, a manually operated mobile digital fluorescence microscope, with conventional microscopy techniques. Patients referred for sputum smear microscopy to the Hanoi Lung Hospital from May to September 2013 were included. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy, conventional light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM), CellScopeTB-based LED FM and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF were performed on sputum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopy techniques were determined in reference to Xpert results, and differences were compared using McNemar's paired test of proportions. Of 326 patients enrolled, 93 (28.5%) were Xpert-positive for TB. The sensitivity of ZN microscopy, conventional LED FM, and CellScopeTB-based LED FM was respectively 37.6% (95%CI 27.8-48.3), 41.9% (95%CI 31.8-52.6), and 35.5% (95%CI 25.8-46.1). The sensitivity of CellScopeTB was similar to that of conventional LED FM (difference -6.5%, 95%CI -18.2 to 5.3, P = 0.33) and ZN microscopy (difference -2.2%, 95%CI -9.2 to 4.9, P = 0.73). The specificity was >99% for all three techniques. CellScopeTB performed similarly to conventional microscopy techniques in the hands of experienced TB microscopists. However, the sensitivity of all sputum microscopy techniques was low. Options enabled by digital microscopy, such as automated imaging with real-time computerized analysis, should be explored to increase sensitivity.

  3. Essay: Hanoi – The City that is continuously ‘Becoming’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanoi is an incredibly visually stimulating city. Street after street is crammed with more details than a pair of human eyes is capable of registering at one time. Laser printed banners screen the facades of buildings, trees are hung with all sorts of objects, sidewalks are covered to the centimeter with food options and vehicles... Everywhere you turn your gaze it is immediately filled. And all the forms, colors, graphics, shift on a daily basis, from the array on the footpath, to the window displays, to the signs advertising merchandise and services.

  4. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.

  5. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  6. Palliative care knowledge, attitudes and perceived self-competence of nurses working in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ly Thuy; Yates, Patsy; Osborne, Yvonne

    2014-09-01

    To explore palliative care knowledge, attitudes and perceived self-competence of nurses working in oncology settings in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. The self-administered questionnaires consisted of three validated instruments: the Expertise and Insight Test for Palliative Care, the Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale B and the Palliative Care Nursing Self Competence Scale. The sample consisted of 251 nurses caring for cancer patients in three oncology hospitals in Vietnam. The responses identified low scores in nurses' palliative care knowledge related to pain and other symptom management and psychological and spiritual aspects. Nurses' responses reflected discomfort in communicating about death and establishing therapeutic relationship with oncology patients who require palliative care. Additionally, nurses reported low scores in perceived self-competence when providing pain management and addressing social and spiritual domains of palliative care. The findings also revealed that nurses who had higher palliative care knowledge scores demonstrated attitudes which were more positive and expressed greater perceived self-competence. Nurses working in oncology wards need more education to develop their knowledge and skills of palliative care, especially in the areas of pain management, psychological and spiritual care, and communication.

  7. Prevalence of cervical human papilloma virus infection among married women in Vietnam, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan T H; Bui, Dieu

    2012-01-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is increasing in Vietnam in the recent years, infection with high risk HPV being the cause. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of HPV and the distribution of HPV specific types among the general population in 5 big cities in Vietnam. Totals of 1500 women in round 1 and 3000 in round 2 were interviewed and underwent gynecological examination. HPV infection status, and HPV genotyping test were performed for all participants. Results indicated that the prevalence of HPV infection in 5 cities ranged from 6.1% to 10.2% with Can Tho having highest prevalence. The most common HPV types in all 5 cities were HPV 16, 18 and 58. Most of the positive cases were infected with high risk HPV, especially in Hanoi and Can Tho where more than 90% positive cases were high risk HPV. Furthermore, in Can Tho more than 60% of women were infected with multiple HPV types. The information from this study can be used to provide updated data for planning preventive activities for cervical cancer in the studied cities.

  8. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Hung Viet, Pham; Sampson, Mickey L.; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  9. Armor in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    battles a-Riuot the insurgent enemy, especially with armor. French contingents were present in Tndo Chinh P-w early as 1852, but it was not until 1884...committed to Vietnam were straight infantry. These troons er•A tran -norted in hn4±{ copters and usually airlifted to the battle zone; however, once...0STAINf0 FROM VKTNAM NATIONAL MAP SERVICE (NOS) PHU-YEN OCTOBER 19665 OARLAC ......... KKAN1+ HOA QLWA- DUC TUYEN- DUC PHUOC- NINH_ C;ry OF -10 T CAM RANK TAY

  10. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  11. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  12. Risks of Coastal Storm Surge and the Effect of Sea Level Rise in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Neumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of sea level rise and storm surge on the Red River delta region of Vietnam. Permanently inundated lands and temporary flood zones are analyzed by combining sea level rise scenarios for 2050 with simulated storm surge levels for the 100-year event. Our analysis finds that sea level rise through 2050 could increase the effective frequency of the current 100-year storm surge, which is associated with a storm surge of roughly five meters, to once every 49 years. Approximately 10% of the Hanoi region’s GDP is vulnerable to permanent inundation due to sea level rise, and more than 40% is vulnerable to periodic storm surge damage consistent with the current 100-year storm. We conclude that coastal adaptation measures, such as a planned retreat from the sea, and construction of a more substantial seawall and dike system, are needed to respond to these threats.

  13. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  14. Controlling geological and hydrogeological processes in an arsenic contaminated aquifer on the Red River flood plain, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Flemming; Nhan Quy Pham; Nhan Duc Dang; Postma, Dieke; Jessen, Soren; Viet Hung Pham; Nguyen, Thao Bach; Trieu, Huy Duc; Luu Thi Tran; Hoan Nguyen; Chambon, Julie; Hoan Van Nguyen; Dang Hoang Ha; Nguyen Thi Hue; Mai Thanh Duc; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Geological and hydrogeological processes controlling recharge and the mobilization of As were investigated in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The geology was investigated using surface resistivity methods, geophysical borehole logging, drilling of boreholes and installation of more than 200 piezometers. Recharge processes and surface-groundwater interaction were studied using (i) time-series of hydraulic head distribution in surface water and aquifers, (ii) the stable isotope composition of waters and (iii) numerical groundwater modeling. The Red River and two of its distributaries run through the field site and control the groundwater flow pattern. For most of the year, there is a regional groundwater flow towards the Red River. During the monsoon the Red River water stage rises up to 6 m and stalls the regional groundwater flow. The two distributaries recharge the aquifer from perched water tables in the dry season, whilst in the flooding period surface water enters the aquifer through highly permeable bank sediments. The result is a dynamic groundwater flow pattern with rapid fluctuations in the groundwater table. A transient numerical model of the groundwater flow yields an average recharge rate of 60-100 mm/a through the confining clay, and a total recharge of approximately 200 mm/a was estimated from 3 H/ 3 He dating of the shallow groundwater. Thus in the model area, recharge of surface water from the river distributaries and recharge through a confining clay is of the same magnitude, being on average around 100 mm/a. The thickness of the confining clay varies between 2 and 10 m, and affects the recharge rate and the transport of electron acceptors (O 2 , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) into the aquifer. Where the clay layer is thin, an up to 2 m thick oxic zone develops in the shallow aquifer. In the oxic zone the As concentration is less than 1 μg/L but increases in the reduced zone below to 550 μg/L. In the Holocene

  15. Quality of life outcomes of antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL and its related factors in HIV/AIDS patients taking antiretroviral treatment (ART in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1016 patients (36.2% women, mean age = 35.4 in three epicenters of Vietnam, including Hanoi, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City. HRQOL was assessed using the Vietnamese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Factor analysis classified measure items into six HRQOL dimensions, namely Physical, Morbidity, Social, Spirituality, Performance, and Environment. Tobit censored regression models were applied to determine associations of patient's characteristics and HRQOL domain scores. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability of the six domains ranged from 0.69 to 0.89. The WHOQOL-HIV BREF had a good discriminative validity with patient's disease stages, CD4 cell counts, and duration of ART. In a band score of (4, 20, six domains were moderate; "Environment" had the highest score (13.8±2.8, and "Social" had the lowest score (11.2±3.3. Worse HRQOL were observed in patients at provincial and district clinics. Those patients who were male, had higher educational attainment, and are employed, reported better HRQOL. In reduced regression models, poorer HRQOL was found in patients who had advanced HIV infection and had CD4 cell count <200 cells/mL. Patients reported significantly poorer Physical and Social in the 1(st year ART, but moderately better Performance, Morbidity, Spirituality, and Environment from the 2(nd year ART, compared to those not-yet-on ART. CONCLUSION: Strengthening the quality of ART services at the provincial and district levels, gender-specific impact mitigation, and early treatment supports are recommended for further expansion of ART services in Vietnam. Regular assessments of HRQOL may provide important indicators for monitoring and evaluating HIV/AIDS services.

  16. Occurrence of 1153 organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H T C; Kadokami, K; Duong, H T; Kong, L; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, T Q; Ito, Y

    2018-03-01

    The rapid increase in the number and volume of chemical substances being used in modern society has been accompanied by a large number of potentially hazardous chemicals being found in environmental samples. In Vietnam, the monitoring of chemical substances is mainly limited to a small number of known pollutants in spite of rapid economic growth and urbanization, and there is an urgent need to examine a large number of chemicals to prevent impacts from expanding environmental pollution. However, it is difficult to analyze a large number of chemicals using existing methods, because they are time consuming and expensive. In the present study, we determined 1153 substances to grasp a pollution picture of microcontaminants in the aquatic environment. To achieve this objective, we have used two comprehensive analytical methods: (1) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-TOF-MS analysis, and (2) SPE and GC-MS analysis. We collected 42 samples from northern (the Red River and Hanoi), central (Hue and Danang), and southern (Ho Chi Minh City and Saigon-Dongnai River) Vietnam. One hundred and sixty-five compounds were detected at least once. The compounds detected most frequently (>40 % samples) at μg/L concentrations were sterols (cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, coprostanol), phthalates (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate), and pharmaceutical and personal care products (caffeine, metformin). These contaminants were detected at almost the same detection frequency as in developed countries. The results reveal that surface waters in Vietnam, particularly in the center of large cities, are polluted by a large number of organic micropollutants, with households and business activities as the major sources. In addition, risk quotients (MEC/PNEC values) for nonylphenol, sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, acetaminophen, erythromycin and clarithromycin were higher than 1, which indicates a possibility of adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  18. Cost and effectiveness comparison of two methods for screening potential blood donors for anaemia in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, A; Worrall, E; Que, T N; Bates, I

    2011-06-01

    To compare the cost and effectiveness of Copper Sulphate (CS) and HemoCue (HC) methods for screening blood donors for anaemia. Robust information from developing countries about cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods for blood donors is scarce. In such countries there are widespread shortages of blood, so the most cost-effective method should maximise blood supply without compromising donor safety. Economic data (e.g. staff time, equipment and buildings) were collected from direct observation of procedures and purchase data from Hanoi's Central Blood Bank administrative department. A framework for comparing the cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods was developed and a cost per effective (i.e. usable and accurate) test was generated for each method. Samples from 100 potential donors from the Hanoi Central Blood Bank (static) and 198 from two mobile units were tested. The mean probability of an ineffective anaemia test was 0·1 (0·05-0·2). The average cost of an HC test was $0·75 (static $0·61 and mobile $0·89) and a CS test was $0·31 (static $0·17 and mobile $0·45). The difference between static and mobile units was predominantly due to transport costs; the difference between the two methods was predominantly due to the HC microcuvettes. In this setting the CS yields greater value for money than the HC method for screening blood donors. The relative cost and effectiveness of CS and HC may be different in places with higher staff turnover, lower test accuracy, higher anaemia prevalence or lower workload than in Vietnam. © 2010 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. A dengue outbreak on a floating village at Cat Ba Island in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Viet, Thanh; Choisy, Marc; Bryant, Juliet E; Vu Trong, Duoc; Pham Quang, Thai; Horby, Peter; Nguyen Tran, Hien; Tran Thi Kieu, Huong; Nguyen Vu, Trung; Nguyen Van, Kinh; Le Quynh, Mai; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-22

    A dengue outbreak in an ecotourism destination spot in Vietnam, from September to November 2013, impacted a floating village of fishermen on the coastal island of Cat Ba. The outbreak raises questions about how tourism may impact disease spread in rural areas. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Hai Phong Preventive Medical Center (PMC), including case histories and residential location from all notified dengue cases from this outbreak. All household addresses were geo-located. Knox test, a spatio-temporal analysis that enables inference dengue clustering constrained by space and time, was performed on the geocoded locations. From the plasma available from two patients, positive for Dengue serotype 3 virus (DENV3), the Envelope (E) gene was sequenced, and their genetic relationships compared to other E sequences in the region. Of 192 dengue cases, the odds ratio of contracting dengue infections for people living in the floating villages compared to those living on the island was 4.9 (95 % CI: 3.6-6.7). The space-time analyses on 111 geocoded dengue residences found the risk of dengue infection to be the highest within 4 days and a radius of 20 m of a given case. Of the total of ten detected clusters with an excess risk greater than 2, the cluster with the highest number of cases was in the floating village area (24 patients for a total duration of 31 days). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology of the two DENV3 strains (genotype III) from Cat Ba with DENV3 viruses circulating in Hanoi in the same year (99.1 %). Our study showed that dengue transmission is unlikely to be sustained on Cat Ba Island and that the 2013 epidemic likely originated through introduction of viruses from the mainland, potentially Hanoi. These findings suggest that prevention efforts should be focused on mainland rather than on the island.

  20. Hydrological and Mineralogical Factors Influencing Paradoxical Groundwater Arsenic Release in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, A.; Bostick, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    In South and Southeast Asia, the widespread contamination of groundwater arsenic (As) via microbial reduction of As-bearing iron (Fe) minerals in the subsurface results in toxic levels of arsenic above the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard of 10 ug/L. High groundwater arsenic levels are generally found in gray Holocene aquifers whereas orange-sanded Pleistocene aquifers are typically a safer, lower As alternative. In the Red River Delta of Vietnam and elsewhere, Pleistocene aquifers can also have elevated arsenic levels, often due to increased groundwater pumping from the growing Hanoi area drawing high As water from Holocene aquifers, or from reduction induced by advected groundwater and organic carbon from the Red River. To determine which factors threaten the Pleistocene aquifers, we critically examine the hydrological and geochemical factors that could influence arsenic levels in the area. Exploiting an asymmetry in the region just south of Hanoi, yearlong spatiotemporal measurements of dissolved arsenic levels reveals a paradox between a Pleistocene aquifer site in Yen My (west bank) with higher As concentrations than a Holocene site in Van Duc (east bank). We monitor the influence of local and regional hydrology via water table measurements, stable water isotopes and conservative anion concentrations linked to the release of aqueous As. Preliminary x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data point to As(V)/arsenic sulfide minerals in Yen My versus As(III) minerals in Van Duc. Coupled to hydrology, downcore Fe Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and As X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) stratigraphy and spatiotemporal dissolved organic carbon data serve to narrow down the possible sources of carbon and reductive processes that affect As speciation and transport. Overall, understanding sources that endanger the Pleistocene aquifers may elucidate important As cycling mechanisms at play that threatens water quality for

  1. Use of total-reflection x-ray fluorescence in search of a biomonitor for environmental pollution in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, J.; Wagner, A.; Brauer, H.; Viet Binh, D.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of trace elements in tissues of several animals collected in the Ha Nam province, about 25 km south of Hanoi, Vietnam, has been investigated using total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). With this study we wanted to address whether any of the animals were possible candidates for being bio-monitors for the pollution situation in a selected area of Vietnam. We also aim to compare the measured trace element concentrations to those representative to other provinces in Vietnam as well as to other parts of the world. An extensive bio-diversity of animals exists in Vietnam, where many of them play an important economic role in the agricultural breeding and production. The accumulation process of trace elements is still not known for a large number of animals. The parts of the collected animals chosen for analysis were muscle tissue and liver. The specimens were dried under vacuum and kept frozen. Before the TXRF analysis, the solid and dried samples were digested in nitric acid. The analysis was made at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology and Goeteborg University, Sweden, where a TXRF spectrometer has been developed by the Environmental Physics group. The results show that there could be a large variation in the concentration of trace elements, not only between the different animals but also between tissue parts of the same animal. Obviously, when selecting an organism to be used as a bio-monitor, other factors than the mere concentration of trace elements must be considered. (author)

  2. The evolution of HIV policy in Vietnam: from punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Ha, Pham; Pharris, Anastasia; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Brugha, Ruairi; Thorson, Anna

    2010-08-28

    Policymaking in Vietnam has traditionally been the preserve of the political elite, not open to the scrutiny of those outside the Communist Party. This paper aims to analyse Vietnam's HIV policy development in order to describe and understand the policy content, policy-making processes, actors and obstacles to policy implementation. Nine policy documents on HIV were analysed and 17 key informant interviews were conducted in Hanoi and Quang Ninh Province, based on a predesigned interview guide. Framework analysis, a type of qualitative content analysis, was applied for data analysis. Our main finding was that during the last two decades, developments in HIV policy in Vietnam were driven in a top-down way by the state organs, with support and resources coming from international agencies. Four major themes were identified: HIV policy content, the policy-making processes, the actors involved and human resources for policy implementation. Vietnam's HIV policy has evolved from one focused on punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach, encompassing harm reduction and payment of health insurance for medical costs of patients with HIV-related illness. Low salaries and staff reluctance to work with patients, many of whom are drug users and female sex workers, were described as the main barriers to low health staff motivation. Health policy analysis approaches can be applied in a traditional one party state and can demonstrate how similar policy changes take place, as those found in pluralistic societies, but through more top-down and somewhat hidden processes. Enhanced participation of other actors, like civil society in the policy process, is likely to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that meets the diverse needs and concerns of its population.

  3. The evolution of HIV policy in Vietnam: from punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Nguyen Ha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Policymaking in Vietnam has traditionally been the preserve of the political elite, not open to the scrutiny of those outside the Communist Party. This paper aims to analyse Vietnam's HIV policy development in order to describe and understand the policy content, policy-making processes, actors and obstacles to policy implementation. Methods: Nine policy documents on HIV were analysed and 17 key informant interviews were conducted in Hanoi and Quang Ninh Province, based on a predesigned interview guide. Framework analysis, a type of qualitative content analysis, was applied for data analysis. Results: Our main finding was that during the last two decades, developments in HIV policy in Vietnam were driven in a top-down way by the state organs, with support and resources coming from international agencies. Four major themes were identified: HIV policy content, the policy-making processes, the actors involved and human resources for policy implementation. Vietnam's HIV policy has evolved from one focused on punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach, encompassing harm reduction and payment of health insurance for medical costs of patients with HIV-related illness. Low salaries and staff reluctance to work with patients, many of whom are drug users and female sex workers, were described as the main barriers to low health staff motivation. Conclusion: Health policy analysis approaches can be applied in a traditional one party state and can demonstrate how similar policy changes take place, as those found in pluralistic societies, but through more top-down and somewhat hidden processes. Enhanced participation of other actors, like civil society in the policy process, is likely to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that meets the diverse needs and concerns of its population.

  4. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  5. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  6. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  7. 77 FR 20273 - Vietnam Veterans Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... showing a generation of veterans the respect and support of a grateful Nation. The Vietnam War is a story... with honor, and on March 29, 1973, the last of our troops left Vietnam. Yet, in one of the war's most... commemorate the 50-year anniversary of the Vietnam War. [[Page 20276

  8. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  9. Experimental investigation and modelling approach of the impact of urban wastewater on a tropical river; a case study of the Nhue River, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Trinh Anh; Vachaud, Georges; Bonnet, Marie Paule; Prieur, Nicolas; Loi, Vu Duc; Anh, Le Lan

    2007-02-01

    SummaryAnalyses of water quality and flow regime in combination with laboratory studies and ecological modelling were used to assess the water quality impact of pollution from to To Lich River that drains through Hanoi City and greatly contaminates the Nhue River. With an average discharge of 26.2 m 3/s, the Nhue River receives about 5.8 m 3/s of untreated domestic water from the city's main open-air-sewer - the To Lich River. The studies during 2002-2003 showed high concentrations of BOD (70 mg O 2/l), DOC (15 mg C/l), coliform (2.4e 6 MNP/100 ml), total phosphorus (3.5 mg P/l), and total nitrogen (31.6 mg N/l) in the To Lich, while DO level was less than 1 mg O 2/l. Such high loads of untreated wastewater impacted water quality in the Nhue River where DO decreased at times to as low as 1 mg O 2/l. The accumulation of particulate organic matter and micro-organisms in the sediments of the Nhue represented substantial sources of nutrients and sinks for DO. They are also considerable production of dissolved carbon dioxide at concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than pressure. Such pressures ( EpCO 2) are expected in polluted environments, but the results presented here are new for Vietnam and much of developing countries. A number of factors linked to field monitoring and laboratory measurements clearly indicate the importance of autotrophic over heterotrophic biological processes and sediments. An ecological model for management purposes has been developed that reliably estimates of the pollutant loads. An opportunity was taken to examine the changing impacts and processes when the To Lich was diverted from the Nhue. The monitoring and modelling of this opportunity showed low dissolved oxygen levels even if the impact from the To Lich was lessened. Alternatives are proposed to alleviate problems of water quality in the Nhue. It is concluded that the treatment of the To Lich River's water is highly recommended; otherwise a reduction to one third of

  10. Study variation of PM-10 air pollution at Lang Meteorological Station, Hanoi Coded: CS/02/04-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Thu Bac; Dinh Thien Lam; Ngyen Thi Hong Thinh; Dang Duc Nhan; Nguyen Hao Quang; Pham Duy Hien

    2003-01-01

    577 air dust samples have been collected with two kinds of air samplers (2-SFU, 1-ASP) on every Wednesday and Sunday for 24 hours at both of monitoring stations (Lang - Hanoi and Lucnam - Bacgiang). PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10) and BC concentrations in 452 air dust samples have been determined. 9032 data have been analyzed with many of different multi-elements analytical techniques (IC: 264 samples x 9 ions, PIXE: 388 samples x 15 elements, XRF: 48 samples x 8 elements, LR: 452 samples x 1 element). Over 6000 of meteorological parameters (T, Rain, WS, WD, RH...) have been collected and processed.Variations and levels of air dust concentrations and BC in Hanoi from 1998 to 2002 have been studied. PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10) and BC concentrations and BC obviously periodically vary. They reach maximum in the winter season, especially in December and January, sometimes they reached 300-400 μg.m -3 , They reach minimum in the summer season, sometimes they went down 10 μg.m -3 on rainy days. These variations were affected by meteorological parameters. PM(2.5), PM(10) daily average concentrations in Hanoi are greater than the American air standards (PM(2.5): 65 μg.m -3 , PM(10): 150 μg.m -3 ) in many days and their yearly average concentrations are also far exceeded. Air dust pollution levels in Hanoi are higher than in developed countries and even countries in the region. BC (5.9 μg.m -3 ) concentration and Pb (0.11 μg.m -3 ) are also higher than in many countries. (VTB)

  11. Fact-finding survey of nosocomial infection control in hospitals in Vietnam and application to training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Hiroshi; Hung, Nguyen Viet; Thu, Truong Anh

    2009-12-01

    Nosocomial infection control is crucial for improving the quality of medical care. It is also indispensable for implementing effective control measures for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the possible occurrence of a human influenza pandemic. The present authors, in collaboration with Vietnamese hospital staff, performed a fact-finding survey of nosocomial infection control in hospitals in northern Vietnam and compared the results with those of a survey conducted 4 years previously. Remarkable improvement was recognized in this period, although there were considerable differences between the central hospitals in Hanoi and local hospitals. In the local hospitals, basic techniques and the systems for infection control were regarded as insufficient, and it is necessary to improve these techniques and systems under the guidance of hospitals in the central area. Based on the results of the survey, programs were prepared and training courses were organized in local hospitals. Evaluation conducted after the training courses showed a high degree of satisfaction among the trainees. The results of the survey and the training courses conducted during the study period are expected to contribute to the improvement of nosocomial infection control in remote areas of Vietnam.

  12. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  13. Current practices and barriers to the use of facemasks and respirators among hospital-based health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Seale, Holly; Chi Dung, Tham; Maher, Lisa; Nga, Phan Thi; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards the use of facemasks among hospital-based health care workers (HCWs) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A qualitative study incorporating 20 focus groups was conducted between August 2010 and May 2011. HCWs from 7 hospitals in Vietnam were invited to participate. Issues associated with the availability of facemasks (medical and cloth masks) and respirators was the strongest theme to emerge from the discussion. Participants reported that it is not unusual for some types of facemasks to be unavailable during nonemergency periods. It was highlighted that the use of facemasks and respirators is not continuous, but rather is limited to selected situations, locations, and patients. Reuse of facemasks and respirators is also common in some settings. Finally, some participants reported believing that the reuse of facemasks, particularly cloth masks, is safe, whereas others believed that the reuse of masks put staff at risk of infection. In low and middle-income countries, access to appropriate levels of personal protective equipment may be restricted owing to competing demands for funding in hospital settings. It is important that issues around reuse and extended use of medical masks/respirators and decontamination of cloth masks are addressed in policy documents to minimize the risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The WUNB is the provincial branch of the Vietnam Women's Union, a unique country-wide ... It also serves to monitor and evaluate their performance. ... Vu Thi Tan explains, detailed information is needed for the union to carry out its work.

  15. Electricity of Vietnam and problem of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An

    2005-01-01

    After reporting the present status and development of electricity in Vietnam, the author points out the most pollutant source is coal-fired power plants followed by listing pollutant substances by coal, oil and gas fired plants and Vietnamese standards of industrial emission and ambient air quality. To conclude, it is time to prepare staff and technology for the utilization of electron accelerators to flue gas treatment. (S. Ohno)

  16. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, I, Sr, U, Th etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of our investigation work carried out from November 1996 to April 1998 in the field of 'Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection'. This work related to the Co-ordinated Research Programme for Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2. The data reported are the daily individual intake of the elements of interest for some different socio-economic groups of Vietnamese population living in Hanoi, Hochiminh city Vinh Phu and Dalat areas. The obtained results showed that the average content for four elements (Cs, I, U, Th) in Vietnamese dietary intakes slightly changes from area to area in dependence on geographical, natural and socio-economical conditions, on type and composition of foods. (author)

  17. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. N D Sang1 P H Quang2 L T Tu2 D T B Hop2. National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Street, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Vietnam; Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam ...

  18. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thanh Thi Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women. The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking’s adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall

  19. Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: present status and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Le Hang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6% MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9% were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7% were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively. The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  20. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  1. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

    The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  2. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  3. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption among Vietnamese in Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Anh Thi; Do, Hien Thu Thi; Agusa, Tetsuro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Yamamoto, Megumi

    2017-01-01

    People are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) mainly through fish consumption, which is increasing in Vietnam. However, little information is available on estimating the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam. The present study examined the association between mercury (Hg) levels in hair and selenium (Se) levels in toenails of 196 Vietnamese people and their fish consumption, using a dietary questionnaire to obtain information pertinent for assessing health risk owing to MeHg exposure. The geometric mean of Hg levels in the hair of males and females was 617 ng/g and 575 ng/g, respectively. We found that Hg levels in the hair of 98% of the Vietnamese study subjects were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake for MeHg (1.6 µg Hg/kg body weight; which is equivalent to a hair Hg concentration of approximately 2,300 ng/g, with an uncertainty factor of 6.4). There were significant differences in the age-adjusted geometric mean of Hg levels found in hair from females related to their frequency of freshwater fish consumption. The levels of Hg in hair and Se in toenails increased with an increased frequency of marine fish consumption, and both showed a significant positive correlation in subjects who consumed marine fish ≥ once/week. This is the first cross-sectional study to investigate the association between hair Hg levels and fish consumption in Vietnam. These findings provide valuable information for future assessments of the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam.

  4. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, P W

    1992-07-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  5. Drug addiction stigma in relation to methadone maintenance treatment by different service delivery models in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Vu, Phuong Bich; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Latkin, Sophia Knowlton; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-03-08

    The rapid expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services has significantly improved health status and quality of life of patients. However, little is known about its impacts on addiction-related stigma and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi, and Nam Dinh province among 1016 methadone maintenance patients; 26.6 % at provincial AIDS centers (PAC) and 73.4 % at district health centers (DHC), respectively. Drug addiction history and related stigma, health status, MMT-related covariates, and sociodemographic characteristics were interviewed. More than one-sixth of the sample reported experiencing felt or enacted stigma, including Blame or Judgement (17.2 %), Shame (19.9 %), or Others' fear of HIV transmission (17.1 %). These proportions were higher in PACs than in DHCs, which are integrated with other HIV or general health care services. Very few patients reported being discriminated at the workplace (2.5 %) or at health care services (1.7 %); however, 15.6 % of patients at PACs and 10.6 % of patients at DHCs reported discrimination in their communities. Drug users taking MMT for longer periods were less likely to report felt stigma. Other factors associated with stigma against MMT patients included the lack of comprehensive services, higher education, presence of pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression, self-reported HIV positive, and number of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. The study shows a high level of stigma against MMT patients and emphasizes the necessity to integrate MMT with comprehensive health and support services. Mass communication campaigns to reduce stigma against people with drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, as well as vocational trainings and jobs referrals for MMT patients, are needed to maximize the benefits of MMT programs in Vietnam.

  6. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  7. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  8. Barriers to accessing and using health insurance cards among methadone maintenance treatment patients in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Le Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-17

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients face unique costs associated with their healthcare expenditures. As such, it is important that these patients have access to health insurance (HI) to help them pay for both routine and unforeseen health services. In this study, we explored factors related to health insurance enrollment and utilization among MMT patients, to move Vietnam closer to universal coverage among this patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1003 patients enrolled in MMT in five clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh provinces. Patients were asked a range of questions about their health, health expenditures, and health insurance access and utilization. We used multivariate logistic regressions to determine factors associated with health insurance access among participants. The majority of participants (nearly 80%) were not currently enrolled in health insurance at the time of the study. Participants from rural regions were significantly more likely than urban participants to report difficulty using HI. Family members of participants from rural regions were more likely to have overall poor service quality through health insurance compared with family members of participants from urban regions. Overall, 37% of participants endorsed a lack of information about HI, nearly 22% of participants reported difficulty accessing HI, 22% reported difficulty using HI, and more than 20% stated they had trouble paying for HI. Older, more highly educated, and employed participants were more likely to have an easier time accessing HI than their younger, less well educated, and unemployed counterparts. HIV-positive participants were more likely to have sufficient information about health insurance options. Our study highlights the dearth of health insurance utilization among MMT patients in northern Vietnam. It also sheds light on factors associated with increased access to and utilization of health insurance among this underserved population. These

  9. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  10. "Totenkranz" Who would have thought Hanoi could be such a good setting for a film noir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schmitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available End of January in Hanoi: the Tet-festival – Vietnam’s New Year’s celebration – has brought a pause to the usual hustle and bustle in the city. People have left the capital and returned to their home villages. Even the police headquarters is deserted. This is the only reason why political commissar Hung calls criminal detective Pham Van Ly, who had been suspended from duty 10 months before. An old woman was found dead on a construction site. Only a few hours later a Chinese real estate investor dies from what looks like food poisoning. What first seem to be unrelated incidents turn out to be a series of murders with the killer leaving a track of mysterious funeral wreaths. Ly jumps at the chance for this case as he sees it as the only way to get his suspension lifted. His investigations lead quickly into the corruption and nepotism related to Vietnam’s real estate market. And while the grumpy detective with a taste for Thang Long cigarettes and beer is solving the case, the reader travels into the dark side of Vietnamese society with its corrupt officials, poor farmers and ruthless property sharks from China.

  11. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p craft villages in Vietnam are co-exposed to toxic metals. There is an urgent need for mitigation to control metal exposure related to domestic smelting.

  12. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Qui Viet; Vu Dang Ninh

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  13. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Qui Viet [Department of Organization and Scientific Human Resource Development, The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Dang Ninh [Department of Administration and Personnel, The Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-12-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  14. Application of Fuzzy Delphi TOPSIS to Locate Logistics Centers in Vietnam: The Logisticians’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Yen Pham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics centers have emerged as an important logistics infrastructure in supply chains. Hence, the problem of locating logistics centers plays a crucial role in designing and practicing logistics and supply chain management. Acknowledging the significance of logistics centers, Vietnam approved a master plan for the development of a logistics center system. However, the plan has been difficult to implementation because of the lack of the prioritization of the determinants used to locate logistics centers. This study aims to develop a benchmarking framework for choosing the locations of logistics centers based on the findings of logisticians by applying a hybrid of the fuzzy method and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, both of which are utilized extensively to overcome problems in selecting locations. The results indicate that freight demand, closeness to market, production area, customers, and transportation costs are regarded as the most important factors in deciding the location of logistics centers. In addition, among the three locations considered, the northeast provinces of Ho Chi Minh City were the best location for logistic centers, followed by North Hanoi and Da Nang city. The findings of this study make a significant contribution to both academic and practical aspects of locating logistic centers.

  15. Factors Associated With Risky Alcohol Consumption Among Male Street Laborers in Urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Lamprini; Huy, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Nguyen; Riggi, Emilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2017-07-29

    Alcohol consumption is of global concern. However, drinking patterns and associated factors remain under-investigated, especially among low socioeconomic groups such as street laborers. Using the social cognitive model as a framework for the study we aimed to identify factors associated with risky alcohol consumption. In a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires, 450 male street laborers searching for casual works in Hanoi, Vietnam were interviewed. A logistic regression was applied in order to detect predictors of risky alcohol drinking. During the last month, 45% of the participants reported daily consumption while the other 55% consumed weekly or less. Among the drinkers (416 out of 450, 92%), 27% were identified as high-risk drinkers who reported more than 14 standard drinks per week, while only 8% were lifetime abstainers. The multivariable logistic regression showed that older age, higher income were positively associated with a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol, while high school level negatively. The environmental predictor was the higher level of peer connection. The association between drinking and risky behavior was found positive with regards to the number of sexual partners. The study suggests that male street laborers are vulnerable to health risks. Decision makers should note that a significant proportion of this target group exceeds the guidelines for alcohol use and this should be included in future interventions or further research. A multisectoral approach together with an important strategy of education is needed to control alcohol use.

  16. Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Kim, Mikyeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-09-15

    Rainwater, which is used for drinking purposes near Hanoi, Vietnam, was analysed for water quality based on 1.5 years of monitoring data. In total, 23 samples were collected from different points within two rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs). Most parameters met the standard except micro-organisms. Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected when the rainwater was not treated with ultraviolet (UV) light; however, analysis of rainwater after UV sterilisation showed no trace of micro-organisms. The RWHSs appear to provide drinking water of relatively good quality compared with surface water and groundwater. The superior quality of the rainwater suggests the necessity for new drinking rainwater standards because applying all of the drinking water quality standards to rainwater is highly inefficient. The traditionally implemented standards could cause more difficulties for developing countries using RWHSs installed decentralized as a source of drinking water, particularly in areas not well supplied with testing equipment, because such countries must bear the expense and time for these measures. This paper proposes the necessity of rainwater quality guideline, which could serve as a safe and cost-effective alternative to provide an access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  18. Training human resource for NPP in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trung Tinh; Dam, Xuan Hiep

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam will establish the first NPP in the near future. With us the first important thing is the human resource, but now there is no university in Vietnam training nuclear engineers. In EPU (Electric Power University), now we are preparing for training nuclear engineers. In this paper, we review the nuclear man power and the way to train the high quality human resource for NPP and for other nuclear application in Vietnam. (author)

  19. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  20. Malaria risk factors and care-seeking behaviour within the private sector among high-risk populations in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ingrid; Thanh, Huong Ngo Thi; Lover, Andrew; Thao, Phung Thi; Luu, Tang Viet; Thang, Hoang Nghia; Thang, Ngo Duc; Neukom, Josselyn; Bennett, Adam

    2017-10-16

    Vietnam has successfully reduced malaria incidence by more than 90% over the past 10 years, and is now preparing for malaria elimination. However, the remaining malaria burden resides in individuals that are hardest to reach, in highly remote areas, where many malaria cases are treated through the informal private sector and are not reported to public health systems. This qualitative study aimed to contextualize and characterize the role of private providers, care-seeking behaviour of individuals at high risk of malaria, as well as risk factors that should be addressed through malaria elimination programmes in Vietnam. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 key informants in Hanoi, 30 providers, 9 potential patients, and 11 individuals at risk of malaria in Binh Phuoc and Kon Tum provinces. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed and uploaded to Atlas TI™, themes were identified, from which programmatic implications and recommendations were synthesized. Qualitative interviews revealed that efforts for malaria elimination in Vietnam should concentrate on reaching highest-risk populations in remote areas as well their care providers, in particular private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Among these private providers, diagnosis is currently based on symptoms, leaving unconfirmed cases that are not reported to public health surveillance systems. Among at-risk individuals, knowledge of malaria was limited, and individuals reported not taking full courses of treatment, a practice that threatens selection for drug resistance. Access to insecticide-treated hammock nets, a potentially important preventive measure for settings with outdoor biting Anopheles vectors, was also limited. Malaria elimination efforts in Vietnam can be accelerated by targeting improved treatment, diagnosis, and reporting practices to private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Programmes should also seek to increase awareness and

  1. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  2. Impact of Urban Heat Island under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang Hai Nam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the influence of urban heat island (UHI under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on the energy consumption for space cooling in residential buildings. The weather conditions under the current and future status (master plan condition simulated in the previous study (Trihamdani et al., 2014 were used and cooling loads in all the residential buildings in Hanoi over the hottest month were estimated under the simulated current and future conditions by using the building simulation program, TRNSYS (v17. Three most typical housing types in the city were selected for the simulation. The cooling loads of respective housing types were obtained in each of the districts in Hanoi. The results show that the total cooling loads over June 2010 is approximately 683 Terajoule (TJ under the current status, but it is predicted to increase to 903 TJ under the master plan condition. The increment is largely due to the increase in number of households (203 TJ or 92%, but partially due to the increase in urban temperature, i.e. UHI effect (17 TJ or 8%. The increments in new built-up areas were found to be larger than those in existing built-up areas. The cooling load in apartment is approximately half of that in detached house, which is approximately half of that in row house. Moreover, it was seen that although sensible cooling loads increased with the increase in outdoor temperature, the latent cooling loads decreased due to the decrease in absolute humidity and the increase in air temperature.

  3. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for tuberculosis infection among hospital workers in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Luu Thi; Hang, Nguyen Thi Le; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Hideki; Toyota, Emiko; Sakurada, Shinsaku; Thuong, Pham Huu; Cuong, Vu Cao; Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Matsushita, Ikumi; Harada, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Kazue; Tuan, Le Anh; Keicho, Naoto

    2009-08-27

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) to health care workers (HCWs) is a global issue. Although effective infection control measures are expected to reduce nosocomial TB, HCWs' infection has not been assessed enough in TB high burden countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TB infection and its risk factors among HCWs in Hanoi, Viet Nam. A total of 300 HCWs including all staff members in a municipal TB referral hospital received an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube(TM), followed by one- and two-step tuberculin skin test (TST) and a questionnaire-based interview. Agreement between the tests was evaluated by kappa statistics. Risk factors for TB infection were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Among the participants aged from 20 to 58 years (median = 40), prevalence of TB infection estimated by IGRA, one- and two-step TST was 47.3%, 61.1% and 66.3% respectively. Although the levels of overall agreement between IGRA and TST were moderate, the degree of agreement was low in the group with BCG history (kappa = 0.29). Working in TB hospital was associated with twofold increase in odds of TB infection estimated by IGRA. Increased age, low educational level and the high body mass index also demonstrated high odds ratios of IGRA positivity. Prevalence of TB infection estimated by either IGRA or TST is high among HCWs in the hospital environment for TB care in Viet Nam and an infection control program should be reinforced. In communities with heterogeneous history of BCG vaccination, IGRA seems to estimate TB infection more accurately than any other criteria using TST.

  5. Monitoring cirrus cloud and tropopause height over Hanoi using a compact lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Van Hai; Dinh Van Trung; Nguyen Xuan Tuan; Dao Duy Thang; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere have attracted great attention due to their important role and impact on the atmospheric radioactive balance. Because cirrus clouds are located high in the atmosphere, their study requires a high resolution remote sensing technique not only for detection but also for the characterization of their properties. The lidar technique with its inherent high sensitivity and resolution has become an indispensable tool for studying and improving our understanding of cirrus cloud. Using lidar technique we can simultaneously measure the cloud height, thickness and follow its temporal evolution. In this paper we describe the development of a compact and highly sensitive lidar system with the aim to remotely monitor for the first time the cirrus clouds over Hanoi (2101:42 N, 10551:12 W). From the lidar data collected during the year 2011. We derive the mean cloud height, location of cloud top, the cloud mean thickness and their temporal evolution. We then compare the location of the cloud top with the position of the tropopause determined the radiosonde data and found good that the distance between cloud top and tropopause remains fairly stable, indicating that generally the top of cirrus clouds is the good tracer of the tropopause. We found that the cirrus clouds are generally located at height between 11.2 to 15 km with average height of 13.4 km. Their thickness is between 0.3 and 3.8 km with average value of 1.7 km. We also compare the properties of cirrus cloud with that observed at other locations around the world based on lidar technique. (author)

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for tuberculosis infection among hospital workers in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Thi Lien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of tuberculosis (TB to health care workers (HCWs is a global issue. Although effective infection control measures are expected to reduce nosocomial TB, HCWs' infection has not been assessed enough in TB high burden countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TB infection and its risk factors among HCWs in Hanoi, Viet Nam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 300 HCWs including all staff members in a municipal TB referral hospital received an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube(TM, followed by one- and two-step tuberculin skin test (TST and a questionnaire-based interview. Agreement between the tests was evaluated by kappa statistics. Risk factors for TB infection were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Among the participants aged from 20 to 58 years (median = 40, prevalence of TB infection estimated by IGRA, one- and two-step TST was 47.3%, 61.1% and 66.3% respectively. Although the levels of overall agreement between IGRA and TST were moderate, the degree of agreement was low in the group with BCG history (kappa = 0.29. Working in TB hospital was associated with twofold increase in odds of TB infection estimated by IGRA. Increased age, low educational level and the high body mass index also demonstrated high odds ratios of IGRA positivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalence of TB infection estimated by either IGRA or TST is high among HCWs in the hospital environment for TB care in Viet Nam and an infection control program should be reinforced. In communities with heterogeneous history of BCG vaccination, IGRA seems to estimate TB infection more accurately than any other criteria using TST.

  7. Left-handers look before they leap: Handedness influences reactivity to novel Tower of Hanoi Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn eWright

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 203 task naïve left- and right-handed participants were asked to complete a combination of the three and four disk Towers of Hanoi (ToH, manipulating novelty and complexity. Self-reported state anxiety and latency to respond (initiation time were recorded before each ToH.Novelty had a major effect on initiation time, particularly for left-handers. Left-handers had a longer latency to start and this was significantly longer on the first trial. Irrespective of hand-preference, initiation time reduced on the second trial, however this was greatest for left-handers. Condition of task did not systematically influence initiation time for right handers, but did for left-handers. State anxiety was influenced by task novelty and complexity in a more complicated way. During the first trial, there was a significant handedness x number of disks interaction with left-handers having significantly higher state anxiety levels before the three-disk ToH. This suggests that the initial reaction to this task for left-handers was not simply due to perceived difficulty. On their second trial, participants completing a novel ToH had higher state anxiety scores than those completing a repeated version. Overall, left-handers had a larger reduction in their state anxiety across trials. Relating to this, the expected strong positive correlation between state and trait anxiety was absent for left-handed females in their first tower presentation, but appeared on their second. This was driven by low trait anxiety individuals showing a higher state anxiety response in the first (novel trial, supporting the idea that left-handed females respond to novelty in a way that is not directly a consequence of their trait anxiety. A possible explanation may be stereotype threat influencing the behaviour of left-handed females.

  8. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    Status of research works on experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam is reviewed. Vietnam institutions and main instruments for nuclear research are listed. The results on physics and technology of nuclear reactor, neutron physics, nuclear reactions, radiological safety are mentioned. (N.H.A). 6 tabs, 4 figs

  9. Perspectives on the Teaching of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Too often seen through the lens of the United States experience in the Vietnam War, this article offers an alternative approach to teaching Vietnam through the development of a cultural and historical perspective. Provides a brief summary of literature on Vietnamese cultural history which is appropriate to high school students. (JDH)

  10. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  11. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  12. Pollution and potential mobility of Cd, Ni and Pb in the sediments of a wastewater-receiving river in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    with the redox-sensitive fractions and could thus be mobilised following measures such as resuspension or dredging. To assess the potential mobilisation of heavy metals from the anoxic sediment due to oxidation, the samples were exposed to different oxidants (i.e. atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide......) and afterwards submitted to a leaching test. These experiments showed that although oxidation may increase the equilibrium pore water concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments, other sediment mineral fractions seem to effectively immobilise heavy metals potentially released from the oxidisable fraction....

  13. Re-Framing Resilient Urbanism. A Smart Alternative to Generic New Towns Development in South-East Asia : The Case of Hanoi (Vietnam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabrese, L.M.; Qu, L.; Van Faassen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Resilient Urbanism is a broad concept that seeks to explore a wide spectrum of topics related to what makes resilience in urban contexts unique: spatial challenges, social and economic equity, climate change, density, mobility, governance, and other characteristics related to the unpredictable and

  14. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardine Melissa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included

  15. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy

  16. Utilization of services provided by village based ethnic minority midwives in mountainous villages of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan DTT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doan Thi Thuy Duong,1 Bui Thi Thu Ha,1 Le Minh Thi,1 Duong Minh Duc,1 Luu Thi Hong,2 Tuan Anh Dinh,2 Tolib Mirzoev3 1Department of Reproductive Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, 2Department of Maternal and Child Health, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Introduction: Since 2011, the Vietnam’s Ministry of Health implemented the ethnic minority midwives (EMMs scheme in order to increase the utilization of maternal health services by women from ethnic minorities and those living in hard-to-reach mountainous areas. This paper analyzes the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum care provided by EMMs and reports the key determinants of utilization of EMM services as perceived by service users. Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered in 2015 to all mothers (n=320 who gave birth to a live-born during a 1-year period in 31 villages which had EMM in two provinces, Dien Bien and Kon Tum. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and the use of services provided by EMMs. Results: We found that EMMs provided more antenatal care and postnatal care as compared with delivery services, which corresponded to their job descriptions. The results also showed that utilization of antenatal care provided by EMMs was lower than that of postnatal care. The proportion of those who never heard about EMM was high (24%. Among the mothers who knew about EMM services, 33.4% had antenatal checkups, 20.1% were attended during home deliveries, and 57.3% had postnatal visits by an EMM. Key factors that determined the use of EMM services included knowledge of the location of EMM’s house, being aware about EMMs by health workers, trust in services provided by EMMs, and perception that many others mothers in a village also knew about EMM services. Conclusion

  17. A Probabilistic Typhoon Risk Model for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A.; Smith, D. F.; Brolley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Annually, the coastal Provinces of low-lying Mekong River delta region in the southwest to the Red River Delta region in Northern Vietnam is exposed to severe wind and flood risk from landfalling typhoons. On average, about two to three tropical cyclones with a maximum sustained wind speed of >=34 knots make landfall along the Vietnam coast. Recently, Typhoon Wutip (2013) crossed Central Vietnam as a category 2 typhoon causing significant damage to properties. As tropical cyclone risk is expected to increase with increase in exposure and population growth along the coastal Provinces of Vietnam, insurance/reinsurance, and capital markets need a comprehensive probabilistic model to assess typhoon risk in Vietnam. In 2017, CoreLogic has expanded the geographical coverage of its basin-wide Western North Pacific probabilistic typhoon risk model to estimate the economic and insured losses from landfalling and by-passing tropical cyclones in Vietnam. The updated model is based on 71 years (1945-2015) of typhoon best-track data and 10,000 years of a basin-wide simulated stochastic tracks covering eight countries including Vietnam. The model is capable of estimating damage from wind, storm surge and rainfall flooding using vulnerability models, which relate typhoon hazard to building damageability. The hazard and loss models are validated against past historical typhoons affecting Vietnam. Notable typhoons causing significant damage in Vietnam are Lola (1993), Frankie (1996), Xangsane (2006), and Ketsana (2009). The central and northern coastal provinces of Vietnam are more vulnerable to wind and flood hazard, while typhoon risk in the southern provinces are relatively low.

  18. Establishing a green-and-blue network within an existing settlement in central Hanoi towards urban ecologicalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Minh

    2018-04-01

    As a mega city, Hanoi must solve huge problems in its urban development of which landscape is among the greatest and most urgent issues to deal with. Locally, within one settlement, landscape is often simply regarded by many city residents as a small park that helps improve environmental quality, especially in summer, and provides an open space for the local community to have a walk a few times a day. But actually, landscape plays a much more important role in one settlement as a complete unit and also as a miniature of a large city. Internationally, landscape is a complex concept as well as an integral part of urban ecology, and sustainability has been set at a much higher level and the final goal to reach. In central Hanoi, where the population and construction density is so high that the green area per capita is among the lowest in Asia, it is high time to rethink about the enhancement of living quality in a difficult situation. The academic article will focus on landscape ecology, rather than on landscape only, in central districts and propose an ecologicalisation for a typical settlement here towards a more liveable city concept.

  19. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  20. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Main studies results for introduction of EB machine to Vietnam and for its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khac An; Nguyen, Quoc Hien; Le, Hai

    2004-01-01

    Upon the national program on utilization of EB machine for research and development purposes and the FNCA project on application of electron accelerator, as a counterpart the Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA) is preparing technical, manpower and financial conditions for introduction of an EB machine for R and D purposes. The paper offers main studied results in the field of Radiation Processing aimed at putting applications of EB technology into Vietnam and studies on selection of EB machine for R and D purposes in Vietnam. (author)

  2. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  3. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong T; McKinney, Barbara; Pierson, Antoine; Luong, Khue N; Hoang, Quynh T; Meharwal, Sandeep; Carvalho, Humberto M; Nguyen, Cuong Q; Nguyen, Kim T; Bond, Kyle B

    2014-01-01

    The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme. However, the paper-based format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results. In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors' feedback about usability. The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  4. Improved Rice Residue Burning Emissions Estimates: Accounting for Practice-Specific Emission Factors in Air Pollution Assessments of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Kristofer; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16.9 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 6.9) for pile burning and 8.8 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 3.5) for non-pile burning. We calculated burning practice specific emissions based on rice area data, region-specific fuel-loading factors, combined emission factors, and estimates of burning from the literature. Our results for year 2015 estimate 180 gigagrams of PM2.5 result from the pile burning method and 130 gigagrams result from non-pile burning method, with the most-likely current emission scenario of 150 gigagrams PM2.5 emissions for Vietnam. For comparison purposes, we calculated emissions using generalized agricultural emission factors employed in global biomass burning studies. These results estimate 80 gigagrams PM2.5, which is only 44 percent of the pile burning-based estimates, suggesting underestimation in previous studies. We compare our emissions to an existing all-combustion sources inventory, results show emissions account for 14-18 percent of Vietnam's total PM2.5 depending on burning practice. Within the highly-urbanized and cloud-covered Hanoi Capital region (HCR), we use rice area from Sentinel-1A to derive spatially-explicit emissions and indirectly estimate residue burning dates. Results from HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) back-trajectory analysis stratified by season show autumn has most emission trajectories originating in

  5. Behavioral and quality-of-life outcomes in different service models for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-02

    Integrating HIV/AIDS and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services with existing health care delivery system is critical in sustaining efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in large injection-driven epidemics. However, efficiency of different integrative service models is unknown. This study assessed behavioral and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of MMT in four service delivery models and explored factors associated with these outcomes of interest. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two HIV epicenters in Vietnam: Hanoi and Nam Dinh Province. All patients in five selected MMT clinics were invited to participate, and 1016 were interviewed (80-90% response rate). Respondents had a mean age of 35.8, taken MMT for average 16.5 months and 3.3% on MMT for 36-60 months. The MMT integrated with rural district health center (DHC) has the highest prevalence of concurrent drug use (11.3%). The percentage of condom use (last sexual intercourse) with primary and casual partners was lowest in the MMT at urban DHCs. Patients at the rural DHC reported very high proportions of pain/discomfort (37.8%), anxiety/depression (43.1%), and mobility (13.3%). In regression models, poorer HRQOL outcomes were found in MMT models in the rural areas or without general health care, and among those patients who were HIV positive, reported concurrent drug use, and had higher numbers of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. Mobility and anxiety/depression are factors that increased the likelihood of concurrent drug use among MMT patients. Outcomes of MMT were diverse across different integrative service models. Policies on rapid expansion of the MMT program in Vietnam should also emphasize on the integration with comprehensive health care services including psychological supports for patients.

  6. Wealth gradient-based divergence in the prevalence of underweight among women by marital status in Quoc Oai district, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Yu, Soo-Young; Yi, Jinseon; Nam, You-Seon; Son, Dinh Thai; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of underweight is high among women in Asian countries, despite nutritional changes in the region. Previous studies have demonstrated independent associations between female body weight, marital status and economic status. However, few studies have investigated possible interaction between marital and economic status in relation to Asian women's body weight. This study aimed to test associations between household wealth, marital status and underweight among women living in the Quoc Oai district of Vietnam and to identify wealth-marital status interaction in relation to body weight in these women. Data from 1087 women aged 19-60 years were collected via a baseline community survey conducted in the Quoc Oai district of Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2016. Underweight was defined using an Asian-specific body mass index cut-off (wealth index quintiles. Multivariable logistic regressions tested association between wealth and underweight after adjusting for marital status and other confounders. An interaction term (wealth index*marital status) was fitted to determine whether the association between wealth and body weight is modified by marital status. Our results show that underweight was independently associated with a wealth status (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.98, p = 0.026) and ever-married status (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.75, p = 0.002). A significant interaction effect (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50-0.90, p = 0.010) indicated that wealthy married women were less likely to be underweight, whereas wealthy never-married women were more likely to be underweight. Our results suggest that the interaction between wealth and marital status has divergent effects on underweight among Asian women. Interventions to reduce underweight among Asian women should simultaneously consider economic and marital status.

  7. Bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis in Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial comparing vitrectomy with silicone oil versus vitrectomy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tan Do,1 Do N Hon,1 Tin Aung,2 Nguyen DTN Hien,1 Claude L Cowan Jr3 1Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore; 3Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Background/aims: To compare treatment outcomes with and without silicone oil tamponade in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for severe endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (BEE. Methods: One hundred and eight consecutive patients with severe BEE (defined by the absence of pupil red reflex at presentation and/or dense vitreous opacity on ultrasound and no improvement after 24–36 hours of medical treatment were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: Group 1, standard PPV with intravitreal antibiotics; and Group 2, PPV with intravitreal antibiotics and silicone tamponade. Overall success was defined as: a visual acuity ≥ count fingers at 1 meter, with an attached retina, and no intraocular oil. Results: Fifty three patients were randomized to Group 1 and 55 patients to Group 2. The mean age of study subjects was 32 years and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. At the final follow-up visit at 9 months, the overall success rate of Group 2 (67.3% was significantly better than Group 1 (43.4%; P=0.01. There were also fewer devastating complications (such as inoperable retinal detachment, phthisis bulbi in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (21.8% versus 43.4%; P=0.01. Conclusion: The outcome at 9 months of patients with BEE treated by vitrectomy with silicone oil was better than those treated by vitrectomy alone. Keywords: bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis, vitrectomy, silicone oil endotamponade, randomized controlled trial

  8. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  9. Intervention in Vietnam: President Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaton, James

    1995-01-01

    For a period of thirty years, from 1945 to 1975, the United States employed countless numbers of financial, material, and human resources toward Vietnam in an effort to shape and control that country's political destiny...

  10. Vietnam | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of its success, local fishery associations secured fishing management rights in 2009, a first in Vietnam. ... We continue to support online education through regional research to improve the quality of distance education. Total IDRC Support ...

  11. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ... of pregnancy and new motherhood improved their interactions with health workers. ... Return to main page: Overcoming eHealth challenges with social and ...

  12. Marketing channel choice and marketing timing of peri-urban vegetable growers in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Wijk, van M.S.; Luyen, C.H.; Hoi, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector in the peri-urban area of Hanoi. It supplies 62 to 80% of vegetable consumption, of which 28% comes from Dong Anh district, which borders Hanoi City. Growing vegetables is an important income source for the farmers in Dong Anh as it contributes about 30% to their

  13. Calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle: A study of university students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; De Gruyter, Chris; Nguyen, Hang T T

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle among university students and the influences of sociodemographic characteristics, social norms, and risk perceptions on these behaviors. Students at 2 university campuses in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the 2 largest cities in Vietnam, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Data collection was conducted during March and May 2016. There were 741 respondents, of whom nearly 90% of students (665) were motorcycle riders. Overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding is 80.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.9-83.9%) with calling having a higher level of prevalence than texting or searching for information while riding: 74% (95% CI, 70.7-77.3%) vs. 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9-55.5%) and 49.9% (95% CI, 46.1-53.7%), respectively. Random parameter ordered probit modeling results indicate that mobile phone use while riding is associated with gender, motorcycle license duration, perceived crash risk, perceived risk of mobile phone snatching, and perceptions of friends' mobile phone use while riding. Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is highly prevalent among university students. Educational programs should focus on the crash and economic risk of all types of mobile phone use while riding, including calling, texting, and searching for information. In addition, they should consider targeting the influence of social norms and peers on mobile phone use while riding.

  14. Structural barriers to HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam: Diversity, stigma, and healthcare access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Wilson, Patrick A; Ly, An Thanh; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam experience disproportionate rates of HIV infection. To advance understanding of how structural barriers may shape their engagement with HIV prevention services, we draw on 32 in-depth interviews and four focus groups (n = 31) conducted with MSM in Hanoi between October 2015- March 2016. Three primary factors emerged: (1) Diversity, both in relation to identity and income; Vietnamese MSM described themselves as segregated into Bóng kín (hidden, often heterosexually-identified MSM) and Bóng lộ ('out,' transgender, or effeminate MSM). Lower-income, 'hidden' MSM from rural areas were reluctant to access MSM-targeted services; (2) Stigma: MSM reported being stigmatized by the healthcare system, family, and other MSM; and (3) Healthcare access: this was limited due to economic barriers and lack of MSM-friendly services. Our research suggests the need for multiple strategies to reach diverse types of MSM as well as to address barriers in access to health services such as stigma and costs. While a great deal has been written about the diversity of MSM in relation to gender performance and sexual identities, our research points to the substantial structural-level barriers that must be addressed in order to achieve meaningful and effective HIV prevention for MSM worldwide.

  15. 'There was a struggle between my instinct and my head': women's perception and experience of masturbation in contemporary Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Bui Thu; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates how masturbation, as one form of non-coital sexual practice, is interpreted and experienced by young married women in contemporary Vietnam. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 professional women aged 25-40 living in Hanoi. Thematic analysis suggests that by embracing the pursuit of pleasure and aspiring to achieve this goal, many women stake a claim for modernity by promoting the idea that they are no longer traditional in this particular domain of social life. However, wider social forces associated with traditional Vietnamese gender ideology and sexual values remain firmly rooted, impacting on their everyday lives as working wives and mothers, and stalling their pursuit of pleasure and thus 'wellbeing' in its fullest sense. Indeed, among participants in this study, sex was interpreted as being almost exclusively organised around penile-vaginal intercourse. Even when sex was conceptualised as involving more than penetration, penile-vaginal intercourse was still viewed as its most essential component, without which a sexual transaction could not be seen as complete. The normality of penetrative sex was sometimes coupled with the stigma and discrimination associated with other non-coital sexual practices, positioning women firmly within conventional discourses of naturalness and health in regard to sex.

  16. Solar energy and rural development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems have already been present in Vietnam for numerous years. Since 1994 the projects intensified with the launch of the Energy-Solidarity-Vietnam program which has just been concluded in 1999. This paper deals with the different stages of this project: choice of photovoltaic power, the partners engagement, obstacles overcome and the help of the electricity for the economic development. (A.L.B.)

  17. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  18. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  19. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  20. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  1. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Bisgaard, Magne; Son, Nguyen Thai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; An, Hoang Manh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-11-23

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine) was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11-86 yrs) and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year). Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%), E. coli (12.2%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2%) were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin and

  2. Motivation to quit smoking among HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung Thi Phuong; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hwang, Lu Y; Markham, Christine M; Swartz, Michael D; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A; Vidrine, Damon J

    2015-04-03

    Smoking cessation is emerging as an important component in current HIV care to reduce smoking-related adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine motivation to quit and its associated factors in a sample of 409 HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to September 2013 in Hanoi (the capital) and Nam Dinh (a rural city). Motivation to quit was measured by a 4-point single item, and was dichotomized as having any motivation versus no motivation. Smoking history, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and other covariates were self-reported by participants. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of motivation to quit. The sample was mostly male (97%). Mean age was 36 years (SD = 5.8). Approximately 37% and 69% of the sample were hazardous drinkers and ever drug users, respectively. The mean duration of HIV infection and ART treatment were 6 years (SD = 3.6) and 5 years (SD = 2.2), respectively. Overall, 59% of the sample was motivated to quit. Factors significantly associated with motivation to quit were income, pain, currently taking Methadone, and the interaction between binge drinking and lifetime drug use. Individuals with the highest income level (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), moderate income level (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.1), and currently feeling pain (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5) were more likely to be motivated to quit. Conversely, taking Methadone was associated with a lower likelihood of motivation to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Also, those who reported binge drinking only (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9), lifetime drug use only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7), or both substance uses (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.8) were less motivated to quit smoking. Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into HIV care in Vietnam, and should be tailored to meet specific needs for

  3. Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Bich Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST, drinking alcohol (DA, and underage motorbike driving (MD. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8 were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results: Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01. School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion: This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of

  4. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless Kaiser, Anica; Kabat, Daniel H; Spiro, Avron; Davison, Eve H; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2017-12-01

    Relatively little has been written about the military women who served in Vietnam, and there is virtually no literature on deployed civilian women (non-military). We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories. We compare civilian women, primarily American Red Cross workers, to military women stratified by length of service, describe their demographic characteristics and warzone experiences (including working conditions, exposure to casualties and sexual harassment), and their homecoming following Vietnam. We assess current health and well-being and also compare the sample to age- and temporally-comparable women in the General Social Survey (GSS), with which our survey shared some measures. Short-term (Vietnam experience as "highly stressful" than were career (>20 years; 12%) and civilian women (13%). Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ 2 (8) = 643.72, p Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  5. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  6. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  7. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  8. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  9. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  10. Leprosy: ongoing medical and social struggle in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhiem; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Hong Phan, Hai; Tam Tran, Tinh

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, leprosy had been prominent in 33 countries worldwide, and Vietnam was ranked among the top 14 endemic countries. The leprosy situation in Vietnam was reviewed as a sample of the worldwide ongoing medical and social struggle to assess the need for continued support for leprosy control activities and for social programs of integration of leprosy victims into the community. A search was conducted of official Vietnamese publications, World Health Organization documents, major electronic databases, and popular leprosy Web sites; as well, notes from visits to local leprosy clinics and interviews with health workers were checked. Important achievements were realized through national determination and international collaboration. In contrast with the impressive performance statistics at the national level, and despite strong government efforts for leprosy control, the results obtained at the province-city and district-commune levels still exhibit deficiencies in case detection, treatment, and socioeconomic integration of leprosy victims. The struggle to eliminate such a complex and destructive infectious disease as leprosy does not end with the cure. Deep-seated medical and social problems remain. These problems are best solved through community-based approaches.

  11. The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam Source Impact And Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh Hoang; Nam Xuan Chu; Trung Van Tran

    2017-01-01

    Currently the environmental problems is one of the urgent problems for all countries in the world. Vietnam is among of 10 countries with the most polluted air in the world the health of people is affected by the non-guaranteed air quality in Vietnam. According to the EPI in 2015 Vietnam ranked 79 in the total of 132 countries in the overall environmental assessment. However the air pollution index Vietnam ranked 123. On the burden of disease due to environment Vietnam ranked 77. Therefore the...

  12. The Independence of Vietnam Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    In the field of peaceful purposes, the activity of nuclear agencies is often divided into 2 systems: the nuclear application system and the safety system. Depending on the magnitude of atomic energy application development, the responsibility of the safety system was assigned to a few agencies in each country. In Vietnam, the nuclear safety responsibility is assigned primarily to the radiation and nuclear safety agency. However, the provisions of the normative system of law prevailing in other sectors such as investment, construction, electricity or environmental protection, many agencies are responsible for ensuring safety in each sector, leading to a conflict of interest among those agencies. This is the weakness in the management system of Vietnam compared to other countries with nuclear power development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state of Vietnam's legal framework in nuclear safety regulation and its dependence of regulatory body aspects and promoting the way to overcome it

  13. Universal service in Vietnam: An institutional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Applying institutional theory to look at the Program 74 (a universal service policy) in Vietnam, this paper concludes that the Vietnamese universal service policy was strongly affected by formal institutional factors (the international agreements and the directives of the Communist Party of Vietnam...... - CPV), in which the international agreements played a leading role and the CPV’s directives played a guarantee role. The formulation and implementation of the universal service policy in Vietnam were mainly concentrated on action at levels 2 and 3 (formal and informal institutional arrangement......, and formal institutional environment). The paper recommends that nations favouring a top-down approach not based on a market-oriented regime should deregulate and emphasize the role of provincial governments as well as encourage private sectors/social organizations and rural users to be more involved...

  14. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  15. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Pless Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Short-term (20 years; 12% and civilian women (13%. Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ2 (8 = 643.72, p < .001. Career military women were happier than women in the general population (48% were “very happy”, as compared to 38%. Civilian women who served in Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  16. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  17. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  18. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the comprehensive research cooperation for environmental technology. Research cooperation for technology for prevention of the water pollution caused by plant waste water in Vietnam; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu sogo kenkyu kyoryoku (Betonamu koku kojo haisui ni yoru suishitsu osen boshi taisaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of increasing the research capability of the Center for Consultancy, Training and Technology Transfer in Vietnam, research cooperation for prevention of water pollution was given for plants of the local industry located in the suburbs of Hanoi city. In the survey of the actual state of the water pollution in the industrial area in the suburbs of Hanoi city, the following was found out: In the area, approximately 110 companies of the production industry such as livestock feed, papermaking, dyeing, brewing, construction materials, etc. are in operation and are discharging the untreated waste water into rivers and waterways because waste water treatment facilities are not prepared yet. In this research cooperation, the following were carried out: detailed survey of specified plants and proposal for improvement, training of Vietnamese researchers/engineers in charge of water pollution prevention technology, invitation to/training at Japan of Vietnamese managers/researchers, seminar to be held on the site, equipment to be given that is needed to measure water quality. The equipment to be given is a portable multi-item water quality meter and analytical equipment such as spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph. (NEDO)

  19. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages t...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  20. Strategy in the Vietnam War: Western Concepts, Eastern Conflict and the Roots of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weland, James

    1990-01-01

    Critiques U.S. military assumptions concerning the war in Vietnam. Discusses the North Vietnamese strategic approach to gaining control of South Vietnam. Traces the history of the Vietnam War, analyzing specific U.S. military operations in Vietnam and reasons for their failure. Contends that U.S. strategic ethnocentrism lead to defeat in Vietnam.…

  1. Pengaruh Indikator Nonkeuangan dan Keuangan terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan (Komparasi Empiris: Indonesia, Vietnam, dan Malaysia)

    OpenAIRE

    Suryaningsum, Sri; Achjari, Didi

    2012-01-01

    The effect of indicators non-financial and financial Implementation has been interesting topics in Indonesia,Malaysia, and Vietnam. The current study aims to investigate transparation of indicators non-financial andfinancial especially in telecommunication and technology industry sector. The indicators of non-financial are measured using some surrogates such as corporate action, GCG elements inorganization structure, Bureau van Dijk Electronic Publishing (BvDEP) independence indicator, and au...

  2. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Vietnam : Les communes du Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... Les communes du Vietnam progressent grâce à l'information Au Vietnam, un système de suivi communautaire de la pauvreté s'appuie sur des enquêtes officielles afin de mieux cibler les pauvres. Les données supplémentaires permettent d'améliorer la vie des collectivités, celle des femmes en particulier.

  3. Source discrimination of heavy metals in sediment and water of To Lich River in Hanoi City using multivariate statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Nguyen Thi; Yoneda, Minoru; Ikegami, Maiko; Takakura, Masato

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, and Cd were determined to evaluate the level of contamination of To Lich River in Hanoi City. All metal concentrations in 0-10-cm water samples, except Mn, were lower than the maximum permitted concentration for irrigation water standard. Meanwhile, concentrations of As, Cd, and Zn in 0-30-cm sediments were likely to have adverse effects on agriculture and aquatic life. Sediment pollution assessment was undertaken using enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index (I geo). The I geo results indicated that the sediment was not polluted with Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, and the pollution level increased in the order of Cu < Pb < Zn < As < Cd. Meanwhile, significant enrichment was shown for Cd, As, Zn, and Pb. Cluster and principal component analyses suggest that As and Mn in sediment were derived from both lithogenic and anthropogenic sources, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Ni originated from anthropogenic sources such as vehicular fumes for Pb and metallic discharge from industrial sources and fertilizer application for other metals.

  4. Victimisation, poly-victimisation and health-related quality of life among high school students in Vietnam: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh T H; Holton, Sara; Nguyen, Huong T; Wolfe, Rory; Fisher, Jane

    2016-11-04

    In high and upper-middle income countries poly-victimisation (exposure to multiple forms of victimisation) is associated with worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents. There is a lack of empirical evidence about these associations from low- and lower-middle income countries. The aims of this study were to examine the associations between exposure to 1) individual forms of victimisation and 2) poly-victimisation and the HRQoL of adolescents in Vietnam. A cross-sectional, anonymously-completed survey of high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam. Lifetime exposure to eight individual forms of victimisation and poly-victimisation were assessed using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire Revised-2 (JVQ R2). Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Duke Health Profile Adolescent Version (DHP-A). Bi-variate analyses and multiple linear regressions were conducted to assess the associations between individual forms of victimisation, poly-victimisation and HRQoL among girls and boys. In total 1616/1745 students (92.6 %) completed the questionnaire. Adolescent girls had significantly worse HRQoL than boys in all domains, except disability. Different forms of victimisation were associated with different HRQoL domains among girls and boys. Cyber victimisation was the most detrimental to girls' HRQoL while for boys maltreatment was the most detrimental. Experiences of poly-victimisation were associated with worse HRQoL in physical, mental, social and general health, lower levels of self-esteem and increased levels of anxiety, depression and pain domains among both sexes. Among Vietnamese adolescents, experiences of individual forms of victimisation were associated with poorer HRQoL in specific domains; the most detrimental forms of victimisation varied for girls and boys. However, it was experiences of poly-victimisation that had the most detrimental impacts on the HRQoL of both sexes. Recognition of violence, including poly-victimisation, is

  5. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  6. New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.

  7. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  8. The Vietnam Vet's Battle--Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wayne E.; Radcliff, Jo Ann

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to survey the employment situation of returning Vietnam veterans. The picture appears to be one of frustration. There are a number of programs available but a communications gap seems to exist between the programs and the veterans. (Author)

  9. Vietnam: A Failure of Strategy and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    AND LEADERSHIP SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJOR D. M. CROUSORE, USMC...Q__ Date: ’::?:D l:foell 0<..01~ (/ i Executive Summary Title: VIETNAM: A FAILURE OF STRATEGY AND LEADERSHIP Author: Major D. M

  10. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals

  11. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01


    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect

  12. Treatment Failure for Malaria in Vietnam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-05

    WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam.  Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/5/2017.

  13. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  14. Counting Women's Work in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... These gender equality indicators are shedding light on girls' and women's ... Young people do a tremendous amount of unpaid care work at the ages when ... Read the report "Counting Women's Work in Vietnam" · View the ...

  15. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  16. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  17. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference…

  18. The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn

    This monograph documents the 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam. The initialization and calibration of the model is based on a financial 2003 SAM framework and an auxiliary 2002-3 data set. The recursive nature of the solution of the Merged Model is discussed with reference to the four main sectors...

  19. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad

  20. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  1. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the purposes of...

  2. mCME project V.2.0: randomised controlled trial of a revised SMS-based continuing medical education intervention among HIV clinicians in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Le, Ngoc Bao; Halim, Nafisa; Chi, Cao Thi Hue; Nguyen, Viet Ha; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hoang, Pham Vu; Nguyen, Hoang Long; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Larson Williams, Anna; Le, Ngoc Anh; Sabin, Lora

    2018-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) is indispensable, but costs are a barrier. We tested the effectiveness of a novel mHealth intervention (mCME V.2.0) promoting CME among Vietnamese HIV clinicians. We enrolled HIV clinicians from three provinces near Hanoi. The 6-month intervention consisted of (1) daily short message service multiple-choice quiz questions, (2) daily linked readings, (3) links to online CME courses and (4) feedback messages describing the performance of the participant relative to the group. Control participants had equal access to the online CME courses. Our primary endpoint was utilisation of the online CME courses; secondary endpoints were self-study behaviour, performance on a standardised medical exam and job satisfaction. From 121 total HIV clinicians in the three provinces, 106 (87.6%) enrolled, and 48/53 intervention (90%) and 47/53 control (89%) participants completed the endline evaluations. Compared with controls, intervention participants were more likely to use the CME courses (risk ratio (RR) 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.8, accounting for 83% of course use (P<0.001)). Intervention participants increased self-study behaviours over controls in terms of use of medical textbooks (P<0.01), consulting with colleagues (P<0.01), searching on the internet (P<0.001), using specialist websites (P=0.02), consulting the Vietnam HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines (P=0.02) and searching the scientific literature (P=0.09). Intervention participants outperformed controls on the exam (+23% vs +12% score gains, P=0.05) and had higher job satisfaction. The mCME V.2.0 intervention improved self-study behaviour, medical knowledge and job satisfaction. This approach has potential for expansion in Vietnam and similar settings. NCT02381743.

  3. “In their perception we are addicts”: Social vulnerabilities and sources of support for men released from drug treatment centers in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Cecilia; Go, Vivian F.; Tuan, Le Nhan; Huong, Nguyen Mai; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Zelaya, Carla E.; Celentano, David D.; Dat, Do Tuan; Quan, Vu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Background Amid the global transition to treat opioid addiction as an illness, many people who inject drugs (PWID) face heterogeneous legal environments that include both punitive and harm reduction measures. In Vietnam, many PWID, who have a high burden of HIV, are sent to drug treatment centers, or “06 centers”, for compulsory detoxification, vocational training, and labor for up to four years. This study investigates the challenges and facilitators of reentry into community and family life among men who are released from “06 centers” and provides insights and recommendations for developing policies and interventions that address special needs of this vulnerable population. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted in 2011 by trained interviewers among a sample of 43 male PWID released within the past 2 years from “06 centers” in Hanoi, Vietnam to investigate the above issues and to recommend potential interventions. Participants were recruited from outpatient HIV clinics that serve PWID (n=22) and through peer referral from self-help groups for PWID (n=21). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, entered into Atlas. TI qualitative data analysis software and analyzed for key themes. Results The interviews revealed persistent drug-related stigmatization, frequently paired with HIV-related stigmatization and discrimination, which hindered employment, increased participants’ social isolation and exacerbated their struggles with addiction. Families were participants’ primary source of financial, employment, and emotional support, but addiction-related family tensions also had negative psychological effects. Participants identified methadone maintenance treatment as an effective means of overcoming addiction, yet few could fully benefit from this treatment due to its limited availability. Conclusion Our study suggests that PWID released from “06 centers” would greatly benefit from the scale-up of community-based harm reduction

  4. "In their perception we are addicts": social vulnerabilities and sources of support for men released from drug treatment centers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Cecilia; Go, Vivian F; Tuan, Le Nhan; Huong, Nguyen Mai; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Zelaya, Carla E; Celentano, David D; Dat, Do Tuan; Quan, Vu Minh

    2014-09-01

    Amid the global transition to treat opioid addiction as an illness, many people who inject drugs (PWID) face heterogeneous legal environments that include both punitive and harm reduction measures. In Vietnam, many PWID, who have a high burden of HIV, are sent to drug treatment centers, or "06 centers", for compulsory detoxification, vocational training, and labor for up to four years. This study investigates the challenges and facilitators of reentry into community and family life among men who are released from "06 centers" and provides insights and recommendations for developing policies and interventions that address special needs of this vulnerable population. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2011 by trained interviewers among a sample of 43 male PWID released within the past 2 years from "06 centers" in Hanoi, Vietnam to investigate the above issues and to recommend potential interventions. Participants were recruited from outpatient HIV clinics that serve PWID (n=22) and through peer referral from self-help groups for PWID (n=21). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, entered into Atlas.TI qualitative data analysis software and analyzed for key themes. The interviews revealed persistent drug-related stigmatization, frequently paired with HIV-related stigmatization and discrimination, which hindered employment, increased participants' social isolation and exacerbated their struggles with addiction. Families were participants' primary source of financial, employment, and emotional support, but addiction-related family tensions also had negative psychological effects. Participants identified methadone maintenance treatment as an effective means of overcoming addiction, yet few could fully benefit from this treatment due to its limited availability. Our study suggests that PWID released from "06 centers" would greatly benefit from the scale-up of community-based harm reduction measures that include addiction and HIV treatment, coupled with

  5. Co-financing for viral load monitoring during the course of antiretroviral therapy among patients with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam: A contingent valuation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen Le Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Le, Huong Thi; Nguyen, Hinh Duc; Tran, Tho Dinh; Do, Cuong Duy; Nguyen, Cuong Manh; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Latkin, Carl; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    Viral load testing is considered the gold standard for monitoring HIV treatment; however, given its high cost, some patients cannot afford viral load testing if this testing is not subsidized. Since foreign aid for HIV/AIDS in Vietnam is rapidly decreasing, we sought to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for viral load and CD4 cell count tests among HIV-positive patients, and identified factors that might inform future co-payment schemes. A multi-site cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1133 HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi and Nam Dinh. Patients' health insurance coverage, quality of life, and history of illicit drug use were assessed. A contingent valuation approach was employed to measure patients' WTP for CD4 cell count and viral load testing. HIV-positive patients receiving ART at provincial sites reported more difficulty obtaining health insurance (HI) and had the overall the poorest quality of life. Most patients (90.9%) were willing to pay for CD4 cell count testing; here, the mean WTP was valued at US$8.2 (95%CI = 7.6-8.8 US$) per test. Most patients (87.3%) were also willing to pay for viral load testing; here, mean WTP was valued at US$18.6 (95%CI = 16.3-20.9 US$) per test. High income, high education level, and hospitalization were positively associated with WTP, while co-morbidity with psychiatric symptoms and trouble paying for health insurance were both negatively related to WTP. These findings raise concerns that HIV-positive patients in Vietnam might have low WTP for CD4 cell count and viral load testing. This means that without foreign financial subsidies, many of these patients would likely go without these important tests. Treating psychiatric co-morbidities, promoting healthcare services utilization, and removing barriers to accessing health insurance may increase WTP for monitoring of HIV/AIDS treatment among HIV+-positive Vietnamese patients.

  6. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam. Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the CHAMP satellite at the height

  7. Amphetamine-Type-Stimulants (ATS) Use and Homosexuality-Related Enacted Stigma Are Associated With Depression Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Two Major Cities in Vietnam in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Holt, Martin; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; La, Lan Thi; Tran, Gioi Minh; Doan, Tung Thanh; Nguyen, Trang Nguyen Nhu; de Wit, John

    2017-09-19

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by mental health concerns, including depression. Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) use and homosexuality-related stigma and discrimination have been found associated with depression among MSM. To assess the prevalence of depression and its associations with ATS use and homosexuality-related stigma and discrimination among MSM in Vietnam. 622 MSM were conveniently recruited in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, from September to December 2014. We collected information on demographic characteristics, ATS, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, homosexuality-related and discrimination stigma, and sexual sensation-seeking. Depression and suicidal thoughts were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). We assessed associations of depression with ATS use and homosexuality-related stigma and discrimination using logistic regression. Of 622 sampled MSM, 11.3% were classified as having major depression, 9.8% reported any suicidal thoughts in the last two weeks, 30.4% ever had used any ATS, 88.8% ever ad drank alcohol and 21.5% had ever used any other drugs. In multivariate analysis, depression was significantly associated with ATS use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR: 2.20; (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.32-3.67], younger age of sexual debut with another man (AOR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02-0.50), and greater enacted homosexuality-related stigma (AOR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.19-3.26). We found a moderate prevalence of depression among sampled MSM, which was associated with ATS use and enacted homosexuality-related stigma. We recommend integrating assessment and interventions regarding depression and methamphetamine use into gay-friendly, culturally adapted holistic HIV prevention for MSM in Vietnam.

  8. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  9. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  10. Improving quality of foreign direct investment attraction in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Phuc Hanh; Đao Van Hùng; Nguyen Thac Hoat; Dao Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) enterprises are playing a key role in Vietnam's economy. By the end of 2016, there are more than 21,398 FDI projects in force, with the total registered capital of nearly 293 billion USD. One hundred six countries and territories have invested in 19 industries in 68 provinces and cities of Vietnam. These investments have added a large amount of capital to the economy, which has basically been used effectively, contributing to the economic growth of Vietnam. In ...

  11. The Economic Impact of Land Use Rights in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...generating revenue through taxation in a previously non-existent real estate market . Before 1993, Vietnam experienced a long period of land reform

  12. Suspended futures : the Vietnamization of South Vietnamese history and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Long Thanh

    2011-01-01

    In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War, a handover of responsibility for winning the war from the U.S. to its allies, the South Vietnamese. Vietnamization articulated the challenges of achieving political freedom and historical agency for South Vietnamese people. Conceptualizing this term in the early 21st century, I seek to address the ways the war (and its subjects) is called into the present to speak about the representability and addressability ...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Unit Cohesion in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    winning” the war in Vietnam. One only needs to turn to cinema to see the divide and portrayal of the Vietnam conflict. Movies like, Platoon...disapproved of post-war (World War II) re-colonization, especially the French efforts in Indochina that included Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. He offered...the political process, and result in a communist government; this became known as the Domino Theory. The United States replaced the French and

  14. Mental health treatment after major surgery among Vietnam-era Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Jack Y; Stock, Eileen M; Greenawalt, David S; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mental health treatment use among Vietnam Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and determine whether undergoing major surgery interrupted mental health treatment or increased the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Using retrospective data from Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record system, a total of 3320 Vietnam-era surgery patients with preoperative posttraumatic stress disorder were identified and matched 1:4 with non-surgical patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The receipt of surgery was associated with a decline in overall mental health treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific treatment 1 month following surgery but not during any subsequent month thereafter. Additionally, surgery was not associated with psychiatric admission. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  16. Internet-accessible radiographic database of Vietnam War casualties for medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Eric P; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of archiving radiographic images from Vietnam era conflict casualties into a personal computer-based electronic database of text and images and displaying the data using an Internet-accessible database for preservation and educational purposes. Thirty-two patient cases were selected at random from a pool of 1,000 autopsy reports in which radiographs were available. A total of 74 radiographs from these cases were digitized using a commercial image scanner and then uploaded into an Internet accessible database. The quality of the digitized images was assessed by administering an image-based test to a group of 12 medical students. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences were found between test scores when using the original radiographs versus using the digitized radiographs on the Internet-accessible database. An Internet-accessible database is capable of effectively archiving Vietnam era casualty radiographs for educational purposes.

  17. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  18. Problem Solving as Probabilistic Inference with Subgoaling: Explaining Human Successes and Pitfalls in the Tower of Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Maisto, Domenico; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    How do humans and other animals face novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available? Human problem solving links to flexible reasoning and inference rather than to slow trial-and-error learning. It has received considerable attention since the early days of cognitive science, giving rise to well known cognitive architectures such as SOAR and ACT-R, but its computational and brain mechanisms remain incompletely known. Furthermore, it is still unclear whether problem solving is a "specialized" domain or module of cognition, in the sense that it requires computations that are fundamentally different from those supporting perception and action systems. Here we advance a novel view of human problem solving as probabilistic inference with subgoaling. In this perspective, key insights from cognitive architectures are retained such as the importance of using subgoals to split problems into subproblems. However, here the underlying computations use probabilistic inference methods analogous to those that are increasingly popular in the study of perception and action systems. To test our model we focus on the widely used Tower of Hanoi (ToH) task, and show that our proposed method can reproduce characteristic idiosyncrasies of human problem solvers: their sensitivity to the "community structure" of the ToH and their difficulties in executing so-called "counterintuitive" movements. Our analysis reveals that subgoals have two key roles in probabilistic inference and problem solving. First, prior beliefs on (likely) useful subgoals carve the problem space and define an implicit metric for the problem at hand-a metric to which humans are sensitive. Second, subgoals are used as waypoints in the probabilistic problem solving inference and permit to find effective solutions that, when unavailable, lead to problem solving deficits. Our study thus suggests that a probabilistic inference scheme enhanced with subgoals provides a comprehensive framework to study problem

  19. Images of Inherited War: Three American Presidents in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    from his notorious Tuesday Lunches to his un- dulating bombing campaign to what he did and did not permit the military to do—reveals his deep-rooted...Americans voted—with television replacing the old-fashioned hand-shaking and convention format. Moreover, Nixon staffer and biographer Roger Morris ...as a personal challenge from Hanoi, Moscow, Beijing, the Cambodian rebels, the Vietcong, and his critics at home. Roger Morris said Nixon be- lieved

  20. Whither voluntary communities of co-located patients in Vietnam? Empirical evidence from a 2016 medical survey dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A dataset containing responses from 336 patients living in four clusters in Hanoi was obtained from a survey during 2015Q4-2016Q1. The processing of data is performed using R 3.2.3, employing baseline category logit models (BCL. Coefficients are estimated to compute empirical probabilities. Results: 1 There is a 50% probability that a patient seeing his/her benefits as unsatisfactory views the community prospect as dim; 2 The more a patient contributes time/effort, the less he/she believes in future growth; 3 There is a 80.8% probability that a patient who makes a significant financial contribution and receives back in-kind benefits predicts no growth. Conclusion: Patients predict community growth when receiving what they need/expect. There exists a kind of “liquidity preference”. Only 14% and 32% make significant financial and labor contributions, respectively. There exists a “risk aversion” attitude, viewing contribution as certain while future benefits to be uncertain.

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  2. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  3. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the Late- Socialist Period," Pacific Affairs: vol 84, no. 3, (2011): 439-440, accessed 30 September 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service . 37 U.S...Society,” Contemporary Southeast Asia vol 31, no. 1 (2009): 21, accessed 15 October 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service . 81 Legal Information... EBSCO Discovery Service . Fforde, Adam. "Vietnam in 2012: The End of the Party." Asian Survey 53, no. 1 (2013): 101-108. Accessed 30

  5. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  6. Vietnam on the path of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svolik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange of information, experience sharing, an external view on the condition of equipment and activities in nuclear power plants, recommendations for improvement, transfer of best practice and benchmarking - that is the benefit of sharing at various levels by the specialists and experts from nuclear power plants around the world. One of the events was the national workshop on quality assurance and control during the construction and commissioning of a nuclear power plant in Vietnam. (author)

  7. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  8. Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Returns in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Van Hang

    2008-01-01

    Capital market development, especially the appearance of Vietnamese equity market recently has a strategic importance in the economic growth and structural reform process of Vietnam (Chun et al, 2003). This dissertation focuses on the impacts of macroeconomic forces on stock market returns in Vietnamese stock market which has not been investigated in detail before, and thereby to contribute further literature on this new emerging stock market. Specifically, the research will intensively inves...

  9. VIETNAM IN 1948: AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cheng Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the year 1948 in an effort to determine whether 1948 can be considered the starting point of the Cold War in Vietnam. Historical periodisation is a tricky affair, and it is often difficult to pinpoint the genesis of events. By reconstructing the political and military developments in 1948 from the indigenous perspective as well as from regional and international perspectives that directly impinged on Vietnam, I hope to ascertain whether Vietnam’s war of liberation was indeed transformed into a “Cold War” from 1948 onwards—in other words, whether it was in 1948 that the Vietnamese struggle assumed an ideological complexion that shifted from nationalist/anti-colonial sentiment to include communist/anti-capitalist sentiment as well. Before we embark on our consideration of the year 1948, it is useful to recount in broad brush-strokes some key developments in Vietnam leading up to 1948. In order to put the year 1948 in context, it is also necessary to consider in some detail two key developments in 1947.

  10. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  11. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.

    2016-01-01

    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the

  12. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  13. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  14. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly

  15. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  16. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  17. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  18. Using Literature in a Course on the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jonathan

    1989-01-01

    Courses in Vietnam War history should incorporate Vietnamese, French, and English literary response to the war as complements to the history texts. Possibilities include an account of the French colonial experience, a required text in translation from the viewpoint of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and Vietnamese expatriate texts. (MSE)

  19. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  20. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  1. Fostering Response to Vietnam War Literature through the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a unit on the literature of the Vietnam War (part of a college course called "Twentieth Century War Literature") which uses the arts to enhance student learning. Discusses activities and assignments in which students create visual representations, conduct research, and prepare oral reports on the Vietnam War literature they…

  2. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  3. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong T. Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. However, the paperbased format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results. Development of e-Tool: In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors’ feedback about usability. Outcomes: The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  4. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  5. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  6. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the... served in deep-water naval vessels off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War are referred to as... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam...

  7. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: The effect of action versus state orientation on solving a goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Gieselmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus

  8. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  9. Application of nuclear energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive isotopes were introduced to medical treatment in Vietnam very early by M. Curie in 1923. A research reactor has been in operation since 1963 serving up to now an effective base for radioisotope production and nuclear analysis. After reunification of the country, the nuclear technique applications are developing faster and getting widespread. The twenty-year period from 1976 to 1995 was relatively limited by activity of R and D institutions. Nowadays, their interaction with companies demonstrates a dynamic commercialization of nuclear techniques in Vietnam. Investment from government as well as from the private sector has been increased significantly for the last ten years to nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The radiographic NDT is getting a familiar technique to industry, particularly, in construction of strategy-important industrial and civil projects. NCS are upgraded in different factories, such as mining, ore processing and cement industries. Tracer techniques have shown benefit in oil offshore exploring and in sedimentation management of rivers and harbours. Isotope techniques are playing a competitive role for environmental monitoring and underground water management in the country. Radiation processing is transferred to a commercial scale emphasizing on sterilization of medical products and food preservation. There are still some problems such as public acceptance of radioactive techniques or a lack of both infrastructure and manpower to meet the national demands. However, the government of Vietnam has recently approved the national strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy, which not only highlights the development of isotope and radiation applications in near future, but also clearly emphasizes the need of nuclear electrical generation by 2017-2020 for the national energy security

  10. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  11. Gender wage gap in Vietnam 1993 - 98

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity p...

  12. John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the conclusion of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a number of wars and military interventions throughout the world.  From the US invasion of Grenada in 1983 and the Persian Gulf War of 1991, to the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century, the USA has found a variety of justifications and rationales in pursuing its national interests through the implementation of war.  In spite of the frequency and impacts of US military interventions ov...

  13. Gender wage gap in transistion in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The impact of sectoral location on the gender earnings gap is important in the context of Vietnam’s transition into a market-oriented economy. More and more women are seeking employment in the private sector either in response to retrenchment in the public sector or in response to increasing economic opportunities in the private sector. We apply the Appleton et al. (1999) decomposition technique to the Vietnam Living Standards Survey data collected in 1992- 93 and 1997-98, to decompose the ge...

  14. Formation of Skål International Club in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Quang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a project plan of Skål International Vietnam as a new joining club, with the purpose of forming a new Skål International club in Vietnam. The idea was born in September, 2011 during the 72nd Skål International World Congress in Turku, Finland, where the author – a Young Skål had invited to attend . Vietnam situated in the peninsula of South-East Asia, the country holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. In spite of joining an Inter...

  15. Environmental Radionuclides in Surface Soils of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Luyen, T.V.; Binh, T.V.; Ngo, N.T.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    A database on 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in surface soils was established to provide inputs for the assessment of the collective dose to the population of Vietnam and to support soil erosion studies using 137 Cs as a tracer. A total of 292 soil samples were taken from undisturbed sites across the territory and the concentrations of radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The multiple regression of 137 Cs inventories against characteristics of sampling locations allowed us to establish the distribution of 137 Cs deposition density and its relationship with latitude and annual rainfall. The 137 Cs deposition density increases northward and varies from 178 Bq m -2 to 1,920 Bq m -2 . High rainfall areas in the northern and central parts of the country have received considerable 137 Cs inputs exceeding 600 Bq m -2 , which is the maximum value that can be expected for Vietnam from the UNSCEAR global pattern. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are 45, 59 and 401 Bq kg- 1 , respectively, which entail an average absorbed dose rate in air of 62 nGy h -1 , which is about 7% higher than the world average. (author)

  16. Study to master "1"8F-FDG radiopharmaceutical production process by Korean Cyclotron KOTRONS 13 MeV at Hanoi Irradiation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quang Anh; Tran Manh Thang; Dam Thi Tam; Mai Van Vinh

    2016-01-01

    A PET Cyclotron center is built in Hanoi Irradiation Center (HIC), VINATOM and expectation put in operation in the middle of 2016. Three main processes in "1"8F-FDG synthesis general process of Samyoung Unitech synthesizer module were studied as: effect of time to water removal process, effect of time to nucleophilic substitution reaction, and effect of temperature and time to hydrolysis process. The optimum parameters are collected and re-installed for "1"8F-FDG synthesizer module to achieve highest yield. The human resource was trained basic to advanced theoretical and practical training programs of 18F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical Production by Vietnamese and Korean senior experts in HICs facility for this project. After training courses, the human resource is able to produce and quality control "1"8F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical in different modules and quality control systems such as GE-MX (GE), Synthera (IBA), and Samyoung Unitech (SYU). "1"8F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical was produced in HIC achieves British Pharmacopeia (BP) standards and tested in animals. Animal PET/CT scanner images show clearly distribution of FDG according to physiological characters. Besides, this project were establishing "1"8F-FDG Radiopharmaceutical Production Process by cyclotron KOTRONS13 and Samyoung Unitech synthesizer module and Quality Assurance, Quality Control Process attain BP standards at Hanoi Irradiation Center; and establishing the training documents for practical production human resource training, "1"8F-FDG radiopharmaceutical Quality Assurance Process, Quality Control Process which attain BP standards. (author)

  17. The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

    2010-04-15

    The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

  18. The International Alcohol Control Study in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and, -policies that restrict the physical availability of alcoholic beverages or ... This study will provide internationally comparative data on Vietnam's alcohol policy ... among policymakers, there is substantial potential for the research results to ...

  19. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

    This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international

  20. Dendrobium roseiodorum (Orchidaceae): a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathapattayanon, A.; Yukawa, T.; Seelanan, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of revisionary work of Dendrobium section Formosae, we found some misinterpretations of Dendrobium kontumense. Dendrobium schildhaueri is placed as a synonym of D. kontumense and D. roseiodorum, a new species from Vietnam, is described.

  1. The China Factor in U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Sailors Who Sacrificed Their Lives in the Truong Sa Islands,” Voice of Vietnam News, 10 May 2010; “Old Problem , New Threats,” Bangkok Post, 30 May 2011...Pacific Trade Policies for the Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade, 70 percent of Vietnam’s imports from China consist of essential materials used in...the production of exported goods, including materials and equipment, steel, chemicals, and petroleum, as well as fabric, garment, and footwear

  2. Legal Framework of the Water Sector in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Loan

    2010-01-01

    Since 1986 and especially during the early 90s, environmental protection has become a constitutional principle in Vietnam as regulated by Articles 17 and 29 of the 1992 Constitution. The first Law on Environmental Protection, passed by the National Assembly on December 27, 1993 created a foundation for environmental legislation becoming an important field in Vietnam’s legal system. In the following, in January 1999, Vietnam enacted its very first Law on Water Resources (No. 08/1998/QH10) aimi...

  3. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  4. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  5. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  6. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  7. Tax corruption and private sector development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...

  8. Factors influencing business of mobile telecommunication service providers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thanh Hai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Information and Communications in Vietnam, as of November 2015, the number of mobile subscribers is over 120 million ones, accounting for over 86% of the total number of telephone subscribers. With a total population of over 92 million Vietnam citizens, a stable national economy and a large populations of young consumers in the country, mobile communication industries still have a huge potentials for future development. Telecommunication service providers in Vietnam are facing fierce competition. Subscribers are expecting OTT (Over the Top applications, good quality service and handset subsidy. This study investigated whether legal frameworks, OTT applications, quality of service and handset subsidy are important components of mobile telecommunication service in Vietnam. This study used quantitative method to distribute surveys to mobile subscribers. Findings found that all four factors significantly influence mobile business in Vietnam. Thus, telecommunication service providers in Vietnam must continuously innovate to enhance operational competitiveness, improve business efficiency, expand business scale, and improve its position in the market in order to ensure sustainable development. Moreover, Vietnamese government needs to develop a legal framework to help mobile telecommunication service providers enhance the common interests and benefits of the entire society.

  9. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials.

  10. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles...

  11. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  12. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  13. Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Leah T; Grau, Lauretta E; Nguyen, Huong H; Khuat, Oanh Hai T; Heimer, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first community-based organizations (CBOs) in 2009. The study provides a focused assessment of CBOs' expanding efforts to advocate for their members that identifies existing collaborations with Vietnamese government programs. This assessment explores the barriers to and facilitators of expansion in order to propose recommendations to improve the working relationship between CBOs and government programs. Thirty-two individuals from drug user and sex worker CBOs (n = 24) and relevant government programs (n = 8) participated in face-to-face interviews in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Hai Phong. Coded interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively concerning the purpose of CBOs, the interactions between CBOs and government programs, and the perceived barriers, facilitators, and feasibility of future CBO-government program collaborations. Services provided by the CBOs were considered to improve members' quality of life. The formation of coalitions among CBOs increased efficiency in meeting members' specific service needs, in addition to internal capacity building. Government field staff interacted with CBOs by providing CBOs with technical and legal support. CBOs and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics collaborated to help the clinics meet patient enrollment quotas and facilitate entry into treatment for CBO members. Barriers to CBO-government program collaboration included perceived conflicting missions on how to address drug use and sex work in the community, limited CBO-government program communication, CBO mistrust of the MMT system, and lack of legal status for CBOs. To reduce these barriers, we recommend (1) introduction of CBO consultative services at government healthcare centers, (2) enlistment of CBO outreach to ensure full access to the

  14. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  15. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  16. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  17. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War Proclamation 8830--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012... Anniversary of the Vietnam War By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War, we reflect with solemn reverence upon the valor of a...

  18. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  19. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  20. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  1. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  2. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68...

  3. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') that meets the statutory... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\ On...

  4. 77 FR 20356 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). These... on fish fillets from Vietnam.\\1\\ On October 3, 2011 the Department published a notice of initiation...

  5. 78 FR 40100 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period August 1... Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

  6. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  7. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  8. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  9. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  10. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    To identify the extent and nature of the problem and the main contributing factors to drink driving crashes; determine the current mechanisms in place, particularly in terms of legislation and its enforcement; and identify baseline data and relevant stakeholders. The situational assessment was based on the collection of secondary data from available reports and documents, in-depth interviews with key representatives at a central level, and field surveys in provinces. Vietnam has experienced phenomenal growth in motor vehicles, especially motorcycles, in the last decade (400%). This initially led to an increase in deaths from road crashes, but since 2006 the number has stayed fairly level according to police statistics. However, comparisons with health data suggest that the number of deaths is much higher and there are clearly a number of problems with the relevant data systems. Data on the percentage of drivers exceeding legal limits are not available, but police statistics indicated that drinking alcohol was a contributory factor in 7 percent of motor vehicle crashes. This is likely to be an underestimate, because the police and health services do not have the equipment to measure the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of all drivers in crashes. Motorcycle riders and young people are in the high-risk groups. There are strict BAC limits starting at over zero and severe punishments for drunk drivers involved in serious crashes. However, the police do not have adequate manpower or equipment to conduct regular and frequent roadside checking for drivers who have been drinking. There have also been a number of education programs on road safety including drinking and driving, but these have not included sustained and intensive campaigns targeting the high-risk groups. The National Traffic Safety Committee (NTSC) is responsible for coordinating the relevant agencies but there is still a problem with lack of information sharing between agencies. This study completed

  11. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  12. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, D T; Hanenberg, R; Vach, T H; Vinh, D Q; Sokal, D

    1999-12-01

    This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia. The maternal mortality ratio in the delta regions of these provinces was half that of the mountainous and semimountainous regions. Because a larger proportion of the Vietnamese population live in delta regions than elsewhere, the maternal mortality ratio for Vietnam as a whole may be lower than that of the three provinces studied. Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available.

  13. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist

  14. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  15. Genetic conservation and utilization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. for nutritious food production: a case of sustainable agriculture responding to climate change in the mountainous region in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van Cuong; Hoang Viet Cuong; Nguyen Duc Doan; Duong Thi Thu Hang; Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy; Cao Huong Giang

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet a plant with high nutrient and high heavy metal content in the grain, is suitable to grow under drought conditions. Using millet grain to produce food for man is necessary and will bring higher economic impacts for farmers in the mountainous regions. In this study, a total of four varieties of foxtail millet (CM1, CM9, CM10 and CM11), collected in Vietnam, are described and their botanical characters characterized. Correlations were made between photosynthetic characters and dry matter accumulation under irrigated, drought and recovering conditions in a pot experiment. A field experiment was also conducted to estimate the effect of three ecological regions such as Gialam (Red River Delta with an altitude of 5-20 meters), Bacha (northern mountainous region with an altitude of 800-1000 meters) and Sapa (northern mountainous region with an altitude of 1500-1800 meters) on several agronomic characters viz., growth duration, dry matter accumulation, grain yield and grain quality of four cultivars. The average grain yield of all millet varieties were the highest in Sapa (2.7 ton/ha), followed by Bacha (2.0 ton/ha) and Gialam (1.1 ton/ha), mainly because of the large number spikelets per panicle and the higher 1000-grain weight. The highest grain yield was observed for CM1 in Gialam, whereas it was CM9 in Bacha and Sapa. This was due to the different varietal response to temperature, water supply and/or radiation. Protein content was highest for CM1 in Hanoi (14.44%) and Sapa (12.66%) but it was CM11 in Bacha (11.69%). CM11 showed the highest starch content in all three ecological regions. In Hanoi and Sapa, CM9 manifested the highest lipid content but in Bacha, it was CM10. Four levels of N fertilizer (0, 30, 45 and 60 kg N per ha) were applied in Gialam, resulting in highest grain yield for CM1 at 60 kg N level (2.78 ton per ha), but the highest for CM10 was at 45 kg N level (3.02 ton per ha). This was due to the higher chlorophyll content at the

  16. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  17. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  18. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  19. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Delta de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Delta de Saussure, 1855 from Vietnam is presented. A total of four species are recorded: D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, D. esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, and D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775. Of these, D. campaniforme campaniforme was first recorded from Vietnam by de Saussure et al., 1904, under the name Eumenes esuriens and is now reconfirmed to occur in Vietnam after more than 100 years, and D. conoideum is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to species based on morphological characters is given with illustrations, and distributional records in Vietnam are also provided.

  20. Vietnam: opportunities in a developing oil and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, T.

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this report is to act as an introduction to Vietnam and its oil industry opportunities for manufacturing, contracting, service and supplies companies which are seeking entry into other markets. The chapters of the report present an overview of the country, its recent history and formative events; in addition, the country's economy, industries and rebuilding process are reviewed. Detailed attention is given to trade, investment and finance, as these factors directly influence all business ventures in Vietnam, and are essential considerations in the assessment of the overall business environment. The appendices contain an extensive list of organisational contacts in Vietnam, the U.K. and elsewhere, and other useful information to support these activities. (author)

  1. Recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Sy An

    2008-01-01

    The author presented recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam. The author concentrated some valuable and helpful studies such as functional tests, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, bone, thyroid, lung, kidney and gastrointestinal tract scintigraphy for diagnosis. The results of RIA and IRMA concerning with thyroid diseases, cancer, microalbuminuria and TSH in blood spot on paper for screening of congenital hypothyroidism in new born babies were also given. The report also mentioned results of liver cancer and palliative bone metastasis treatments in Vietnam. A new technique using gamma probe in surgery for breast cancer was presented. The author introduced some modern teleradiotherapeutic modalities such as cyberknif, gamma knife, gamma rotating systeme and linac recently installed in Vietnam. (author)

  2. The Influence of Chinese Master Taixu on Buddhism in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise A. DeVido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available From the 1920s, Vietnamese Buddhist reformers revitalized their religion, inspired in great part by the Chinese monk Taixu’s blueprint to modernize and systematize sangha education and temple administration, and by his idea ofrenjian fojiao, “Buddhism for this world,” emphasizing the centrality of education, modern publishing, social work, and Buddhist lay groups to Buddhism’s future in the modern world. This article first discusses the Chinese Buddhist revival, then the activities of Buddhist reformers in Vietnam 1920s–60s, and the flows of Buddhist personnel and materials between Vietnam and China. This article explores how renjian fojiao was interpreted and realized in Vietnam, especially its influence upon Thich Nhat Hanh as he developed his ideas on “Engaged Buddhism.”

  3. Son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Danièle

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the continuing preference for sons in the context of low fertility in Vietnam. Although the total fertility rate for Vietnam declined from 6.0 children per woman of reproductive age in 1979 to 2.2 children in 1998, demographic evidence shows that son preference remains strong and influences contraceptive and fertility behavior. This study examines the underlying factors for son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam. The methodology includes focus-group discussions, an in-depth study of 25 families, and ethnographic observation. Results indicate that sons are highly desired for their social, symbolic, and economic value. In spite of four decades of socialist policies aimed at reducing gender-based inequalities and at weakening the patriarchal kinship system, the desire for sons continues to drive the family-building process. The article also indicates a gap between discourse and social practice with respect to roles assigned to children on the basis of their sex.

  4. Van Quan new town in Hanoi and its socio-economic impacts on the four surrounding villages - towards a more sustainable urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Minh; Doan, The Trung; Tran, Minh Tung; Nguyen, Manh Tri; Hoa Ta, Quynh

    2018-04-01

    Developed by Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUD) over a decade ago as one of the pioneering and modelling urban housing projects in Hanoi, Van Quan new town can be regarded as a fairly successful scheme, because it provides people with a better living quality than most of the other new residential quarters planned and built at the same time, and even afterwards. However, the success would be greater, if the project developer paid due attention to some socio-economic aspects of mass housing construction - such as income, education, healthcare and social interaction as well as communication - in one of the city’s fastest-growing and most typical areas characterised with the presence of traditional old villages where a rich rural culture can still be found and should be conserved in the rapid urbanisation and modernisation. Van Quan makes an even more remarkable case study, because there are four villages connected to the site with both similar and different features, rather than the other new towns with only one or two villages nearby. The research results drawn and the lessons learnt from Van Quan will be useful for other projects, as far as a harmony and a sustainable development between the old and the new factors are concerned.

  5. The Role of Vietnam in The ASEAN Regional Security Cooperation: From Mechanism Construction to Dispute Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunxia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the integration of ASEAN, Vietnam recognized that the strategic role of ASEAN is in its diplomacy. At the same time, to further improve the status in the region and in the international community, Vietnam has actively been participating in ASEAN affairs. Vietnam not only promoted the integration process of ASEAN, but also promoted the political security cooperation of ASEAN, in which Vietnam has advantages and wants to play a leading role. On the one hand, Vietnam promotes the construction of political security cooperation mechanisms, such as ARF, ADMM+, and so on; on the other hand, Vietnam took the South China Sea as a common concern, actively appeals for a common ASEAN position, to maximize its own benefit. Vietnam will further enhance and consolidate its status and role in ASEAN in the future.

  6. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothen......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...

  7. EVALUATION OF THE TRADE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA; VIETNAM AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON USING GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Dinh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.

  8. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from

  9. Mangrove restoration in Vietnam : Key considerations and a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam mangrove rehabilitation has a long history and gained momentum after the war that destroyed huge forested areas, especially in the Mekong Delta. In addition, in various places mangrove have been and still are being planted specifically as a way to protect shorelines and sea-dykes from

  10. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  11. Youth Transition to Employment in Vietnam: A Vulnerable Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that educational attainment is one of the significant factors affecting youth transition to work. The process of capital accumulation through education is suggested as the key marker of social inclusion and exclusion. This paper compares the educational attainment among youth in Vietnam with their status in employment. It uses…

  12. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, Do Huu; Phuong, Cam Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  13. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  14. Two new species of Nemouridae (Plecoptera) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Ceci, Massimo

    2017-05-23

    Two new species belonging to the family Nemouridae, Nemoura kontumensis sp. nov. and Amphinemura konplongensis sp. nov. are described from the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Remarks on the affinities with related species are given.

  15. Consumer’s Evaluation and Choice of Beer in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Yang, Yingkui

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the consumer’s evaluation and choice for beer characteristics is critical for marketers, nutritionist and health educators. We used multi-profile best-worst scaling to understand how consumers evaluate beer attributes in Vietnam context. We found that beer brand, price and packaging...

  16. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  17. Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.

    2017-01-01

    Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become

  18. Vietnam's evolving poverty map : patterns and implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Peter; Marra, Marleen; Nguyen, Cuong

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses small area estimation techniques to update Vietnam's province and district-level poverty map to 2009. It finds that poverty rates continue to be highest in the northern and central mountainous regions, where ethnic minorities make up a large fraction of the population. Poverty has fallen in most provinces and districts over this decade, but the pace of poverty reduction has...

  19. Rural Roads and Local Market Development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Ren; van de Walle, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The authors assess impacts of rural road rehabilitation on market development at the commune level in rural Vietnam and examine the variance of those impacts and the geographic, community, and household factors that explains it. Double difference and matching methods are used to address sources of selection bias in identifying impacts. The results point to significant average impacts on the ...

  20. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  1. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a

  2. Authoring Teacher Development in a Graduate Seminar in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry is to explore stories of teacher development experienced by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in a graduate seminar in Vietnam. The author was the instructor for the course, entitled "Literature and Language Teaching." Three types of data were collected: course documents, a professional…

  3. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  4. A new alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from South Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyên Van Xuân,

    2001-01-01

    A new alpheid shrimp, Thuylamea camelus gen. nov. & spec. nov., from Dong Hoa, a coastal community of Can Gio district, and northwest of Vung Tau (Cap St. Jacques), Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new genus appears not to be closely related to any of the previously described genera. It

  5. Dilemmas in Examining Understanding of Nature of Science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley-Greene, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing "ancient" and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates,…

  6. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  7. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Chaine Annamatique represents the last of the three orogenic episodes that shook Indochina and forms most of Vietnam's boundary with Laos, In south Vietnam the mountains which have a north-south trend are formed of granites, gneisses and mica schists and are inseparable from the anti-hercynian formations. Iron ore, gold, lead, copper, tin, wolfraun, bismuth and molybdenium minerals are found. Plans had been made in 1960 to prospect for uranium but no information is available on whether that work was ever done. The only evidence of occurrences of nuclear raw materials is that titaniferous sands occur in several coastal regions and that uranium was once listed as having been produced in Forth Vietnam. Although the geology of Vietnam is not very conducive to the formation and preservation of uranium deposits it is possible that because of the granite terrain and presence of other metalliferous minerals, the Speculative Potential should be stated as in category 2 i.e. from 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  8. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  9. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  10. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  11. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  12. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  13. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  14. Facilitating Alcohol Control Law Development in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... years, both for commercial products and for unrecorded alcohol products, such as homemade spirits. ... related to alcohol taxation and pricing; -alcohol affordability in Vietnam and the likely ... New partnership to support Ebola research teams ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  15. Digitaria Effusa (Gramineae), a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    During an agrostological survey in the Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, Mr. J.B. Hacker (St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia) collected a remarkable undescribed species of Digitaria. Among the Asian taxa it is peculiar because of its montane provenance coupled with a combination of an inflorescence with

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling of tidal inlets in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Wegen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Application of an one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamic simulation of a complex lagooninlet system in Vietnam is presented. Model results help to get a better understanding on the behaviour of the system. Based on the numerical model results and analytic solutions, stability of tidal

  17. Composition of the oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Kruk, C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The essential oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (confirmed by 1H-NMR, 73.6%), and B-caryophyllene (8.9%), accounting e for more than 82% of the oil. Selina-4,11-diene (11.0%) was also

  18. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  19. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  20. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXCHANGE RATE POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Dong Phung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of effectiveness of exchange rate policy in contemporary Vietnam, along with the assessment of the mechanism of this policy from 1989 to the present day. The author analyzes constraints of implementing the exchange rate policy in the past and gives recommendations aimed at improving its efficiency nowadays.

  1. Using a Simulation and Literature To Teach the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses teaching about the Vietnam War. Focuses on selecting literature and how to implement the "mines and booby traps simulation," which demonstrates the experience of an infantry soldier. Describes follow-up activities to the simulation, the connections students made between the simulation and literature, and the importance of simulation…

  2. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slunge, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.slunge@economics.gu.se [Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Tran, Trang Thi Huyen, E-mail: trang2k@yahoo.com [University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  3. Towards a sustainable plan for new tube houses in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.A.; Bokel, R.M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Hein, Carola

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the history of cities can easily be seen through their urban patterns, landscapes and housing typologies. Most recently, the economic reform in 1986 has resulted in huge impact on the Vietnamese society. The rapid economic growth and privatisation of the market has resulted in the

  4. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  5. Administrative co-management in special use forests of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, Nguyen Kim

    2017-01-01

    To protect its natural heritage and biodiversity, Vietnam has established a system of ‘special use forest’ (SUFs) which is “the backbone of the national protected areas”. The ineffective management of SUFs based solely on the state leads to a decline in biodiversity and density of the forests.

  6. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.L.; de Vries, P.J.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T.Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  7. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Nga, Tran T. T.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  8. Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. La subvention permettra au Collège d'agriculture et de foresterie de l'Université de Huê de se pencher sur des questions reliées à la gestion des ressources communes et à la pauvreté dans ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  9. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-01-01

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries

  10. Case study of ISWI in Vietnam: A comparison of ionospheric parameters observed over Ho Chi Minh with IRI predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hoang Thai; Tam, Dao Ngoc Hanh

    2014-01-01

    For the contribution of Vietnam to ISWI activities, there are 3 GPS receivers, 3 Ionosondes, 1 AWESOME and 1 MAGDAS operating in Vietnam. With a special geographical position stretching from the north tropic to the magnetic equator, Vietnam is an interesting area to supplement the data for the Global Space Weather Model. The Ionosphere is an important indicator of Space Weather and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has become widely accepted. The first task of ionospheric science in a new location is often comparing the observed data with IRI. This paper presents the results of comparisons of the foF2 and TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City (10.51 N, 106.33 E) with the values calculated according to the IRI-2007 in order to evaluate the applicability of the model in forecasting for the equatorial region of Vietnam. We compare the critical frequency of layer F (foF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) values for two phases of solar activity. The results show very good diurnal correlations between the observed foF2 and TEC with IRI values in the decreasing solar activity period 2003 ± 2006 (the deviation 40. This is a note for correction IRI model applying for Vietnam. The comparison of the TEC shows that the correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI-TEC generally was good with coefficients k > 0.8 and R > 0.9 for the period 2006 - 2010. The worst relationship were March, April, September, October, November and December 2011, corresponding to periods when the TEC gradients are highest. The phenomenon of decline in the TEC at noon over Ho Chi Minh City observed pretty weak. This phenomenon appeared only in a few months from April to September, when the ionization is high. In the period from 0 to 5 am local time, the average minimum GPS-TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City is about 3 tecu, while the IRI-TEC value is ~ 0.3. Thus, the IRI-TEC values should be recalibrated.

  11. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  12. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  13. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 4. US Domestic Factors Influencing Vietnam War Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Andrews, Bruce, Public Constraint and American Policy in Vietnam, London. Sage Publicationsb, 1976. Arendt , Hannah , Crises of the Republic, New York... Hannah , N. B., "Nixon and Watergate-Communist Indochina," National Review, 4 Vol. 28, July 23, 1978, pp. 772-775. Head, R. A. and RohKe, American

  14. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to as......Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers......) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average...

  15. Women’s education in Vietnam and the changes of socio-economic environment. Comparative thoughts based on cases from Vietnam and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Tendensen til at kvinder i stigende grad vinder ind på mænd i uddannelsessystemet og har overhalet dem på selv de høejeste niveauer i forhold til antal i Danmark er ikke uden parelleller i Vietnam. Kvinderne i Vietnam er ikke så ligestillede i Danmark, men der er sket store forbedringer inden for...

  16. A project for the strengthening of cooperative relations between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Nho, I. Y.

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Vietnam and strengthening of cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, the current status and prospect of electricity, use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between MOST/MOSTE, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with Vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  17. Trade potential of climate smart goods of Vietnam: An application of gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Van Vu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the trade potential of climate smart goods (CSG of Vietnam. In particular, the study employs gravity model with panel data for bilateral trade between Vietnam and its 45 partners from 2002 to 2013 with an objective of identifying the determinants explaining Vietnam's trade of climate smart products. The estimation results reveal that economic size, market size, distance, real exchange rate, border, and the quality of infrastructure of both Vietnam and its trading partners play a major role in bilateral trade of CSG. Additionally, the paper applies the method using speed of convergence and the estimated gravity equation to answer whether Vietnam has fully realized the potential trade of CSG. Accordingly, Vietnam has strong opportunity for trade expansion with 19 out of 45 countries in the scope of this paper.

  18. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H S; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Ko, H S; Lee, J K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  19. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  20. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Decarbonization scenarios in the electricity sector in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Van Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of CO_2 emissions issue is clearly a world challenge today and COP21 highlighted the international requirements for countries to address related issues in the short and long term. The fundamental objective of the thesis is to contribute to the identification of possible climate policy solutions related to growing electricity production in a developing country, namely Vietnam, taking into account the need to reduce carbon energy sources. For this purpose several scenarios for electricity sector development are constructed in order to measure effects of choices related to the electricity production on CO_2 emissions. The thesis presents an overview of the energy situation in Vietnam and highlights the rapid increase in electricity consumption due to population pressure and new needs. It also considers major issues of coal and gas imports, new energy sources, in light of economic constraints but also environmental challenges. The theoretical and analytical chapter reviews the analyses of electricity master plans construction, major available economic tools for energy demand forecast models. This forms the framework to understanding the complexity of the 'electric bet' which Vietnam faces. After a presentation of potential quantitative simulation instruments, ELECsim was chosen for modeling the electricity sector in Vietnam. This leads to a comprehensive scenario approach; Scenarios are based on several assumptions about the evolution of economic growth and demographics, energy prices, the power generation technology development, the declared carbon value, discount rates and change rate. As a first step in energy and climate policy Vietnam can control the demand growth by strong action on energy efficiency, while reducing parallel to both the electricity production costs and CO_2 emissions. Several scenarios are then proposed, highlighting both the need to search for higher energy efficiency and the promotion of low-carbon energies. Research envisages a rapid

  2. Built-up Area Change Analysis in Hanoi Using Support Vector Machine Classification of Landsat Multi-Temporal Image Stacks and Population Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong H. Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1986, the Government of Vietnam implemented free market reforms known as Doi Moi (renovation that provided private ownership of farms and companies, and encouraged deregulation and foreign investment. Since then, the economy of Vietnam has achieved rapid growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction and housing, and exports and foreign investments, each of which have resulted in momentous landscape transformations. One of the most evident changes is urbanization and an accompanying loss of agricultural lands and open spaces. These rapid changes pose enormous challenges for local populations as well as planning authorities. Accurate and timely data on changes in built-up urban environments are essential for supporting sound urban development. In this study, we applied the Support Vector Machine classification (SVM to multi-temporal stacks of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ images from 1993 to 2010 to quantify changes in built-up areas. The SVM classification algorithm produced a highly accurate map of land cover change with an overall accuracy of 95%. The study showed that most urban expansion occurred in the periods 2001–2006 and 2006–2010. The analysis was strengthened by the incorporation of population and other socio-economic data. This study provides state authorities a means to examine correlations between urban growth, spatial expansion, and other socio-economic factors in order to not only assess patterns of urban growth but also become aware of potential environmental, social, and economic problems.

  3. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 199...

  4. Evaluation of the Epidemiological Impact of Harm Reduction Programs on HIV in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    UNAIDS; World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam s HIV epidemic is concentrated, both in specific behavioral sub-populations and geographic regions. The key populations at higher risk for HIV infection in Vietnam are female sex workers (FSW) and their clients; injecting drug users (IDU); and men who have sex with men (MSM). Vietnam identified harm reduction interventions for IDU and FSW as a key component of its last 5-year Natio...

  5. High School Education in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Io

    2018-01-01

    In this report, I will introduce high school school education in Vietnam in two aspects: time schedule and language instruction. When I had an international exchange with local high school students, I was surprised at how fluently students spoke English and Japanese and thus became interested in language instruction in Vietnam. As I continued my research, I discovered many unique differences between Vietnam and Japan in terms of education. This is why I chose high school education as my repor...

  6. Intelligence Operations In Small Wars: A Comparison Of The Malayan Emergency And Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Effect, 18. 41 Spencer C. Tucker, David Coffey, Nguyen Cong Luan, Nike Nichols, and Sandra Wittman, eds, Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War Volume One: A...War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam, (Orlando, FL :Harcourt, Inc ., 1999), 72-73. 91 Sorley, A Better...Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc ., 1999. Stubbs, Richard. Hearts and Minds in

  7. Public Relations in enhancing brand values: case study Virgin Atlantic and Vietnam Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Viet, Thang

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the Public Relations (PR) activities of Vietnam Airlines and give the airline some recommendations to improve its PR performance. In order to achieve this purpose, there are three issues needed to be solved: 1) how PR helps to enhance brand personality and brand values 2) the differences in PR activities between Vietnam Airlines and Virgin Atlantic and 3) what approaches Vietnam Airlines should implement to improve its PR performance. ...

  8. Marketing aspects in tourism development : The marketing analysis of Vietnam tourism industry for long term development

    OpenAIRE

    Thai, Thuy Nga

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to identify the shortcomings that have been hindering the development of Vietnam tourism and seeking for the solution for these shortcomings in the aspects of marketing. Vietnam is a country lying in the peninsula of South Asia and holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. Despite much effort on marketing campaigns, Vietnam tourism is still lagging behind other giant tourism industries in Asia region. The thesis applied ...

  9. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  10. Characteristics of the Vietnamese Rural Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Research report prepared under Component 5 of the Business Sector Development Programme (BSPS), Hanoi, Vietnam and the Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS), 2011......Research report prepared under Component 5 of the Business Sector Development Programme (BSPS), Hanoi, Vietnam and the Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS), 2011...

  11. Analysis of Child-related Road Traffic Accidents in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Dinh Vinh Man

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the number of road traffic accidents, fatalities and injuries have been decreasing, but the figures of children road traffic accidents have been increasing in Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam. This fact strongly calls for implementing effective solutions to improve traffic safety for children by the local government. This paper presents the trends, patterns and causes of road traffic accidents involving children based on the analysis of road traffic accident data over the period 2010-2015 and the video-based observations of road traffic law violations at 15 typical school gates and 10 typical roads. The results could be useful for the city government to formulate solutions to effectively improve traffic safety for children in Ho Chi Minh City and other cities in Vietnam.

  12. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterizat......Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...... that dependence and bolster the domestic economy while continuing to restructure the economy toward greater emphasis on the private sector. Growth, employment and poverty alleviation have been maintained at the expense of renewed inflation, larger budget deficits, and currency depreciation. The ‘stop-go’ nature...

  13. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  14. The role of Stakeholders on implementing Universal Services in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated in perfo......This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated...... in performing the policy. The authors are to examine the stakeholders such as the national government, international organizations, policy intermediaries, companies, and customers/citizens via applying the qualitative method to gather data and analyse the secondary document. The qualitative approach...... of interviews on some officials was also conducted. The results demonstrate that stakeholders had a huge impact on the success of the universal service policy....

  15. Climate change and its gendered impacts on agriculture in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung, P.T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vietnam is one of the countries that most affected by climate change because of its geographical and natural conditions together with its fast but massive and unplanned urbanization. There are many research and studies that have been conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on different sectors in Vietnam. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy in terms of poverty reduction, food security, employment and export but projected to be heavily affected because of sea level rise, floods or droughts etc. A large proportion of Vietnam’s population, especially women, involves with agricultural works and production. So, this paper using a gender perspective will examine possible impacts that climate change has been causing to women and men differently in order to propose some solutions for the facing problems. Since the paper only utilizes available resources, it can serve as a concept note for further works in the future.

  16. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Minh; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Nguyen Giang; Le Tat Mua; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    The studying samples of this work have been collected from different areas of Vietnam including industrial areas in HCM city, Dongnai, Vungtau and non-industrial area, Dalat city. The concentrations of the toxic elements as: As, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Pb in many foodstuff samples together with intercomparison sample which have been distributed by National Food Administration (Sweden) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA); Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammeter (ASV). The obtained results shown that the concentration of toxic elements in the collected samples from selected industrial areas of Vietnam are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. (author)

  17. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  18. Coping with drought in the central highlands - Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tinh Dang

    foranstaltninger kan nedbringe skaderne væsentligt. Nedbør i Vietnams centrale højland er i det væsentlige betinget af den sydøstasiatiske monsun. Der optræder imidlertid også forstyrrelser betinget af stor-skala atmosfæriske fænomener. Havoverfladetemperaturen i Stillehavet er repræsentativ for det såkaldte El...... Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) fænomen (atypiske langvarige ændringer i atmosfærens trykforhold over den sydlige del af Stillehavet). Dette fænomen er årsag til globale klimavariationer og påvirker også nedbørsforholdene i Vietnams centrale højland. I nærværende arbejde er nedbørsvariabilitetens...

  19. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  20. Cancer in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Fatema Z; Garabrant, David H; Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E

    2004-02-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality were summarized in Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. The index subjects were Operation Ranch Hand veterans who sprayed 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin)-contaminated herbicides in Vietnam. Comparisons served in Southeast Asia during the same period but did not spray herbicides. We assessed cancer incidence and mortality using national rates and contrasted cancer risk in each of three Ranch Hand dioxin exposure categories relative to comparisons. The incidence of melanoma and prostate cancer was increased among white Ranch Hand veterans relative to national rates. Among veterans who spent at most 2 years in Southeast Asia, the risk of cancer at any site, of prostate cancer and of melanoma was increased in the highest dioxin exposure category. These results appear consistent with an association between cancer and dioxin exposure.